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Q2. Define job design. Discuss the importance of job enlargements and job enrichment in redesigning the job.

Ans. JOB DESIGN Job design is a design to sequence man and machines in a manner that optimality is obtained. In other ords! "ob design consists o# the #ollo ing things $a% &anpo er &anpo er planning is a main aspect o# any "ob design. 'abour in a plant runs a machine! in a #actory produces goods or products. (o use them e##iciency on a "ob is to attain optimality. &achines are run by men here they are positioned to handle the production. Sequencing manpo er in an orderly manner has to de#ined. (hey are also employed in a proper number to handle a machines. ) number o# "obs assigned to * number o# persons optimally. $b% &achines &achines are the producti+e source o# any product. &an,machine optimality is attained i# ma-imum production is achie+ed in the least or standard time. &achines brea*do ns! #actory closings etc. o#ten create a problem and loss o# production. Job design allo s man,machine combination to attain the optimal production . JOB .EDESIGN One o# the means o# increasing the moti+ation o# the or*ers is through "ob redesign. (he concept o# "ob redesign is to ma*e the or* itsel# interesting! +aried and challenging. /rustration ith the "ob is not uncommon either in our India or else here. It is! perhaps! one o# the by,products o# increasing mechani0ation and automation. (echnological ad+ance is ine+itable #or the sur+i+al o# industry but i# introduced ithout adequate regard to human aspects it ill produce much #rustration and an-iety amongst employees. 1ith technological heel o# progress. Both things are possible and it depends on ho the organi0ation mangers the human aspects o# "ob redesign in the conte-t o# continually ad+ancing technology. (ypically the industrial engineering or the (ime,and motion study approach to or* design has been historically! to di+ide the or* into many #ragments and increase the e##iciency by a high degree o# speciali0ation in a small "ob #ragment. (he assembly lines! the learning cur+es are all aimed at reali0ing cost economies #rom a high degree o# learning in a small period o# time. But! a +ery small "ob #ragment! a narro area o# responsibility and lac* o# any #urther learning can lead to much #rustration #or the employee. (his mani#ests itsel# in terms o# drop in quality o# per#ormance $particularly here quality is a "udgmental issue% lac* o# adaptability to changed circumstances! lac* o# any creati+ity! and other numerical indications such as absenteeism $employees escaping #rom or*% and employee turno+er $an employee #inds the or* unchallenging ith respect to his capabilities and there#ore see*s a more challenging "ob else here%. Bipolari0ation o# "obs2, (echnological ad+ances produce a 3bipolari0ation4,des*illing some lo er le+el "obs and increasing the s*ill requirements at higher le+els o# "obs. (his condition

can only be cured by periodical "ob redesign considering the abilities o# people and by a continuous e##ort o# human resources de+elopment. I&5O.(AN6E O/ JOB EN'A.GE&EN( 7 EN.I68&EN(2 9. Job Enlargement2, It is not al ays possible to enrich "obs. Instead ! one can increase the +ariety o# tas*s in a "ob. All these tas*s do not di##er signi#icantly in their le+el o# responsibility. (his is termed as 3Job Enlargement4. /or instance! i# a ireman and a 'ineman are doing indoor and outdoor "obs o# similar le+el o# *no ledge and s*ills! then there is perhaps scope #or integrating these "obs and enlarging the base. (his ould also put the responsibility on one person. Job enlargement is gaining much rele+ance in the manu#acturing on an assembly line. (he enlargement process! tries to ma*e the "obs as :complete as possible. (he or*er there#ore not only has +ariety but is also held responsible #or a complete "ob. (hough the s*ills;*no ledge;decision,ma*ing le+els ha+e not changed ! the identi#ication o# the or*er ith his product is more complete raising his le+el o# $8er0berg4s% achie+ement4 satis#ier and gi+ing him a #eeling o# ha+ing more control o+er his "ob. (he "ob redesign methods ill not only produce more moti+ated or*ers! less de#ects in quality and higher producti+ity! but ill also mean less super+ision and less mo+ement o# men or materials. (here ill be additional costs o# training hich ill be small compared to the bene#its gained. <. Job Enrichment2, Job enrichment increases the amount o# "ob satis#ies in a "ob. (he responsibility le+el $control by onesel#%! gro th le+el $continued learning opportunities% and there#ore the challenge le+el could be increased in the "ob! enriching4 it. (he people should be capable o# handling these higher le+el demands o# the :enriched= "ob. I# technicians in a large central go+ernment department are doing simple maintenance "obs such as soldiering. /i-ing etc. in a section under the detailed instructions o# a "unior engineer! then the technicians "ob can be enriched by gi+ing him independent charge o# maintaining certain equipment *no ing +ery ell that almost all technicians are either >,year diploma holders in engineering or science graduates. One "ob enrichment leads to another at the higher le+el$or in the elimination o# one o# the higher le+els!% consequently! in the abo+e e-ample the "unior engineers responsibilities ha+e to be increased to include maintenance planning! and other #irst line managerial tas*s. (he labourer le+el "obs o# the techinicians could either be retained to the retain the 3competencies o# the "ob or trans#erred do n ards to other "obs ma*ing lesser demands at present.