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Relations of the parameters of the /-K distribution for irradiance fluctuations to physical parameters of the turbulence

Larry C. Andrews, Ronald L. Phillips, and Bhimsen K. Shivamoggi

By using results from perturbation techniques for weak turbulence and the asymptotic theory for strong turbulence, we develop expressions for the parameters a and p of the I-K distribution in terms of the Rytov
variance for plane waves a2= 1.23C2 k7 16Llll6 and the inner scale of turbulence parameter moment equation for 3-D propagation show good agreement. lo. Comparisons of

the resulting scintillation index to experimental data and numerical results from the solution of the fourth-

1.

Introduction

A great deal of progress has been made over the last several years developing an understanding of the statistical fluctuations that are induced by an optical 1 -2 2 wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence.
A major goal of this work has been the construction of a

The lognormal model and concomitant Rytov variance o, provided a good fit to most of the data from early experiments, causing considerable optimism about the range of validity of the model. However, the early experimental data were taken over relatively short path lengths or through weak turbulence-inWhen experiments were conducted over longer path lengths, and hence stronger conditions of turbulence, it became evident that lognormal statistics overestimated the statistical fluctuations of the irradiance 24 Qualitatively, the lognormal model predicted spikes in the irradiance fluctuations that should increase continually as the propagation path length increased, but this did not happen. In fact, the irradiance fluctuations increased only up to some peak value with path length (or Rytov variance), after which they steadily decreased with still increasing path length (or Rytov variance). Basically, the lognormal model was restricted to only short path lengths and/or weak turbulence conditions for which
2 < 0.3.4,6,8,2425

mathematical model which describes the probability density function (PDF) of the irradiance (or intensity)

duced index of refraction fluctuations for which

crl

1.

fluctuations that evolve as the wave propagates 2 3 5 9 10 13 71 8 2 1 22

through the turbulence. , , , , , ,1 , , In the early years of research on this topic, the Rytov approximation method (based on multiplicative perturbations), along with the Kolmogorov spectral model for the index of refraction variations, led to an expression for the variance of the log amplitude.2 3 Furthermore, the Rytov method predicted that the log amplitude of the optical wave obeys Gaussian statistics, and hence the amplitude (and also the irradiance) of the field is lognormally distributed. This conclusion led to the ex76 1 1 6
pression o2 = 1.23C2 k / L / for the variance of the log

intensity for plane waves,which is 4 times the variance of the log amplitude. Here C is the refractive-index structure parameter, k is the wavenumber of the optical wave,and L is the length of the propagation path.

While many other models have been proposed for describing irradiance fluctuations, it is perhaps the family of K distributions that has received the most attention.3 -6 This general family has been useful in predicting intensity statistics in a variety of experiments involving scattered radiation but is limited to
conditions for which
cr2 >

1, where rI2 is the normalized

All authors are with University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816;R. L. Phillips is in the Department of Electrical Engineering & CommunicationSciences, the other authors are in the Mathematics Department.
Received 14 August 1987. 0003-6935/88/112150-07$02.00/0. 1988 Optical Society of America. 2150 APPLIEDOPTICS / Vol. 27, No. 11 / 1 June 1988

variance of intensity. The recently developed I-K distribution is a generalization of the K distribution that is applicable in the same general conditions as the K distribution but also in conditions for which rI2< 1.18 In weak fluctuation regimes the I-K and lognormal models predict virtually identical statistics, and the IK distribution is asymptotic to the K distribution in

II.

I-K Distribution

strong fluctuation regimes, approaching the negative exponential distribution when saturation occurs. The I-K distribution arises from a treatment of the
optical wave fluctuations as a compound or doubly

stochastic random process. That is, the irradiance of the optical field is first described in terms of conditional statistics that are representative of fluctuations over very short time intervals. These statistics are then
averaged over random fluctuations in the average in-

By assuming the field of an optical wave propagating through a turbulent medium can be expressed as the coherent sum of a constant amplitude component and a randomly scattered component, we write the field at a given detection point and time as
U(t) = exp(iwt)[A exp( iO) + R exp(io)]. (1)

tensity of the random field component that take place over longer intervals of time. In essence, therefore, the I-K distribution is a two time-scale model that accounts for both small scale and large scale turbulence effects.

The I-K distribution has two parameters, the values of which determine the shape of the PDF curve. Previously, these two parameters were selected by matching the first three statistical moments of the irradiance predicted by the I-K model with the experimentally measured moments. The higher-order theoretical moments, completely determined by these two parameters, were then compared with the higher-order experimental moments. This commonly used procedure permits a simple comparison of the theoretical PDF model to the experimental data.3 -6 18 However, higher-order moments may require a large number of sample values to keep the scatter of the measured moments 26 Moreover, Consortini within acceptable bounds. 6 have pointed out 4 and Consortini et al.1 and Conforti1 the possible effects of detector saturation on the higher-order moments. In addition to the uncertainty associated with measured higher-order moments, this procedure provides little direct insight into the relationship of the parameters of a given theoretical model with the physical conditions of the propagation path. The purpose of this paper is to develop expressions for the parameters of the I-K distribution model in terms of physical parameters of the turbulence itself, such as the refractive-index structure parameter, optical wavenumber, and propagation path length, for homogeneous conditions along the path. These relations, developed first for both a plane wave and a spherical wave with the assumption of a vanishing small inner scale of turbulence, are based on results derived from the Rytov approximation method valid for weak turbulence conditions and an asymptotic theory that has been developed for strong conditions of turbulence. In addition, suitable modifications due to the effect of an inner scale are developed for the plane wave case by introducing an inner scale parameter in the spectrum model of a modified Kolmogorov spectrum of the turbulence. These parameter relations for the I-K model, based only on measured short path second moment data (for calculating C2) and other physical parameters, permit us to predict the shape of the distribution and all higher-order statistical moments-including second-order moments beyond the point of the short path measurements. The preliminary comparisons presented here with experimental data and numerical models show favorable results.

Here A exp(iO)is the constant amplitude component, which physically represents the unscattered or average component of the optical field, and R exp(io) is the fluctuating or randomly scattered component. This general formulation of the optical field is consistent with that used in standard perturbation methods, such as the Born approximation,' wherein the field is expressed as a sum of the unperturbed field component and one or more random perturbation terms due to scattering. A small but important modification of this standard model is what leads to the I-K distribution. Many statistical models for the irradiance fluctuations are based on the assumption that atmospheric turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary. Even if homogeneity and isotropy are reasonable assumptions in many conditions of turbulence, the assumption of stationarity is probably valid only over very short intervals of time during which the parameters of the turbulence remain essentially constant. Over longer periods of time, such as those normally associated with experimental measurements, these turbulence parameters will likely fluctuate in a ran2 3 27 Because of this situation, we believe dom fashion. it may be helpful to describe initially the statistical properties of a wave propagating through such a medium in terms of a compound statistical model. The I-K distribution evolves from a compound statistical model whereby the conditional irradiance distribution is assumed to be the modified Rice-Nakagami PDF, as predicted by the Born approximation. The effect of random fluctuations in the turbulence parameters are then modeled by allowing random variations in the average irradiance of the random component (or variance) of the field described by Eq. (1). Thus, when the Rice-Nakagami distribution is averaged over gamma statistics for the fluctuating variance of the field, we are led to the I-K distribution as the unconditional or 8 Its functional form absolute PDF for the irradiance.1
is given by

2a

A_

Ka-1(2A

a-i

(2

b)

2a(,~A) ia-1 (2A

F) Ka-

(2I,

I >A2,
(2)

where a is a parameter generally associated with the number of scatterers forming the random component of the optical field (1) and bois the absolute mean value of the intensity of the random component. The functions I(-) and K,(-) are modified Bessel functions of the first and second kind, respectively. The special case a = 1 has also been derived for the probability of
1June 1988
/ Vol. 27, No. 11 / APPLIEDOPTICS 2151

single-pulse detection of an N-glint target immersed in K-distributed clutter.2 8


111. Scintillation Index for Zero Inner Scale

Perhaps the most important measure of the irradiance fluctuations of a laser beam is the scintillation index
2 (2)-1, Ij = (1)2 -1 (3)

where (2)/(I)2

is the second normalized moment of

the irradiance. The scintillation index is often expressed as a function of the Rytov variance a2. For example, based on the Rytov perturbation method for plane waves, the variance of the log intensity in weak
fluctuation regimes is defined by2 3
=

a1

= (1.23 C 2k / L11/ )i

7 6

Fig. 1. Variation of the scintillation index with al for both plane

16 k

JJ

c)(,)

sin [

2k

)]dKdf,

waves and spherical waves with zero inner scale. (4)

where q0,(K) is the refractive-index power spectrum. Assuming a pure Kolmogorov spectrum, i.e., kn(K) = 0.033C2 K-113, this expression reduces to
aL2"= 1.23C'k 7 /6L 1 /6
= a2

dom component of the optical field (1). Thus the scintillation index for the I-K distribution assumes the form
(+)2(2
a)

(5)

(11)

Hence the scintillation index is


1
U=exp(
0 j(1

simply2 3
(plane wave), (6)

22)-1

+ 0.5 ),

al

where we have retained only the first few terms of the series for the exponential function. In the case of a spherical wave, the corresponding expression is
a =exp(0.41o)- 1
0.41a2(1 + 0.5cr2),a2 << 1 (spherical wave). (7)

By comparing the scintillation index (11) with known results for both weak and strong turbulence regimes as described by Eqs. (6)-(9), wecan relate the I-K parameters a and p to the Rytov variance a 2 for both plane and spherical waves. Weak turbulence conditions are characterized in the I-K distribution by large values of the power ratio p. In this case we find that the scintillation index (11) assumes the approximate form
2 G_-, p>>l. ap (12)

Although not predicted by Eqs. (6) and (7), experimental evidence shows that the scintillation index u2 for increasing values of o- eventually reaches a maximum value greater than unity and then decreases slowly for further increases in o-1. In the saturation regime the
evidence shows that 421, which corresponds to

By comparison of this expression with the similar conditions of weak turbulence described by Eqs. (6) and
(7), we deduce that
ap
=

O., <<1 (plane wave),

(13)

negative exponential statistics. This limiting behavior of ac2in strong turbulence has been predicted by several asymptotic theories, one of which estimates the scintillation index by29
2

ap =

482 2) 0a1(1 + 02a-)

<< (spherical wave).

(14)

086
8

a2 >>1 (plane wave),

(8)

On the other hand, the power ratio p of the I-K model tends to zero in strong turbulence conditions, and the scintillation index (11) assumes the asymptotic form
2 ay

aI2

1+

a2>>

1 (spherical wave).

(9)

2 1 +-,

p <<1.

(15)

A.

Parameter Values

The normalized moments of the I-K distribution are' 8


(I)
(I)f

By comparing the asymptotic forms given by Eqs. (8) and (9) with (15), we deduce that in strong turbulence conditions the parameter a is approximately given by
a = 2.334 1 /, aI > 1 (plane wave),
a = 0.71 1'
5

n! r(a + ) (p)' anl + P)n(-ra +k) k!


= A 2/bo is

1,2,3.

(10)

(16)
(17)

>>1 (spherical wave).

where p a parameter denoting the power ratio of the mean intensity of the constant amplitude component to the absolute mean intensity of the ran2152 APPLIED OPTICS / Vol. 27, No. 11 / 1 June 1988

Equations (16) and (17) provide an estimate of the parameter a in terms of the Rytov variance al in conditions of strong turbulence, while Eqs. (13) and (14)

in weak turbulence regimes. relate the product ap to a-2 Although the validity of these expressions is subject to severe restrictions, we will examine the consequences of using them to estimate a and p for all conditions of turbulence. In this fashion we will have a model for the scintillation index that agrees with known results in both weak and strong turbulence regimes but may be less accurate in the vicinity of peak scintillations. Moreover, these relations permit us to predict the second-, third-, and higher-order moments based on the I-K model for all conditions of turbulence. In Fig. 1 we have plotted the scintillation index (11) for both plane and spherical waves as a function of the square root of the Rytov variance, where a and p are defined in the plane wave case by
a = 2.33a1,(
2
=

"I

1-

2
a91 =
(1.23

4
2

6
k /6 L1/6)i
7

Fig. 2. Variations of the square root of the scintillation index with


a, for plane waves and zero inner scale.

The solid curve is that

predicted by the I-K distribution, and the experimental data are from Ref. 24. The dots represent measured data at a fixed propagation distance of 1750 m, while the pluses are the same at 250 m.

aa2(1+ o.5aY)

and in the spherical wave case by


a = 0.71a4', 4.88 = + 2) aa2,(1 + 0.2a2) (19)

The predicted peak value of the scintillation index is higher for the spherical wave than for the plane wave, and it also occurs at a larger value of al than that of the
plane wave.

In Fig. 2 we compare experimental data of Gracheva et al.24 for a plane wave with that predicted by the I-K distribution. A similar graph for the spherical wave
case using the data of Refs. 6 and 8 is shown in Fig. 3.

In both figures we see that the general trend of the theoretical curves follows that of the experimental data, but the maximum values are somewhat less than most of the data. There are at least two possible explanations for this discrepancy. First, our technique for choosing the parameters a and p is only approximate, especially in the regime of peak scintillations where errors are most likely to occur. Second, we have thus far ignored inner scale effects which are known to lead to larger peak values in the scintillation
index."1,'9

2
a1

4
(1.23 C 2k7/
6

6
L11/6)

Fig. 3. Variation of the square root of the scintillation index with a1


for spherical waves and zero inner scale. The solid curve is that

predicted by the I-K distribution, and the experimental data are


from Refs. 6 and 8. The dots are Ref. 8 data with variable propagation path lengths up to 1500 m, while the pluses are Ref. 6 data taken at 1250 m.

In Fig. 4 we compare our model for plane waves to 5 numerical results derived by Whitman and Beran,1
which are based on the fourth-moment tion. equation for 3-

D propagation. The dashed curve is the numerical result, while the solid curve is that of the I-K distribuThe two curves agree quite well everywhere

0~

except in the vicinity of the scintillation peak where there is some small discrepancy.
IV. Inner Scale Effect for Plane Waves

Up to this point our analysis has been based on the


assumption of a zero inner scale. However, a finite

inner scale can lead to larger values of the scintillation index, particularly in the region of peak values of the scintillation index, than observed when the inner scale
is vanishingly small. By using a modified Kolmogorov

0
Fig. 4.

2
a 1
= (1.23 c2k7/
6 6

6
L11/ )A

Comparison of the square root of the scintillation index for

spectrum which introduces an inner scale parameter,

the I-K distribution with numerical results from Ref. 15 based on fourth-moment equations for 3-D propagation.
1 June 1988 / Vol. 27, No. 11 / APPLIEDOPTICS 2153

GI

~~~~~~~~~~
A 1cm

i /
w~~f

and outer scale parameters of turbulence is given in the Appendix. However, we found that outer scale effects are generally negligible, and thus Eq. (26) is adequate for nearly all conditions of turbulence. In the limit of vanishingly small inner scale (3 ), it can be shown
-

that 2
LE
PLANE

1.

WE DA
WAVE DATA

1750.m +

250m
6

4
a1 = (1.23 C2 k7/ 6 L11/6)

Fig. 5. Variation of the square root of the scintillation index witha1 and inner scale of turbulence loand comparisonwith the experimental data of Ref. 24. The theoretical curves correspond to a propagation path length of 1750 m.

The inner scale correction factor in the log intensity (25) leads to calculated values of C2that are generally greater than those calculated from a pure Kolmogorov spectrum model that assumes a zero inner scale. That is, if one were to ignore the inner scale and make a short 2 path measurements of a-I or a-Ln,, the quantity Cnc represents the apparent value of the refractive-index structure parameter C2. If the inner scale parameter
2 by the correction be calculated by dividing C2& factor
.2, whose

lo is known, however, the actual value of Cn can always


(26).

value can be determined with the use of Eq.

Fantell developed an asymptotic theory for plane waves that led to the scintillation index described by
l _ + 2.03 ,
2 >> 1,

Based on the result of Eq. (25), the inner scale correction in the scintillation index for weak turbulence leads to
I2 =

(20)

a2&2(1 + 0.5a 2 2),

a2 << 1,

(27)

from which we deduce


where
a = 6.94a 1
7 16

(21)

aa

(1 + 0.5 2)

(28)

The parameter 3in Eq. (21) is the square of the ratio of the size of the first Fresnel zone to inner scale parameter, i.e.,
{ = XL (22)

where X is the optical wavelength and lois the inner scale parameter. Thus, by equating Eqs. (15) and (20),we see that the inner scale correction in a leads to
a = 0.985al/3= 136(a2 7/6)1/6. (23)

To find a comparable expression for the parameter p with inner scale corrections, we need to calculate a new expression for the variance of the log intensity defined by Eq. (4) that is not based on a pure Kolmogorov spectrum. By assuming that
= 0.033C2

Thus, by using Eq. (23) for a and Eq. (28) for p, wehave a model for the scintillation index in the plane wave case that incorporates inner scale effects. In Fig. 5 we have plotted the square root of the scintillation index aI vs al-for several values of the inner scale parameter but fixing the propagation path length at 1750 m. Hence a-I is essentially a function of the refractiveindex structure parameter C. Also shown in this figure is the experimental data of Gracheva et al.2 4 Here we see that much of the data taken at 1750 m lies between the curves corresponding to inner scales of lo = 0 and lo= 5 cm, while the curve denoted by lo = 1 cm fits the average of the experimental data quite well.
V. Discussion

ex
(K

K g)

l(-K /1 1

'

(24)

where

Km

= 5.92/10 and

KOis

generally the reciprocal of

the outer scale of turbulence, and performing the resulting integrations in Eq. (4) we obtain the first-order approximation (see Appendix)
'n

= 1.23(C = 2-2

7 16 )k L"16

We have developed expressions here for the parameters of the I-K distribution in terms of physical parameters of the turbulence and optical waves. These results are based on knowledge of the behavior of the scintillation index in the extreme cases of weak turbulence and strong turbulence. Even though this approach leaves some uncertainty about the exact functional forms of the I-K distribution parameters in terms of a2 and lo in the peak scintillation region, the comparisons we have made with experimental data
show good quantitative agreement over all conditions

(25)

where
&2

of turbulence.
3.864 1 +

211/12

Appendix:

Evaluation of the Variance of Log Intensity

31.14/3J
- 1.69 (26)

X sin

(124 tan-1(5.581)

A more complete expression for a2 involving both inner


2154 APPLIEDOPTICS / Vol. 27, No. 11 / 1 June 1988

The variance of log intensity is defined by Eq. (4) where the power spectral density is that defined by Eq. (24). By using the trigonometric identity sin2x = /2(1 - cos2x), we find that Eq. (4) can be expressed by the sum of integrals

ULn

2 2 = 0.2647n k C(I-12),

(Al)

& = 1.06 (
X
E

U(1;1/6;/Krn) - 1272
0 M

k5

~~~2

where
JLJf K exp -K /Km)
(K + Ko) /

-(1)n(LK'/k)n

1 +k2
L2K4

(n+l)/2

(A2)

(2)((+/6)n

I2 =

K exp-

/n)

cos [K2(L

dKdq.

(A3)

X sin [(n + 1) tan' (fLK)] + 3.864 2 (11/6)(LK/k


I 1/)n

The integral I, is readily evaluated to give (see Ref. 30,


p. 303) I, =
2 3 LK-" /U(1;1/6;K2/K2),

(1

+ L K )11/12+n/2

(A4)

Xsin[(n + 6 ) tan- (Lk)]

(A12)

where U(a;c;x)is the confluent hypergeometric function of the second kind. Using Euler's formula for the
cosine function, a similar evaluation of 12 yields
12=
/4 Ko

The Pochhammer symbol in Eq. (A12) is defined by


(a)n= r(a + n)
F(a) n
=

0,1,2

(A13)

J [U(1;1/6;X

iY)
(A5)

+ U(1;1/6;X + iY)Id7,

where i2 = -1 and
XB
siYc v aria bles,

Equation (A12)provides a multiplicative correction term to the variance of log intensity defined by Eq. (All), which includes both inner scale and outer scale effects of turbulence. For most cases of interest, however, the inner and outer scales differ by several orders
of magnitude, so that all terms of the series are negligi-

(A 6)

By suitable changes of variables, Eq. (5) can be written in the more compact form
I2 = h K 11/3a

ble except for the first term of each series. Retaining only the n = 0 term in each series and using the approximation
2) 272 (-K)5 1.06 ( ) U(1;1/6;Kg/K
LK2( L Km

U(1;16;t)dt,

(A7)

+ 1.06r(-5/6)
where
o/K2 << 1,

2)16
(A14)

ib

K2

iL)

(A8)

leads to the result of Eq. (5).


All authors also work in the Center for Research in

Introducing the identity3 0


U(1;1/6;t) = 6 ,F,(l;1/6;t) + rI-5/6)t 5 I6 et,
5

Electro-Optics and Lasers.


(A9)
References

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(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978). 2. K. S. Gochelashvili and V. I. Shishov, "Strong Fluctuations tribution Function," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 1028 (1978). 3. E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, "Significance of K-Distributions of

where lFl(a;c;x) denotes the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind, it can then be shown that
I2 = 1
K
3

Laser Radiation Intensity in a Turbulent Atmosphere-the Disin

[(a + ib) 2 F2 (1,1;2,1/6;a + ib)

(a - ib)2 F2 (1,1;2,1/6;a - ib)] + ib)11/6 F 1(11/6;17/6;a + ib) 3r(-5/6) kK-1113[(a 1


22i

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Finally, by expressing the hypergeometric functions


in Eq. (A10) by their series representations and com-

bining I, and I2, we are led to the result


,L" = 1.23Cgk / L"'/6&2,
7 6

Light Scattering in Atmospheric Turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am.


71, 1440 (1981). (All)

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where

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Measurements of

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25-27

June
27-8 July 1st Int. School & Workshop in Photonics, Oaxtepec

1988

Laser Materials & Laser Spectroscopy Mtg., Shanghai W. Zhijiang, Topical Mtg. on Laser Materials & Laser Spectroscopy, P.O. Box 8211,Shanghai, China' Int. Conf. on Systems Science & Engineering, Bejing ICSSE'88 Secretariat, Dept. Automation, Tsinghau U., Beijing 100084China Radar Scattering & Image Interpretation course, Ann Arbor Eng. Summer Confs., U. of MI, Chrysler Ctr./ N. Campus, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 9th Int. Conf. on Spectral Line Shapes, Torun J. Szudy, Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernics U., Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland Optical Fiber Measurements course, Vail K. Zimmerman, U. Colorado,Boulder, CO 80309

Ojeda-Castaneda, INAOE, Apdo. Postal 216, 72000 Puebla Pue, Mexico

J.

25-28

July
1-5 4th Ann. Fechner Day Mtg., Edinburgh H. Ross, Dept. Psychology, U. Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, U.K. History of Science Soc.& the British Soc. for the History of Science Joint Mtg., Manchester AIP, 335 E. 45th St., New York, NY 10017
Lasers & Optics for Applications course, Cambridge

25-28

25-29

11-15

28-30

11-22

Off. of Summer Sessions, 50 Ames, Rm. E19-356, MIT, Cambridge,MA 02139 August

12-15

Ultkafast Phenomena Top. Mtg., Mt. Hei Secretariat

Ultrafast Phenomena, Opto, Ltd., 5-206 Maeno-cho Heights, 6-10 Maeno-cho, Itabashiku, Tokyo 174,Ja-

8-12

pan
18-22

Non-Ionizing Radiations: Biophysical & BiologicalBasis, Applications, & Hazards in Medicine & Industry course, Cambridge Off. of Summer Session, 50 Ames, Rm. E19-356,MIT, Cambridge,MA 02139
32nd Ann. Int. Tech. Symp. on Optics & Optoelectronic Appl. Sci. & Eng., San Diego SPIE, P.O. Box 10,

Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Tokyo IQEC '88Secretariat, OITDA, 20th Mori Bldg. 7-4, Nishi-Shimbashi 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105,Japan Synthetic Aperture Radar Tech. & Applications Conf., Ann Arbor Eng. Summer Confs., Chrysler Ctr./ North Campus, U. of MI, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Future of Optical Memories Mtg., San Francisco TOC,

14-19

Bellingham, WA 98227

18-22

14-26

34th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics on Optical Computing, Edinburgh Dept. Physics, Heriot-Watt U.,Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K.
continued onpage2213

19-21

P.O. Box 14817,San Francisco, CA 94114


2156 APPLIEDOPTICS / Vol. 27, No. 11 / 1 June 1988