Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

172

Method of Analysing Galvanometer Records,

M.A., and A, V. Hill, Sc.D., F.R.S.
9,

By W. Haetree,

(Eeceived March

1921.)

records were

of the deflection of a sensitive

galvanometer registering

The system

is

a complicated one, involving the inertia,

of the galvanometer,

damping and

control of the

moving system

and the heat conductivity

of the material of

the thermopile
itself
;

solution
of
of

complicated differential and

constants
to

integral

equations, with

large
this

number
necessity

be determined

by observation.
a given

To avoid
of

a procedure in which

amount

heat was

for a short

by a powerful

time through the substance on the thermopile, and the resulting

This record, which

''

we

may

be used

(according to the procedure described below), for the determination of the

course of the heat-production in general.

The motion

of the
is

moving system

of a

sensitive galvanometer (assumed

completely damped)

governed by linear differential equations with constant

heat from substance to thermopile, and in
if

the thermopile

itself.

Consequently

y
be given by heat

S-Ef(t),

(I)

SH

will be given

by heat S'H liberated at time

2/

0,

and a

deflection

+ / = SH/(0+S^H/(^-^)
heat
"

by the combined

effects of

SH

at time

and

of heat

S'H

at time 6.

In

making the
^

"

control curve

we
'

have determined experimentally the form of

of Physiology,' vol. 54, p. 104 (1920)
'
;

W.

Phil.

A
the equation

(1),

173

and

if

we know the form

of the function

in

where
t

H is heat, and

is

time,

we can

at once

compute the

deflection at time

mine the form
of

(j>

of the functions
difficult,

/ and

i/r,

to deter-

-is

but

it

"

From

the " control curve

a " control

table " is constructed giving the deflections at equal intervals (say of O'l

second) corresponding to an instantaneous production (at time 0) of

0*8, 0*7, ... 0*2, 0*1,

1*0, 0*9,

of

The observed curve

two or three
these

galvanometer deflection

is

then measured up, and the

inspection of the
less
first

ordinates at intervals of 0*1 second tabulated.

of these it is seen that they agree

From
more or

with the numbers

;

in the control table corresponding to heat (say) 0*7 units liberated at time

from the

0."

" 0*7

units at time

The

first

few remainders are then seen to correspond to heat (say)

0*2 units at

time (say) 0*2 second, and the numbers, therefore, for 0*2 units in

the control table are shifted along to 0-2 second and subtracted throughout,
leaving a second series of remainders.

The first few of these remainders are then seen to correspond to heat (say) 0*1 at time (say) O'S second, and so on.
it

Finally, therefore,

is

seconds, 0*2

and

so on,

is

become zero or
If there

is

solved.

be reason to suppose that the heat produced

the
first

a reasonably simple

analysis

may

be plotted and

solution
is

usually arrived
is

at.

cases

we have

it

if

laborious.

We

have employed

calories per

by a muscle (only about 0*005 grm.

seconds, or during the
first

of

first

two

three minutes following stimulation.

registration

The method
response

requires
for

very accurate
it

the galvanometer
of

naturally, largely on an examination quite small differencesand we doubt whether could be employed successfully unless
rests
it

VOL. XCIX."A.

it is

174

Prof.

of heat

curve a

moment in when
however,
of the

employing a non-conducting substance

galvanometer can be assumed
with constant
coefficients, the

like rubber.

In

all

cases,

where such a "contror' curve can be made, and where the motion
to

;

it

is

not limited

changes of temperature in a thermopile.

5SBtSa(WMmffJtW!W*^^

On
By

the Influence

of Loiv TemiJeratures on the Magnetic Properties

ivith

of Alloys of Iron
Prof.

Niohel and Manganese,

Kamerlingh Oknes,
Bart., E.E.S.

For.

Mem.

E.S., Sir

4,

(Eeceived March

1921.)

Section
Since
its

1.-

Aini of

the

BesearcL

steel,

now

universally

known

as

manganese

that

is

the iron-manganese alloy containing about

1*25 per cent, carbon has, on

12 to 14 per cent, manganese and 1*10 to

account of
researches.
2.

its

many remarkable
of its

properties,

been the

subject

of

many

The investigation

this
an.

and mechanical treatment has taken a prominent place among them, as

method

of investigation,

insight into the constitution of steel alloys,

their properties
steel has not

and accordingly
direction.

to

show how
Manganese
it

might be influenced

in

any desired

itself,

has

3. is

to steel alloys.

Manganese

steel

is,

way

and
it is

tenacity, that

1000

C.

and quenched in water,

It can, however, be of

only very slightly magnetic, namely, equivalent to less than one part in a
tliousand as compared with Swedish, charcoal iron.
to reach a specific

Cooling

pure iron by

prolonged heating at 520 C.

down

to the

temperature of liquid