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172

Method of Analysing Galvanometer Records,


M.A., and A, V. Hill, Sc.D., F.R.S.
9,

By W. Haetree,

(Eeceived March

1921.)

In recent papers/' we have described experiments in which photographic


records were

made

of the deflection of a sensitive

galvanometer registering

the rise of temperature of a muscle (or other substance) resting on a thermopile.

The system

is

a complicated one, involving the inertia,


of the galvanometer,

damping and

control of the

moving system

and the heat conductivity


of the material of

and capacity both of the substance on the thermopile, and


the thermopile
itself
;

consequently the accurate determination of the course

of the production of heat in the substance

on the thermopile, from the photo-

graphic record of the galvanometer deflection, would appear to require the


solution
of
of

complicated differential and


constants
to

integral

equations, with

large
this

number
necessity

be determined

by observation.
a given

To avoid
of

we adopted

a procedure in which

amount

heat was

liberated, practically instantaneously,


for a short

by a powerful

electric current passing

time through the substance on the thermopile, and the resulting


This record, which

deflection recorded photographically.


''

we

will call the

control curve," involves all the constants of the system, and

may

be used

(according to the procedure described below), for the determination of the


course of the heat-production in general.

The motion

of the
is

moving system

of a

sensitive galvanometer (assumed

completely damped)

governed by linear differential equations with constant


heat from substance to thermopile, and in
if

coefficients, as also is the flow of

the thermopile

itself.

Consequently

a deflection of the galvanometer

following the course

y
be given by heat

S-Ef(t),

(I)

SH

liberated at time 0, a deflection

will be given

by heat S'H liberated at time


2/

0,

and a

deflection

+ / = SH/(0+S^H/(^-^)
heat
"

by the combined

effects of

SH

at time

and

of heat

S'H

at time 6.

In

making the
^

"

control curve

we
'

have determined experimentally the form of


of Physiology,' vol. 54, p. 104 (1920)
'
;

W.

Hartree and A. Y. Hill, Journal

Phil.

Trans.,' B, vol. 210, p. 153 (1920).

A
the equation

Method of Analysing Galvanometer Records,


(1),

173

the function / in equation

and

if

we know the form

of the function

in

where
t

H is heat, and

is

time,

we can

at once

compute the

deflection at time

from the equation

The converse problem


mine the form
of

given the forms the function more


(j>

of the functions
difficult,

/ and

i/r,

to deter-

-is

but

it

can be carried out


"

numerically in the following manner.

From

the " control curve

a " control

table " is constructed giving the deflections at equal intervals (say of O'l

second) corresponding to an instantaneous production (at time 0) of


0*8, 0*7, ... 0*2, 0*1,

1*0, 0*9,

0'05 units of heat, the unit being appropriately chosen.


of

The observed curve


two or three
these

galvanometer deflection

is

then measured up, and the


inspection of the
less
first

ordinates at intervals of 0*1 second tabulated.


of these it is seen that they agree

From
more or

with the numbers


;

in the control table corresponding to heat (say) 0*7 units liberated at time

numbers in the control

table are then subtracted throughout

from the

tabulated ordinates of the observed curve, and a note


0."

made

" 0*7

units at time

The

first

few remainders are then seen to correspond to heat (say)

0*2 units at

time (say) 0*2 second, and the numbers, therefore, for 0*2 units in

the control table are shifted along to 0-2 second and subtracted throughout,
leaving a second series of remainders.

The first few of these remainders are then seen to correspond to heat (say) 0*1 at time (say) O'S second, and so on.
it

Finally, therefore,

is

found that by taking heat 0*7 units at

seconds, 0*2

at 0*2 second, 0*1 at 0*3 second,

and

so on,

and subtracting, the remainders


is

become zero or
If there

practically zero all along

and the problem


is

solved.

be reason to suppose that the heat produced


the
first

a reasonably simple

function of the time, the results of

analysis

may

be plotted and

smoothed, and a second attempt made.


solution
is

After about three attempts a final

usually arrived
is

at.

If the heat be a complicated function of the

time, the analysis


cases

apt to be difficult and unsatisfactory, but in most of the

we have

dealt with the

method has proved reasonably accurate,


it

if

laborious.

We

have employed

in the determination of the heat produced


calories per

by a muscle (only about 0*005 grm.


seconds, or during the
first

gramme) during the


of

first

two

three minutes following stimulation.


registration

The method
response

requires
for

very accurate
it

the galvanometer
of

naturally, largely on an examination quite small differencesand we doubt whether could be employed successfully unless
rests
it

the records were


VOL. XCIX."A.

made photographically

it is

possible moreover only in cases

174

Prof.

K. Onnes, Sir B. A. Hadfield, and Dr. H. R. Woltjer.


of heat

where a sudden outburst

can be provided at a definite

order to produce the control

curve a

condition difficult to satisfy

moment in when
however,
of the

employing a non-conducting substance


galvanometer can be assumed
with constant
coefficients, the

like rubber.

In

all

cases,

where such a "contror' curve can be made, and where the motion
to

be governed by linear differential equations


;

method may be employed

it

is

not limited

necessarily to the case of galvanometer deflections produced in response to

changes of temperature in a thermopile.

5SBtSa(WMmffJtW!W*^^

On
By

the Influence

of Loiv TemiJeratures on the Magnetic Properties


ivith

of Alloys of Iron
Prof.

Niohel and Manganese,

Kamerlingh Oknes,
Bart., E.E.S.

For.

Mem.

E.S., Sir

Egbert A. Hadfield,

and Dr. H. E. Woltjek.


4,

(Eeceived March

1921.)

Section
Since
its

1.-

Aini of

the

BesearcL

discovery by one of us in 1883, the material


steel,

now

universally

known

as

manganese

that

is

the iron-manganese alloy containing about


1*25 per cent, carbon has, on

12 to 14 per cent, manganese and 1*10 to


account of
researches.
2.

its

many remarkable
of its

properties,

been the

subject

of

many

The investigation

magnetic behaviour in connection with thermal


this
an.

and mechanical treatment has taken a prominent place among them, as

method

of investigation,

perhaps more than any other, promised to give

insight into the constitution of steel alloys,


their properties
steel has not

and accordingly
direction.

to

show how
Manganese
it

might be influenced

in

any desired

only been important in

itself,

but by reason of the light

has

thrown upon the laws relating generally


3. is

to steel alloys.

Manganese

steel as cast or forged is

non-magnetic and when this

steel

treated in the ordinary


is,

way

to obtain its peculiarly high toughness

and
it is

tenacity, that

after being heated to

1000

C.

and quenched in water,


It can, however, be of

only very slightly magnetic, namely, equivalent to less than one part in a
tliousand as compared with Swedish, charcoal iron.
to reach a specific

made

magnetism about two-thirds of that


Cooling

pure iron by

prolonged heating at 520 C.

down

to the

temperature of liquid