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INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE A MANET Architecture Model Thomas Heide

INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE

A MANET Architecture Model

Thomas Heide Clausen

N° 6145

January 2007

Thème COM

a p p o r t d e r e c h e r c
a p p o r t
d e
r e c h e r c h e
ISSN 0249-6399
ISRN INRIA/RR--6145--FR+ENG
A MANET Ar chitectur e Mo del Thomas Heide Claus en Th`eme COM — Syst`em

A MANET Ar chitectur e Mo del

Thomas Heide Claus en

Th`eme COM — Syst`em es com municants Pro je ts Hip e rc om

Rapp ort de reche rche n 6145 — January 2007 — 25 pages

Rapp ort de reche rche n 6145 — January 2007 — 25 pages Abstract: This me

Abstract: This me morandum de sc rib e s a comm on m is p erc eption conce rning MANET s and the ir underlying ne twork archite cture whe n integrating into c las sic I P networks. I t details the c ons eque nc es of this m is p e rc eption – breaking c ompatibility with existing appli- cations and proto c ols – and o e rs an archite ctural m o del for MANETs , which integrates MANETs into the IP networking archite cture and e nc aps ulates the MANET s p ec ific b e hav- ior in a way transpare nt to existing applic ations and proto cols. Finally, this me morandum shows how the pre se nte d MANET archite ctural mo del fits with MANET deploym ent sc e- narios, including ”simple MANETs ” and manage me nt of nes ted NEMO networks.

Key- words: mobile network, ad ho c ne twork, ne twork architecture , addres s c onfiguration, routing, I P networks , NEMO, MANET

Unité de recherche INRIA Futurs Parc Club Orsay Université, ZAC des Vignes, 4, rue Jacques Monod, 91893 ORSAY Cedex (France)

Téléphone : +33 1 72 92 59 00 — Télécopie : +33 1 60 19 66 08

A MANET Ar chitectur e Mo del

R´e sum´e : Ce m´e morandum do c um ente une e rre ur de p erce ption r´e pandue conce r- nant le s r´es eaux MANET e t leur architec ture r´e seau s ous -jacente, lors qu’ils sont integr´es `a des r´es eaux IP c lassiques. Il d´e crit les cons´e quence s de ce tte e rreur de p e rception – l’incom patibilit´e avec les proto c ole s e t applications pr´e existants – et prop os e un m o d`ele d’architec ture p our c es re se aux MANETs , qui le s int`e gre `a l’architec ture des r´e seaux IP e t encapsule la partie du c omp ortem ent qui e st s p´e cifique aux MANET s, de sorte qu’il pa- rais se nt transparent aux applications et aux proto c oles e xis tants. Enfin, c e m´e morandum montre comm ent le mo de le archite ctural de MANET c onvie nt aux s cenarii de de ploieme nt des MANETs, en particulie r le s MANET s s im ples , e t aus si a la ge stion des res eaux NEMO inte gre s.

Mots- cl´es : r´ese aux m obiles , r´ese aux ad-ho c , architecture de r´es eau, configuration d’adre ss es , proto cole de routage, r´e se aux IP, NEMO, MANET

A MANE T Architecture Model

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1 Intro duction & Backgr ound

A typical te xt on Mobile Ad ho c NETworks (MANETS) w ill de scrib e s uch networks as

simply b e ing ”a col lect ion of mobile nodes, communicating among themselves over w ireless links a nd thereby forming a dynamic, arbit rary graph” – listing wireles s charac teristics and graph dynamics as the m ain challenges for de signing proto cols and applic ations for this network. While c apturing im p ortant characteristics , this des cription do e s not make e xplicit how MANETs map into the Inte rnet architec ture – and do e s therefore not allow evaluation of existing IP proto c ols and their applic ability on MANET s. Similarly, the lack of a c le ar archite ctural de sc ription within the context of the Inte rnet has im p eded the e valuation of the applicability of MANETs within the Internet. This fact b e came explic it during the charte ring of the IETF AUTOCONF working group [8]: in simple terms , the goal of the AUT OC ONF working group is to provide automatic addres s configuration for MANET no des. Most res earchers and e ngineers familiar with MANETs s hared the unde rs tanding that e xis ting auto configuration approaches did not ap- ply. Des cribing why and how was, abse nt a clear and agre ed up on architec tural m o del of MANETs , di c ult – as was communication to exp e rts outs ide the MANET community. The issue arose again w ithin the c onte xt of routing and route optimisation within nes ted NEMO networks , where a clear architec tural des cription of MANETs le ad to a p o or general understanding of how MANETs might b e a c andidate technology. The purp os e of this m emorandum is to do c ume nt the MANET architec ture within the general Interne t and I P architec ture.

1.1 Memor andum Outline

The rem ainde r of this mem orandum are organis ed as follow s: sec tion 2 provides an ove rview

of the class ic IP link and ne twork mo del, in particular the as sumptions made by IP regarding

subnets and links. Sec tion 3 the n elab orates imp ortant charac teristics regarding MANET inte rface s, comparing and c ontras ting with the IP assumptions of s ec tion 2. This is followed by se ction 4, in which a c ommon m is p e rc eption of the MANET archite cture is elab orated,

and w he re the s hortcomings of this architectural misp e rception are pres ented. Section 5 pre se nts a MANET architec tural m o del which integrates MANETs as a natural

part of the Interne t and the IP architec ture – fitting the MANET characteristics (se ction 3)

to

the c lassic IP link and network mo de l (sec tion 2). Section 6 s um maris e the charac teristics

of

the MANET architec ture mo de l. Given this archite ctural m o del for MANETs, s ec tion 7

desc rib es the morphology of MANETs, in particular how one would use the mo del for configuring a ”clas sic” MANET w hich re sp e cts the IP archite cture. Section 8 disc us se s how

MANETs c an b e e mployed as a c omp onent in the cas e of managing ne ste d NEMO networks .

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8 disc us se s how MANETs c an b e e mployed as a c

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2 Classic IP Link and Networ k Mo de l

As p ointe d out by [4], network proto c ols and applic ations are de signed with s p e cific ass um p- tions of the nature of an IP link.

Classic IP link with Subnet Prefix p::

R
R
of an IP link. Classic IP link with Subnet Prefix p:: R H H p::1 p::2
of an IP link. Classic IP link with Subnet Prefix p:: R H H p::1 p::2
H H p::1 p::2
H
H
p::1
p::2
H p::3
H
p::3

Figure 1: Cl assi c IP Li nk Mo del: hosts (H) connecte d to the same link have as signe d IP addres ses from a c ommon pre fix, p os sibly as signed by a route r (R).

Conside ring figure 1, the se ass umptions can b e s umm ariz ed as follows :

all hosts (H) with network interfaces c onfigured with addre sse s from within the s ame pre fix p:: , and with the s ame prefix p:: ass igne d to the inte p::, and with the s ame prefix p:: ass igne d to the inte rface s, c an com munic ate direc tly with one anothe r – i.e. :

IP datagrams are not forwarde d at the ne twork layer when communicating b e- tween interfac es which are configured with addre ss es from w ithin the same pre fix; hence

TTL/hop- lim it in IP datagram s are not decre mented when com municating b e- tween interfac es which are configured with addre ss es from w ithin the same pre fix, and;

IP datagrams w ith a TTL/hop-limit of 1 are (mo dulo data los s) de live re d to all inte rface s within the sam e s ubne t.

link-lo cal multicasts and broadcas ts are re ceive d by all inte rface s c onfigured with ad- dre ss es from within the same pre fix w ithout forwarding.de live re d to all inte rface s within the sam e s ubne t.

An eve n shorte r summary of the ”classic IP link model” is to say that ”an IP link lo oks like an Ethernet”. It follows from the ab ove that the notion of ”IP link” is tied with the notion of an ”IP Subnet” (IPv4) or a prefix (I Pv6), in that all inte rface s which are c onfigured with the s ame subne t addres s or prefix are conside red to b e on the s ame IP link and thus that for c ommunic ation b e twee n no de s on the s ame s ubnet, no forwarding is required and no decrem ent of TTL/hop- lim it is p e rformed. Interfac es w ithin the same prefix or, for IPv4, within the same subnet, are within the clas sic IP link mo de l ass um ed to also b e attached to the s ame c las sic IP link as de sc rib e d

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ab ove . For com plete ne ss, it s hould b e me ntioned that the inve rs e is not ne ce ss arily true :

in some network c onfigurations , interfac es conne cted to the sam e c lassic IP link may b e configured within di erent pre fixes or s ubne ts .

RR n 61 45

es conne cted to the sam e c lassic IP link may b e configured within

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3 MANET Inter face Char acter istics

MANET no des are equipp e d with MANET interfaces , which have di e rent charac teristics than the inte rface s des crib ed for the clas sic IP Link and Ne twork Mo del in s ection 2. T he se characte ristics are brie fly summarise d in this s ection, with the purp ose of e xemplifying the dierence with ”Ethernet-like” interfaces . A MANET ve rs ion of figure 1 lo oks as in figure 3.

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5

Figure 2: MANET: no des (N) with MANET inte rface s. The light grey are a indic ates the coverage area of each MANET interfac e.

3.1 Semi Broadcast Inter face s

Each MANET interfac e is a broadcas t inte rface , typic ally, but not nece ss arily, wire le ss , which is able to es tablish a direc t L2 conne ction with only thos e no des which are within its coverage are a. In figure 3, this c overage area is approximate d by a simple disc of fixed radius

– in the re al world, b oth the shap e and size of the cove rage area is variable as a function of

the inte rface , interfe rence from the environment etc . Re fe rring to figure 3 if, for e xample , if N3 transm its , the n this transmiss ion may b e re ce ive d by N2 and N4, but not by N1 and

N5. T his implies that, e.g., N3 and N4 – de spite b eing ne ighb ours and on the s ame ”link”

– do not share the same vie w of which othe r no de s are neighb ours and on the same ”link”:

N3 considers that it is on the sam e ”link” as N2 and N4, whereas N4 c ons iders itse lf to b e on the sam e ”link” as N3 and N5. This som etime s leads to des cribing MANET inte rface s as ”sem i-broadcast i nter- face s”, with non-transi tive nei ghb our relati onshi ps : neighb ouring no de s may exp e ri- ence dis tinctly di erent neighb ourho o ds.

3.2 Shar ed Bandwidth

Dep ending on the radio technology us ed, MANET interfac es may interfe re with e ach othe r

– this is for example the case with the comm only us ed IEEE 802.11 inte rface s. In figure 3,

if N3 transmits over its MANET inte rface , then this may c ause N2 and N4 to b e unable to trans mit c onc urrently over their res p e ctive MANET interfac es . The dire ct cons equence

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hereof is , that available bandwidth is s hare d among the MANET interfac es within the s ame coverage area.

N0 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6
N0
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6

Figure 3: MANET: no des (N) with MANET inte rface s. The light grey are a indic ates the coverage area of e ach MANET inte rface . The dark gre y c ircle indic ate s the int erf erence area of the MANET interface of N3.

A furthe r c ons ideration is, that a wireles s inte rface has an ”interference area” which

may b e greate r than its c overage are a, i.e. a trans mission by N3 in figure 3 will, as indicate d

ab ove , b e corre ctly rec eived by the inte rface s N2 and N4. At the s ame time, howeve r, this

transm ission m ay b e propagating to interfac es of N1 and N5 where, while the transm is sion can not b e c orrec tly de co de d, it can b e detec ted, and c aus e interference with othe r trans- miss ions which c ould otherwise b e c orrec tly rec eived over the MANET inte rface s of N1 and

N5 (s uch as trans miss ions from N0 and N6).

3.3 Hidden Terminals

A prop erty of MANETs which is comm only brought forward is the ”hidden terminal

probl em”: if N3 through s ome proto col agre es w ith its neighb ours (N2 and N4) that it

will, for the mome nt, have exclusive ac ce ss to the wire les s me dia via its MANET inte rface ,

the n N3 m ay go ahead and make a transmis sion. Howeve r, if at the sam e time N1 also

transm its over its MANET inte rfac e, then the transmiss ions of the MANET inte rface s of N1 and N3 m ay app e ar concurrently at the MANET inte rface of N2 – p otentially inte rfe ring and caus ing N2 to re ceive neithe r of the trans miss ions. Denoted a ”collis ion”, the p os sibility and probability of this o c curring de p e nds on the L2 (data link layer) m echanis ms in place – su ce to obse rve that the s uch c ollisions can and do o ccur w he n us ing som e com mon wireles s interfac es such as IEEE 802.11. The te rm ”hidden terminal” originate s from the fact that w hile the no de w is hing exc lusive

acc es s to the wire le ss me dia may ne gotiate this with its direct neighb ours (in our cas e N2 and N4), where as no de s out of direc t radio range (in our cas e N1 and N5) are ”hidde n”.

RR n 61 45

our cas e N2 and N4), where as no de s out of direc t radio

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3.4 Asymmetr ic Conne ctivity

Conside ring figure 1, an axiom atic as sumption is that ne ighb our relations hips are sym met- ric : if c ommunication from one interfac e to another inte rface is p oss ible in one hop, the n com munication in the inverse dire ction is also p os sible – in other words, connec tivity b e- twe en neighb our inte rface s is s ymme tric. Considering the sm all MANET in figure 4: for

som e re ason (p owe rful transm itte r, large antenna,

large enough cove rage area that its trans miss ions can b e rec eived by the MANET interface N2. The MANET inte rface of N2, on the other hand, has a much s malle r coverage radius , such that transmiss ions from the MANET interfac e of N2 do not arrive at the MANET inte rface of N1. Thus an asymm etric – or more prec is ely, an unidirec tional – connectivity b e twe en the MANET interfac e of N1 and the MANET inte rface of N2 exists: N2 s ee s N1 as a ne ighb our (s ince the MANET inte rface N2 c an re ce ive transmis sions from the MANET inte rface of N1), whereas N1 do es not s ee N2 as a ne ighb our (since the MANET interface of N1 can not rece ive trans miss ions from the MANET inte rfac e of N2). Thus , MANET neighb our relations hips are non-reflective .

) the MANET interface of N1 has a

N1 N2
N1
N2

Figure 4: MANET: neighb our as ym me try.

3.5 Neighb our ho o d & Networ k Me mb e rship

Returning to the initial des cription of a MANET in the intro duc tion, MANET interfac es form, ”a dynamic, arbitrary gra ph” among thems elves . This indicate s that the neighb our- ho o d of a MANET interfac e is dynamic and varie s ove r time – eithe r due to no de mobility or due to environme ntal factors w hich impact the are a of cove rage of a MANET inte rface . On a large r s cale e ven the MANET memb e rs hip may b e time varying, with MANET interfac es app earing and dis app e aring ove r tim e, and for the s ame re asons.

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4 Common MANE T Misp er ception

Conside ring the c las sic IP link mo de l de sc rib e d in s ection 2, a comm on misp e rc eption is that ”a MANET s hould e mulate an Ethe rnet at L3”, and that the no des in a MANET are ”hosts ”. This has le ad to MANET no des b e ing p erce ived and configure d as indic ated

in figure 5 as hosts in an Etherne t: the MANET interfac e is as signe d an IP address and a

subnet prefix p:: – a pre fix w hich is s hared am ong all the no des in the MANET as indicated

in figure 6.

IP address + MANET Subnet Prefix

MANET interface R + H MANET "node"
MANET interface
R + H
MANET "node"

Figure 5: Com mon Mi sp erception of MANET No des: vie wing MANET no de s as regular hosts in a subnet, with an IP addres s and a s ubne t prefix ass igned to the ir MANET inte rface .

Configuring a MANET with a s ingle s ubne t prefix s hared among the MANET no des

implie s that all MANET no des would b e considered as b e longing to the same s ubne t – and

as such on the s ame IP link. Howe ver with the MANET forming a multi- hop L3 ne twork,

and given the characteristics outlined in se ction 3 the proto col and applic ation ass umptions for I P links listed in se ction 2 do not hold:

for inte rface s within the MANET and with the same pre fix to c ommunic ate, L3 for- warding of IP datagrams m ay o c cur, and with s uch forwarding, T TL/hop-limit are decre mented;ass umptions for I P links listed in se ction 2 do not hold: link-lo cal

link-lo cal multicast or broadc as ts e ither do not re ach all no des within the subnet – or if the y are to reach all no des within the subnet, the y are to b e forwarde d by inte rm ediate no desand with s uch forwarding, T TL/hop-limit are decre mented; In short, conside ring and c

In short, conside ring and c onfiguring MANET no des as if the MANET form s a single subnet bre aks the class ic IP link m o del and the applic ations which as sume the charac teristics

of the clas sic IP link mo de l. [4] explores this in m ore detail.

4.1 Routing Incompatibility

A p erhaps surprising example of an application, which bre aks unde r this com mon MANET

misp erce ption, is routing: if a multi-hop MANET is configure d as de scrib e d in this s ec tion,

RR n 61 45

mon MANET misp erce ption, is routing: if a multi-hop MANET is configure d as de

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T. Clausen

MANET with

Subnet Prefix

p::

R p::5 + H R + H p::3 R p::2 + H p::4 H+R p::1
R p::5 + H
R + H
p::3
R p::2 + H
p::4 H+R
p::1 H+R

Individual MANET nodes with addresses assigned from and configured with prefix p::

Figure 6: Common mi sp ercepti on of a MA NET: viewing the MANET as a class ic IP subnet as in figure 1 s uch that all no de s partic ipate in the sam e ”s ubne t”, and thus s hare the s ame subnet pre fix.

with all no des w ithin the MANET ass um ed to b e also in the sam e subnet, then forwarding of IP datagrams w ithin the MANET will prompt interme diate no des to pro duce ICMP redirec ts. This is appropriate s inc e IP datagrams delivered within a s ubne t are not s upp ose d to b e forwarde d by a route r s ince a direc t link b etwee n any two no de s within a subnet is supp ose d to exist, acc ording to the clas sic IP link mo de l de sc rib e d in s ec tion 2. A rough work-around, often prop os ed in order to ”mas k” this problem , is to dis able ICMP re direc t.

4.2 Incompatibility with Other Pr oto cols and Applications?

Disabling ICMP redirec ts to make routing op e rate is dis abling the sym ptom of an inc or- rect ne twork mo del, for a s ingle applic ation (routing) only, and le ads to the sp e cific and reasonable ques tion if othe r applications and proto c ols re quire similar tweaks (if s o, which applications /proto c ols and which twe aks ?). Eve n more general: one c ould ask if MANETs eve n do b e long in the IP world? The ans we r is yes , MANET s do b e long in the IP world – howe ver it also me ans that the archite ctural vie w, pre sented in this se ction, is inappropriate and inde ed a c ommon m is p e rc eption of MANETs , which do e s not take into cons ide ration the ir integration within the IP archite cture.

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5 A MANE T Architectural Mo del

This se ction pres ents an architec tural m o del for MANETs w hich pres erves the inte grity of the IP architecture while allowing for the partic ularitie s of MANETs .

5.1 MANET No de M or phology

This architec tural m o del conside rs MANET no de s as rout ers with hosts attached, as il- lus trate d in figure 7. The se attached hosts may b e ”external” (i.e . attache d to the route r via othe r network interfaces ) or ”internal” – howe ver the imp ortant obs ervation to m ake is , that the links b etwee n these hos ts and the route r are class ic IP links, b ehaving as de sc rib ed in se ction 2. This im plies that, from the p oint of vie w of the hos ts, and the applic ations running on the se hosts , connec tivity is via a class ic IP link. Hosts , and their applications , are not e xp ose d to the s p ec ific characte ristic s of the MANET interfac es and are c onnec te d to the MANET via a router, which has one or more MANET interfac es . This is sym met- ric with how hosts on an Ethe rnet, such as illustrate d in figure 1 are not e xp ose d to the intricac ie s of w hat typ e of c onnectivity the route r has b eyond the Ethernet.

MANET Interface R MANET node R H H Classic IP Link Model H H H
MANET Interface
R
MANET node
R
H
H
Classic IP
Link Model
H H
H
H
H H

Figure 7: MANET no de mo del : the router (R ) has on the top a MANET inte rfac e, and is connec ted, on the b ottom, to hosts (H) via clas sic I P links .

Since the hosts in figure 7 are conne cted to a class ic IP link, the se hos ts are configured and b ehave as hosts in any other ne twork, and the links to which they are c onnec ted have prop e rtie s identical to those of any other c las sic IP link.

5.2 Addr esse s and Pre fixes

If the MANET router is de le gated a prefix p::, this prefix can b e ass igne d to the class ic IP link(s), and hos ts c an b e assigned address es from within this prefix, and c onfigured with this pre fix as illustrated in figure 8. Sp e cifically, the MANET interfac e(s ) of the router are not configured wi th this prefix, for the re asons e xplained in s ec tion 4: the MANET interface(s )

RR n 61 45

are not configured wi th this prefix, for the re asons e xplained in s ec

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is not on the sam e ”link” as the othe r interfac es with addres se s from within this prefix, and so direc t c ommunication without c ros sing a route r is not p os sible . T he c onfiguration of MANET interfaces is de taile d b elow.

5.3 MANET Inter face Configur ation & Prop er ties

MANET Interface MANET node R H Classic IP Link Model H H H p:2::1 p:2::2
MANET Interface
MANET node
R
H
Classic IP
Link Model
H
H
H
p:2::1
p:2::2
p:2::n

p::

p:1::

p:2::

Figure 8: MANET no de and prefixes: the MANET route r (R) is delegated a pre fix p::, which it ass igns to the c las sic IP links to w hich the hos ts (H) are attached.

MANET s p ec ific b ehaviors are exclus ively exp ose d to the MANET interfac e(s) of the routers . T his include s MANET routing proto cols and interfac e and link charac teristics (asymm etric ne ighb ourho o ds , s em i- broadc ast inte rface s, fuzz y neighb or relationships , top ol- ogy dynam ic s e tc .) T he following characteristics de serve partic ular m ention, s inc e the y dis tinguis h MANET interfac es and the MANET link mo de l from the class ic IP link mo de l:

Unique Prefixes MANET interface s mus t b e c onfigured w ith unique pre fixes , i.e . such that no two MANET interfac es are configure d s uch that the y app e ar within the same IP s ubnet. Some comm on ways to achieve this are :

unnumb e re d interfaces (IPv4) [1];the same IP s ubnet. Some comm on ways to achieve this are : Link-Lo c

Link-Lo c al Addre ss es (IPv6);to achieve this are : unnumb e re d interfaces (IPv4) [1]; /128 (IPv6) or /32

/128 (IPv6) or /32 (IPv4) prefixe s.re d interfaces (IPv4) [1]; Link-Lo c al Addre ss es (IPv6); However it is worth

However it is worth noting that pre fix lengths shorte r than /128 (IPv6) or /32 (IPv4) are p oss ible on the MANET inte rface , s o long as the pre fixes are unique to a single MANET inte rface .

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Link Lo cal Muli tcast/broadcast Scop e On a MANET interfac e, a Link Lo c al multic ast or broadcas ts reach MANET interfac es of neighb or no des only, regardle ss of their c onfigured addre sse s. A Link Lo cal multicas t or broadcas t on a MANET inte rface is, thus, a ”ne ighb orc ast”, and is not forwarded nor assume d to b e re ce ive d by all no de s w ithin a MANET.

5.4 MANET Ne twork View

Following the archite cture des crib ed in the ab ove, a configure d MANET with route rs and hosts, lo oks as in figure 9: the inner white c loud re pres ents where MANET interfac es and links form a MANET – and the oute r gray c loud repre se nts w he re the clas sic IP link mo de l as de sc rib e d in s ection 2 is ass ume d.

R H H H H R R H R H HHH H H H R
R
H
H
H
H
R
R
H
R
H
HHH
H
H
H
R
H
HHH

MANET Interfaces & Link Model

Classic IP

Link Model

Figure 9: MANET Network Mo del : the inne r white c loud is where MANET interfaces and links for a MANET are found and MANET sp ec ific proto cols apply. T he oute r gray cloud repre se nts w here the class ic IP link mo de l (and regular applic ations/proto cols ) applies .

RR n 61 45

r gray cloud repre se nts w here the class ic IP link mo de l

14

T. Clausen

6 Pr op e rties of Prop osed Ar chitectur al M o de l

The MANET architec ture m o del pre se nte d in this m emorandum make s a cle ar s eparation b e twe en the roles of router and host in a MANET, recognizing that:

MANET inte rface s are s ee n only by the route r, as sumed to b e MANET aware and running appropriate proto cols and applications;the roles of router and host in a MANET, recognizing that: MANET inte rface s forming

MANET inte rface s forming a multi- hop MANET area may us e a s ite (not s ubne t)aware and running appropriate proto cols and applications; pre fix (aggregation, ); hosts/s ubne ts on

pre fix (aggregation,

);

hosts/s ubne ts on non- MANET interfac es ass um e a class ic IP link m o del;may us e a s ite (not s ubne t) pre fix (aggregation, ); applications on

applications on hosts se e clas sic IP inte rface s c onnec ted to a class ic IP link, and there- fore ;non- MANET interfac es ass um e a class ic IP link m o del; applications

applications on hosts and proto cols assuming c lassic IP interfac es c an run unmo dified.rface s c onnec ted to a class ic IP link, and there- fore ; Refering

Refering to figure 9, the scop e of MANET s p ec ific proto c ols is, thus , the inner white cloud. T his thus s cop e s routing proto c ols such as those deve lop ed by the IETF MANET working group [7] and auto configuration proto cols deve lop ed by the I ETF AUTOCONF working group [8] to routing and configuring MANET interfac es on MANET routers.

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7 MANET Configur ations

The MANET archite ctural mo de l outline d in s ection 5 do es not conflict how MANETs have b ee n p erce ived and deployed. Rathe r, it give s a way of thinking ab out MANETs corres p onding to the IP archite cture . This s ec tion will e xe mplify how ”c ommon” MANET de ployme nts fit with this archite c- tural mo del. Notic e that this se ction contains examples which corre sp ond to the architec tural mo del, but do es not attem pt to e xhaus tive ly e nume rate all p oss ible deployments or s ce nario nor to capture all p ossible requirem ents to MANETs .

7.1 A MANE T with a Single Inter nal Host

A source for the misp erce ption in se ction 4 is a c ommon configuration of MANET no des , where each no de has one MANET interfac e and one internal host, as in figure 10.

MANET Interface MANET node R H
MANET Interface
MANET node
R
H

Figure 10: A Simpl e MANET No de: one MANET inte rface and one inte rnal hos t (H).

For this example, addres ses w ithin the MANET are e xtrac te d from a s ingle com mon MANET prefix – e.g. 192.168.0.0/16. The interfac e of the host must b e configure d, and s ee a class ic I P link as des crib ed in s ec tion 2. T he interfac e of this host is the only interface on the link (othe r than that of the router), and can b e assigned an IP addre ss of the form 192.168.1.1/32 to, as in figure 11.

192.168.1.1/32 R H
192.168.1.1/32
R
H

Figure 11: A Si mple MANET No de: one MANET inte rface and one internal host (H), with the inte rface of the host c onfigured with an IP addre ss and an ”all-ones” ne tmask.

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host (H), with the inte rface of the host c onfigured with an IP addre ss

16

T. Clausen

This c orres p onds to the route r having b ee n de le gated the pre fix 192.168.1.1/32 – IP addres ses from within that pre fix are the n dis tributed to hosts c onnec te d ove r a class ic IP link. The MANET inte rface must b e c onfigured acc ording to the re quire ments in s ection 5. One way of satisfying the re quireme nts s et forth in that se ction is through assigning the sam e address /pre fix to the MANET inte rface as to the inte rnal hos t. Tra c to the route r will typically b e addres se d to a well-known multicas t addre ss , thus the route r c an distinguish b e twe en tra c to its elf and tra c to the host – similar to unnumb ere d interfac es . A comm on mis p erce ption is to consider all MANET no des as b e longing to the s ame subnet (192.168.0.0/16) and c onfiguring each MANET inte rface with an addre ss /prefix s uch as 192.168.0.0/16, as in figure 12 (b). This is wrong, as de sc rib e d in s ec tion 4.

192.168.1.1/32 R H Correct
192.168.1.1/32
R
H
Correct

(a)

192.168.1.2/16 R H Incorrect
192.168.1.2/16
R
H
Incorrect

(b)

Figure 12: Sim pl e MA NET No des: addres ses as signed from the 192.168.0.0/16 pre - fix. Left: c orrec t configuration wrt. the archite ctural m o del (s ec tion 5). Right: incorrec t configuration, leading to the ”comm on MANET mis p erce ption”.

Figure 13 illustrate s a cloud of s imple MANET no de s, e ach correctly configure d with IPv4 addre ss and a /32 pre fix length on their MANET inte rface s.

192.168. 1.4/32 192.168. 1.3/32 192.168. 1.1/32 192.168. 1.5/32 192.168. 1.2/32
192.168.
1.4/32
192.168.
1.3/32
192.168.
1.1/32
192.168.
1.5/32
192.168.
1.2/32

MANET prefix:

192.168.0.0/16

Figure 13: Sim pl e MA NET: addres ses as signe d from, 192.168.0.0/16, e ach MANET in- terfac e configure d with a /32.

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7.2 A MANE T with Attached Hosts

In this c ase , a MANET no de cons ists of a router and a se t of hosts, attached to the route r via a c lassic IP link. As in the previous e xam ple, the MANET inte rface , and the interfac es on the c las sic IP link are to b e configured with address es /prefixes from MANET prefix of

192.168.0.0/16.

Each MANET router is delegated a prefix, e .g. 192.168.1.0/24, which is assigned to the class ic IP link. T he interfac es (of hos ts and of the route r) c onnecte d to that link are configured, us ing any standard mechanism such as [2], with an IP addres s from that prefix and a /24 pre fix. Again, the hos ts are e xp ose d to a c las sic IP link, re taining com patibility with existing applic ations and proto cols. The MANET interfac e is c onfigured as an unnumb ere d inte rface , with a pre fix length of /32, b orrowing the IP addres s from the othe r (non-MANET) interfac e of the router. This is illus trate d in figure 14.

192.168.1.1/

32 R 24 H H H H 24
32
R
24
H H
H H
24

192.168.1.0/ 24

192.168.1.1/

192.168.1.2/

192.168.1.5/ 24

192.168.1.3/ 24

192.168.1.4/ 24

Figure 14: MANET No de wit h Mul tipl e Hosts: one MANET interfac e and multiple attached hosts (H).

RR n 61 45

24 Figure 14: MANET No de wit h Mul tipl e Hosts: one MANET interfac e

18

T. Clausen

8 Nested Mobile Networ ks

The NEMO basic supp ort sp ec ification [3] des crib es how a mobi le network – a mobi le rout er with attache d hosts – c an change its p oint of attachm ent to the Inte rnet, em- ploying MobileIP-like mechanism s to remain reachable: a care-of- prefix 1 is acquired at the c urrent p oint of attachme nt, signalled to a home age nt , and use d by the home age nt to tunnel tra c de stine d for hosts in the m obile network to this ne w p oint of attachme nt. A mobile route r may attach to any router, inc luding anothe r m obile router, forming networks of mobile route rs to an arbitrary de pth, and may change the ir p oint of attachme nt at any give n time . Commonly, the terms ”nested m obi le network” or ”neste d NEMO” are use d for this s ituation. A nes ted mobile network, thus , lo oks as illus trate d in figure 15.

Internet R AR IGW H R H H H R H H H H R
Internet
R
AR
IGW
H
R
H H H
R
H H
H
H
R
H
HHH
R
H
HHH

Figure 15: Nested Mobil e Network: mobile route rs (R) with attached hos ts (H) c on- necte d to the Interne t via an Inte rnet Gate way (IGW).

8.1 Issues & Tasks

[3] do e s not s tipulate how ne sted m obile ne tworks are struc tured or m anage d, which e ntails that s ub-optimal paths and lo ops can o ccur [5], [6]. Alle viating thes e, each mobile route r (MR ) must:

maintain lo op-fre e paths to Interne t Gateway(s) (IGW); I GWs mus t m aintain lo op- free paths to the MRs;[6]. Alle viating thes e, each mobile route r (MR ) must: se lec t (acc

se lec t (acc ording to some metrics) one or m ore IGWs, from which it will ac quire a care -of- prefix;(IGW); I GWs mus t m aintain lo op- free paths to the MRs; 1 Str

1 Str ictly sp eakin g, NEMO require s that a ca re- of addr ess b e acqui red, yet an add ress is a sp e cial ins tanc e of a pr efix whe re the pre fix lengt h is equal to t he add ress len gth. S ince t he nat ure of addr esses an d pre fixes is o therw ise th e sam e, a nd sin ce m echani sms for a ssigni ng/a cquirin g ad dresse s are a subse t of tho se assi gnin g/ac qu iring prefi xe s, th is m emo will emp loy t he t erm ca re- of -pr efix.

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maintain lo op-fre e paths to other MRs, whe re by tra ffi c b e twe en no des w ithin the neste d mobile ne c b e twe en no des w ithin the neste d mobile ne twork can avoid cross ing through the Internet.

8.2 Relationship to MANETs

MANET routers (s ee se ction 5 and m obile routers in a nes ted mobile network mus t, b oth:

form tim e- varying conne ctions with othe r MANET no des / mobile routers;m obile routers in a nes ted mobile network mus t, b oth: maintain lo op-

maintain lo op- free paths to othe r MANET no de s / othe r mobile routers and IGWs ;conne ctions with othe r MANET no des / mobile routers; acquire pre fixes in order

acquire pre fixes in order to c orre ctly configure interfac es and attached hosts .to othe r MANET no de s / othe r mobile routers and IGWs ; MANET

MANET routing proto cols are deve lop ed by [7], s atis fying the first two of these items , the re by providing paths b etwee n MRs and IGWs and b e twe en MRs them selve s. The AUTOCONF ac tivity [8] is chartered to deve lop solutions satisfying the third of the items ab ove, inc luding allowing MR s to acquire prefixe s from an IGW. Sp ecifically, to:

provide MANET -wide unique pre fixes to e ach MANET no de / mobile router;MR s to acquire prefixe s from an IGW. Sp ecifically, to: if one or more

if one or more IGW is pres ent, provide unique global prefixes to each MANET no de / mobile route r;unique pre fixes to e ach MANET no de / mobile router; detec t and res

detec t and res olve if non-unique pre fixes are assigned to MANET no de s / mobile route rs (e.g. as a res ult of a network partitioning/merger). e.g. as a res ult of a network partitioning/merger).

8.3 MANET Supp or te d Route Optimisation in Neste d Mobile Net- works

Ass um ing a nes te d m obile network, where e ach MR has a hom e pre fix, as in figure 16a. Each MR acquires a c are -of- prefix from the IGW. This c are -of-pre fix is top ologic ally correc t with res p ec t to the IGW, but not nec es sarily hie rarchical within the neste d mobile ne twork, as in figure 16b. MRs will p erform binding up date s to the ir home age nts us ing the care- of-prefix as ob- taine d from the IGW. Thus, the MR app ears dire ctly attache d to the IGW, and nes ted redirec ts (as in figure 17a) for communication from the Interne t are avoided. It is worth noting that this exactly as desc rib ed in se ction 7.2, where each MANET no de is ass igne d a unique pre fix from within a MANET wide pre fix.

By usi ng a MA NET routi ng proto col and an AUTOCONF [ 8] auto configu- ration m echanism, route opti misati on for com municati on over the Internet is obtai ned.igne d a unique pre fix from within a MANET wide pre fix. MRs will run

MRs will run a MANET routing proto col, which w ill adve rtise b oth the ir home prefix and the care- of- prefix. Hos ts in the ne ste d mobile network are, via the ir MRs , able to find paths b etween each other us ing the ir home addre sse s, without pass ing through the IGW and the Inte rnet (as in figure 17b).

RR n 61 45

other us ing the ir home addre sse s, without pass ing through the IGW and

20

T. Clausen

IGW q:: MR2 hp2:: MR4 hp4:: MR5 hp5:: MR3 hp3:: MR1 hp1::
IGW
q::
MR2
hp2::
MR4
hp4::
MR5
hp5::
MR3
hp3::
MR1
hp1::

(a)

MR4 hp4:: q:3:: IGW q:: MR2 hp2:: q:1:: MR3 hp3:: q:2:: MR5 hp5:: q:4:: MR1
MR4
hp4::
q:3::
IGW
q::
MR2
hp2::
q:1::
MR3
hp3::
q:2::
MR5
hp5::
q:4::
MR1
hp1::
q:5::

(b)

Figure 16: Addresses in Nested Mobil e Network: (a) MRs with the ir home pre fixes

(hp1::

care- of- prefixes (q:1::,

) and

)

and an I GW with global pre fix (q::) (b) MRs with home prefixes (hp::

) as signed by the IGW.

(b) MRs with home prefixes (hp:: ) as signed by the IGW. By using a MA

By using a MA NET routi ng proto col and an AUTOCONF [ 8] auto configu- ration m echanism, route optim isation f or communicat ion withi n the nest ed mobi le network is obtai ned.

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H0 H0 Home Home Agent1 Agent1 Internet Internet Home Home Agent2 Agent2 IGW IGW MR1
H0
H0
Home
Home
Agent1
Agent1
Internet
Internet
Home
Home
Agent2
Agent2
IGW
IGW
MR1
MR1
H1
H1
H
H
H
H
MR2
MR2
H2
H2

(a)

(b)

Figure 17: Sub-optim al Routes in Mobile Networks: (a) tra c from the Inte rnet to a host not directly c onnecte d to the IGW is re direc ted via two home agents. (b) tra c from one hos t in the nes ted m obile ne twork to another host in the nes ted mobile ne twork is forc ed through the Inte rnet.

RR n 61 45

the nes ted m obile ne twork to another host in the nes ted mobile ne

22

T. Clausen

9 Conclusion

This mem orandum has de sc rib e d a coherent MANET archite ctural mo de l, which conforms to the architectural mo del of the Inte rnet. In particular, this m o del resp ec ts the addres sing and pre fix architec ture of the Interne t, pres erves the usual s em antics of a subnet as re late d to a link, and there by prese rve s compatibility with c las sic applic ations and proto cols running on hos ts or b e twe en hos ts and routers in the Interne t. MANET sp e cific iss ue s are is olate d to a MANET inte rface , and are the re fore exp os ed only to proto c ols dedicate d for m anaging MANETs . The architec tural mo de l des crib es the MANET s p ec ific is sues, which must b e taken into consideration when designing s uch proto cols for MANET manageme nt. Furthermore, this mem orandum has s hown how the architec tural mo de l is com patible with di erent MANET deploym ents and with other Interne t proto c ols . In partic ular, this me morandum has shown how ne sted mobile ne tworks are a typic al example of a MANET , where MANET proto c ols s olve problem s s uch as route optimisation. This, b oth for c ommu- nic ation b etween hosts on the interne t and in the nes ted mobile network, and for com muni- cation b e twe en hos ts w ithin the ne sted mobile network.

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Acknowle dgements

The MANET architec ture m o del pre sente d is the res ult of e xhaustive dis cuss ions with the participants in the IET F MANET and AUTOCONF working groups. Sp ec ial thanks to Dave T haler (the author of [4], from which much of this disc us sion is derive d) and Ian Chakere s for dis cuss ion and ins piration to the do c ume nt in general and to se ction 3 in particular. Thanks to Jari Akko, T homas Nartan, Bob Hinden and Jo e Macker for the ir s ignific ant contributions in formulating and refining this m o del. Also thanks to Christophe r De arlove , Allan Culle n, Andre as Enge, Ulrich He rb e rg, Philipp e Jac que t, Ce dric Adjih and Em manue l Bac ce lli for the ir review s and comm ents.

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He rb e rg, Philipp e Jac que t, Ce dric Adjih and Em manue l

24

T. Clausen

Refe rence s

[1] F. Bake r, ”RFC1812: Requirem ents for IP Ve rs ion 4 Route rs”, Standards Track, http://www.ietf.org/rfc /rfc1812.txt

[2] T. Narten, S. Thom son, ”RFC2462: IPv6 State les s Addre ss Auto c onfiguration”, Stan- dards Track, http://ww w.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc 2462.txt

Net-

Standards Track,

[3] V. Devarapalli, R. Wakikawa,

A. Petres cu, P. Thub ert, ”RFC3963:

Supp ort Proto c ol”,

work

Mobility

(NEMO) B asic

http://www.ietf.org/rfc /rfc3963.txt

[4] D. T haler,

”Multilink Subne t Is sues”,

Interne t-Draft (Work in Progress ),

http://www.ietf.org/interne t- drafts /draft- iab-multilink-subnet- is sues -02.txt

[5] T. Clausen, E. Bac ce lli, R. Wakikawa, ”NEMO Route Optim is ation Proble m State- me nt”, Inte rne t- Draft (Work in Progre ss ), http://www.ietf.org/draft-clause n-nem o-ro- proble m-s tateme nt- 01.txt

[6] T. Claus en, E. Bac ce lli, R. Wakikawa, ”Route Optimisation in Ne ste d Mobile Net- works (NEMO) us ing OLSR ”, Pro ce edings of the IAST ED International Confe re nc e on Networks and C ommunic ations Syste ms (NCS), April, 2005

[7] IETF MANET Working Group Charte r, http://www .ie tf.org/html.charters/manet- charter.html

[8] IETF AUT OC ONF Working Group Charte r, http://w ww.ietf.org/htm l.charters/auto conf- charter.html

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Conte nts

1 Intro duct ion & Background

 

3

1.1

Memorandum Outline

 

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2 Cl assic IP Link and Network Mo del

 

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3 MANET Interface Charac teri st ics

 

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3.1 Se mi B roadcas t Interfac es

 

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3.3 Hidden Terminals

 

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3.4 Asymm etric Conne ctivity

 

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3.5 Neighb ourho o d & Ne twork Memb ership

 

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4 Com mon MANET Misp e rcepti on

 

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4.1 Routing Incompatibility

 

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4.2 Incompatibility w ith Othe r Proto cols and Applic ations?

 

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5 A MA NET A rchi tectural Mo del

 

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5.1 MANET No de Morphology

 

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5.2 Address es and Prefixe s

 

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5.3 MANET Inte rface Configuration & Prop ertie s

 

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5.4 MANET Network View

 

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6 Prop erti es of Prop osed Architect ural Mo del

 

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7 MANET Configurat ions

 

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7.1 A MANET with a Single Internal Host

 

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7.2 A MANET with Attached Hosts

 

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8 Nested Mobi le Networks

 

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8.1 Iss ue s & Tasks

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8.2 Relations hip to MANETs

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8.3 MANET Supp orted Route Optim isation in Nes ted Mobile Networks

 

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9 Concl usi on

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8.3 MANET Supp orted Route Optim isation in Nes ted Mobile Networks   19 9 Concl
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