Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 145

4

Geology and Soil:


effects on wine quality
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 1 03/06/10 15:51
TERROIR, CLIMAT ET SOL

Jacques FANET
Syndicat Coteaux du Languedoc
3 chemin des Combes dArlenques
34 800 ASPIRAN, FRANCE.
Email : jacques-fanet@wanadoo.fr

RESUME

Le sol et le climat occupent une place prpondrante dans le concept de terroir, pour lequel lOIV
sapprte adopter une dfinition internationale. Les travaux de recherche qui ont t mens depuis une
trentaine dannes sur ces thmes et qui ont t, pour les plus importants, prsents dans les 7 premiers
Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs Viticoles ont considrablement modifi les connaissances sur le
fonctionnement des terroirs viticoles dans le monde et le comportement des consommateurs avertis par
rapport aux vins de terroirs. Ce Congrs pourrait tre loccasion de rflchir de nouvelles orientations
en matire de recherche sur ces thmes. Notamment, llargissement de ltude des terroirs dautres
disciplines pourraient tre tudies, en particulier la microbiologie pour ltude des sols et les mesures
prendre pour sadapter au changement climatique dans les zones viticoles traditionnelles

MOTS-CLES
Terroir, sol, climat, nouvelles orientations, changement climatique, adaptation.

INTRODUCTION
A linitiative du groupe de travail Environnement Viticole et changement climatique et des
colloques internationaux sur les terroirs viticoles et notamment celui de Bordeaux-Montpellier qui sest
tenu en 2006, lOrganisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin est sur le point dapprouver une
dfinition internationale du terroir vitivinicole dont le texte serait le suivant :

Le terroir vitivinicole est un concept qui se rfre un espace sur lequel se
dveloppe un savoir collectif des interactions entre un milieu physique et
biologique identifiable et les pratiques vitivinicoles appliques, qui confrent des
caractristiques distinctives aux produits originaires de cet espace.
Le terroir inclut des caractristiques spcifiques du sol, de la topographie, du
climat, du paysage et de la biodiversit.

Cette dfinition fait apparatre des lments clefs qui sont les suivants :
- un espace gographique
- un savoir collectif des interactions entre des facteurs naturels et des facteurs humains qui a
t progressivement et plus ou moins rapidement acquis sur cet espace
- un produit vitivinicole qui, sur cet espace prsente des caractristiques distinctives dues ces
interactions.
Dans son dernier alina, cette dfinition prcise quelques lments, non exhaustifs, qui contribuent
caractriser un terroir :
- des lments strictement relatifs aux facteurs naturels (sol topographie, climat).
- des lments o les facteurs humains prennent une place plus ou moins importante (paysage,
biodiversit)
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 2 03/06/10 15:51
TERROIR, CLIMAT ET SOL
Jacques FANET
Syndicat Coteaux du Languedoc
3 chemin des Combes dArlenques
34 800 ASPIRAN, FRANCE.
Email : jacques-fanet@wanadoo.fr

RESUME

Le sol et le climat occupent une place prpondrante dans le concept de terroir, pour lequel lOIV
sapprte adopter une dfinition internationale. Les travaux de recherche qui ont t mens depuis une
trentaine dannes sur ces thmes et qui ont t, pour les plus importants, prsents dans les 7 premiers
Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs Viticoles ont considrablement modifi les connaissances sur le
fonctionnement des terroirs viticoles dans le monde et le comportement des consommateurs avertis par
rapport aux vins de terroirs. Ce Congrs pourrait tre loccasion de rflchir de nouvelles orientations
en matire de recherche sur ces thmes. Notamment, llargissement de ltude des terroirs dautres
disciplines pourraient tre tudies, en particulier la microbiologie pour ltude des sols et les mesures
prendre pour sadapter au changement climatique dans les zones viticoles traditionnelles

MOTS-CLES
Terroir, sol, climat, nouvelles orientations, changement climatique, adaptation.

INTRODUCTION
A linitiative du groupe de travail Environnement Viticole et changement climatique et des
colloques internationaux sur les terroirs viticoles et notamment celui de Bordeaux-Montpellier qui sest
tenu en 2006, lOrganisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin est sur le point dapprouver une
dfinition internationale du terroir vitivinicole dont le texte serait le suivant :

Le terroir vitivinicole est un concept qui se rfre un espace sur lequel se
dveloppe un savoir collectif des interactions entre un milieu physique et
biologique identifiable et les pratiques vitivinicoles appliques, qui confrent des
caractristiques distinctives aux produits originaires de cet espace.
Le terroir inclut des caractristiques spcifiques du sol, de la topographie, du
climat, du paysage et de la biodiversit.

Cette dfinition fait apparatre des lments clefs qui sont les suivants :
- un espace gographique
- un savoir collectif des interactions entre des facteurs naturels et des facteurs humains qui a
t progressivement et plus ou moins rapidement acquis sur cet espace
- un produit vitivinicole qui, sur cet espace prsente des caractristiques distinctives dues ces
interactions.
Dans son dernier alina, cette dfinition prcise quelques lments, non exhaustifs, qui contribuent
caractriser un terroir :
- des lments strictement relatifs aux facteurs naturels (sol topographie, climat).
- des lments o les facteurs humains prennent une place plus ou moins importante (paysage,
biodiversit)
4 - 3
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 3 04/06/10 16:16
Comme on peut le constater la lecture de cette dfinition, le sol et le climat qui font lobjet de cette
deuxime journe (session 3 et 4) occupent une place importante dans la notion de terroir. Pour sen
convaincre, il suffit de reprendre la liste des quelques 500 communications prsentes au cours des 7
prcdents Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs Viticoles. Prs des trois-quarts des communications
traitent de sujets relatifs au sol, au climat ou aux deux la fois. On peut faire le mme constat en
observant les prsentations qui sont faites aujourdhui de pratiquement toutes les rgions viticoles dans
le monde. Que les documents concerns soient caractre technique, commercial, publicitaire ou
touristique, la description dune rgion viticole commence invariablement par la prsentation de la
gologie, des sols et du climat du lieu.

LE ROLE DU SOL
Ce sont les pays europens et notamment la France qui ont lanc depuis prs dun sicle cette mise en
avant des caractres du milieu physique avec une certaine prfrence pour le rle des sols en tant que
responsable des caractristiques organoleptiques spcifiques et de la typicit des vins dAppellation
dOrigine Contrles. Jusque dans les annes 70 80, sans quaucune dmonstration scientifique ne
vienne tayer ou dmontrer ces crits, on nhsitait pas affirmer que le got ou les caractristiques
gustatives de tel ou tel vin tait coup sr, du telle ou telle caractristique physique ou chimique du
sol. Ne disait-on pas que le caractre si particulier des vins de Pomerol taient du la crasse de fer ,
concrtions de fer et de manganse, forms au contact des molasses et des alluvions fluviatiles du
confluent de lIsle et de la Dordogne. Ne disait-on pas encore que tel vin blanc avait un caractre iod
du des petites huitres fossiles prsentes dans le sol alors que le vignoble se trouve trs loign des
ctes atlantiques ou mditerranennes. On tait beaucoup plus proche de la posie que de la science,
mais sur le plan marketing, il sagissait l de messages qui ont t longtemps trs porteurs. Il suffisait
que le prsentateur des vins ait une locution relativement aise et le consommateur peu averti tait
persuad davoir reu un message caractre scientifique indiscutable.
Cette importance suppose du sol et de la gologie a mme parfois pouss les hommes au-del des
limites du raisonnable. Les vignobles de lAppellation Chablis stendent presquexclusivement sur les
formations jurassiques du portlandien et du kimmridgien, cette dernire supportant les grands crus de
Chablis. En 1904, le professeur Georges Chappaz enseignait : Ltude des terres du vignoble de
Chablis est en quelque sorte ltude des sols et sous-sols dorigine kimmridgienne . Sappuyant sur
cette affirmation, les viticulteurs du secteur des grands crus feront rserver, par lINAO en 1938,
lappellation Chablis aux seuls sols sur kimmridgien. Excluant ainsi les vignobles implants sur
portlandien, ils se dbarrassaient dune certaine concurrence locale, ce qui, bien entendu, ntait pas du
got des viticulteurs exclus. Il fallut prs de quarante ans et lintervention du Ministre de lAgriculture
franais pour faire cesser cette guerre fratricide.
Chteauneuf du Pape a vcu une aventure similaire. Les sols mythiques de Chteauneuf sont les
fameux galets rouls des alluvions fluviatiles que le Rhne a arrachs aux Alpes en surrection tout au
long de son cours et dposs l dans des parties plus planes de sa basse valle. Dans lpoque la plus
rcente de lre quaternaire, ces alluvions ont t protges des crues destructrices du fleuve par une
grosse colline de calcaire urgonien qui mergeait au milieu de la valle du Rhne. Lorsque les sols de
galets rouls furent entirement plants de vignes, certains vignerons tendirent dans les annes 70
leurs plantations sur les calcaires urgoniens qui ont, il faut le reconnatre, un rgime hydrique tout fait
diffrent de celui des terrasses quaternaires caillouteuses. Il sagissait l dun vritable sacrilge qui, l
encore, divisa les hommes du terroir dans une guerre dont les cicatrices sont encore sensibles.
Mais, que lon ne sy trompe pas. Ces batailles internes certains terroirs ne sont pas le lot de la seule
vieille Europe. Car en Australie, galement, les hommes se sont battus autour du rle du sol dans la
dfinition dune zone viticole. Le Coonawarra, petite bande de terra rossa en forme de cigare de 15
kilomtres de long sur 3 de large, a fait lobjet de combats juridiques farouches entre les partisans de
lutilisation du nom Coonawarra par les seuls viticulteurs installs sur la terra rossa et ceux qui,
bien quimplants sur les terres noires profondes qui entourent le cigare , avaient depuis des
dcades des usages dutilisation du nom de Coonawarra. Il ne fallut pas moins dune dizaine dannes
de dbats acharns devant les tribunaux australiens avant daboutir un accord sur les limites de la
zone lintrieur de laquelle les vignerons auront dsormais lexclusivit de lutilisation du nom de
Coonawara pour designer les vins quils y produisent.
Les annes 70-80 marqurent un virage dcisif dans cette connaissance du rle du sol dans les terroirs
viticoles et dans la relation plus ou moins directe entre les caractristiques du milieu physique et les
qualits organoleptiques des vins qui y sont produits. Ce furent dabord les travaux du professeur
Grard Seguin Bordeaux qui seront poursuivis et prolongs par ceux de lquipe de Kees Van
Leeuwen. En essayant de comprendre ce qui pouvait expliquer le niveau de qualit des grands crus de
la rgion de Bordeaux, ces travaux ont montr le rle fondamental de lalimentation hydrique dans le
fonctionnement de la plante dans des situations go-pdologiques aussi diverses que les terrasses
quaternaires caillouteuses du Haut-Mdoc, les calcaires astries de Saint Emilion ou les argiles
gonflantes (montmorillonites) de Petrus. Quelques annes plus tard ont aboutis les travaux de lquipe
INRA dAngers dirigs par Christian Asselin et Ren Morlat sur le comportement de deux des cpages
caractristiques des terroirs de lAnjou, dans la valle de la Loire, le chenin dans les coteaux du Layon
et le cabernet franc Saumur Champigny, Bourgueil et Chinon. Ils confirmrent les travaux de Grard
Seguin en apportant de nouveaux lments complmentaires dans la comprhension du rle du sol dans
llaboration des grands vins comme la capacit des sols se rchauffer, par exemple. En mettant mal
certaines affirmations ou croyances largement rpandues dans les vignobles ou les rdactions de
journaux spcialiss dans le domaine du vin, ces travaux ont incontestablement ouvert une nouvelle
re, celle de la connaissance scientifique de la relation sol-climat-vin.et en consquence dune nouvelle
approche du vin par le consommateur.
Cest dailleurs ainsi qua t mis en place le premier des Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs
Viticoles, qui sest tenu Angers en 1996. Il sagissait pour lInstitut National de la Recherche
Agronomique de communiquer prcisment sur ces tout nouveaux rsultats scientifiques avec lappui
de lInstitut National des Appellations dOrigine et de lOffice National des Vins franais. Ce
lancement sest fait dans un contexte de grande mfiance notamment dune partie du nouveau monde
qui ne voulait pas entendre parler de ce mot de terroir. Aprs une phase strictement europenne, nos
collgues sud-africains ont ouvert la voie dun largissement de cette notion lensemble du monde et
on ne peut que se rjouir de voir ce Congrs accueilli par nos collgues amricains en 2012.
Ce Congrs dAngers fut le point de dpart dune formidable srie de travaux dans le monde entier qui
ont beaucoup aid la connaissance et au dveloppement de ces produits de terroir sur les cinq
continents. Ce fut notamment le cas sur la connaissance du rle du sol qui a souvent t contest, dans
le nouveau monde par les grands industriels du vin ou une certaine presse internationale, mais aussi au
sein de pays comme la France ou il existe une cole de gographes du vin trs forte avec comme chef
de file Roger Dion qui, dans son remarquable ouvrage Histoire de la vigne et du vin des origines au
19
me
sicle , avait fortement contest le rle du sous-sol et du sol dans la localisation des vignobles
franais. Il attribuait en effet cette localisation des facteurs totalement diffrents comme les grands
courants de commercialisation et les routes commerciales, les vignobles tant principalement installs
le long des fleuves Loire , Seine, Rhne, etc parce quils reprsentaient de voies de circulation trs
pratiques, ou autour des grands ports dexpdition des vins comme Bordeaux ou Porto.
Cest ici que les travaux trs complets qui ont t prsents au cours de nos 8 congrs internationaux
prennent toute leur valeur. Ils ont largement contribu modifier ces ides et les comportements des
viticulteurs dans tout le monde viticole et amliorer la connaissance des consommateurs sur les
origines de la qualit des grands vins partout dans le monde. En tant que participant de la premire
heure la mise en place de ce systme de diffusion des connaissances scientifiques avec la complicit
4 - 4
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 4 03/06/10 15:51
Comme on peut le constater la lecture de cette dfinition, le sol et le climat qui font lobjet de cette
deuxime journe (session 3 et 4) occupent une place importante dans la notion de terroir. Pour sen
convaincre, il suffit de reprendre la liste des quelques 500 communications prsentes au cours des 7
prcdents Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs Viticoles. Prs des trois-quarts des communications
traitent de sujets relatifs au sol, au climat ou aux deux la fois. On peut faire le mme constat en
observant les prsentations qui sont faites aujourdhui de pratiquement toutes les rgions viticoles dans
le monde. Que les documents concerns soient caractre technique, commercial, publicitaire ou
touristique, la description dune rgion viticole commence invariablement par la prsentation de la
gologie, des sols et du climat du lieu.

LE ROLE DU SOL
Ce sont les pays europens et notamment la France qui ont lanc depuis prs dun sicle cette mise en
avant des caractres du milieu physique avec une certaine prfrence pour le rle des sols en tant que
responsable des caractristiques organoleptiques spcifiques et de la typicit des vins dAppellation
dOrigine Contrles. Jusque dans les annes 70 80, sans quaucune dmonstration scientifique ne
vienne tayer ou dmontrer ces crits, on nhsitait pas affirmer que le got ou les caractristiques
gustatives de tel ou tel vin tait coup sr, du telle ou telle caractristique physique ou chimique du
sol. Ne disait-on pas que le caractre si particulier des vins de Pomerol taient du la crasse de fer ,
concrtions de fer et de manganse, forms au contact des molasses et des alluvions fluviatiles du
confluent de lIsle et de la Dordogne. Ne disait-on pas encore que tel vin blanc avait un caractre iod
du des petites huitres fossiles prsentes dans le sol alors que le vignoble se trouve trs loign des
ctes atlantiques ou mditerranennes. On tait beaucoup plus proche de la posie que de la science,
mais sur le plan marketing, il sagissait l de messages qui ont t longtemps trs porteurs. Il suffisait
que le prsentateur des vins ait une locution relativement aise et le consommateur peu averti tait
persuad davoir reu un message caractre scientifique indiscutable.
Cette importance suppose du sol et de la gologie a mme parfois pouss les hommes au-del des
limites du raisonnable. Les vignobles de lAppellation Chablis stendent presquexclusivement sur les
formations jurassiques du portlandien et du kimmridgien, cette dernire supportant les grands crus de
Chablis. En 1904, le professeur Georges Chappaz enseignait : Ltude des terres du vignoble de
Chablis est en quelque sorte ltude des sols et sous-sols dorigine kimmridgienne . Sappuyant sur
cette affirmation, les viticulteurs du secteur des grands crus feront rserver, par lINAO en 1938,
lappellation Chablis aux seuls sols sur kimmridgien. Excluant ainsi les vignobles implants sur
portlandien, ils se dbarrassaient dune certaine concurrence locale, ce qui, bien entendu, ntait pas du
got des viticulteurs exclus. Il fallut prs de quarante ans et lintervention du Ministre de lAgriculture
franais pour faire cesser cette guerre fratricide.
Chteauneuf du Pape a vcu une aventure similaire. Les sols mythiques de Chteauneuf sont les
fameux galets rouls des alluvions fluviatiles que le Rhne a arrachs aux Alpes en surrection tout au
long de son cours et dposs l dans des parties plus planes de sa basse valle. Dans lpoque la plus
rcente de lre quaternaire, ces alluvions ont t protges des crues destructrices du fleuve par une
grosse colline de calcaire urgonien qui mergeait au milieu de la valle du Rhne. Lorsque les sols de
galets rouls furent entirement plants de vignes, certains vignerons tendirent dans les annes 70
leurs plantations sur les calcaires urgoniens qui ont, il faut le reconnatre, un rgime hydrique tout fait
diffrent de celui des terrasses quaternaires caillouteuses. Il sagissait l dun vritable sacrilge qui, l
encore, divisa les hommes du terroir dans une guerre dont les cicatrices sont encore sensibles.
Mais, que lon ne sy trompe pas. Ces batailles internes certains terroirs ne sont pas le lot de la seule
vieille Europe. Car en Australie, galement, les hommes se sont battus autour du rle du sol dans la
dfinition dune zone viticole. Le Coonawarra, petite bande de terra rossa en forme de cigare de 15
kilomtres de long sur 3 de large, a fait lobjet de combats juridiques farouches entre les partisans de
lutilisation du nom Coonawarra par les seuls viticulteurs installs sur la terra rossa et ceux qui,
bien quimplants sur les terres noires profondes qui entourent le cigare , avaient depuis des
dcades des usages dutilisation du nom de Coonawarra. Il ne fallut pas moins dune dizaine dannes
de dbats acharns devant les tribunaux australiens avant daboutir un accord sur les limites de la
zone lintrieur de laquelle les vignerons auront dsormais lexclusivit de lutilisation du nom de
Coonawara pour designer les vins quils y produisent.
Les annes 70-80 marqurent un virage dcisif dans cette connaissance du rle du sol dans les terroirs
viticoles et dans la relation plus ou moins directe entre les caractristiques du milieu physique et les
qualits organoleptiques des vins qui y sont produits. Ce furent dabord les travaux du professeur
Grard Seguin Bordeaux qui seront poursuivis et prolongs par ceux de lquipe de Kees Van
Leeuwen. En essayant de comprendre ce qui pouvait expliquer le niveau de qualit des grands crus de
la rgion de Bordeaux, ces travaux ont montr le rle fondamental de lalimentation hydrique dans le
fonctionnement de la plante dans des situations go-pdologiques aussi diverses que les terrasses
quaternaires caillouteuses du Haut-Mdoc, les calcaires astries de Saint Emilion ou les argiles
gonflantes (montmorillonites) de Petrus. Quelques annes plus tard ont aboutis les travaux de lquipe
INRA dAngers dirigs par Christian Asselin et Ren Morlat sur le comportement de deux des cpages
caractristiques des terroirs de lAnjou, dans la valle de la Loire, le chenin dans les coteaux du Layon
et le cabernet franc Saumur Champigny, Bourgueil et Chinon. Ils confirmrent les travaux de Grard
Seguin en apportant de nouveaux lments complmentaires dans la comprhension du rle du sol dans
llaboration des grands vins comme la capacit des sols se rchauffer, par exemple. En mettant mal
certaines affirmations ou croyances largement rpandues dans les vignobles ou les rdactions de
journaux spcialiss dans le domaine du vin, ces travaux ont incontestablement ouvert une nouvelle
re, celle de la connaissance scientifique de la relation sol-climat-vin.et en consquence dune nouvelle
approche du vin par le consommateur.
Cest dailleurs ainsi qua t mis en place le premier des Congrs Internationaux des Terroirs
Viticoles, qui sest tenu Angers en 1996. Il sagissait pour lInstitut National de la Recherche
Agronomique de communiquer prcisment sur ces tout nouveaux rsultats scientifiques avec lappui
de lInstitut National des Appellations dOrigine et de lOffice National des Vins franais. Ce
lancement sest fait dans un contexte de grande mfiance notamment dune partie du nouveau monde
qui ne voulait pas entendre parler de ce mot de terroir. Aprs une phase strictement europenne, nos
collgues sud-africains ont ouvert la voie dun largissement de cette notion lensemble du monde et
on ne peut que se rjouir de voir ce Congrs accueilli par nos collgues amricains en 2012.
Ce Congrs dAngers fut le point de dpart dune formidable srie de travaux dans le monde entier qui
ont beaucoup aid la connaissance et au dveloppement de ces produits de terroir sur les cinq
continents. Ce fut notamment le cas sur la connaissance du rle du sol qui a souvent t contest, dans
le nouveau monde par les grands industriels du vin ou une certaine presse internationale, mais aussi au
sein de pays comme la France ou il existe une cole de gographes du vin trs forte avec comme chef
de file Roger Dion qui, dans son remarquable ouvrage Histoire de la vigne et du vin des origines au
19
me
sicle , avait fortement contest le rle du sous-sol et du sol dans la localisation des vignobles
franais. Il attribuait en effet cette localisation des facteurs totalement diffrents comme les grands
courants de commercialisation et les routes commerciales, les vignobles tant principalement installs
le long des fleuves Loire , Seine, Rhne, etc parce quils reprsentaient de voies de circulation trs
pratiques, ou autour des grands ports dexpdition des vins comme Bordeaux ou Porto.
Cest ici que les travaux trs complets qui ont t prsents au cours de nos 8 congrs internationaux
prennent toute leur valeur. Ils ont largement contribu modifier ces ides et les comportements des
viticulteurs dans tout le monde viticole et amliorer la connaissance des consommateurs sur les
origines de la qualit des grands vins partout dans le monde. En tant que participant de la premire
heure la mise en place de ce systme de diffusion des connaissances scientifiques avec la complicit
4 - 5
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 5 03/06/10 15:51
dun certain nombre de collgues dont la plupart sont ici prsents, je me dis parfois quil est peut-tre
tant de regarder le chemin parcouru depuis 1996, anne qui a galement concid avec la mise en place
lOIV dune groupe de travail sur le terroir et le zonage.
Lexamen des quelques 500 communications prsentes en une petite quinzaine dannes illustre
parfaitement ce chemin parcouru dans la foule des premires explications scientifiques de la relation
sol-vigne-vin.
Des avances considrables ont notamment t ralises :
- dans le domaine de lamlioration constante des mthodologies dtude des terroirs. Dailleurs,
linitiative du groupe de travail environnement viticole et changement climatique , un
projet de rsolution intitul mthodologie de zonage vitivinicole au niveau du sol est
actuellement ltude au sein de lOIV.
- Dans le domaine de la caractrisation des diffrentes zones viticoles partout dans le monde.
Ce sont les sujets qui ont le plus souvent faits lobjet de communication au cours de nos Congrs. On
peut peut-tre regretter que des travaux de recherche fondamentale sur les explications scientifiques de
la relation sol-vigne-vin limage de ceux raliss par les quipes dAngers et de Bordeaux naient pas
t dvelopps dune manire plus gnralises comme on aurait pu lesprer. Certes, ils ncessitent
des protocoles de recherche particulirement lourds en moyen humains et financiers. Mais ils peuvent
apporter des informations trs importantes pour les nouveaux vignobles notamment et cest
certainement le rle de ces Congrs Internationaux de puiser dans lexprience des vignobles
traditionnels pour aider au dveloppement de nouveaux vignobles ou de vignobles dont lvolution
qualitative est rcente.
Par ailleurs, il serait utile de rflchir, aprs une quinzaine dannes de rflexion essentiellement
concentres sur des sciences comme la gologie, la pdologie et le fonctionnement de la vigne,
louverture du champ scientifique des matires nouvelles comme par exemple, la microbiologie du
sol, que nous connaissons en fait relativement mal dans le rle quelle peut jouer dans la typicit des
produits. A un moment o la viticulture soriente de manire trs sensible vers des approches beaucoup
plus respectueuses de lenvironnement sous la pousse des consommateurs, cette ouverture semble
indispensable.

LE ROLE DU CLIMAT
Le rle du climat dans le systme terroir a fait lobjet de communications beaucoup moins nombreuses
au cours des prcdents Congrs. Lessentiel des communications a tourn autour des problmatiques
dindices climatiques et de zonages sur la base du climat mme, si les diffrentes chelles depuis le
niveau mondial jusqu celui de la plante ont toutes t tudies.
Ltude du rle du climat dans les caractristiques organoleptiques et la typicit des vins de terroir est
en effet, beaucoup plus complexe mettre en uvre que dans le cas du sol et ncessite des moyens
encore plus importants notamment en matire de points dobservation des diffrents phnomnes
climatiques. Cest probablement ce qui explique la plus grande raret dtudes dans ce domaine mise
part quelques exemples comme celui du rle de la brise de mer dans le vignoble dAfrique du Sud qui a
t prsent par Victoria Carey. Toutefois le champ dinvestigation dans le domaine de la
comprhension du rle du climat dans le systme terroir reste immense et beaucoup de travail reste y
faire. Dans des rgions comme la Bourgogne et notamment les Ctes de Nuits et de Beaune qui
connaissent une relative homognit des couches gologiques, le climat a trs certainement un rle
important dans la mise en place de la multitude de terroirs et de crus diffrents. Il y a l un travail de
recherche intressant
Le changement climatique qui est lun des thmes tudis au cours de cette journe navait jamais fait
lobjet de communication au sein des Congrs Terroir jusqu aujourdhui. Il sera donc trs intressant
de suivre cette nouvelle thmatique. Les publications de Gregory Jones et de Hans Schulz au cours des
dernires annes qui sinsrent dans le dbat mondial sur lvolution du climat de la plante, ne laissent
aujourdhui plus gure de doute sur les changements importants que la viticulture mondiale va
connatre dans les prochaines dcades. Il reste connatre quelle vitesse ces changements vont se
produire et quelle sera lamplitude de ces volutions. Aujourdhui, nous en sommes au niveau des
constations que ce changement opre sur les diffrentes viticultures du monde. Mais l encore un
champ trs vaste de recherche souvre sur les moyens de lutter contre ces changements. Il ne sagit pas
ici des mesures prendre au niveau de la plante qui ont fait rcemment lobjet du sommet de
Copenhague, mais bien des mesures prendre par les vignerons de toutes les rgions viticoles du
monde.
En effet, si lon constate lextension de certaines zones viticoles en direction des ples qui conduit
limplantation de nouveaux vignobles dans des zones jusqualors considres comme impropres la
culture de la vigne, le changement climatique va modifier de manire plus ou moins sensible les modes
de conduite de la vigne dans les zones viticoles traditionnelles. Les scnarios qui envisagent des
dplacements gographiques de vignobles sont trs peu probables. Il est vident que dans ces rgions
de longue tradition viticole, les vignerons devront trouver sur place des solutions pour contrer les effets
du rchauffement climatique et dans ce domaine le champ de recherche est trs vaste mais des solutions
devront tre trouves trs rapidement notamment quand elles se traduiront par des modifications des
habitudes de plantation de la vigne.
4 - 6
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 6 03/06/10 15:51
dun certain nombre de collgues dont la plupart sont ici prsents, je me dis parfois quil est peut-tre
tant de regarder le chemin parcouru depuis 1996, anne qui a galement concid avec la mise en place
lOIV dune groupe de travail sur le terroir et le zonage.
Lexamen des quelques 500 communications prsentes en une petite quinzaine dannes illustre
parfaitement ce chemin parcouru dans la foule des premires explications scientifiques de la relation
sol-vigne-vin.
Des avances considrables ont notamment t ralises :
- dans le domaine de lamlioration constante des mthodologies dtude des terroirs. Dailleurs,
linitiative du groupe de travail environnement viticole et changement climatique , un
projet de rsolution intitul mthodologie de zonage vitivinicole au niveau du sol est
actuellement ltude au sein de lOIV.
- Dans le domaine de la caractrisation des diffrentes zones viticoles partout dans le monde.
Ce sont les sujets qui ont le plus souvent faits lobjet de communication au cours de nos Congrs. On
peut peut-tre regretter que des travaux de recherche fondamentale sur les explications scientifiques de
la relation sol-vigne-vin limage de ceux raliss par les quipes dAngers et de Bordeaux naient pas
t dvelopps dune manire plus gnralises comme on aurait pu lesprer. Certes, ils ncessitent
des protocoles de recherche particulirement lourds en moyen humains et financiers. Mais ils peuvent
apporter des informations trs importantes pour les nouveaux vignobles notamment et cest
certainement le rle de ces Congrs Internationaux de puiser dans lexprience des vignobles
traditionnels pour aider au dveloppement de nouveaux vignobles ou de vignobles dont lvolution
qualitative est rcente.
Par ailleurs, il serait utile de rflchir, aprs une quinzaine dannes de rflexion essentiellement
concentres sur des sciences comme la gologie, la pdologie et le fonctionnement de la vigne,
louverture du champ scientifique des matires nouvelles comme par exemple, la microbiologie du
sol, que nous connaissons en fait relativement mal dans le rle quelle peut jouer dans la typicit des
produits. A un moment o la viticulture soriente de manire trs sensible vers des approches beaucoup
plus respectueuses de lenvironnement sous la pousse des consommateurs, cette ouverture semble
indispensable.

LE ROLE DU CLIMAT
Le rle du climat dans le systme terroir a fait lobjet de communications beaucoup moins nombreuses
au cours des prcdents Congrs. Lessentiel des communications a tourn autour des problmatiques
dindices climatiques et de zonages sur la base du climat mme, si les diffrentes chelles depuis le
niveau mondial jusqu celui de la plante ont toutes t tudies.
Ltude du rle du climat dans les caractristiques organoleptiques et la typicit des vins de terroir est
en effet, beaucoup plus complexe mettre en uvre que dans le cas du sol et ncessite des moyens
encore plus importants notamment en matire de points dobservation des diffrents phnomnes
climatiques. Cest probablement ce qui explique la plus grande raret dtudes dans ce domaine mise
part quelques exemples comme celui du rle de la brise de mer dans le vignoble dAfrique du Sud qui a
t prsent par Victoria Carey. Toutefois le champ dinvestigation dans le domaine de la
comprhension du rle du climat dans le systme terroir reste immense et beaucoup de travail reste y
faire. Dans des rgions comme la Bourgogne et notamment les Ctes de Nuits et de Beaune qui
connaissent une relative homognit des couches gologiques, le climat a trs certainement un rle
important dans la mise en place de la multitude de terroirs et de crus diffrents. Il y a l un travail de
recherche intressant
Le changement climatique qui est lun des thmes tudis au cours de cette journe navait jamais fait
lobjet de communication au sein des Congrs Terroir jusqu aujourdhui. Il sera donc trs intressant
de suivre cette nouvelle thmatique. Les publications de Gregory Jones et de Hans Schulz au cours des
dernires annes qui sinsrent dans le dbat mondial sur lvolution du climat de la plante, ne laissent
aujourdhui plus gure de doute sur les changements importants que la viticulture mondiale va
connatre dans les prochaines dcades. Il reste connatre quelle vitesse ces changements vont se
produire et quelle sera lamplitude de ces volutions. Aujourdhui, nous en sommes au niveau des
constations que ce changement opre sur les diffrentes viticultures du monde. Mais l encore un
champ trs vaste de recherche souvre sur les moyens de lutter contre ces changements. Il ne sagit pas
ici des mesures prendre au niveau de la plante qui ont fait rcemment lobjet du sommet de
Copenhague, mais bien des mesures prendre par les vignerons de toutes les rgions viticoles du
monde.
En effet, si lon constate lextension de certaines zones viticoles en direction des ples qui conduit
limplantation de nouveaux vignobles dans des zones jusqualors considres comme impropres la
culture de la vigne, le changement climatique va modifier de manire plus ou moins sensible les modes
de conduite de la vigne dans les zones viticoles traditionnelles. Les scnarios qui envisagent des
dplacements gographiques de vignobles sont trs peu probables. Il est vident que dans ces rgions
de longue tradition viticole, les vignerons devront trouver sur place des solutions pour contrer les effets
du rchauffement climatique et dans ce domaine le champ de recherche est trs vaste mais des solutions
devront tre trouves trs rapidement notamment quand elles se traduiront par des modifications des
habitudes de plantation de la vigne.
4 - 7
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 7 03/06/10 15:51
1
THE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL EVENTS THAT
DETERMINE THE SOIL FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS OF A TERROIR
E. A.C. Costantini
(1)
, P. Bucelli
(1)
, S. Priori (1)
(1)Agricultural ResearchCouncil, Researchcentrefor AgrobiologyandPedology, p. DAzeglio30, Firenze, Italy
edoardo.costantini@entecra.it
ABSTRACT
The geology of a region is deemed to be an important component of terroir, as it influences the shape of
the landscape and the climate of vineyard. The nature of rock and the geomorphological history of a
terroir affect soil physical and chemical composition through a dynamic interplay with the changes of
climate, vegetation and other living organisms, as well as with man activities.
This work is aimed at demonstrating that the soil functional characters which differentiate the terroirs of
a denomination of origin area are products and witnesses of the geological and geomorphological
events, natural and human induced, which occurred in that trait of land. The final scope being enhancing
the awareness of stakeholders about the possible environmental and economic losses that can derive
froman irrational soil management, which can lead to the worsening or loss of irreproducible soil
functional characters of the best terroirs.
The work makes reference to the denomination of origin Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, where a four
years research was conducted on the relationships between soil characteristics and the viticultural and
oenological behaviour of Sangiovese vine. The soils of the Montepulciano vineyard range notably in
fertility conditions and functional characters, also when formed on the same kind of sediments, in
particular as for water and oxygen availability. The grape production at vintage, as well as the
organoleptic characteristics of the wine, resulted strictly interactive with the different soils. The wines
obtained on a first group of soils had a good structure and typicity, but the stability of wine sensorial
profile during the years was low. A second group exhibited good structure, typicity, and a good stability
of wine sensorial profile. A third group had low structure, low typicity, and high astringency all the
years of trial.
The oldest soils of the Montepulciano vineyard started their formation during the Pleistocene. During
the mediumHolocene, man deeply influenced pedogenesis, but it is during the last 50 years that the
intensity of the man action reached its maximum. Pre-plantation activities of the new specialized
vineyards upset the land, leaving very different effects on soil functional characters. Where the soils
before vine plantation were deep and rather homogeneous, soil functional characters remained the same,
whereas they changed significantly where soils were shallower. Shallow soils on marine clays, in
particular, resulted very vulnerable.
Best soils for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine production, that is, those belonging to the second group,
were old soils, formed as a consequence of particular natural and human induced geomorphological
events. Therefore they should be considered cultural heritages.
KEY WORDS
Climate change cultural heritage wine quality Sangiovese Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
2
INTRODUCTION
Soil is considered a major component of terroir, although most evidences that relate wine with the
specific soil conditions of the vineyard are empirical (Van Leeuwen et al., 2004). It has been largely
demonstrated, for instance, that best terroirs for red wine production are often placed where some soil
limiting factors reduce vine vigour and berry size (Van Leeuwen and Seguin 2006), so that grapes ripen
completely but slowly. In these soils, high quality wines are obtained every year, in spite of climatic
variations (Seguin, 1986).
In addition to empirical evidence, a few mechanisms have been understood. In particular, it has been
proved that soil water availability influences the hormonal equilibriumof each vine variety, which in
turn regulates the expression of the genotype (Van Leeuwen and Seguin, 1997). Similarly, nitrogen and
water supply controls the biosynthesis of flavonols, through the activation of the enzyme Phenylalanine
ammonia lyase, which diverts phenylalanine fromthe pathway that relate carbohydrates to the synthesis
of proteins (Kao et al. 2002).
As a whole, nitrogen nutrition and water supply during certain phases of the vegetative cycle of the vine
are considered essential factors of wine quality. Their role in determining the terroir effect has been
experienced in many wine producing areas and with several varieties, among others, in France, with
Cabernet Sauvignon (Chon et al. 2001), Merlot (Trgoat et al. 2002), and Sauvignon Blanc (Peyrot des
Gachons et al., 2005), in Australia (White et al., 2007) with Sauvignon Blanc, in Hungary with
Kkfrankos (Zsfi et al., 2009), in USA with Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay (Chapman et al.,
2005; Deluc et al., 2009).
Furthermore, there is an array of other empirical relationships that prove terroir dependence fromsoil
characters. Among the most renown there is the effect of soil colour. Colour is one of the main soil
characteristics. It can differ widely frombright white, as for some calcareous soils, to red, as in terra
rossa soils, or black, in soils fromslate. Soil colour affects the quality and quantity of light reflected
into the bunch zone and grapevine canopy, thus influencing grapevine performance. The colour of light
reflected fromthe soil surfaces appears to be used by the grapevine natural growth regulatory systemto
alter vegetative growth (Witbooi et al., 2008 a). In South Africa, with Cabernet sauvignon, grey soil
surface resulted in higher grape colour at 520 nm, while the potassiumcontent of the pulp was the
highest on red soil surface treatments (Witbooi et al., 2008 b). Stony soils reflect heat if they are pale-
coloured. Well known examples are the white cobbles of Chateauneuf-du-Pape, the pebbles at Sancerre
(France), and at Monsant (Spain). In contrast, the metamorphic rocks and grey limestone of the
Franconia (Germany) provide dark-coloured soils that warmrelatively quickly and store heat, thus
promoting ripening in this region (Maltman, 2008). Large thermal effects on soil surface temperature
and on berry skin temperature were found in Geisenheim(Germany) for the vine Riesling and Pinot noir
(Stoll et al., 2008). In the north Willamette Valley (Oregon, USA) basalt-derived surfaces enhance
cytokinin synthesis through spreading the diurnal heat load (Nikolaou et al., 2000); similar effects arise
further north in parts of the Walla Walla Valley, Washington, USA (Meinert and Busacca, 2000).
Another important soil quality is water drainage, which is considered a major terroir characteristic of the
moraine deposits of Fanciacorta (Northern Italy) as well as of many other territories (Panont et al.,
1997). A rapid soil water drainage has been found to affect significantly the precocity of bud breaking
and the intensity of summer stress.
4 - 8
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 8 03/06/10 15:51
1
THE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL EVENTS THAT
DETERMINE THE SOIL FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS OF A TERROIR
E. A.C. Costantini
(1)
, P. Bucelli
(1)
, S. Priori (1)
(1)Agricultural ResearchCouncil, Researchcentrefor AgrobiologyandPedology, p. DAzeglio30, Firenze, Italy
edoardo.costantini@entecra.it
ABSTRACT
The geology of a region is deemed to be an important component of terroir, as it influences the shape of
the landscape and the climate of vineyard. The nature of rock and the geomorphological history of a
terroir affect soil physical and chemical composition through a dynamic interplay with the changes of
climate, vegetation and other living organisms, as well as with man activities.
This work is aimed at demonstrating that the soil functional characters which differentiate the terroirs of
a denomination of origin area are products and witnesses of the geological and geomorphological
events, natural and human induced, which occurred in that trait of land. The final scope being enhancing
the awareness of stakeholders about the possible environmental and economic losses that can derive
froman irrational soil management, which can lead to the worsening or loss of irreproducible soil
functional characters of the best terroirs.
The work makes reference to the denomination of origin Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, where a four
years research was conducted on the relationships between soil characteristics and the viticultural and
oenological behaviour of Sangiovese vine. The soils of the Montepulciano vineyard range notably in
fertility conditions and functional characters, also when formed on the same kind of sediments, in
particular as for water and oxygen availability. The grape production at vintage, as well as the
organoleptic characteristics of the wine, resulted strictly interactive with the different soils. The wines
obtained on a first group of soils had a good structure and typicity, but the stability of wine sensorial
profile during the years was low. A second group exhibited good structure, typicity, and a good stability
of wine sensorial profile. A third group had low structure, low typicity, and high astringency all the
years of trial.
The oldest soils of the Montepulciano vineyard started their formation during the Pleistocene. During
the mediumHolocene, man deeply influenced pedogenesis, but it is during the last 50 years that the
intensity of the man action reached its maximum. Pre-plantation activities of the new specialized
vineyards upset the land, leaving very different effects on soil functional characters. Where the soils
before vine plantation were deep and rather homogeneous, soil functional characters remained the same,
whereas they changed significantly where soils were shallower. Shallow soils on marine clays, in
particular, resulted very vulnerable.
Best soils for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine production, that is, those belonging to the second group,
were old soils, formed as a consequence of particular natural and human induced geomorphological
events. Therefore they should be considered cultural heritages.
KEY WORDS
Climate change cultural heritage wine quality Sangiovese Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
2
INTRODUCTION
Soil is considered a major component of terroir, although most evidences that relate wine with the
specific soil conditions of the vineyard are empirical (Van Leeuwen et al., 2004). It has been largely
demonstrated, for instance, that best terroirs for red wine production are often placed where some soil
limiting factors reduce vine vigour and berry size (Van Leeuwen and Seguin 2006), so that grapes ripen
completely but slowly. In these soils, high quality wines are obtained every year, in spite of climatic
variations (Seguin, 1986).
In addition to empirical evidence, a few mechanisms have been understood. In particular, it has been
proved that soil water availability influences the hormonal equilibriumof each vine variety, which in
turn regulates the expression of the genotype (Van Leeuwen and Seguin, 1997). Similarly, nitrogen and
water supply controls the biosynthesis of flavonols, through the activation of the enzyme Phenylalanine
ammonia lyase, which diverts phenylalanine fromthe pathway that relate carbohydrates to the synthesis
of proteins (Kao et al. 2002).
As a whole, nitrogen nutrition and water supply during certain phases of the vegetative cycle of the vine
are considered essential factors of wine quality. Their role in determining the terroir effect has been
experienced in many wine producing areas and with several varieties, among others, in France, with
Cabernet Sauvignon (Chon et al. 2001), Merlot (Trgoat et al. 2002), and Sauvignon Blanc (Peyrot des
Gachons et al., 2005), in Australia (White et al., 2007) with Sauvignon Blanc, in Hungary with
Kkfrankos (Zsfi et al., 2009), in USA with Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay (Chapman et al.,
2005; Deluc et al., 2009).
Furthermore, there is an array of other empirical relationships that prove terroir dependence fromsoil
characters. Among the most renown there is the effect of soil colour. Colour is one of the main soil
characteristics. It can differ widely frombright white, as for some calcareous soils, to red, as in terra
rossa soils, or black, in soils fromslate. Soil colour affects the quality and quantity of light reflected
into the bunch zone and grapevine canopy, thus influencing grapevine performance. The colour of light
reflected fromthe soil surfaces appears to be used by the grapevine natural growth regulatory systemto
alter vegetative growth (Witbooi et al., 2008 a). In South Africa, with Cabernet sauvignon, grey soil
surface resulted in higher grape colour at 520 nm, while the potassiumcontent of the pulp was the
highest on red soil surface treatments (Witbooi et al., 2008 b). Stony soils reflect heat if they are pale-
coloured. Well known examples are the white cobbles of Chateauneuf-du-Pape, the pebbles at Sancerre
(France), and at Monsant (Spain). In contrast, the metamorphic rocks and grey limestone of the
Franconia (Germany) provide dark-coloured soils that warmrelatively quickly and store heat, thus
promoting ripening in this region (Maltman, 2008). Large thermal effects on soil surface temperature
and on berry skin temperature were found in Geisenheim(Germany) for the vine Riesling and Pinot noir
(Stoll et al., 2008). In the north Willamette Valley (Oregon, USA) basalt-derived surfaces enhance
cytokinin synthesis through spreading the diurnal heat load (Nikolaou et al., 2000); similar effects arise
further north in parts of the Walla Walla Valley, Washington, USA (Meinert and Busacca, 2000).
Another important soil quality is water drainage, which is considered a major terroir characteristic of the
moraine deposits of Fanciacorta (Northern Italy) as well as of many other territories (Panont et al.,
1997). A rapid soil water drainage has been found to affect significantly the precocity of bud breaking
and the intensity of summer stress.
4 - 9
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 9 03/06/10 15:51
3
The results of a vine zoning in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) highlighted the relationship between lime
content in soil and wine colour, structure and perfume intensity. As a matter of fact, in soils with absent
or little lime, grape had lower sugar degree, wine colour intensity and structure. On the contrary, in soils
with high active lime, grapes had a larger sugar and polyphenols content, and wines were full-bodied
and with high colour intensity (Scotti, 2006). Also studies carried out in Alto-Adige (Northern Italy)
with Schiava vine demonstrated that total polyphenols of grape increased with the increase of active
lime in soil (Fregoni, 2005).
The potassiumcontent of soil can have a strong effect on must acidity. In particular, the vine responds to
an over potassiumabsorption synthesizing malic acid, to neutralize the surplus of K+ ions. The reaction
determines the decrease of acidity and the increase of pH (Hale, 1977; Cal et al., 2002). Berry
potassiumcontent has been also related to the pH value of must and some Authors have suggested that
any factor that reduces the photosynthetic activity of leaves could increase potassiumaccumulation in
berries (Freeman et al, 1982). Such factors can be water stress, wind exposure, and excessive shading of
the canopy, like with Cabernet Sauvignon in South Africa (Carey et al., 2008).
High soil salinity strongly affects vine performance. Salt excess has both an osmotic and a toxic effect,
causing reduction in yield, shoot growth and berry weight (Lanyon et al., 2004). However Costantini et
al. (2009a) demonstrated a better performance of Sangiovese in the Chianti area when cultivated on very
fertile but moderately saline soils, when the salinity was confined to the deep soil horizons.
The geology of a region is also deemed to be an important component of terroir (Vaudour, 2003;
Maltman, 2008). Geology influences the shape of the landscape, conferring morphology, typical spaces
and articulations that characterize a production district. Geology also influences the morphology of a
territory and thus the climate of vineyard, through the altitude, the aspect of the slope, the vicinity to
water bodies, the exposure to dominant winds. At Stellenbosch (South Africa) in particular, it has been
demonstrated that site differences in wind exposure have stronger effect on Sauvignon blanc than
seasonal climatic differences (Carey et al., 2008).
The nature of rock governs deep drainage, but also the quality of groundwater and irrigation water. A
relevant characteristic of rock is the degree of its resistance to root penetration. This property derives
fromrock type, presence of planes of weakness, their spacing and orientation (Myburgh et al., 1996).
For instance, some of the best grapes produced in the Upper Douro area of Portugal, as well as in Priorat
in Catalunya (Spain), Languedoc Roussillon (South France) and in Chianti (Central Italy) are obtained
fromshallow soils on clay schist (galestro in Italian). The foliation of schist provides surfaces for
roots penetration in an otherwise impenetrable material.
Furthermore, there is a common assumption that the kind of rock or sediment determines the soil
physical and chemical composition of the vineyard (White, 2003). As a matter of fact, the linkage
between rock and the overlying soil is in most cases weak, due to the frequent presence of allochthonous
material, like aeolian dust, volcanic ash, colluvium, or human transported material and, above all,
because of the transformations caused by pedogenesis. In fact, the geological and geomorphological
history of a territory dynamically interacts with the changes of climate, vegetation and other living
organisms, as well as with man activities, leading to soil formation. The soil of a vineyard is the
metastable complex systemcoming out froma succession of rhexistasy and biostasy periods, during
which rocks and sediments are weathered, transformed and translocated, leached and depleted, eroded
and accumulated, mixed with organic particles,
4
and organized in micro, meso, and macrostructures. The time scale of the biorhexistasy periods can
range from millions of years, in very stable landscapes, to few years, in heavily anthropized territories.
Aimof this work is to demonstrate that the soil functional characters which differentiate the terroirs of a
denomination of origin area are at the same time products and witnesses of the geological and
geomorphological events, natural as well as human induced, which occurred in that trait of land.
Knowing the geological and geomorphological history of a terroir is relevant, because it can enhance the
awareness of stakeholders about the possible environmental and economic losses that can derive froman
irrational soil management, which can lead to the worsening or loss of the soil functional characters of
the best terroirs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The work makes reference to the denomination of origin Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. On 1st July
1980 the Vino Nobile di Montepulciano became the first Italian red wine to get the D.O.C.G.
(guaranteed and controlled denomination of origin), which places it among the most prestigious wines in
Italy and the world. Prugnolo gentile, a biotype of Sangiovese, is the basic vine-variety used for the
production of the Vino Nobile and the most important winegrape in the classic wine territory. The
Nobile is a wine of elevated structure and longevity, thanks to the rich supply of anthocyanins and
polyphenols, capable of ensuring a positive evolution over a length of time. The considerable delicacy of
the bouquet, distinguished by the pleasant scents of violet and woodland fruits, with elegant hints of
spices, dried fruits and dried vegetable, completes the Nobile's profile of high quality and originality.
In the Montepulciano territory, a research was conducted on the relationships between soil characteristics
and the viticultural and oenological behaviour of Sangiovese (Costantini et al., 1996; Campostrini et al.,
1997). The study was carried out during four years. On the basis of a soil map of the Montepulciano hill
at 1:25,000 scale, 54 experimental not irrigated plots, homogeneous in soil, were selected (9 soil types
per 6 replications, tab. 1). Experimental soils were evaluated as for their physical, chemical, hydrological
and biological properties. In addition, temperature and rainfall were monitored in 5 experimental sites, as
well as soil temperature and moisture content. The mean rainfall of the studied years was lower than in
the long term(1926- 1992: 685 vs. 728 mm). Also the year average temperature remained lower than the
long term(1928-1992: 12.9 vs. 13.9C; tab. 2). The value of Winkler's index fitted the requirements for
Sangiovese (Fregoni, 2005). The number of days when the soil moisture control section is dry matched
the requirements of the "ustic" soil moisture regime (USDA, 2010).
Table 1 - Topographic, physical, hydrological, and chemical characteristics of the experimental soils.
Parameters Mean values and (standard deviation)
Elevation (masl) 344(67)
Slope gradient (%) 6.6(3.6)
Aspect () 140(101)
Solar radiation (MJ cm2 yr-1) 0.917(0.047)
Rooting depth (cm) 106(28)
Stoniness (%v/v) 0
Rock fragments (%v/v) 0.9 (1.9)
Bulk density (g cm-3) 1.53 (0.08)
Clay (%) 35.1 (15.1)
Sand (%) 27.6 (20.9)
Available Water Capacity (mm m-1) 148 (44)
Organic C (%) 0.64 (0.20)
pH (H2O) 8.4 (0.18)
Electrical conductivity (dS m-1) 0.24 (0.19)
CEC (cmol(+) kg-1) 15.7 (4.8)
Total CaCO3 (%) 11.9 (7.0)
4 - 10
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 10 03/06/10 15:51
3
The results of a vine zoning in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) highlighted the relationship between lime
content in soil and wine colour, structure and perfume intensity. As a matter of fact, in soils with absent
or little lime, grape had lower sugar degree, wine colour intensity and structure. On the contrary, in soils
with high active lime, grapes had a larger sugar and polyphenols content, and wines were full-bodied
and with high colour intensity (Scotti, 2006). Also studies carried out in Alto-Adige (Northern Italy)
with Schiava vine demonstrated that total polyphenols of grape increased with the increase of active
lime in soil (Fregoni, 2005).
The potassiumcontent of soil can have a strong effect on must acidity. In particular, the vine responds to
an over potassiumabsorption synthesizing malic acid, to neutralize the surplus of K+ ions. The reaction
determines the decrease of acidity and the increase of pH (Hale, 1977; Cal et al., 2002). Berry
potassiumcontent has been also related to the pH value of must and some Authors have suggested that
any factor that reduces the photosynthetic activity of leaves could increase potassiumaccumulation in
berries (Freeman et al, 1982). Such factors can be water stress, wind exposure, and excessive shading of
the canopy, like with Cabernet Sauvignon in South Africa (Carey et al., 2008).
High soil salinity strongly affects vine performance. Salt excess has both an osmotic and a toxic effect,
causing reduction in yield, shoot growth and berry weight (Lanyon et al., 2004). However Costantini et
al. (2009a) demonstrated a better performance of Sangiovese in the Chianti area when cultivated on very
fertile but moderately saline soils, when the salinity was confined to the deep soil horizons.
The geology of a region is also deemed to be an important component of terroir (Vaudour, 2003;
Maltman, 2008). Geology influences the shape of the landscape, conferring morphology, typical spaces
and articulations that characterize a production district. Geology also influences the morphology of a
territory and thus the climate of vineyard, through the altitude, the aspect of the slope, the vicinity to
water bodies, the exposure to dominant winds. At Stellenbosch (South Africa) in particular, it has been
demonstrated that site differences in wind exposure have stronger effect on Sauvignon blanc than
seasonal climatic differences (Carey et al., 2008).
The nature of rock governs deep drainage, but also the quality of groundwater and irrigation water. A
relevant characteristic of rock is the degree of its resistance to root penetration. This property derives
fromrock type, presence of planes of weakness, their spacing and orientation (Myburgh et al., 1996).
For instance, some of the best grapes produced in the Upper Douro area of Portugal, as well as in Priorat
in Catalunya (Spain), Languedoc Roussillon (South France) and in Chianti (Central Italy) are obtained
fromshallow soils on clay schist (galestro in Italian). The foliation of schist provides surfaces for
roots penetration in an otherwise impenetrable material.
Furthermore, there is a common assumption that the kind of rock or sediment determines the soil
physical and chemical composition of the vineyard (White, 2003). As a matter of fact, the linkage
between rock and the overlying soil is in most cases weak, due to the frequent presence of allochthonous
material, like aeolian dust, volcanic ash, colluvium, or human transported material and, above all,
because of the transformations caused by pedogenesis. In fact, the geological and geomorphological
history of a territory dynamically interacts with the changes of climate, vegetation and other living
organisms, as well as with man activities, leading to soil formation. The soil of a vineyard is the
metastable complex systemcoming out froma succession of rhexistasy and biostasy periods, during
which rocks and sediments are weathered, transformed and translocated, leached and depleted, eroded
and accumulated, mixed with organic particles,
4
and organized in micro, meso, and macrostructures. The time scale of the biorhexistasy periods can
range from millions of years, in very stable landscapes, to few years, in heavily anthropized territories.
Aimof this work is to demonstrate that the soil functional characters which differentiate the terroirs of a
denomination of origin area are at the same time products and witnesses of the geological and
geomorphological events, natural as well as human induced, which occurred in that trait of land.
Knowing the geological and geomorphological history of a terroir is relevant, because it can enhance the
awareness of stakeholders about the possible environmental and economic losses that can derive froman
irrational soil management, which can lead to the worsening or loss of the soil functional characters of
the best terroirs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The work makes reference to the denomination of origin Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. On 1st July
1980 the Vino Nobile di Montepulciano became the first Italian red wine to get the D.O.C.G.
(guaranteed and controlled denomination of origin), which places it among the most prestigious wines in
Italy and the world. Prugnolo gentile, a biotype of Sangiovese, is the basic vine-variety used for the
production of the Vino Nobile and the most important winegrape in the classic wine territory. The
Nobile is a wine of elevated structure and longevity, thanks to the rich supply of anthocyanins and
polyphenols, capable of ensuring a positive evolution over a length of time. The considerable delicacy of
the bouquet, distinguished by the pleasant scents of violet and woodland fruits, with elegant hints of
spices, dried fruits and dried vegetable, completes the Nobile's profile of high quality and originality.
In the Montepulciano territory, a research was conducted on the relationships between soil characteristics
and the viticultural and oenological behaviour of Sangiovese (Costantini et al., 1996; Campostrini et al.,
1997). The study was carried out during four years. On the basis of a soil map of the Montepulciano hill
at 1:25,000 scale, 54 experimental not irrigated plots, homogeneous in soil, were selected (9 soil types
per 6 replications, tab. 1). Experimental soils were evaluated as for their physical, chemical, hydrological
and biological properties. In addition, temperature and rainfall were monitored in 5 experimental sites, as
well as soil temperature and moisture content. The mean rainfall of the studied years was lower than in
the long term(1926- 1992: 685 vs. 728 mm). Also the year average temperature remained lower than the
long term(1928-1992: 12.9 vs. 13.9C; tab. 2). The value of Winkler's index fitted the requirements for
Sangiovese (Fregoni, 2005). The number of days when the soil moisture control section is dry matched
the requirements of the "ustic" soil moisture regime (USDA, 2010).
Table 1 - Topographic, physical, hydrological, and chemical characteristics of the experimental soils.
Parameters Mean values and (standard deviation)
Elevation (masl) 344(67)
Slope gradient (%) 6.6(3.6)
Aspect () 140(101)
Solar radiation (MJ cm2 yr-1) 0.917(0.047)
Rooting depth (cm) 106(28)
Stoniness (%v/v) 0
Rock fragments (%v/v) 0.9 (1.9)
Bulk density (g cm-3) 1.53 (0.08)
Clay (%) 35.1 (15.1)
Sand (%) 27.6 (20.9)
Available Water Capacity (mm m-1) 148 (44)
Organic C (%) 0.64 (0.20)
pH (H2O) 8.4 (0.18)
Electrical conductivity (dS m-1) 0.24 (0.19)
CEC (cmol(+) kg-1) 15.7 (4.8)
Total CaCO3 (%) 11.9 (7.0)
4 - 11
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 11 03/06/10 15:51
5
Table 2 - Mean climatic and pedoclimatic parameters of the experimental plots during the trial.
Parameter Mean values and (standard deviation)
Annual rainfall (mm) 685 (114)
Mean air temperature (C) 12.9 (0.7)
Mean soil temperature (C) 15.3 (1.4)
Winklers index 1815 (134)
Number of dry days of the soil moisture control section 83 (15)
Soil types had different functional characters. The characters were considered functional when they were
statistically related to some viticultural parameters and when they actually discriminated between soil
types at the reference scale (Costantini et al., 2008). For instance, the organic matter content did not
resulted functional, since all the soils on trial were periodically cultivated during the growing season and
were poor in organic matter (around 1%). Similarly, all experimental soils were base saturated and their
cation exchange capacity was always between 10 and 20 cmol(+) kg-1. On the other hand, the soil
characteristics which resulted statistically different between soil types (ANOVA), as well as statistically
related to Sangiovese parameters (PCA), where those that could provide a physical or chemical limitation
to vine growing.
Quanti-qualitative traits at vintage (yield per vine, cluster number, mean cluster weight) and sugar
accumulation rate in berries were recorded. The grapes of each experimental plot were analysed at vintage
for total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, malic and tartaric acid, and potassium. At ripeness 50-kg
samples of grapes were collected and processed by the standard techniques for small-lot wine making.
Descriptor terms were defined after several taste sessions, and the relevant terminology underwent
normalisation. Through the application of the statistical analysis of PCA, the wines were grouped in
groups.
The reconstruction of the geological events was based on the works of Costantini et al. (2009), Capezzuoli
et al. (2009), Priori et al. (2008), Costantini and Lizio Bruno (1996), Ferrari and Magaldi (1978), and
Losacco (1944). The statistical analysis of PCA and ANOVA were conducted with Statistica. Geological
sketches were created with a soil geodatabase and the
software ArcGIS and Surfer.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil functional characters
The soils of the Montepulciano vineyard range notably in fertility conditions and functional characters,
also when formed on the same kind of sediments (tab. 3). On Pliocene marine sand, Cusona soils are very
sandy and abundant in primary macroporosity, conferring them great air capacity and rapid drainage; they
are poorly structured, have mediumtotal and active lime content and show low salinity. Strada and San
Gimignano soils instead are either coarse or fineloamy, their relatively high air capacity is the consequence
of both particle size and aggregate formation. Their equilibrated texture and good structure confer a high
available water holding capacity. Lime and salinity are reduced and do not cause any limitation to vine
cultivation.
Monte, San Quirico and Quercia soils characterize vineyards placed on Pliocene marine clay. Monte soils
are fine, poorly differentiated fromthe substrate, and show very low air capacity and prominent
redoximorphic features. They have low available water capacity but are rich in lime and other salts, so that
their electrical conductivity, averaged for the entire profile, is moderately high. San Quirico soils are fine-
silty and show hydromorphy, although their air capacity is higher than Monte soils. Available water
holding capacity is high and they are moderately rich in lime, but their averaged electrical conductivity is
6
lower than Monte soils. Quercia soils are fine and show vertic properties (cracking soils), their air
capacity is slightly lower and available water higher than San Quirico soils, the other properties being
similar.
On the Pleistocene fluvial-lacustrine clay there are three main soil types, Valiano and Valiano aquic
formed in the surroundings of the Valiano town, while Poggio Golo soils are close to Torrita. Both Valiano
soils are similar, except for air capacity and internal drainage, which are worse in Valiano aquic. Available
water capacity is also somewhat less in Valiano aquic than in Valiano, though reaching a rather high
absolute mean value. The two Valiano soils have carbonates but do not show salinity. Poggio Golo soils
are also fine and show hydromorphy, as a consequence of limited air capacity, but have rather high water
holding capacity. Although very deep, they are duplex soils, that is, they show a marked change in
propertied between the surface and the subsurface horizons, with a sharp increase in clay and firmness, and
parallel decrease in air capacity and hydraulic conductivity, with depth. The duplex characteristic
strongly limits root penetration. They have very low carbonates and other salts, so that the electrical
conductivity is very low.
The hydrological monitoring permitted to group the experimental soils in terms of water or oxygen deficit
as follow:
- soils without water and oxygen deficit during the whole vine growing season (San Gimignano and Strada
soils),
- soils with reduced soil oxygen availability during early spring and moderate summer water deficit (San
Quirico, Quercia and Poggio Golo soils).
- soils with pronounced summer water deficit (Cusona soils),
- soils with pronounced summer water deficit, and reduced soil oxygen availability during early spring
(Monte soils).
Valiano and Valiano aquic soils were not monitored, but their behaviour was comparable to that of San
Gimignano and San Quirico soils, respectively.
4 - 12
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 12 03/06/10 15:51
5
Table 2 - Mean climatic and pedoclimatic parameters of the experimental plots during the trial.
Parameter Mean values and (standard deviation)
Annual rainfall (mm) 685 (114)
Mean air temperature (C) 12.9 (0.7)
Mean soil temperature (C) 15.3 (1.4)
Winklers index 1815 (134)
Number of dry days of the soil moisture control section 83 (15)
Soil types had different functional characters. The characters were considered functional when they were
statistically related to some viticultural parameters and when they actually discriminated between soil
types at the reference scale (Costantini et al., 2008). For instance, the organic matter content did not
resulted functional, since all the soils on trial were periodically cultivated during the growing season and
were poor in organic matter (around 1%). Similarly, all experimental soils were base saturated and their
cation exchange capacity was always between 10 and 20 cmol(+) kg-1. On the other hand, the soil
characteristics which resulted statistically different between soil types (ANOVA), as well as statistically
related to Sangiovese parameters (PCA), where those that could provide a physical or chemical limitation
to vine growing.
Quanti-qualitative traits at vintage (yield per vine, cluster number, mean cluster weight) and sugar
accumulation rate in berries were recorded. The grapes of each experimental plot were analysed at vintage
for total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, malic and tartaric acid, and potassium. At ripeness 50-kg
samples of grapes were collected and processed by the standard techniques for small-lot wine making.
Descriptor terms were defined after several taste sessions, and the relevant terminology underwent
normalisation. Through the application of the statistical analysis of PCA, the wines were grouped in
groups.
The reconstruction of the geological events was based on the works of Costantini et al. (2009), Capezzuoli
et al. (2009), Priori et al. (2008), Costantini and Lizio Bruno (1996), Ferrari and Magaldi (1978), and
Losacco (1944). The statistical analysis of PCA and ANOVA were conducted with Statistica. Geological
sketches were created with a soil geodatabase and the
software ArcGIS and Surfer.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil functional characters
The soils of the Montepulciano vineyard range notably in fertility conditions and functional characters,
also when formed on the same kind of sediments (tab. 3). On Pliocene marine sand, Cusona soils are very
sandy and abundant in primary macroporosity, conferring them great air capacity and rapid drainage; they
are poorly structured, have mediumtotal and active lime content and show low salinity. Strada and San
Gimignano soils instead are either coarse or fineloamy, their relatively high air capacity is the consequence
of both particle size and aggregate formation. Their equilibrated texture and good structure confer a high
available water holding capacity. Lime and salinity are reduced and do not cause any limitation to vine
cultivation.
Monte, San Quirico and Quercia soils characterize vineyards placed on Pliocene marine clay. Monte soils
are fine, poorly differentiated fromthe substrate, and show very low air capacity and prominent
redoximorphic features. They have low available water capacity but are rich in lime and other salts, so that
their electrical conductivity, averaged for the entire profile, is moderately high. San Quirico soils are fine-
silty and show hydromorphy, although their air capacity is higher than Monte soils. Available water
holding capacity is high and they are moderately rich in lime, but their averaged electrical conductivity is
6
lower than Monte soils. Quercia soils are fine and show vertic properties (cracking soils), their air
capacity is slightly lower and available water higher than San Quirico soils, the other properties being
similar.
On the Pleistocene fluvial-lacustrine clay there are three main soil types, Valiano and Valiano aquic
formed in the surroundings of the Valiano town, while Poggio Golo soils are close to Torrita. Both Valiano
soils are similar, except for air capacity and internal drainage, which are worse in Valiano aquic. Available
water capacity is also somewhat less in Valiano aquic than in Valiano, though reaching a rather high
absolute mean value. The two Valiano soils have carbonates but do not show salinity. Poggio Golo soils
are also fine and show hydromorphy, as a consequence of limited air capacity, but have rather high water
holding capacity. Although very deep, they are duplex soils, that is, they show a marked change in
propertied between the surface and the subsurface horizons, with a sharp increase in clay and firmness, and
parallel decrease in air capacity and hydraulic conductivity, with depth. The duplex characteristic
strongly limits root penetration. They have very low carbonates and other salts, so that the electrical
conductivity is very low.
The hydrological monitoring permitted to group the experimental soils in terms of water or oxygen deficit
as follow:
- soils without water and oxygen deficit during the whole vine growing season (San Gimignano and Strada
soils),
- soils with reduced soil oxygen availability during early spring and moderate summer water deficit (San
Quirico, Quercia and Poggio Golo soils).
- soils with pronounced summer water deficit (Cusona soils),
- soils with pronounced summer water deficit, and reduced soil oxygen availability during early spring
(Monte soils).
Valiano and Valiano aquic soils were not monitored, but their behaviour was comparable to that of San
Gimignano and San Quirico soils, respectively.
4 - 13
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 13 03/06/10 15:51
7
Table 3 - Classification andmainfunctional characters of the experimental soils. Values are the average of all
horizons of two soil profiles of each soil type, but O.M. is that of the plough layer.
Total Active

Electrical
Geology Soils Classification^ Air capacity
t
Oa

CaCO3 CaCO3 conductivity


(1:2.5) dS
(%) (mm) (%ww
-1
)
m
-1
Pliocene
marine
sand Cusona
Pliocene
marine
sand Strada
Typic
Ustipsamments 16.2 83 10.9 1.0 0.100
Typic Haplustepts,
coarse-loamy 10.9 157 10.7 1.1 0.117
Typic Haplustepts,
fine-loamy 10.6 195 16.9 2.2 0.133
Aquic Ustorthents,
fine 1.4 75 18.9 9.7 0.941
Aquic Haplustepts,
fine-silty 3.8 146 16.1 6.8 0.541
Vertic Haplustepts,
fine 3.0 165 20.8 7.0 0.453
Aquic Haplustepts,
fine 5.5 142 9.7 2.9 0.287
Pleistocene
fluvial-
lacustrine
clay Valiano
Pleistocene
fluvial- Poggio Golo
lacustrine clay
Typic Haplustepts,
fine 9.7 169 10.4 3.1 0.172
Aquic Haplustalf,
fine 2.3 139 1.7 0.6 0.166
Pliocene
marine San
sand Gimignano
Pliocene
marine
clay Monte
Pliocene
marine
clay San Quirico
Pliocene
marine
clay Quercia
Pleistocene
fluvial-
lacustrine Valiano
clay aquic
8
^Classification= Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010).
t
Air capacity=difference betweentotal porosity(frombulkdensityof undisturbedsamples) and
volumetric water content at field capacity.

Oa =available water holdingcapacity(difference betweenwater content at fieldcapacityand


wilting point).

Active CaCO3 is the lime soluble in ammoniumoxalate.


Viticultural and oenological results
The grape production at vintage was strictly interactive with the different soils. In particular, the yield per
vine, the mean cluster weight, the 100 berries' weight were deeply influenced by the soil type. The number
of shoots in the various soils was significantly different, because of the adaptation of pruning to the different
water capacity of soils. Also the sugar accumulation rate in berries underlined the importance of the soil for
a minimumsugar level of grape, necessary to winemaking as Vino Nobile (tab. 4). In fact, vineyards on
Cusona soils did not reach the minimumsugar content every year, but only in the more rainy ones. On the
other hand, grapes on San Gimignano and Poggio Golo soils reached the minimumsugar content only at late
time (tab. 5).
Table 4 - Meanvalues of viticultural parameters obtainedfromthe experimental soils. Standarddeviation in
brackets.
Soils
Grape
yield/vine
kg
Cluster
number
n
Mean
cluster
weight
g
100
berries
weight
g
Sugar
content
Brix
Sugar
accumulation
rate
Brix/day
Total
acidity
g/L
Cusona
2.26
(1.4)
12.5
(8.4)
185
(59.7)
167
(17.4)
21.5
(1.0)
0.31 (0.03)
7.64
(1.6)
Strada
4.57
(1.5)
15.2
(3.0)
322
(122.3)
196
(29.3)
20.8
(1.2)
0.31 (0.02)
7.28
(0.5)
San
Gimignano
4.38
(1.5)
11.7
(3.4)
401
(153.2)
211
(26.8)
20.8
(0.9)
0.29 (0.02)
8.49
(1.0)
Monte
2.70
(0.4)
14.8
(0.7)
196
(36.8)
130
(0.5)
20.3
(0.8)
0.31 (0.02)
7.28
(0.1)
San
Quirico
3.87
(1.3)
12.3
(4.5)
321
(154.8)
166
(29.8)
21.3
(1.4)
0.31 (0.02)
7.78
(0.6)
Quercia
3.45
(1.3)
12.7
(5.6)
312
(96.9)
160
(28.0)
20.9
(1.8)
0.31 (0.02)
7.73
(1.0)
Valiano
aquic
5.07
(3.7)
18.6
(5.6)
245
(145.0)
178
(47.4)
21.7
(1.1)
0.30 (0.02)
7.77
(0.6)
Valiano
7.01
(0.8)
15.0
(1.0)
468
(23.1)
202
(16.7)
20.0
(0.6)
0.27 (0.01)
8.14
(1.0)
Poggio
Golo
3.94
(0.9)
14.6
(5.4)
236
(41.0)
176
(18.8)
20.7
(0.9)
0.31 (0.02)
7.53
(0.9)
4 - 14
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 14 03/06/10 15:51
7
Table 3 - Classification andmainfunctional characters of the experimental soils. Values are the average of all
horizons of two soil profiles of each soil type, but O.M. is that of the plough layer.
Total Active

Electrical
Geology Soils Classification^ Air capacity
t
Oa

CaCO3 CaCO3 conductivity


(1:2.5) dS
(%) (mm) (%ww
-1
)
m
-1
Pliocene
marine
sand Cusona
Pliocene
marine
sand Strada
Typic
Ustipsamments 16.2 83 10.9 1.0 0.100
Typic Haplustepts,
coarse-loamy 10.9 157 10.7 1.1 0.117
Typic Haplustepts,
fine-loamy 10.6 195 16.9 2.2 0.133
Aquic Ustorthents,
fine 1.4 75 18.9 9.7 0.941
Aquic Haplustepts,
fine-silty 3.8 146 16.1 6.8 0.541
Vertic Haplustepts,
fine 3.0 165 20.8 7.0 0.453
Aquic Haplustepts,
fine 5.5 142 9.7 2.9 0.287
Pleistocene
fluvial-
lacustrine
clay Valiano
Pleistocene
fluvial- Poggio Golo
lacustrine clay
Typic Haplustepts,
fine 9.7 169 10.4 3.1 0.172
Aquic Haplustalf,
fine 2.3 139 1.7 0.6 0.166
Pliocene
marine San
sand Gimignano
Pliocene
marine
clay Monte
Pliocene
marine
clay San Quirico
Pliocene
marine
clay Quercia
Pleistocene
fluvial-
lacustrine Valiano
clay aquic
8
^Classification= Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010).
t
Air capacity=difference betweentotal porosity(frombulkdensityof undisturbedsamples) and
volumetric water content at field capacity.

Oa =available water holdingcapacity(difference betweenwater content at fieldcapacityand


wilting point).

Active CaCO3 is the lime soluble in ammoniumoxalate.


Viticultural and oenological results
The grape production at vintage was strictly interactive with the different soils. In particular, the yield per
vine, the mean cluster weight, the 100 berries' weight were deeply influenced by the soil type. The number
of shoots in the various soils was significantly different, because of the adaptation of pruning to the different
water capacity of soils. Also the sugar accumulation rate in berries underlined the importance of the soil for
a minimumsugar level of grape, necessary to winemaking as Vino Nobile (tab. 4). In fact, vineyards on
Cusona soils did not reach the minimumsugar content every year, but only in the more rainy ones. On the
other hand, grapes on San Gimignano and Poggio Golo soils reached the minimumsugar content only at late
time (tab. 5).
Table 4 - Meanvalues of viticultural parameters obtainedfromthe experimental soils. Standarddeviation in
brackets.
Soils
Grape
yield/vine
kg
Cluster
number
n
Mean
cluster
weight
g
100
berries
weight
g
Sugar
content
Brix
Sugar
accumulation
rate
Brix/day
Total
acidity
g/L
Cusona
2.26
(1.4)
12.5
(8.4)
185
(59.7)
167
(17.4)
21.5
(1.0)
0.31 (0.03)
7.64
(1.6)
Strada
4.57
(1.5)
15.2
(3.0)
322
(122.3)
196
(29.3)
20.8
(1.2)
0.31 (0.02)
7.28
(0.5)
San
Gimignano
4.38
(1.5)
11.7
(3.4)
401
(153.2)
211
(26.8)
20.8
(0.9)
0.29 (0.02)
8.49
(1.0)
Monte
2.70
(0.4)
14.8
(0.7)
196
(36.8)
130
(0.5)
20.3
(0.8)
0.31 (0.02)
7.28
(0.1)
San
Quirico
3.87
(1.3)
12.3
(4.5)
321
(154.8)
166
(29.8)
21.3
(1.4)
0.31 (0.02)
7.78
(0.6)
Quercia
3.45
(1.3)
12.7
(5.6)
312
(96.9)
160
(28.0)
20.9
(1.8)
0.31 (0.02)
7.73
(1.0)
Valiano
aquic
5.07
(3.7)
18.6
(5.6)
245
(145.0)
178
(47.4)
21.7
(1.1)
0.30 (0.02)
7.77
(0.6)
Valiano
7.01
(0.8)
15.0
(1.0)
468
(23.1)
202
(16.7)
20.0
(0.6)
0.27 (0.01)
8.14
(1.0)
Poggio
Golo
3.94
(0.9)
14.6
(5.4)
236
(41.0)
176
(18.8)
20.7
(0.9)
0.31 (0.02)
7.53
(0.9)
4 - 15
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 15 03/06/10 15:51
9
The wines obtained on a first group of soils (Valiano aquic, Cusona and Monte) had a good structure, a good
typicity with high cherry and berry fruity. Unfortunately, the stability of wine sensorial profile during the
years was low. A second group (Quercia, Poggio Golo and San Quirico soils) exhibited good structure,
typicity, with mediumlevel of cherry and berry fruit and a good stability of wine sensorial profile. The wine
obtained on the Strada soils showed mediumstructure, mediumastringency, low cherry and berry fruity with
a good stability of the sensorial profile. Finally, the wine of San Gimignano and Valiano soils had a low
structure, high astringency, low typicity, all the years of trial (tab. 5).
Table 5 - Nobile di Montepulciano grape production and wine quality according to soil and soil group.
The number of stars reflects the quantity (grape) or quality of the organoleptic evaluation (other
variables).
Group
Soils
Name
Grape
production
Harvest
date
Wine
structure
Wine
harmony
Wine
typicity
Year
stability
1 Monte andCusona * **** ** ** ** *
1 Valiano aquic **** *** ** ** ** *
2 Quercia ** *** ** ** ** **
2 Poggio Golo ** ** ** ** ** **
2 San Quirico ** **** ** ** ** **
3 Strada *** ** */** */** * **
3 San Gimignano *** * * * * **
3 Valiano ***** * * * * **
The interplay between geological and geomorphological events and the formation of soil functional
characters
The territory of Montepulciano municipality was almost all completely covered by the sea during Early
Pliocene. Only small islands, corresponding to the highest relives on Mesozoic rocks of the Chianti-Cetona
mount ridge, were emerging fromthe sea. During Middle Pliocene, about four million years ago, the sea
regressed and left a succession of deposits, some hundred meters thick, which were rather sandy at their top
(Fig. 1). Pliocene was a time of intense pedogenesis, leading to the formation of very deep and red soils,
similar to those currently widespread in the subtropics. There are no more remnants of these kind of soils at
Montepulciano, since here, like in most part of Italy, they have been completely eroded, as a consequence of
the successive uplift of the area and climate changes. However, a significant example of Pliocene soil,
currently preserved and cultivated with vine, has been reported in the not far away DOCG of Montalcino
(Costantini and Priori, 2007).
The Villafranchian (Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene) saw the incision of the Pliocene deposits and the
filling up with lacustrine sediments of the territory comprised between the
10
Apennines and the Chianti-Cetona mount ridge (Fig. 2). During Middle and Late Pleistocene the
Villafranchian lacustrine sediments were eroded and filled up with new fluvial and lacustrine deposits (Fig.
3). Several fluvial terraces formed along the Val di Chiana paleo valley, which was crossed at that time by
a southward streaming river, the paleo Arno. The deposits on the terraces and hilly lands underwent a
rather intense and prolonged pedogenesis, leading to the formation of deep and well developed soils, with
contrasted horizons. Alternating biorhexistasy phases, in dependence of both tectonic movements and
climate changes, caused the partial erosion of soils on slopes and the formation of deep colluvial soils on
relatively more stable morphological positions.
During Early Holocene the morphology of the Montepulciano territory was very similar to the present (Fig.
4). The progressive filling up of the valley caused a further swamping of the lowlands, while tectonic
movements led to the reversion of the drainage of the paleo Arno river. Poggio Golo soils dominated on the
fluvial terraces formed in the previous geological era. The sharp contrast in texture between the surface and
subsurface horizons of Poggio Golo soils was created as a result of the prolonged time of pedogenesis,
during which carbonates and other bases were leached throughout the profile, clay particles deflocculated
and were transported along the profile, where they progressively accumulated. Many macropores were
therefore plugged by clay particles, so that firmness of the subsurface horizon increased, whereas air
capacity and hydraulic conductivity decreased. Soil rooting depth and rootability (mass of soil that can be
actually penetrated by roots, between and inside aggregates) were consequently constrained. The breakdown
and weathering of rock fragments augmented the proportion of fine particles and released a great deal of
elements, in particular metals. The elements were sequestrated by clays, accumulated, and iron painted the
soils with characteristics reddish brown colours. Subsurface horizons with somewhat poor internal drainage
caused the formation of perched temporary water tables during rainy seasons, thus the alternating reduction
and oxidation of iron and manganese, their mobilization along fissures and root channels, and formation of
characteristics bleached streaks, reddish and blackish mottles, and nodules of iron and manganese .
Neolithic/Early Bronze age was a time of rhexistasy and severe erosion affected soils on slopes (Fig. 5).
Human settlements developed and forests were cleared. The reduced soil cover, combined with a climate
deterioration, with dry spells and strong winds, led to a sharp increase of water and wind erosion. Colluvial
sediments accumulated on the lower parts of slopes, leading to the formation of very thick soils, like some
San Gimignano soils. Some aeolian sediments accumulated on soils placed on stable morphological
positions. It was the case of Poggio Golo soils, where the aeolian contribution increased the difference in
texture between the surface and subsurface horizons, but also somehow changed the chemistry of the soil, as
the bases brought with the aeolian dusts saturated again the cation exchange complex and raised pH, halting
or reducing notably clay lessivage. During the successive bronze ages and Etruscan and Roman civilizations,
the climatic conditions improved, and so did the land management.
Pedogenesis of San Gimignano, Strada, San Quirico, Quercia, Valiano and Valiano aquic soils took place
mainly during that time. A more or less developed structural subsurface horizon formed in all these soils, but
with very different functional characteristics. San Gimignano and Strada soils formed on marine sands,
rather permeable and quite easily weatherable, which promoted the leaching of marine salts and the genesis
of a thick horizon with subangular blocky aggregates, lined by organic matter and iron oxides, with a good
macroporosity. Below the combined action of vegetation and climate, sands could be easily broken down;
hence the firm
4 - 16
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 16 03/06/10 15:51
9
The wines obtained on a first group of soils (Valiano aquic, Cusona and Monte) had a good structure, a good
typicity with high cherry and berry fruity. Unfortunately, the stability of wine sensorial profile during the
years was low. A second group (Quercia, Poggio Golo and San Quirico soils) exhibited good structure,
typicity, with mediumlevel of cherry and berry fruit and a good stability of wine sensorial profile. The wine
obtained on the Strada soils showed mediumstructure, mediumastringency, low cherry and berry fruity with
a good stability of the sensorial profile. Finally, the wine of San Gimignano and Valiano soils had a low
structure, high astringency, low typicity, all the years of trial (tab. 5).
Table 5 - Nobile di Montepulciano grape production and wine quality according to soil and soil group.
The number of stars reflects the quantity (grape) or quality of the organoleptic evaluation (other
variables).
Group
Soils
Name
Grape
production
Harvest
date
Wine
structure
Wine
harmony
Wine
typicity
Year
stability
1 Monte andCusona * **** ** ** ** *
1 Valiano aquic **** *** ** ** ** *
2 Quercia ** *** ** ** ** **
2 Poggio Golo ** ** ** ** ** **
2 San Quirico ** **** ** ** ** **
3 Strada *** ** */** */** * **
3 San Gimignano *** * * * * **
3 Valiano ***** * * * * **
The interplay between geological and geomorphological events and the formation of soil functional
characters
The territory of Montepulciano municipality was almost all completely covered by the sea during Early
Pliocene. Only small islands, corresponding to the highest relives on Mesozoic rocks of the Chianti-Cetona
mount ridge, were emerging fromthe sea. During Middle Pliocene, about four million years ago, the sea
regressed and left a succession of deposits, some hundred meters thick, which were rather sandy at their top
(Fig. 1). Pliocene was a time of intense pedogenesis, leading to the formation of very deep and red soils,
similar to those currently widespread in the subtropics. There are no more remnants of these kind of soils at
Montepulciano, since here, like in most part of Italy, they have been completely eroded, as a consequence of
the successive uplift of the area and climate changes. However, a significant example of Pliocene soil,
currently preserved and cultivated with vine, has been reported in the not far away DOCG of Montalcino
(Costantini and Priori, 2007).
The Villafranchian (Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene) saw the incision of the Pliocene deposits and the
filling up with lacustrine sediments of the territory comprised between the
10
Apennines and the Chianti-Cetona mount ridge (Fig. 2). During Middle and Late Pleistocene the
Villafranchian lacustrine sediments were eroded and filled up with new fluvial and lacustrine deposits (Fig.
3). Several fluvial terraces formed along the Val di Chiana paleo valley, which was crossed at that time by
a southward streaming river, the paleo Arno. The deposits on the terraces and hilly lands underwent a
rather intense and prolonged pedogenesis, leading to the formation of deep and well developed soils, with
contrasted horizons. Alternating biorhexistasy phases, in dependence of both tectonic movements and
climate changes, caused the partial erosion of soils on slopes and the formation of deep colluvial soils on
relatively more stable morphological positions.
During Early Holocene the morphology of the Montepulciano territory was very similar to the present (Fig.
4). The progressive filling up of the valley caused a further swamping of the lowlands, while tectonic
movements led to the reversion of the drainage of the paleo Arno river. Poggio Golo soils dominated on the
fluvial terraces formed in the previous geological era. The sharp contrast in texture between the surface and
subsurface horizons of Poggio Golo soils was created as a result of the prolonged time of pedogenesis,
during which carbonates and other bases were leached throughout the profile, clay particles deflocculated
and were transported along the profile, where they progressively accumulated. Many macropores were
therefore plugged by clay particles, so that firmness of the subsurface horizon increased, whereas air
capacity and hydraulic conductivity decreased. Soil rooting depth and rootability (mass of soil that can be
actually penetrated by roots, between and inside aggregates) were consequently constrained. The breakdown
and weathering of rock fragments augmented the proportion of fine particles and released a great deal of
elements, in particular metals. The elements were sequestrated by clays, accumulated, and iron painted the
soils with characteristics reddish brown colours. Subsurface horizons with somewhat poor internal drainage
caused the formation of perched temporary water tables during rainy seasons, thus the alternating reduction
and oxidation of iron and manganese, their mobilization along fissures and root channels, and formation of
characteristics bleached streaks, reddish and blackish mottles, and nodules of iron and manganese .
Neolithic/Early Bronze age was a time of rhexistasy and severe erosion affected soils on slopes (Fig. 5).
Human settlements developed and forests were cleared. The reduced soil cover, combined with a climate
deterioration, with dry spells and strong winds, led to a sharp increase of water and wind erosion. Colluvial
sediments accumulated on the lower parts of slopes, leading to the formation of very thick soils, like some
San Gimignano soils. Some aeolian sediments accumulated on soils placed on stable morphological
positions. It was the case of Poggio Golo soils, where the aeolian contribution increased the difference in
texture between the surface and subsurface horizons, but also somehow changed the chemistry of the soil, as
the bases brought with the aeolian dusts saturated again the cation exchange complex and raised pH, halting
or reducing notably clay lessivage. During the successive bronze ages and Etruscan and Roman civilizations,
the climatic conditions improved, and so did the land management.
Pedogenesis of San Gimignano, Strada, San Quirico, Quercia, Valiano and Valiano aquic soils took place
mainly during that time. A more or less developed structural subsurface horizon formed in all these soils, but
with very different functional characteristics. San Gimignano and Strada soils formed on marine sands,
rather permeable and quite easily weatherable, which promoted the leaching of marine salts and the genesis
of a thick horizon with subangular blocky aggregates, lined by organic matter and iron oxides, with a good
macroporosity. Below the combined action of vegetation and climate, sands could be easily broken down;
hence the firm
4 - 17
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 17 03/06/10 15:51
11
sandy soil parent material easily transformed into friable soil, with excellent rootability. Weathering of
primary minerals, aggregate dynamic, and mixing of marine layers of different particle size, operated by
erosion and colluviation, favoured the accumulation of fine material and the genesis of the loamy texture.
San Quirico and Quercia soils developed on marine clays and silts, almost impermeable and slowly
weatherable. The formation of the structured horizon was restricted to the depth of about one, one and half
meter. The aggregates were mainly cemented by clay particles and took an angular blocky or prismatic
shape, as a consequence of the wetting and dry cycles. Shrinking and swelling of clay aggregates were
particularly intense in Quercia soils, which acquired vertic properties (cracking soils). As a consequence,
macroporosity remained low, consistence firm, and permeability very low. Soil resistance to root penetration
was high and restricted root development. Rootability was further limited by salinity of the unleached,
massive deep soil horizons.
Valiano and Valiano aquic soils formed both on Pleistocene fluvial-lacustrine clay. The continental instead
of marine origin of sediments was the main cause of their much lower salt content. Low salinity and lack of
sediment consolidation favoured drainage of soil parent material and pedogenesis. Valiano soils, in
particular, although formed fromclays, developed thick deep horizons with well structured angular blocky
aggregates, which did not limited root penetration. On the other hand, Valiano aquic formed on more
instable slopes, so that pedogenesis was continuously offset by water erosion. As a consequence, aggregates
remained coarser and poorly developed. Microporosity dominated and internal drainage was constrained to
the planes between macroaggregates.
The last 40 years of the Holocene has been a period of strong but localized rhexistasy (Fig. 6). Huge land
levelling and earth movements by bulldozing caused soil scalping and outcropping of almost unweathered
sediments, which started a new cycle of pedogenesis, strongly ruled by man. This was particularly the case
of many vineyard soils. Cusona and Monte are the most common examples of these kind of soils at
Montepulciano, as well as in the province of Siena and in many other parts of Italy (Costantini and Barbetti,
2008). Below the plough layer, their characteristic are very likely to the substratum. Since both kind of soils
lack of a subsurface structured horizon, available water holding capacity is always very low, leaving vine
water uptake depending to a great extent on agricultural practices and on meteorology of the year. On the
other hand, Cusona and Monte soils greatly differ as for air capacity and salinity, in dependence of the
different nature of the substrate, so that Monte soils are the most limiting environments for vine at
Montepulciano.
CONCLUSIONS
The soils of the Montepulciano terroirs formed during different geological eras. In some cases their
development was a very long lasting process, which started during the Pleistocene, that is dozens of
thousands of years ago. It is important to underline that best soils for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine
production formed as a consequence of particular natural and human induced geomorphological events,
which are no more reproducible. Therefore soil functional characters of best Montepulciano terroirs are
precious and unique. Best terroirs not only fit the concept of cru (Seguin, 1986), but they can be also
considered a soil heritage and a legacy (Costantini and LAbate, 2009).
12
Man deeply influenced pedogenesis at Montepulciano since the mediumHolocene, that is, since about 5,000
years BP. While also in the past the effect of man on the environment was dramatic, comparable to that of
major geological events, it is during the last 50 years that the intensity of the man action has reached its
maximum. With the advent of heavy mechanization and bulldozing, the pre-plantation activities of the new
specialized vineyards upset the land, leaving very different effects on soil functional characters, in function of
the original soil type. Where the soils before vine plantation were deep and rather homogeneous, like San
Gimignano, Poggio Golo, Valiano and Valiano aquic, soil functional characters remained the same, whereas
they changed significantly where soils were shallower. Soils on marine clays, in particular, due to the slow
pedogenesis, were often shallow and vulnerable. Therefore San Quirico and Quercia soils could be easily
converted into Monte soils, having worse functional characters for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine.
Nevertheless, not always the consequences were negative. Cusona soils, for instance, which originated from
Strada soils, had better functional qualities for Sangiovese wine.
As a final remark, it seems worthwhile to stress that the impact of land levelling and earth movements on soil
functional characters should always be considered more carefully than currently done at Montepulciano, as
well as in many other viticultural territories. On top of that, it is recommended that soils of the best terroirs,
formed in an irreproducible past, will be treated as cultural heritage, and therefore protected fromdestruction.
Figure 1 The sea left the Montepulciano territory during the Middle Pliocene, leaving a thick
succession of sediments, mainly sandy at the top. The Mesozoic isolated reliefs are part of the
Chianti Centona mount ridge.
4 - 18
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 18 03/06/10 15:51
11
sandy soil parent material easily transformed into friable soil, with excellent rootability. Weathering of
primary minerals, aggregate dynamic, and mixing of marine layers of different particle size, operated by
erosion and colluviation, favoured the accumulation of fine material and the genesis of the loamy texture.
San Quirico and Quercia soils developed on marine clays and silts, almost impermeable and slowly
weatherable. The formation of the structured horizon was restricted to the depth of about one, one and half
meter. The aggregates were mainly cemented by clay particles and took an angular blocky or prismatic
shape, as a consequence of the wetting and dry cycles. Shrinking and swelling of clay aggregates were
particularly intense in Quercia soils, which acquired vertic properties (cracking soils). As a consequence,
macroporosity remained low, consistence firm, and permeability very low. Soil resistance to root penetration
was high and restricted root development. Rootability was further limited by salinity of the unleached,
massive deep soil horizons.
Valiano and Valiano aquic soils formed both on Pleistocene fluvial-lacustrine clay. The continental instead
of marine origin of sediments was the main cause of their much lower salt content. Low salinity and lack of
sediment consolidation favoured drainage of soil parent material and pedogenesis. Valiano soils, in
particular, although formed fromclays, developed thick deep horizons with well structured angular blocky
aggregates, which did not limited root penetration. On the other hand, Valiano aquic formed on more
instable slopes, so that pedogenesis was continuously offset by water erosion. As a consequence, aggregates
remained coarser and poorly developed. Microporosity dominated and internal drainage was constrained to
the planes between macroaggregates.
The last 40 years of the Holocene has been a period of strong but localized rhexistasy (Fig. 6). Huge land
levelling and earth movements by bulldozing caused soil scalping and outcropping of almost unweathered
sediments, which started a new cycle of pedogenesis, strongly ruled by man. This was particularly the case
of many vineyard soils. Cusona and Monte are the most common examples of these kind of soils at
Montepulciano, as well as in the province of Siena and in many other parts of Italy (Costantini and Barbetti,
2008). Below the plough layer, their characteristic are very likely to the substratum. Since both kind of soils
lack of a subsurface structured horizon, available water holding capacity is always very low, leaving vine
water uptake depending to a great extent on agricultural practices and on meteorology of the year. On the
other hand, Cusona and Monte soils greatly differ as for air capacity and salinity, in dependence of the
different nature of the substrate, so that Monte soils are the most limiting environments for vine at
Montepulciano.
CONCLUSIONS
The soils of the Montepulciano terroirs formed during different geological eras. In some cases their
development was a very long lasting process, which started during the Pleistocene, that is dozens of
thousands of years ago. It is important to underline that best soils for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine
production formed as a consequence of particular natural and human induced geomorphological events,
which are no more reproducible. Therefore soil functional characters of best Montepulciano terroirs are
precious and unique. Best terroirs not only fit the concept of cru (Seguin, 1986), but they can be also
considered a soil heritage and a legacy (Costantini and LAbate, 2009).
12
Man deeply influenced pedogenesis at Montepulciano since the mediumHolocene, that is, since about 5,000
years BP. While also in the past the effect of man on the environment was dramatic, comparable to that of
major geological events, it is during the last 50 years that the intensity of the man action has reached its
maximum. With the advent of heavy mechanization and bulldozing, the pre-plantation activities of the new
specialized vineyards upset the land, leaving very different effects on soil functional characters, in function of
the original soil type. Where the soils before vine plantation were deep and rather homogeneous, like San
Gimignano, Poggio Golo, Valiano and Valiano aquic, soil functional characters remained the same, whereas
they changed significantly where soils were shallower. Soils on marine clays, in particular, due to the slow
pedogenesis, were often shallow and vulnerable. Therefore San Quirico and Quercia soils could be easily
converted into Monte soils, having worse functional characters for the Nobile di Montepulciano wine.
Nevertheless, not always the consequences were negative. Cusona soils, for instance, which originated from
Strada soils, had better functional qualities for Sangiovese wine.
As a final remark, it seems worthwhile to stress that the impact of land levelling and earth movements on soil
functional characters should always be considered more carefully than currently done at Montepulciano, as
well as in many other viticultural territories. On top of that, it is recommended that soils of the best terroirs,
formed in an irreproducible past, will be treated as cultural heritage, and therefore protected fromdestruction.
Figure 1 The sea left the Montepulciano territory during the Middle Pliocene, leaving a thick
succession of sediments, mainly sandy at the top. The Mesozoic isolated reliefs are part of the
Chianti Centona mount ridge.
4 - 19
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 19 03/06/10 15:51
13
Figure 2 During Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (Villafranchian) the Montepulciano
territory was first incised and then filled up with lacustrine deposits.
Figure 3 During Middle and Late Pleistocene the Villafranchian lacustrine sediments were
eroded and filled up with new fluvial and lacustrine deposits. Several fluvial terraces formed
along the Val di Chiana paleo valley, which was at that time crossed by a southward streaming
river, the paleo Arno. The deposits on the terraces and hilly lands underwent a rather intense
and prolonged pedogenesis, leading to the formation of well developed soils.
14
Figure 4 During Early Holocene the morphology of the Montepulciano territory was very
similar to the present. The progressive filling up of the valley caused a further swamping of the
lowlands, while tectonic movements led to the reversion of the drainage of the paleo Arno river.
Poggio Golo soils dominated on the fluvial terraces formed in the previous geological era.
Figure 5 Neolithic/Early Bronze age was a time of severe erosion of soils on slopes. Human
settlements developed and forests were cleared. The reduced soil cover, combined with a climate
deterioration, with dry spells and strong winds, led to a sharp increase of water and wind erosion.
Colluvial sediments accumulated on the lower parts of slopes, leading to the formation of very
thick soils, like some San Gimignano soils. Some aeolian sediments accumulated on soils placed
on stable morphological positions. During the successive bronze ages and Etruscan and Roman
civilizations, the climatic conditions improved, and so did the land management. Pedogenesis of
Valiano, San Gimignano, Strada, San Quirico, and Quercia soils took place during that time.
4 - 20
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 20 03/06/10 15:51
13
Figure 2 During Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (Villafranchian) the Montepulciano
territory was first incised and then filled up with lacustrine deposits.
Figure 3 During Middle and Late Pleistocene the Villafranchian lacustrine sediments were
eroded and filled up with new fluvial and lacustrine deposits. Several fluvial terraces formed
along the Val di Chiana paleo valley, which was at that time crossed by a southward streaming
river, the paleo Arno. The deposits on the terraces and hilly lands underwent a rather intense
and prolonged pedogenesis, leading to the formation of well developed soils.
14
Figure 4 During Early Holocene the morphology of the Montepulciano territory was very
similar to the present. The progressive filling up of the valley caused a further swamping of the
lowlands, while tectonic movements led to the reversion of the drainage of the paleo Arno river.
Poggio Golo soils dominated on the fluvial terraces formed in the previous geological era.
Figure 5 Neolithic/Early Bronze age was a time of severe erosion of soils on slopes. Human
settlements developed and forests were cleared. The reduced soil cover, combined with a climate
deterioration, with dry spells and strong winds, led to a sharp increase of water and wind erosion.
Colluvial sediments accumulated on the lower parts of slopes, leading to the formation of very
thick soils, like some San Gimignano soils. Some aeolian sediments accumulated on soils placed
on stable morphological positions. During the successive bronze ages and Etruscan and Roman
civilizations, the climatic conditions improved, and so did the land management. Pedogenesis of
Valiano, San Gimignano, Strada, San Quirico, and Quercia soils took place during that time.
4 - 21
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 21 03/06/10 15:51
15
Figure 6 The last 40 years of the Holocene has been a period of strong but localized
rhexistasy. Huge land levelling and earth movements by bulldozing caused soil scalping and
outcropping of almost unweathered sediments, which started a new pedogenesis. This was
particularly the case of vineyard soils. Cusona and Monte are the most common example of these
kind of soils.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Campostrini F., Costantini E.A.C., Mattivi F., Nicolini G., 1997. Effect of Terroir on quanti-
qualitative paramethers of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. In: 1er colloque international
les terroirs viticoles. Angers, France: INRA. 461-468.
Consorzio Tutela Vini Soave e Recioto di Soave. Soave (VR), Italy.
Capezzuoli E., Priori S., Costantini E.A.C., Sandrelli F., 2009. Stratigraphic and
paleopedological aspects from the Middle Pleistocene continental deposits of the southern
Valdelsa Basin. Ital. i Geosci. (Boll. Soc. Geo. It.). 128, 2:395-406.
Carey V.A., Archer E., Barbeau G., Saayman D., 2008. Viticultural terroirs in Stellenbosch,
South Africa. II. The interaction of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc with
environment i Int. Sci. Vigne Vin, 42, 4:185-201.
Chapman D.M., Roby G., Ebeler S.E., Guinard J.X., Matthews, M.A., 2005. Sensory attributes of
Cabernet Sauvignon wines made from vines with different water status. Aust. i Grape
Wine Res., 11:339347.
1
6
Chon, X., Van Leeuwen C., Chry P., Ribreau-Gayon P., 2001.Terroir influence on water
status and nitrogen status of non-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera): Vegetative
development, must and wine composition. S. Af. J. Enol. Vitic., 22(1):8-15.
Costantini E.A.C., 1992. Study of the relationships between soil suitability for vine cultivation,
wine quality and soil erosion through a territorial approach. Geokoplus. III:1-14.
Costantini E.A.C., Barbetti R. 2008. Environmental and Visual Impact Analysis of Viticulture
and Olive Tree Cultivation in the Province of Siena (Italy). Europ. J. Agronomy 28:412
426.
Costantini E.A.C., Barbetti R., Bucelli P., LAbate G. Pellegrini S., Storchi P., 2008. Scale
dependence of soil and climate functional characteristics for qualitative Sangiovese vine
production. Proc. 31^ OIV congress Verona, CD-rom computer file. Org. Int. vigne et vin,
Paris, France
Costantini E.A.C., Campostrini F., Arcara P.G., Cherubini P., Storchi P., Pierucci M., 1996. Soil
and climate functional characters for grape ripening and wine quality of "Vino Nobile di
Montepulciano". Acta Hort. 427 ISHS,:45-55.
Costantini E.A.C., LAbate G., 2009. The soil cultural heritage of Italy: Geodatabase, maps, and
pedodiversity evaluation. Quaternary International, 209:142-153.
Costantini E.A.C., Lizio-Bruno F., 1996. I suoli del comprensorio vitivinicolo di Montepulciano.
Le loro caratteristiche, gli ambienti, i caratteri funzionali per la produzione di Vino Nobile
di Montepulciano. In: "Vino Nobile di Montepulciano: zonazione e valorizzazione delle
risorse naturali del territorio".F. Campostrini and E.A.C. Costantini. Firenze:Regione
Toscana. 47-74.
Costantini E.A.C., Priori S., 2007. Pedogenesis of plinthite during early Pliocene in the
Mediterranean environment. Case study of a buried paleosol at Podere Renieri, central Italy.
Catena, 71: 425443.
Costantini E. A. C., Pellegrini S., Bucelli P., Storchi P., Vignozzi N., Barbetti R., Campagnolo S.,
2009a. Relevance of the Lins and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield
and wine quality. Hydrology and Earth SystemSciences, 13:1635-1648
Costantini E.A.C., Priori S., Urban B., Hilgers A., Sauer D., Protano G., Trombino L., 2009b.
Multidisciplinary characterization of the middle Holocene eolian deposits of the Elsa River
basin (central Italy). Quaternary International, 209:107-130
Deluc L.G., Quilici D.R., Decendit A., Grimplet J., Wheatley M.D., Schlauch K.A., Mrillon
J.M., (...), Cramer G.R., 2009. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways
affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and
Chardonnay. BMCGenomics, 10, art. no. 212.
Ferrari G. A., Magaldi D., 1978. Sedimentologia e micropedologia dei paleosuoli sul terrazzo
principale della Valdichiana (Arezzo). Geogr. Fis. e Dinam. Quat., 1:63-75.
Freeman B.M., Kliewer W.M., Stern P., 1982. Influence of windbreaks and climatic region on
diurnal fluctuation of leafwater potential, stomatal conductance, and leaf temperature of
grapevines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 33:233-236.
Fregoni M., 2005. Viticoltura di qualit. Affi (VR):Phytoline.
Hale C.R., 1977. Relation between potassium and the malate and tartrate contents of grape
berries. Vitis, 16:9-19.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil
Resources Reports 103. 2nd edition. Rome: FAO.
4 - 22
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 22 03/06/10 15:51
15
Figure 6 The last 40 years of the Holocene has been a period of strong but localized
rhexistasy. Huge land levelling and earth movements by bulldozing caused soil scalping and
outcropping of almost unweathered sediments, which started a new pedogenesis. This was
particularly the case of vineyard soils. Cusona and Monte are the most common example of these
kind of soils.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Campostrini F., Costantini E.A.C., Mattivi F., Nicolini G., 1997. Effect of Terroir on quanti-
qualitative paramethers of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. In: 1er colloque international
les terroirs viticoles. Angers, France: INRA. 461-468.
Consorzio Tutela Vini Soave e Recioto di Soave. Soave (VR), Italy.
Capezzuoli E., Priori S., Costantini E.A.C., Sandrelli F., 2009. Stratigraphic and
paleopedological aspects from the Middle Pleistocene continental deposits of the southern
Valdelsa Basin. Ital. i Geosci. (Boll. Soc. Geo. It.). 128, 2:395-406.
Carey V.A., Archer E., Barbeau G., Saayman D., 2008. Viticultural terroirs in Stellenbosch,
South Africa. II. The interaction of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc with
environment i Int. Sci. Vigne Vin, 42, 4:185-201.
Chapman D.M., Roby G., Ebeler S.E., Guinard J.X., Matthews, M.A., 2005. Sensory attributes of
Cabernet Sauvignon wines made from vines with different water status. Aust. i Grape
Wine Res., 11:339347.
1
6
Chon, X., Van Leeuwen C., Chry P., Ribreau-Gayon P., 2001.Terroir influence on water
status and nitrogen status of non-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera): Vegetative
development, must and wine composition. S. Af. J. Enol. Vitic., 22(1):8-15.
Costantini E.A.C., 1992. Study of the relationships between soil suitability for vine cultivation,
wine quality and soil erosion through a territorial approach. Geokoplus. III:1-14.
Costantini E.A.C., Barbetti R. 2008. Environmental and Visual Impact Analysis of Viticulture
and Olive Tree Cultivation in the Province of Siena (Italy). Europ. J. Agronomy 28:412
426.
Costantini E.A.C., Barbetti R., Bucelli P., LAbate G. Pellegrini S., Storchi P., 2008. Scale
dependence of soil and climate functional characteristics for qualitative Sangiovese vine
production. Proc. 31^ OIV congress Verona, CD-rom computer file. Org. Int. vigne et vin,
Paris, France
Costantini E.A.C., Campostrini F., Arcara P.G., Cherubini P., Storchi P., Pierucci M., 1996. Soil
and climate functional characters for grape ripening and wine quality of "Vino Nobile di
Montepulciano". Acta Hort. 427 ISHS,:45-55.
Costantini E.A.C., LAbate G., 2009. The soil cultural heritage of Italy: Geodatabase, maps, and
pedodiversity evaluation. Quaternary International, 209:142-153.
Costantini E.A.C., Lizio-Bruno F., 1996. I suoli del comprensorio vitivinicolo di Montepulciano.
Le loro caratteristiche, gli ambienti, i caratteri funzionali per la produzione di Vino Nobile
di Montepulciano. In: "Vino Nobile di Montepulciano: zonazione e valorizzazione delle
risorse naturali del territorio".F. Campostrini and E.A.C. Costantini. Firenze:Regione
Toscana. 47-74.
Costantini E.A.C., Priori S., 2007. Pedogenesis of plinthite during early Pliocene in the
Mediterranean environment. Case study of a buried paleosol at Podere Renieri, central Italy.
Catena, 71: 425443.
Costantini E. A. C., Pellegrini S., Bucelli P., Storchi P., Vignozzi N., Barbetti R., Campagnolo S.,
2009a. Relevance of the Lins and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield
and wine quality. Hydrology and Earth SystemSciences, 13:1635-1648
Costantini E.A.C., Priori S., Urban B., Hilgers A., Sauer D., Protano G., Trombino L., 2009b.
Multidisciplinary characterization of the middle Holocene eolian deposits of the Elsa River
basin (central Italy). Quaternary International, 209:107-130
Deluc L.G., Quilici D.R., Decendit A., Grimplet J., Wheatley M.D., Schlauch K.A., Mrillon
J.M., (...), Cramer G.R., 2009. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways
affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and
Chardonnay. BMCGenomics, 10, art. no. 212.
Ferrari G. A., Magaldi D., 1978. Sedimentologia e micropedologia dei paleosuoli sul terrazzo
principale della Valdichiana (Arezzo). Geogr. Fis. e Dinam. Quat., 1:63-75.
Freeman B.M., Kliewer W.M., Stern P., 1982. Influence of windbreaks and climatic region on
diurnal fluctuation of leafwater potential, stomatal conductance, and leaf temperature of
grapevines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 33:233-236.
Fregoni M., 2005. Viticoltura di qualit. Affi (VR):Phytoline.
Hale C.R., 1977. Relation between potassium and the malate and tartrate contents of grape
berries. Vitis, 16:9-19.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil
Resources Reports 103. 2nd edition. Rome: FAO.
4 - 23
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 23 03/06/10 15:51
1
7
Kao YY, Harding SA, Tsai CJ, 2002. Differential expression of two distinct phenylalanine
ammonia-lyase genes incondensedtannin-accumulating andlignifyingcells of quaking
aspen. Plant Physiology. 130:756-760.
Losacco U., 1944. Il bacino postpliocenico della Valdichiana. L'Universo, 2:45-71.
Lanyon D.M, Cass A., Hansen. D., 2004. The effect of soil properties on vine performance.
CSIROLand andWater Technical Report No. 34/04
Maltman A., 2008. The Role of Vineyard Geology in Wine Typicity. J. Wine Research., 19,1:1-
17.
Meinert L.D., BusaccaA.J., 2000. Geology andWine 3: Terroirs of the WallaWallaValley
appellation, southeastern Washington State, USA. Geoscience Canada, 27:149170.
Myburgh, P.A., VanZuyl, J.L., Conradie, W.J., 1996. Effect of soil depth ongrowthandwater
consumption of young vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir. South African J. Enol. Vitic., 17: 53
62.
Nikolaou N., Magdalini N., Koukourikou A., Karagiannidis N., 2000. Effects of various
rootstocks onxylemexudates cytokinincontent, nutrient uptakeandgrowthpatterns of
grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson seedless. Agronomie, 20:363373.
Panont C.A., Bogoni M., Montoldi A., Scienza A., 1997. Improvement of sparkling wines
production by a zoning approach in Franciacorta (Lombardy, Italy). In: Acts Colloque
international Les terroirs viticoles, Angers, 17-18 juillet 1996, 454-460.
Peyrot des Gachons C., Van Leeuwen C., Tominaga T., Soyer J.P., Gaudillre J.P., Dubourdieu
D., 2005. Influence of water and nitrogen deficit on fruit ripening and aroma potential of
Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc in field conditions. J. Sci. Food Agric., 85:7385.
Priori S., Costantini E.A.C., Capezzuoli E., Protano G., Hilgers A., Sauer D., Sandrelli F. (2008).
Pedostratigraphy of Terra Rossa and Quaternary geological evolution of a lacustrine
limestone plateau in central Italy. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 171:509-523.
Seguin G., 1986. Terroirs and pedology of vine growing. Experientia, 42:861-873.
Scotti C., 2006. Emilia-Romagna: dalla conoscenza del suolo alla qualit del vino. Il suolo, 1-3
Stoll M., Stuebinger M., Lafontaine M., Schultz H. R., 2008. Radiative and thermal effects on
fruit ripeninginducedbydifferences insoil colour. VII International terroir Congress. Nyon
Trgoat O., Gaudillre J.P., Chon X., Van Leeuwen C., 2002.The assessment of vine water and
nitrogen uptake by means of physiological indicators. Influence on vine development and
berry potential. (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot, 2000, Bordeaux). J. Int. Sci.Vigne Vin,
36,(3):133-142.
USDA United States Department of Agriculture, 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy (eleventh
edition). 338.
VanLeeuwenC., Seguin G. 1997. Incidence de la nature dusol et ducpage sur la maturationdu
raisin, Saint emilion, en 1995.In: Colloque international Les terroirs viticoles, 17-18
juillet 1996. Angers, 154-157.
Van Leeuwen C., Friant P.,Chon X., Tregoat O., Koundouras S., Dubourdieu D., 2004.
Influence of Climate, Soil, and Cultivar on Terroir. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 55,3: 207-217.
Van Leeuwen C., Seguin G., 2006. 'The concept of terroir in viticulture', J. Wine Research,17, 1 :
1- 10
Vaudour E., 2003. Les terroirs viticoles. Dfinitions, caractrisation et protection. Ed. Dunod,
Paris, France.
White R. E. 2003. Soils for fine wines. NewYork: Oxford University Press.
1
8
White R., Balachandra L., Edis R., Chen D., 2007. The soil component of terroir. i Int. Sci.
Vigne Vin, 41, 1:9-18
Witbooi, E.H., V.A. Carey, J.E. Hoffman &A.E. Strever. 2008. The relationship between soil
surface colour and the performance of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in
Stellenbosch Wine of Origin District. I. Vegetative growth. In: Thirty First World Congress
of Vine and Wine and the Sixth General Assembly of the OIV, Verona, Italy.
Witbooi, E.H., V.A. Carey, J.E. Hoffman&A.E. Strever. 2008. The relationshipbetweensoil
surface colour and the performance of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in
Stellenbosch Wine of Origin District. II. Yield, berry and wine composition. In: Thirty
First World Congress of Vine and Wine and the Sixth General Assembly of the OIV,
Verona, Italy.
Zsfi Zs., Gl L., Szilgyi Z., SzLIcs E., Marschall M., Nagy Z., Blo B., 2009. Use of stomatal
conductance and pre-dawn water potential to classify terroir for the grape variety
Kkfrankos. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 15 (1):36-47
4 - 24
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 24 03/06/10 15:51
1
7
Kao YY, Harding SA, Tsai CJ, 2002. Differential expression of two distinct phenylalanine
ammonia-lyase genes incondensedtannin-accumulating andlignifyingcells of quaking
aspen. Plant Physiology. 130:756-760.
Losacco U., 1944. Il bacino postpliocenico della Valdichiana. L'Universo, 2:45-71.
Lanyon D.M, Cass A., Hansen. D., 2004. The effect of soil properties on vine performance.
CSIROLand andWater Technical Report No. 34/04
Maltman A., 2008. The Role of Vineyard Geology in Wine Typicity. J. Wine Research., 19,1:1-
17.
Meinert L.D., BusaccaA.J., 2000. Geology andWine 3: Terroirs of the WallaWallaValley
appellation, southeastern Washington State, USA. Geoscience Canada, 27:149170.
Myburgh, P.A., VanZuyl, J.L., Conradie, W.J., 1996. Effect of soil depth ongrowthandwater
consumption of young vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir. South African J. Enol. Vitic., 17: 53
62.
Nikolaou N., Magdalini N., Koukourikou A., Karagiannidis N., 2000. Effects of various
rootstocks onxylemexudates cytokinincontent, nutrient uptakeandgrowthpatterns of
grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson seedless. Agronomie, 20:363373.
Panont C.A., Bogoni M., Montoldi A., Scienza A., 1997. Improvement of sparkling wines
production by a zoning approach in Franciacorta (Lombardy, Italy). In: Acts Colloque
international Les terroirs viticoles, Angers, 17-18 juillet 1996, 454-460.
Peyrot des Gachons C., Van Leeuwen C., Tominaga T., Soyer J.P., Gaudillre J.P., Dubourdieu
D., 2005. Influence of water and nitrogen deficit on fruit ripening and aroma potential of
Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc in field conditions. J. Sci. Food Agric., 85:7385.
Priori S., Costantini E.A.C., Capezzuoli E., Protano G., Hilgers A., Sauer D., Sandrelli F. (2008).
Pedostratigraphy of Terra Rossa and Quaternary geological evolution of a lacustrine
limestone plateau in central Italy. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 171:509-523.
Seguin G., 1986. Terroirs and pedology of vine growing. Experientia, 42:861-873.
Scotti C., 2006. Emilia-Romagna: dalla conoscenza del suolo alla qualit del vino. Il suolo, 1-3
Stoll M., Stuebinger M., Lafontaine M., Schultz H. R., 2008. Radiative and thermal effects on
fruit ripeninginducedbydifferences insoil colour. VII International terroir Congress. Nyon
Trgoat O., Gaudillre J.P., Chon X., Van Leeuwen C., 2002.The assessment of vine water and
nitrogen uptake by means of physiological indicators. Influence on vine development and
berry potential. (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot, 2000, Bordeaux). J. Int. Sci.Vigne Vin,
36,(3):133-142.
USDA United States Department of Agriculture, 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy (eleventh
edition). 338.
VanLeeuwenC., Seguin G. 1997. Incidence de la nature dusol et ducpage sur la maturationdu
raisin, Saint emilion, en 1995.In: Colloque international Les terroirs viticoles, 17-18
juillet 1996. Angers, 154-157.
Van Leeuwen C., Friant P.,Chon X., Tregoat O., Koundouras S., Dubourdieu D., 2004.
Influence of Climate, Soil, and Cultivar on Terroir. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 55,3: 207-217.
Van Leeuwen C., Seguin G., 2006. 'The concept of terroir in viticulture', J. Wine Research,17, 1 :
1- 10
Vaudour E., 2003. Les terroirs viticoles. Dfinitions, caractrisation et protection. Ed. Dunod,
Paris, France.
White R. E. 2003. Soils for fine wines. NewYork: Oxford University Press.
1
8
White R., Balachandra L., Edis R., Chen D., 2007. The soil component of terroir. i Int. Sci.
Vigne Vin, 41, 1:9-18
Witbooi, E.H., V.A. Carey, J.E. Hoffman &A.E. Strever. 2008. The relationship between soil
surface colour and the performance of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in
Stellenbosch Wine of Origin District. I. Vegetative growth. In: Thirty First World Congress
of Vine and Wine and the Sixth General Assembly of the OIV, Verona, Italy.
Witbooi, E.H., V.A. Carey, J.E. Hoffman&A.E. Strever. 2008. The relationshipbetweensoil
surface colour and the performance of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in
Stellenbosch Wine of Origin District. II. Yield, berry and wine composition. In: Thirty
First World Congress of Vine and Wine and the Sixth General Assembly of the OIV,
Verona, Italy.
Zsfi Zs., Gl L., Szilgyi Z., SzLIcs E., Marschall M., Nagy Z., Blo B., 2009. Use of stomatal
conductance and pre-dawn water potential to classify terroir for the grape variety
Kkfrankos. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 15 (1):36-47
4 - 25
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 25 03/06/10 15:51
INFLUENCE OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS ON VINE GROWTH,
PLANT NUTRIENT LEVELS AND JUICE PROPERTIES:
A MULTI-YEAR ANALYSIS
J.-J. Lambert*
1
, J. Fujita
1
, C. Gruenwald
1
, R.A. Dahlgren
2
, H. Heymann
1
,
and J.A. Wolpert
1,3
1
Department of Viticulture and Enology,
2
Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis, and
3
UC
Cooperative Extension, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616 USA.
*Corresponding Author: jjlambert@ucdavis.edu
ABSTRACT
Soil physical and chemical properties affect vine nutrition, as indicated by leaf and petiole
nutrient content, in a way that may directly impact wine properties. The goal of this multi-year
project is to study the relationship between vineyard soils and the wines produced on them
using a variety of biogeochemical and mineral analyses, coupled with an analysis of vine
properties and juice characteristics. This study examines leaf and petiole nutrient levels, as
well as fruit and juice characteristics, of own-rooted Cabernet Sauvignon vines grown on four
distinct soil types in the same Paso Robles vineyard. The soils were classified as Palexeralfs,
Haploxeralfs, Haploxerolls and Haploxererts. The four soils exhibited important
morphological differences in color, coarse fragment content, texture, water holding capacity,
and hydraulic conductivity. The soils also showed important differences in chemical
characteristics and nutrient availability. The soils covered contiguous vineyard patches
planted with the same cultivar, on its own roots. The vineyard was irrigated and fertilized.
Mesoclimatic conditions and slope aspect were similar. Soils were analyzed for physical and
chemical differences to determine the influence of the four contrasting soil types on
differences in vine growth, water stress and plant nutrient levels. Differences in cation
exchange capacity and cationic balance in the soil solution appeared to affect nutrient
availability to the vines, and likely contributed to the observed differences in the plant and
fruit characteristics. Berries harvested on the four blocks exhibited different sensory attributes,
as determined by a tasting panel. In an analysis of data from three consecutive growing
seasons, many of the observed differences in plant vigor between vineyard blocks were
consistent from year to year, as were differences in fruit yield and juice properties. Taken
together, these findings support a role for soil texture, water and nutrient availability on vine
and fruit parameters, and emphasize that differences in soil properties within a single vineyard
may require site-specific management practices.
KEYWORDS
Soil Biogeochemistry Nutrients Leaf Petiole - Management
INTRODUCTION
The goal of this multi-year project is to study the relationship between vineyard soil
properties (i.e., mineralogy, nutrient levels, water availability), vine growth characteristics,
juice and wine properties. To date, although much speculation has been devoted to this topic
in the popular wine press, few studies have systematically evaluated the relationship between
soil characteristics, vine vigor and fruit or juice properties (Andrs-de-Prado et al., 2007;
1
Tomasi et al., 2006). Here we present results of an ongoing, multi-year study performed with
the cooperation of J. Lohr Vineyards, Paso Robles, CA. The company determined that soils
with different chemical and physical properties existed in a contiguous field of Cabernet
Sauvignon. The vines in this vineyard were planted at the same time, on the same rootstock,
and received similar management practices. Mesoclimatic conditions, as determined by
elevation and slope aspect, were also similar. Upon detailed analysis, the four soils were
found to be significantly different, and in an informal tasting, small lot wines prepared from
vines growing on each of the four sites were also perceived to have different sensory
properties. Field observations and laboratory analyses over three growing seasons revealed
consistent trends in vine vigor as well as leaf and petiole nutrient levels between sites.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Soil Analyses
Soil Sampling. Vineyard soils were sampled at four sites designated as Blocks 52, 53, 56
and 57. Two soil pits were excavated in each block, for a total of eight pits. Soil horizons were
described in the field following the National Cooperative Soil Survey field description manual
(Soil Survey Staff, 1993). A Trimble GeoXH GPS was used to georeference the pit locations
and vines, allowing for precise mapping of soil variability within the vineyard.
Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis. Solid-phase soil characterization was performed for
replicate samples from each site. Soil texture was analyzed by laser granulometry and by the
hydrometer method. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were measured in the laboratory using
a 1:1 soil:water paste. Soil samples were processed by passage through a 2 mm sieve to
separate coarse fragments from the fine earth fraction. Soil chemical analyses were performed
in the UC Davis DANR Analytical Laboratory for exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na),
CEC, pH, EC, total N, NO
3
, NH
4
, P, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Si, and B.
Soil Solution Chemistry. Soil solutions were collected in situ beginning in August, 2007
using implanted suction devices located at depths of 12, 24 and 36 inches under drip emitters.
Samples were collected twice: at harvest time and at two months post-harvest during Year 1,
and at monthly intervals during Year 2. The following parameters are being measured: pH,
EC, K, NO
3
, NH
4
, Si, B, CO
3
, SO
4
, Cl, Mg, Ca, and K; these analyses are ongoing.
Plant Analyses
Leaf Petiole and Blade Sampling. Leaf petioles and blades were collected from 3 sets of 10
replicate vines from 2 sampling sites within each of the four soil types, for a total of 240
vines. All vines were marked with identification tags, and vine locations were georeferenced.
Petiole and blade sampling was repeated at three phenological stages in 2007 and 2008:
bloom, veraison, and harvest. Bloom samples consisted of leaves located opposite the basal-
most cluster, while the most recent fully expanded leaves were collected at veraison and
harvest. At each sampling date, leaves and petioles were separated, air-dried at 60C, ground
at 60-mesh in a Wiley mill, and sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory at UC Davis for
analysis of total N, NO
3
, NH
4
, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Si, and B.
Plant and Soil Water Status. Mid-day plant water potentials () were measured manually
with a pressure bomb at bloom, veraison and harvest on the same vines within each vineyard
block. Soil moisture was measured at 30, 60 and 90 cm using TDR probes in embedded in soil
pit walls at four of the sampling sites. Canopy temperature sensors were installed at each site.
Temperature and moisture data are recorded at 30-minute intervals. Soil moisture content was
determined by gravimetric measurements in the laboratory, and the results compared to those
obtained using the TDR probe.
2
4 - 26
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 26 03/06/10 15:51
INFLUENCE OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS ON VINE GROWTH,
PLANT NUTRIENT LEVELS AND JUICE PROPERTIES:
A MULTI-YEAR ANALYSIS
J.-J. Lambert*
1
, J. Fujita
1
, C. Gruenwald
1
, R.A. Dahlgren
2
, H. Heymann
1
,
and J.A. Wolpert
1,3
1
Department of Viticulture and Enology,
2
Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis, and
3
UC
Cooperative Extension, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616 USA.
*Corresponding Author: jjlambert@ucdavis.edu
ABSTRACT
Soil physical and chemical properties affect vine nutrition, as indicated by leaf and petiole
nutrient content, in a way that may directly impact wine properties. The goal of this multi-year
project is to study the relationship between vineyard soils and the wines produced on them
using a variety of biogeochemical and mineral analyses, coupled with an analysis of vine
properties and juice characteristics. This study examines leaf and petiole nutrient levels, as
well as fruit and juice characteristics, of own-rooted Cabernet Sauvignon vines grown on four
distinct soil types in the same Paso Robles vineyard. The soils were classified as Palexeralfs,
Haploxeralfs, Haploxerolls and Haploxererts. The four soils exhibited important
morphological differences in color, coarse fragment content, texture, water holding capacity,
and hydraulic conductivity. The soils also showed important differences in chemical
characteristics and nutrient availability. The soils covered contiguous vineyard patches
planted with the same cultivar, on its own roots. The vineyard was irrigated and fertilized.
Mesoclimatic conditions and slope aspect were similar. Soils were analyzed for physical and
chemical differences to determine the influence of the four contrasting soil types on
differences in vine growth, water stress and plant nutrient levels. Differences in cation
exchange capacity and cationic balance in the soil solution appeared to affect nutrient
availability to the vines, and likely contributed to the observed differences in the plant and
fruit characteristics. Berries harvested on the four blocks exhibited different sensory attributes,
as determined by a tasting panel. In an analysis of data from three consecutive growing
seasons, many of the observed differences in plant vigor between vineyard blocks were
consistent from year to year, as were differences in fruit yield and juice properties. Taken
together, these findings support a role for soil texture, water and nutrient availability on vine
and fruit parameters, and emphasize that differences in soil properties within a single vineyard
may require site-specific management practices.
KEYWORDS
Soil Biogeochemistry Nutrients Leaf Petiole - Management
INTRODUCTION
The goal of this multi-year project is to study the relationship between vineyard soil
properties (i.e., mineralogy, nutrient levels, water availability), vine growth characteristics,
juice and wine properties. To date, although much speculation has been devoted to this topic
in the popular wine press, few studies have systematically evaluated the relationship between
soil characteristics, vine vigor and fruit or juice properties (Andrs-de-Prado et al., 2007;
1
Tomasi et al., 2006). Here we present results of an ongoing, multi-year study performed with
the cooperation of J. Lohr Vineyards, Paso Robles, CA. The company determined that soils
with different chemical and physical properties existed in a contiguous field of Cabernet
Sauvignon. The vines in this vineyard were planted at the same time, on the same rootstock,
and received similar management practices. Mesoclimatic conditions, as determined by
elevation and slope aspect, were also similar. Upon detailed analysis, the four soils were
found to be significantly different, and in an informal tasting, small lot wines prepared from
vines growing on each of the four sites were also perceived to have different sensory
properties. Field observations and laboratory analyses over three growing seasons revealed
consistent trends in vine vigor as well as leaf and petiole nutrient levels between sites.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Soil Analyses
Soil Sampling. Vineyard soils were sampled at four sites designated as Blocks 52, 53, 56
and 57. Two soil pits were excavated in each block, for a total of eight pits. Soil horizons were
described in the field following the National Cooperative Soil Survey field description manual
(Soil Survey Staff, 1993). A Trimble GeoXH GPS was used to georeference the pit locations
and vines, allowing for precise mapping of soil variability within the vineyard.
Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis. Solid-phase soil characterization was performed for
replicate samples from each site. Soil texture was analyzed by laser granulometry and by the
hydrometer method. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were measured in the laboratory using
a 1:1 soil:water paste. Soil samples were processed by passage through a 2 mm sieve to
separate coarse fragments from the fine earth fraction. Soil chemical analyses were performed
in the UC Davis DANR Analytical Laboratory for exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na),
CEC, pH, EC, total N, NO
3
, NH
4
, P, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Si, and B.
Soil Solution Chemistry. Soil solutions were collected in situ beginning in August, 2007
using implanted suction devices located at depths of 12, 24 and 36 inches under drip emitters.
Samples were collected twice: at harvest time and at two months post-harvest during Year 1,
and at monthly intervals during Year 2. The following parameters are being measured: pH,
EC, K, NO
3
, NH
4
, Si, B, CO
3
, SO
4
, Cl, Mg, Ca, and K; these analyses are ongoing.
Plant Analyses
Leaf Petiole and Blade Sampling. Leaf petioles and blades were collected from 3 sets of 10
replicate vines from 2 sampling sites within each of the four soil types, for a total of 240
vines. All vines were marked with identification tags, and vine locations were georeferenced.
Petiole and blade sampling was repeated at three phenological stages in 2007 and 2008:
bloom, veraison, and harvest. Bloom samples consisted of leaves located opposite the basal-
most cluster, while the most recent fully expanded leaves were collected at veraison and
harvest. At each sampling date, leaves and petioles were separated, air-dried at 60C, ground
at 60-mesh in a Wiley mill, and sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory at UC Davis for
analysis of total N, NO
3
, NH
4
, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Si, and B.
Plant and Soil Water Status. Mid-day plant water potentials () were measured manually
with a pressure bomb at bloom, veraison and harvest on the same vines within each vineyard
block. Soil moisture was measured at 30, 60 and 90 cm using TDR probes in embedded in soil
pit walls at four of the sampling sites. Canopy temperature sensors were installed at each site.
Temperature and moisture data are recorded at 30-minute intervals. Soil moisture content was
determined by gravimetric measurements in the laboratory, and the results compared to those
obtained using the TDR probe.
2
4 - 27
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 27 03/06/10 15:51
Vine Growth and Fruit Production. Vine trunk diameters were measured at heights of 25
and 50 cm. Root counts were determined in the field by hand counting root intercepts using a
10x10 cm counting grid. Vine canopy density was measured using a metering system,
developed by Dr. Mark Battany, UC Cooperative Extension, based on photovoltaic panels. At
harvest, fruit yield was determined by weighing the harvest and dividing by the number of
vines at each site. Berry clusters were counted and weighed. The number of berries per cluster
was counted for 20 to 25 clusters per group of observation vines. Pruning weights were
determined in late December 2007 and in January 2009 for all 240 tagged vines; this included
three groups of ten vines per soil sampling site.
Juice and Wine Analyses
At harvest, juice samples were analyzed for pH, sugar content (Brix), Total Acidity, Yeast
Available Nitrogen, and Free Amino Nitrogen (NOPA). Sensory analysis of berries is ongoing
in collaboration with Dr. Hildegarde Heymann, UC Davis. Sensory analysis panels have been
created using volunteers; 3 replicate tasting events have been held with the same tasting panel
comprised of 8 volunteers. Volunteers are blinded to the identity of the samples. Berries were
sampled from vines in each of the areas surrounding the 8 individual soil pits and
cryopreserved at -80C prior to tasting.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil characterization
The soils in the four vineyard plots were sampled and analyzed during the first year of the
study (Lambert et al., 2008). The four vineyard plots and the eight sampling sites (two per
plot) are shown in Fig. 1. The soils situated in the four vineyard blocks differed significantly
in chemical and physical properties. The soils in Blocks 56 and 57 were classified as distinct,
yet related Alfisols: the soil in Block 57 was a fine, smectitic, thermic Typic Palexeralfs and
the soil in Block 56 was a fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Typic Haploxeralfs. The
soils in Block 53 were typical of Vertisols: fine, smectitic, thermic Haploxererts with greater
than 30% clay content and a tendency to shrink/swell behavior. Finally, the soils in Block 52
had calcareous seams, laminar lime concretions and an angular, blocky structure in the
subsoil. These soils were characterized as Mollisols: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic
Calcic Haploxerolls (Lambert et al., 2008). Soil chemical analyses revealed several striking
differences between sites. Soil extract Nitrogen and Phosphorous were comparatively low in
the Mollisols. In addition, both the Mollisols and Vertisols had low K
+
availability throughout
the profiles. Potassium levels were higher in the Alfisols, but only in the superficial horizons.
Electrical conductivity was particularly high in the Ca-rich Mollisols and increased with
depth.

Plant tissue nutrient levels
Plant tissue (petiole and blade) levels of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium
(Mg) varied consistently between sites over the three-year study period. Vines grown on the
Haploxerolls (Mollisols) had consistently low levels of petiole and blade P at all three
phonological stages, approaching the threshold (0.1%) considered as deficient at harvest time
(Klein et al., 2000), as shown in Fig. 2. Vines grown on the Mollisols and on the Vertisols had
higher levels of petiole K at veraison and harvest than vines grown on Alfisols, as shown in
Fig. 3. This was also reflected in a high K/Mg ratio in petioles of vines grown on Mollisols
and Vertisols, suggesting Mg deficiency (data not shown) (Delas, 1996). Conversely, petiole
Mg levels were highest at veraison and harvest in vines grown on the Alfisols. Petiole Mn
3
levels were consistently low in vines grown in the calcic Mollisols, as explained by the
insolubility of Mn in calcareous soils with pH 7.5-8 (data not shown). Petiole N levels showed
no significant variation between sites.
Figure 1. Four contrasting soil types in a Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. Soil
types and block numbers are shown. Numbered white circles indicate the locations of soil
sampling pits.
Figure 2. Petiole and Blade P levels are consistently low in plants grown on Calcic
Mollisols. Data shown are three-year averages (2007, 08, 09). Numbers indicate pit sampling
sites as seen in Fig. 1; sites 3 and 7 were located in Block 52 (Mollisol).
Plant vigor and fruit yields
Plant root counts varied considerably with soil type. In the Alfisols, the presence of a
compacted layer at depth prevented significant root penetration beyond 40-50 cm. In the
Mollisols, root density was greatest at depths below 50 cm, likely due to the high salt content
and electrical conductivity at the surface horizon. The Vertisols were characterized by good
4
4 - 28
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 28 03/06/10 15:51
Vine Growth and Fruit Production. Vine trunk diameters were measured at heights of 25
and 50 cm. Root counts were determined in the field by hand counting root intercepts using a
10x10 cm counting grid. Vine canopy density was measured using a metering system,
developed by Dr. Mark Battany, UC Cooperative Extension, based on photovoltaic panels. At
harvest, fruit yield was determined by weighing the harvest and dividing by the number of
vines at each site. Berry clusters were counted and weighed. The number of berries per cluster
was counted for 20 to 25 clusters per group of observation vines. Pruning weights were
determined in late December 2007 and in January 2009 for all 240 tagged vines; this included
three groups of ten vines per soil sampling site.
Juice and Wine Analyses
At harvest, juice samples were analyzed for pH, sugar content (Brix), Total Acidity, Yeast
Available Nitrogen, and Free Amino Nitrogen (NOPA). Sensory analysis of berries is ongoing
in collaboration with Dr. Hildegarde Heymann, UC Davis. Sensory analysis panels have been
created using volunteers; 3 replicate tasting events have been held with the same tasting panel
comprised of 8 volunteers. Volunteers are blinded to the identity of the samples. Berries were
sampled from vines in each of the areas surrounding the 8 individual soil pits and
cryopreserved at -80C prior to tasting.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil characterization
The soils in the four vineyard plots were sampled and analyzed during the first year of the
study (Lambert et al., 2008). The four vineyard plots and the eight sampling sites (two per
plot) are shown in Fig. 1. The soils situated in the four vineyard blocks differed significantly
in chemical and physical properties. The soils in Blocks 56 and 57 were classified as distinct,
yet related Alfisols: the soil in Block 57 was a fine, smectitic, thermic Typic Palexeralfs and
the soil in Block 56 was a fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Typic Haploxeralfs. The
soils in Block 53 were typical of Vertisols: fine, smectitic, thermic Haploxererts with greater
than 30% clay content and a tendency to shrink/swell behavior. Finally, the soils in Block 52
had calcareous seams, laminar lime concretions and an angular, blocky structure in the
subsoil. These soils were characterized as Mollisols: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic
Calcic Haploxerolls (Lambert et al., 2008). Soil chemical analyses revealed several striking
differences between sites. Soil extract Nitrogen and Phosphorous were comparatively low in
the Mollisols. In addition, both the Mollisols and Vertisols had low K
+
availability throughout
the profiles. Potassium levels were higher in the Alfisols, but only in the superficial horizons.
Electrical conductivity was particularly high in the Ca-rich Mollisols and increased with
depth.

Plant tissue nutrient levels
Plant tissue (petiole and blade) levels of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium
(Mg) varied consistently between sites over the three-year study period. Vines grown on the
Haploxerolls (Mollisols) had consistently low levels of petiole and blade P at all three
phonological stages, approaching the threshold (0.1%) considered as deficient at harvest time
(Klein et al., 2000), as shown in Fig. 2. Vines grown on the Mollisols and on the Vertisols had
higher levels of petiole K at veraison and harvest than vines grown on Alfisols, as shown in
Fig. 3. This was also reflected in a high K/Mg ratio in petioles of vines grown on Mollisols
and Vertisols, suggesting Mg deficiency (data not shown) (Delas, 1996). Conversely, petiole
Mg levels were highest at veraison and harvest in vines grown on the Alfisols. Petiole Mn
3
levels were consistently low in vines grown in the calcic Mollisols, as explained by the
insolubility of Mn in calcareous soils with pH 7.5-8 (data not shown). Petiole N levels showed
no significant variation between sites.
Figure 1. Four contrasting soil types in a Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. Soil
types and block numbers are shown. Numbered white circles indicate the locations of soil
sampling pits.
Figure 2. Petiole and Blade P levels are consistently low in plants grown on Calcic
Mollisols. Data shown are three-year averages (2007, 08, 09). Numbers indicate pit sampling
sites as seen in Fig. 1; sites 3 and 7 were located in Block 52 (Mollisol).
Plant vigor and fruit yields
Plant root counts varied considerably with soil type. In the Alfisols, the presence of a
compacted layer at depth prevented significant root penetration beyond 40-50 cm. In the
Mollisols, root density was greatest at depths below 50 cm, likely due to the high salt content
and electrical conductivity at the surface horizon. The Vertisols were characterized by good
4
4 - 29
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 29 03/06/10 15:51
water distribution throughout the profile, and the presence of macropores allowed root
penetration to depths below 100 cm.
Differences in fruit harvest weights were subtle between sites, with vines grown on the
Mollisols having lower yields than those grown on other soil types (Lambert et al., 2008).
Although this trend was consistent from year to year, it only reached statistical significance in
the 2008 season. Differences in cluster and berry weight between sites were also subtle, but a
similar trend was apparent, with weights generally lowest in vines grown on the Mollisols
(data not shown).
Figure 3. Petiole and Blade K levels cluster by soil type. This trend was most apparent at
veraison and harvest, when Petiole K levels were highest in vines grown on Mollisols or
Vertisols, and lowest in vines grown on Alfisols. Data shown are three-year averages (2007,
08, 09). Numbers indicate pit sampling sites as seen in Fig. 1.
Berry flavor components
Preliminary analysis of results from sensory analysis of berries revealed clustering of flavor
components with soil types, with vegetal notes and sourness attributed to wines prepared on
the Mollisols (data not shown). These analyses are still in progress along with chemical
analyses of small-lot wines prepared from each of the four vineyard plots.
CONCLUSIONS
Detailed characterization of soils on the four vineyard plots revealed four distinct soil types.
Blocks 56 and 57 contained two related Alfisols. The soils in block 57 had loamy/sandy loam
topsoil and clayey subsoil with an abrupt textural change. Block 56 contained shallower, less
developed Alfisols characterized as Haploxeralfs. Block 53 contained Vertisols, characterized
by greater than 30% clay content and a tendency to shrink/swell behavior. Lastly, the soils in
Block 52 were characterized as Mollisols: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Calcic
5
Bloom K
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
7
3
Blade K (%)
Veraison K
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6
7
2
3
Alfisols
Blade K (%)
Harvest K
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6
7
2
3
Alfisols
Blade K (%)
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
SUMMARY
Blade K (%)
Haploxerolls. These soils had calcareous seams, laminar lime concretions and an angular
blocky structure in the subsoil.
Analysis of plant tissue nutrient levels revealed consistent trends over the three-year study
period. Vines grown on the Mollisols had consistently low levels of petiole and blade P at
bloom, veraison and harvest. Petiole and Blade P levels were closely correlated. Vines grown
on the Mollisols and Vertisols had higher levels of petiole K at veraison and harvest than
vines grown on Alfisols. This was also reflected in a high K/Mg ratio in petioles of vines
grown on Mollisols and Vertisols, suggesting Mg deficiency. Some nutrients, such as N,
showed no significant variation between soil types.
As reported previously (Lambert et al., 2008), the Alfisol in Block 57-5 and the Mollisol in
Block 52-3 gave contrasting results in terms of vine, fruit and juice characteristics. Vines
grown in the Alfisol had average to high diameters, and the highest fruit yield per vine in
terms of weight and cluster number. Juice from these vines also had the highest Brix and
lowest total acidity during the first two years of the study. In contrast, vines grown in the
Mollisol had the lowest vine diameters in the study, the highest root density at depth, the
lowest fruit yield per vine, and the lowest cluster weights. Juice from these vines had the
lowest Brix and among the highest total acidity values. Vines grown on the two other soils
showed intermediate characteristics.
Thus, in this study comparing Cabernet Sauvignon grapes of a single clone, on its own
roots, grown in four distinct soil types within a single vineyard, vines grown on contrasting
soil types had different growth characteristics that were reflected in differences in plant
nutrient levels and differences in fruit yield and juice properties. Additional chemical and
sensory analyses of grape juice and small lot wines are underway.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the J. Lohr Winery, Paso Robles, CA, for field assistance and continuous
support. We thank Anji Perry and Kim Adams, Viticulturists, J. Lohr Winery, for assistance
in the field. This project is supported by the American Vineyard Foundation (AVF).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Andrs-de-Prado, R., M. Yste-Rojas, X. Sort, C. Andrs-Lacueva, M. Torres and R.M.
Lamuela-Raventos. 2007. Effect of soil type on wines produced from vitis vinifera L. Cv.
Grenache in commercial vineyards. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:779-786.
Delas, J., 2000. Fertilisation de la vigne. First Edition. Bordeaux: Editions Fret.
Klein, I., Strime, M., Fanberstein, L., and Mani, Y. 2000. Irrigation and fertigation effects on
phosphorus and potassium nutrition of winegrapes. Vitis 39:55-62.
Lambert, J.J., McElrone, A., Battany, M., Dahlgren, R.A., and Wolpert, J.A. 2008. Influence
of soil type and changes in soil solution chemistry on vine growth parameters and grape and
wine quality in a central coast California Vineyard. In: Proceedings of the VII
th
International
Terroir Congress, C. Van Leuwen, Ed., Nyon, Switzerland: International Organization of
Vineyards and Wines (OIV). Vol. 1:38-44.
Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manual, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture Handbook 18. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.
Tomasi, D., P. Belvini, G. Pascarella, P. Sivilotti, and C. Giulivo. 2006. L'effetto del suolo
sulla resa e sulla qualita dei vitigni Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc e Merlot. VigniVini
33:59-65.
6
4 - 30
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 30 03/06/10 15:51
water distribution throughout the profile, and the presence of macropores allowed root
penetration to depths below 100 cm.
Differences in fruit harvest weights were subtle between sites, with vines grown on the
Mollisols having lower yields than those grown on other soil types (Lambert et al., 2008).
Although this trend was consistent from year to year, it only reached statistical significance in
the 2008 season. Differences in cluster and berry weight between sites were also subtle, but a
similar trend was apparent, with weights generally lowest in vines grown on the Mollisols
(data not shown).
Figure 3. Petiole and Blade K levels cluster by soil type. This trend was most apparent at
veraison and harvest, when Petiole K levels were highest in vines grown on Mollisols or
Vertisols, and lowest in vines grown on Alfisols. Data shown are three-year averages (2007,
08, 09). Numbers indicate pit sampling sites as seen in Fig. 1.
Berry flavor components
Preliminary analysis of results from sensory analysis of berries revealed clustering of flavor
components with soil types, with vegetal notes and sourness attributed to wines prepared on
the Mollisols (data not shown). These analyses are still in progress along with chemical
analyses of small-lot wines prepared from each of the four vineyard plots.
CONCLUSIONS
Detailed characterization of soils on the four vineyard plots revealed four distinct soil types.
Blocks 56 and 57 contained two related Alfisols. The soils in block 57 had loamy/sandy loam
topsoil and clayey subsoil with an abrupt textural change. Block 56 contained shallower, less
developed Alfisols characterized as Haploxeralfs. Block 53 contained Vertisols, characterized
by greater than 30% clay content and a tendency to shrink/swell behavior. Lastly, the soils in
Block 52 were characterized as Mollisols: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic Calcic
5
Bloom K
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
7
3
Blade K (%)
Veraison K
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6
7
2
3
Alfisols
Blade K (%)
Harvest K
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6
7
2
3
Alfisols
Blade K (%)
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
SUMMARY
Blade K (%)
Haploxerolls. These soils had calcareous seams, laminar lime concretions and an angular
blocky structure in the subsoil.
Analysis of plant tissue nutrient levels revealed consistent trends over the three-year study
period. Vines grown on the Mollisols had consistently low levels of petiole and blade P at
bloom, veraison and harvest. Petiole and Blade P levels were closely correlated. Vines grown
on the Mollisols and Vertisols had higher levels of petiole K at veraison and harvest than
vines grown on Alfisols. This was also reflected in a high K/Mg ratio in petioles of vines
grown on Mollisols and Vertisols, suggesting Mg deficiency. Some nutrients, such as N,
showed no significant variation between soil types.
As reported previously (Lambert et al., 2008), the Alfisol in Block 57-5 and the Mollisol in
Block 52-3 gave contrasting results in terms of vine, fruit and juice characteristics. Vines
grown in the Alfisol had average to high diameters, and the highest fruit yield per vine in
terms of weight and cluster number. Juice from these vines also had the highest Brix and
lowest total acidity during the first two years of the study. In contrast, vines grown in the
Mollisol had the lowest vine diameters in the study, the highest root density at depth, the
lowest fruit yield per vine, and the lowest cluster weights. Juice from these vines had the
lowest Brix and among the highest total acidity values. Vines grown on the two other soils
showed intermediate characteristics.
Thus, in this study comparing Cabernet Sauvignon grapes of a single clone, on its own
roots, grown in four distinct soil types within a single vineyard, vines grown on contrasting
soil types had different growth characteristics that were reflected in differences in plant
nutrient levels and differences in fruit yield and juice properties. Additional chemical and
sensory analyses of grape juice and small lot wines are underway.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the J. Lohr Winery, Paso Robles, CA, for field assistance and continuous
support. We thank Anji Perry and Kim Adams, Viticulturists, J. Lohr Winery, for assistance
in the field. This project is supported by the American Vineyard Foundation (AVF).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Andrs-de-Prado, R., M. Yste-Rojas, X. Sort, C. Andrs-Lacueva, M. Torres and R.M.
Lamuela-Raventos. 2007. Effect of soil type on wines produced from vitis vinifera L. Cv.
Grenache in commercial vineyards. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:779-786.
Delas, J., 2000. Fertilisation de la vigne. First Edition. Bordeaux: Editions Fret.
Klein, I., Strime, M., Fanberstein, L., and Mani, Y. 2000. Irrigation and fertigation effects on
phosphorus and potassium nutrition of winegrapes. Vitis 39:55-62.
Lambert, J.J., McElrone, A., Battany, M., Dahlgren, R.A., and Wolpert, J.A. 2008. Influence
of soil type and changes in soil solution chemistry on vine growth parameters and grape and
wine quality in a central coast California Vineyard. In: Proceedings of the VII
th
International
Terroir Congress, C. Van Leuwen, Ed., Nyon, Switzerland: International Organization of
Vineyards and Wines (OIV). Vol. 1:38-44.
Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manual, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture Handbook 18. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.
Tomasi, D., P. Belvini, G. Pascarella, P. Sivilotti, and C. Giulivo. 2006. L'effetto del suolo
sulla resa e sulla qualita dei vitigni Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc e Merlot. VigniVini
33:59-65.
6
4 - 31
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 31 03/06/10 15:51
PEDO-GEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GAILLAC PREMIRES
CTES TOPOSEQUENCES (TARN, SW FRANCE)
CONSEQUENCES ON MICRO-TERROIRS CHARACTERIZATION
Courjault-Rad Pierre
(1)
, Papa Marine
(1)
, Oliva Priscia
(1)
, Munoz Marguerite
(1)
and
Cazottes Alain
(2)
(1) Universit de Toulouse LMTG / UMR 5563 14, Avenue E. Belin 31400 Toulouse (France). Phone :
Email : pierrecr@lmtg.obs-mip.fr
(2) Domaine des Terrisses, 81600 Gaillac (France)
domaine.des.terrisses@wanadoo.fr
ABSTRACT
Drill-holes performed on a Gaillac appellation vineyard together with mineralogical and
chemical analyses on soils samples have given evidence of a micro-scale pedo-geological
variability leading to characterization of distinct micro-terroirs. This variability results from
the strong interdependence of water regime patterns and chemical element availability from
which pedo-geological wine typicity would emerge.
KEY-WORDS
Geochemistry - Microterroir Mineralogy Pedogenesis Solifluction Water regime
INTRODUCTION
The concept of terroir integrates all factors that work together to define region with specific
characteristics to match the needs of wine grapes that will produce high quality wine. These
factors start with the rocks and resulting soils through complex pedo-geological processes,
continue with climate and vineyard management practices and end with the winemakers art.
Herein, we consider the key pedo-geological factors of terroir: the parent rocks and the soils
and their subsequent physical-chemical evolutions.
Our purpose is to illustrate how parent rock characteristics guides the definition of micro-
terroirs on the basis of preliminary pedo-geological results acquired from vineyard plots
located in the Gaillac appellation in south-western France (Figure 1).
Till now, 3 planting areas have been empirically defined by the winegrowers in the studied
vineyard. From top to base of slope (see location on Figure 2), grapevine varieties were
planted following especially local-scale climatic parameters as follows:
- sweet white wines area (Mauzac and Loin de loeil grapevine varieties) situated at the top of
the valley slope characterized by the warmest microclimatic conditions,
- red wines area (Duras, Fer Servadou and Syrah grapevine varieties) in mid-part of the slope,
- dry white wines area (Loin de lil and Cabernet grapevine varieties) situated at the base of
the valley slope characterized by the coolest microclimatic conditions.
Rootstocks were used according to the soil surface carbonate contents (3309C or 41B).
Several pedological drill-holes have been carried out on two geologically distinct
toposequences. Mineralogical and chemical analyses of representative soil samples have been
performed. Finally, the association of pedo-geological data with topography and
microclimatic zoning lead to characterize new micro-terroirs.
GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATA
Localisation of studied area
Gaillac appellation area is located in SW France, north of Toulouse city (Figure 1a). The
studied vineyard is situated on the Right bank coteaux area which is one of the four main
terroirs of the appellation area (Figure 1b). Precisely, the Terrisses vineyard is located on the
first hills of the right Tarn river bank, informally named Premire Ctes (Figure 1c).
Geologically, it is composed of an Oligocene molassic sandy-clayey substratum overlain by
detrital material originated from late-Wrmian solifluction phase and subsequent Holocene
colluviation, principally developed at the base of hillside slopes and in valleys (Figure 2).
Figure 1 / (a): localisation of the Gaillac appellation area (b): the main terroirs of the appellation area and
localisation of the studied vineyard - (symbols: 1, Calcareous Plateau Cordais; 2,Right bank molassic
coteaux; 3,Left bank alluvial terraces; 4,Tarn alluvial plain); (c): mesoscale geological setting (symbols:1,
present-day alluvium;2, Holocene alluvium; 3, soliflued and colluvial deposits; 4, Oligocene molassic
basement).
Description of study toposequences
Two NE-SW oriented toposequences have been investigated (Figure 2). The T
1
toposequence
is located on a small valley covered by displaced soliflued materials and the T
2
toposequence
is situated on a hill composed of molassic substratum material (Figures 2a and 2b). Both have
south-facing weak to moderate-angle slopes (< 15) and represent about 250 m in length for
T
1
and 195 m for T
2
(Figure 2b).
Figure 2/ a: Geological setting with localisation of studied toposequences (symbols: 1, soliflued/colluvial
deposits; 2, Oligocene molassic basement; 3, small rivers); b: local morphologic setting. T
1
and T
2
toposequences are plotted with samples location (symbols: 1, soliflued/colluvial deposits; 2; Oligocene molassic
basement)
4 - 32
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 32 03/06/10 15:51
PEDO-GEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GAILLAC PREMIRES
CTES TOPOSEQUENCES (TARN, SW FRANCE)
CONSEQUENCES ON MICRO-TERROIRS CHARACTERIZATION
Courjault-Rad Pierre
(1)
, Papa Marine
(1)
, Oliva Priscia
(1)
, Munoz Marguerite
(1)
and
Cazottes Alain
(2)
(1) Universit de Toulouse LMTG / UMR 5563 14, Avenue E. Belin 31400 Toulouse (France). Phone :
Email : pierrecr@lmtg.obs-mip.fr
(2) Domaine des Terrisses, 81600 Gaillac (France)
domaine.des.terrisses@wanadoo.fr
ABSTRACT
Drill-holes performed on a Gaillac appellation vineyard together with mineralogical and
chemical analyses on soils samples have given evidence of a micro-scale pedo-geological
variability leading to characterization of distinct micro-terroirs. This variability results from
the strong interdependence of water regime patterns and chemical element availability from
which pedo-geological wine typicity would emerge.
KEY-WORDS
Geochemistry - Microterroir Mineralogy Pedogenesis Solifluction Water regime
INTRODUCTION
The concept of terroir integrates all factors that work together to define region with specific
characteristics to match the needs of wine grapes that will produce high quality wine. These
factors start with the rocks and resulting soils through complex pedo-geological processes,
continue with climate and vineyard management practices and end with the winemakers art.
Herein, we consider the key pedo-geological factors of terroir: the parent rocks and the soils
and their subsequent physical-chemical evolutions.
Our purpose is to illustrate how parent rock characteristics guides the definition of micro-
terroirs on the basis of preliminary pedo-geological results acquired from vineyard plots
located in the Gaillac appellation in south-western France (Figure 1).
Till now, 3 planting areas have been empirically defined by the winegrowers in the studied
vineyard. From top to base of slope (see location on Figure 2), grapevine varieties were
planted following especially local-scale climatic parameters as follows:
- sweet white wines area (Mauzac and Loin de loeil grapevine varieties) situated at the top of
the valley slope characterized by the warmest microclimatic conditions,
- red wines area (Duras, Fer Servadou and Syrah grapevine varieties) in mid-part of the slope,
- dry white wines area (Loin de lil and Cabernet grapevine varieties) situated at the base of
the valley slope characterized by the coolest microclimatic conditions.
Rootstocks were used according to the soil surface carbonate contents (3309C or 41B).
Several pedological drill-holes have been carried out on two geologically distinct
toposequences. Mineralogical and chemical analyses of representative soil samples have been
performed. Finally, the association of pedo-geological data with topography and
microclimatic zoning lead to characterize new micro-terroirs.
GEOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATA
Localisation of studied area
Gaillac appellation area is located in SW France, north of Toulouse city (Figure 1a). The
studied vineyard is situated on the Right bank coteaux area which is one of the four main
terroirs of the appellation area (Figure 1b). Precisely, the Terrisses vineyard is located on the
first hills of the right Tarn river bank, informally named Premire Ctes (Figure 1c).
Geologically, it is composed of an Oligocene molassic sandy-clayey substratum overlain by
detrital material originated from late-Wrmian solifluction phase and subsequent Holocene
colluviation, principally developed at the base of hillside slopes and in valleys (Figure 2).
Figure 1 / (a): localisation of the Gaillac appellation area (b): the main terroirs of the appellation area and
localisation of the studied vineyard - (symbols: 1, Calcareous Plateau Cordais; 2,Right bank molassic
coteaux; 3,Left bank alluvial terraces; 4,Tarn alluvial plain); (c): mesoscale geological setting (symbols:1,
present-day alluvium;2, Holocene alluvium; 3, soliflued and colluvial deposits; 4, Oligocene molassic
basement).
Description of study toposequences
Two NE-SW oriented toposequences have been investigated (Figure 2). The T
1
toposequence
is located on a small valley covered by displaced soliflued materials and the T
2
toposequence
is situated on a hill composed of molassic substratum material (Figures 2a and 2b). Both have
south-facing weak to moderate-angle slopes (< 15) and represent about 250 m in length for
T
1
and 195 m for T
2
(Figure 2b).
Figure 2/ a: Geological setting with localisation of studied toposequences (symbols: 1, soliflued/colluvial
deposits; 2, Oligocene molassic basement; 3, small rivers); b: local morphologic setting. T
1
and T
2
toposequences are plotted with samples location (symbols: 1, soliflued/colluvial deposits; 2; Oligocene molassic
basement)
4 - 33
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 33 03/06/10 15:51
The molassic substratum of the studied toposequences is composed of clays, silts, and sands
together with scattered gravels and pebbles occurrences. Patchily distributed sandy
carbonated lenses and/or layers may also occur.
In the case of valleys (toposequence 1), the molassic basement is overlaid by a thin sequence
(up to 2-3m thick) of detrital material inherited from the main late-Wrmian (ca. 13,000 years
BP) solifluction phase processes. The later has occurred when soil and bedrock were affected
by alternate freezing and melting in peri-glacial climate. These mass movements have
generated allochtonous sediment lobes on slopes, composed of mixed bedrock and alterite
materials concealing the underlying in-situ basement outcrops. Subsequently, this material has
suffered from pedogenetic alteration and was transported on short distance, producing clayey-
silty colluvial deposits at the base of the valleys.
PEDOLOGICAL AND PEDOGENETIC DATA
Identification of soils
Soils of the 2 toposequences have been identified according to the French soil classification
(Figure 3 below).
Figure 3 / Synthesis of the different soils sequences along T
1
and T
2
toposequences (not at scale) - Soil horizons
are noted using French classification nomenclature (symbols: 1, bed-rock fragments; 2, sand; 3, sand with clay;
4, clay with sand; 5, silt; 6 clay and silt; 7, clay; (a), manganese nodules; (b), occurrence of CaCO
3
; (c), oxydo-
reduction spots; (d), carbonate nodules; (e), estimated soil/altered basement boundary) .
- Toposequence 1 is composed of calcisols at the top (n 1.1) and clayey colluviosols at the
base (n 1.4.). Complex soils, inherited from solifluction mass movements, are situated in
medium part of the slope (n
s
1.2 and 1.3). They are composed of allochthonous luvisols
overlying the autochthonous altered molassic basement. The limit between the soil sequence
and the altered bedrock (= C horizons) varies from less than 1m at the top of the
toposequence, about 2.50m in medium part and more than 4-5m at the base.
- Toposequence 2 is composed of luvisols at the top (n
s
2.1 and 2.2.), calcosols in medium
part (n
s
2.3., 2.4 and 2.5) and clayey colluviosols at the base (n 2.6). The roof of the altered
molassic bedrock (C horizons) varies from 0.60m at the top 1.50m in medium part to more
than 4m at the base of the toposequence. It is worth noting that no indication of soliflued
material has been evidenced.
Mineralogical and geochemical results
Mineralogical investigations (XRD) have pointed out the occurrence of quartz, kaolinite,
feldspaths, illite, goethite, smectite and minor calcite amount in all the samples. This
spectrum is in agreement with the composition of the molassic basement from which the soils
originate as the globally similar REES flat patterns for the soil samples confirm (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of deep-soil horizons (= C horizons).
Measurements of pH and carbonate-content were performed on grinded soil samples and ICP-
MS chemical analyses were performed to calculate chemical elements contents (Tab. 1).
Tab. 1 - Principal chemical and mineralogical results of T1 and T2 toposequences
Symbols /: no analysed; -: no detected; tr: traces; +: minor; ++: major; +++: dominant
SOIL
SAMPLES
Altitu
-de
(m)
Hori-
zons
z
(cm)
pH CaCO
3
%
Ca
g/kg
Hydro-
Morphis
m
Smectite
T
1.1
Calcisol
225
A
S
C
10
35
70
7.49
7.82
7.07
1.2
0.1
-
5.0
5.4
2.4
-
-
Tr
++
++
++
T
1.2
Soliflued
soil
207
A
Bt
Sca
C
10
60
120
150
7.96
7.78
8.16
8.44
1.7
0.2
6.1
27.8
10.3
5.3
92.6
22.9
-
-
-
-
+
++
++
+++
T
1.3
Soliflued
soil
202
A
Bt
C
50
180
230
7.46
8.09
8.32
0.9
0.8
12.5
2.7
6.7
39.6
-
+
-
++
++
++
T
1.4
Colluviosol 190 A 120 7.87 0.2 3.9 ++ ++
4 - 34
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 34 03/06/10 15:51
The molassic substratum of the studied toposequences is composed of clays, silts, and sands
together with scattered gravels and pebbles occurrences. Patchily distributed sandy
carbonated lenses and/or layers may also occur.
In the case of valleys (toposequence 1), the molassic basement is overlaid by a thin sequence
(up to 2-3m thick) of detrital material inherited from the main late-Wrmian (ca. 13,000 years
BP) solifluction phase processes. The later has occurred when soil and bedrock were affected
by alternate freezing and melting in peri-glacial climate. These mass movements have
generated allochtonous sediment lobes on slopes, composed of mixed bedrock and alterite
materials concealing the underlying in-situ basement outcrops. Subsequently, this material has
suffered from pedogenetic alteration and was transported on short distance, producing clayey-
silty colluvial deposits at the base of the valleys.
PEDOLOGICAL AND PEDOGENETIC DATA
Identification of soils
Soils of the 2 toposequences have been identified according to the French soil classification
(Figure 3 below).
Figure 3 / Synthesis of the different soils sequences along T
1
and T
2
toposequences (not at scale) - Soil horizons
are noted using French classification nomenclature (symbols: 1, bed-rock fragments; 2, sand; 3, sand with clay;
4, clay with sand; 5, silt; 6 clay and silt; 7, clay; (a), manganese nodules; (b), occurrence of CaCO
3
; (c), oxydo-
reduction spots; (d), carbonate nodules; (e), estimated soil/altered basement boundary) .
- Toposequence 1 is composed of calcisols at the top (n 1.1) and clayey colluviosols at the
base (n 1.4.). Complex soils, inherited from solifluction mass movements, are situated in
medium part of the slope (n
s
1.2 and 1.3). They are composed of allochthonous luvisols
overlying the autochthonous altered molassic basement. The limit between the soil sequence
and the altered bedrock (= C horizons) varies from less than 1m at the top of the
toposequence, about 2.50m in medium part and more than 4-5m at the base.
- Toposequence 2 is composed of luvisols at the top (n
s
2.1 and 2.2.), calcosols in medium
part (n
s
2.3., 2.4 and 2.5) and clayey colluviosols at the base (n 2.6). The roof of the altered
molassic bedrock (C horizons) varies from 0.60m at the top 1.50m in medium part to more
than 4m at the base of the toposequence. It is worth noting that no indication of soliflued
material has been evidenced.
Mineralogical and geochemical results
Mineralogical investigations (XRD) have pointed out the occurrence of quartz, kaolinite,
feldspaths, illite, goethite, smectite and minor calcite amount in all the samples. This
spectrum is in agreement with the composition of the molassic basement from which the soils
originate as the globally similar REES flat patterns for the soil samples confirm (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of deep-soil horizons (= C horizons).
Measurements of pH and carbonate-content were performed on grinded soil samples and ICP-
MS chemical analyses were performed to calculate chemical elements contents (Tab. 1).
Tab. 1 - Principal chemical and mineralogical results of T1 and T2 toposequences
Symbols /: no analysed; -: no detected; tr: traces; +: minor; ++: major; +++: dominant
SOIL
SAMPLES
Altitu
-de
(m)
Hori-
zons
z
(cm)
pH CaCO
3
%
Ca
g/kg
Hydro-
Morphis
m
Smectite
T
1.1
Calcisol
225
A
S
C
10
35
70
7.49
7.82
7.07
1.2
0.1
-
5.0
5.4
2.4
-
-
Tr
++
++
++
T
1.2
Soliflued
soil
207
A
Bt
Sca
C
10
60
120
150
7.96
7.78
8.16
8.44
1.7
0.2
6.1
27.8
10.3
5.3
92.6
22.9
-
-
-
-
+
++
++
+++
T
1.3
Soliflued
soil
202
A
Bt
C
50
180
230
7.46
8.09
8.32
0.9
0.8
12.5
2.7
6.7
39.6
-
+
-
++
++
++
T
1.4
Colluviosol 190 A 120 7.87 0.2 3.9 ++ ++
4 - 35
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 35 03/06/10 15:51
T
2.1
Luvisol
232
A
Bt
C
20
40
60
7.00
6.59
5.25
-
-
-
/
/
/
-
+
+
+
++
+
T
2.2
Luvisol
230
A
E
Bt
C
20
40
80
100
7.46
7.42
7.33
7.90
0.2
-
-
1.0
3.5
1.9
3.5
3.0
-
-
+
-
+
+
++
++
T
2.3
Calcosol
227
A
Sca
C
20
50
60
7.95
8.18
8.30
5.2
18.6
22.0
18.9
55.3
67.0
-
++
+
++
++
++
T
2.4
Calcosol
219
A
Sca 1
Sca 2
Sca 3
C
5
50
100
120
150
8.08
8.16
8.12
8.06
8.03
16.2
15.4
17.9
16.8
22.5
/
/
/
/
/
-
tr
tr
tr
-
++
++
++
+
++
T
2.5
Calcosol
206 A
Sca
C
20
70
130
7.84
8.25
8.38
11.1
29.4
36.5
34.7
66.7
110
-
++
-
++
++
++
T
2.6
Colluviosol
196
A1
A2
Aca
Ag
10
40
100
140
7.91
7.97
8.17
8.23
1.6
0.1
9.1
6.2
7.2
2.8
27.5
19.5
-
-
++
++
+
+
+
+
The above mineralogical/geochemical soil patterns result from a complex sequence of
pedogenetic processes essentially related to different water regimes as follows:
- pH values vary from neutral to basic in agreement with the occurrence of calcite in the bulk
of the soil/bedrock sequences. The neutral values correspond to the most decarbonated
horizons (calcisols and luvisols). In contrast, the more basic values correspond to calcosols
and altered molassic carbonated bedrock horizons (= C horizons),
- hydromorphism associated with conditions of reduction/oxidation of Fe and Mn is of weak
amplitude and occurs at depth ( ~ 1m) in the case of the toposequence 1; it is of stronger
amplitude and occurs near the surface in the case of the toposequence 2; in both cases, it is
moderate and only follows temporary state of water saturation (no occurrence of redoxic
horizons),
- clay eluviation is the main process affecting the soils situated at the nearly flat area at the top
of toposequence 2; it is also observed in the allochtonous soliflued luvisols situated in the
mid-part of the toposequence 1,
- decarbonatation and re-precipitation is a widespread process under the regional temperate
climatic conditions affecting almost all soil samples,
- smectite occurs in relatively large quantities in all the soil samples. It regulates water
resource by swelling (vs. shrinking) processes.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROTERROIRS
The above soil patterns associated with geological and topographic data together with the
superimposition of micro-scale climatic zoning, lead to characterize different microterroirs
(Figure 6). In both toposequences, the bulk of the soil/bedrock sequence is composed of
molassic detrital material either in situ originating from alteration of the molassic bedrock or
ex-situ, displaced by mass transport (solifluction) and/or by erosion (colluvium). This broad
division may be regarded as a first order pedo-geological terroir classification.
Figure 5/ Characterization of the microterroirs (A to E) integrating topographic, pedo-geological and microscale
climatic zoning data (not at scale). Symbols: 1, molassic basement; 2, altered molassic basement (a: clay
dominant; b, sand dominant); 3, solifluction lobes.
Micro-terroirs on allochthonous colluvial deposits
- The Colluvial micro-terroir (A): a weak sloping area composed of thick colluvial
recarbonated (or not) clayey deposits marked by temporary hydromorphism at the surface or
deeper (>1m) and characterized by the coolest and dampest microclimate conditions.
Micro-terroirs on allochtonous soliflued material
- The Soliflued micro-terroir (B): a moderately sloping area with soliflued luvisols forming
lobes onto the altered carbonated molassic basement; hydromorphism is negligible.
Micro-terroirs on in situ molassic basement
- The Altered carbonated micro-terroir (C): a moderately sloping area with superficial
hydromorphism which may be of moderate amplitude.
- The Leached micro-terroir (D): a nearly flat area composed of leached soil sequence
(luvisols) marked by moderate superficial hydromorphism.
- The Decarbonated micro-terroir (E): a gently sloping area constituted of decarbonated
molassic basement without traces of any hydromorphism and characterized by the warmest
and driest microclimate conditions.
CONCLUSIONS
The above preliminary results show a great pedo-geological variability despite the relative
homogeneity of the original molassic material. Actually, the studied plots of the Terrisses
vineyard appears as a mosaic of, at least, 5 micro-terroirs instead of the 3 empirically defined
using micro-climate variances. This microscale variability appears to results mainly from the
strong interdependence of water regime patterns and chemical element availability. Therefore,
the pedo-geological wine typicity should be regarded as an emergent result of this highly
complex interaction. The next step of the study will be to follow the fate of distinctive soil
chemical elements from the vine crop to the wine glass for each defined microterroirs in
taking into account characteristics of each grapevine varieties and rootstocks.
4 - 36
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 36 03/06/10 15:51
T
2.1
Luvisol
232
A
Bt
C
20
40
60
7.00
6.59
5.25
-
-
-
/
/
/
-
+
+
+
++
+
T
2.2
Luvisol
230
A
E
Bt
C
20
40
80
100
7.46
7.42
7.33
7.90
0.2
-
-
1.0
3.5
1.9
3.5
3.0
-
-
+
-
+
+
++
++
T
2.3
Calcosol
227
A
Sca
C
20
50
60
7.95
8.18
8.30
5.2
18.6
22.0
18.9
55.3
67.0
-
++
+
++
++
++
T
2.4
Calcosol
219
A
Sca 1
Sca 2
Sca 3
C
5
50
100
120
150
8.08
8.16
8.12
8.06
8.03
16.2
15.4
17.9
16.8
22.5
/
/
/
/
/
-
tr
tr
tr
-
++
++
++
+
++
T
2.5
Calcosol
206 A
Sca
C
20
70
130
7.84
8.25
8.38
11.1
29.4
36.5
34.7
66.7
110
-
++
-
++
++
++
T
2.6
Colluviosol
196
A1
A2
Aca
Ag
10
40
100
140
7.91
7.97
8.17
8.23
1.6
0.1
9.1
6.2
7.2
2.8
27.5
19.5
-
-
++
++
+
+
+
+
The above mineralogical/geochemical soil patterns result from a complex sequence of
pedogenetic processes essentially related to different water regimes as follows:
- pH values vary from neutral to basic in agreement with the occurrence of calcite in the bulk
of the soil/bedrock sequences. The neutral values correspond to the most decarbonated
horizons (calcisols and luvisols). In contrast, the more basic values correspond to calcosols
and altered molassic carbonated bedrock horizons (= C horizons),
- hydromorphism associated with conditions of reduction/oxidation of Fe and Mn is of weak
amplitude and occurs at depth ( ~ 1m) in the case of the toposequence 1; it is of stronger
amplitude and occurs near the surface in the case of the toposequence 2; in both cases, it is
moderate and only follows temporary state of water saturation (no occurrence of redoxic
horizons),
- clay eluviation is the main process affecting the soils situated at the nearly flat area at the top
of toposequence 2; it is also observed in the allochtonous soliflued luvisols situated in the
mid-part of the toposequence 1,
- decarbonatation and re-precipitation is a widespread process under the regional temperate
climatic conditions affecting almost all soil samples,
- smectite occurs in relatively large quantities in all the soil samples. It regulates water
resource by swelling (vs. shrinking) processes.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROTERROIRS
The above soil patterns associated with geological and topographic data together with the
superimposition of micro-scale climatic zoning, lead to characterize different microterroirs
(Figure 6). In both toposequences, the bulk of the soil/bedrock sequence is composed of
molassic detrital material either in situ originating from alteration of the molassic bedrock or
ex-situ, displaced by mass transport (solifluction) and/or by erosion (colluvium). This broad
division may be regarded as a first order pedo-geological terroir classification.
Figure 5/ Characterization of the microterroirs (A to E) integrating topographic, pedo-geological and microscale
climatic zoning data (not at scale). Symbols: 1, molassic basement; 2, altered molassic basement (a: clay
dominant; b, sand dominant); 3, solifluction lobes.
Micro-terroirs on allochthonous colluvial deposits
- The Colluvial micro-terroir (A): a weak sloping area composed of thick colluvial
recarbonated (or not) clayey deposits marked by temporary hydromorphism at the surface or
deeper (>1m) and characterized by the coolest and dampest microclimate conditions.
Micro-terroirs on allochtonous soliflued material
- The Soliflued micro-terroir (B): a moderately sloping area with soliflued luvisols forming
lobes onto the altered carbonated molassic basement; hydromorphism is negligible.
Micro-terroirs on in situ molassic basement
- The Altered carbonated micro-terroir (C): a moderately sloping area with superficial
hydromorphism which may be of moderate amplitude.
- The Leached micro-terroir (D): a nearly flat area composed of leached soil sequence
(luvisols) marked by moderate superficial hydromorphism.
- The Decarbonated micro-terroir (E): a gently sloping area constituted of decarbonated
molassic basement without traces of any hydromorphism and characterized by the warmest
and driest microclimate conditions.
CONCLUSIONS
The above preliminary results show a great pedo-geological variability despite the relative
homogeneity of the original molassic material. Actually, the studied plots of the Terrisses
vineyard appears as a mosaic of, at least, 5 micro-terroirs instead of the 3 empirically defined
using micro-climate variances. This microscale variability appears to results mainly from the
strong interdependence of water regime patterns and chemical element availability. Therefore,
the pedo-geological wine typicity should be regarded as an emergent result of this highly
complex interaction. The next step of the study will be to follow the fate of distinctive soil
chemical elements from the vine crop to the wine glass for each defined microterroirs in
taking into account characteristics of each grapevine varieties and rootstocks.
4 - 37
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 37 03/06/10 15:51
THREE PROXIMAL SENSORS TO ESTIMATE TEXTURE, SKELETON
AND SOIL WATER STORAGE IN VINEYARDS

S. Priori
(1)
, E.A.C. Costantini
(1)
, A. Agnelli
(1)
, S. Pellegrini
(1)
, E. Martini
(2)



(1) C.R.A.-A.B.P., Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology, Piazza M.DAzeglio, 30, 50121, Firenze, Italy.
(2) University of Turin, Earth Science Department, Turin, Italy.
Corresponding author: simone.priori@entecra.it



ABSTRACT

Proximal sensors are becoming widely used in precision viticulture, due to the quick, easy and
non-invasive identification of soil spatial variability. The apparent soil electrical conductivity
(ECa) is the main parameter measured by sensors, which is correlated to many factors, like soil
water content, salinity, clay content and mineralogy, rock fragments, bulk density, and porosity.
This study compares three different sensors to delineate soil boundaries and estimate clay,
skeleton content and available water (AWC) in a vineyard of the Chianti region (Central Italy).
All three sensors produced ECa maps with similar pattern. Although the correlations between
ECa, clay and skeleton content were usually moderate, the correlations between ECa and some
important hydrological parameters, namely field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP) and available
water capacity (AWC), was very high.

KEYWORD
Soil precision viticulture geophysics EMI sensors apparent electrical conductivity.

INTRODUCTION

The use of instruments like GPS, GIS, remote sensing and soil monitoring technologies in
precision viticulture is becoming common for the most important farms (Proffitt et al., 2006). In
particular, the knowledge of the spatial variability of soil hydrological parameters is crucial for a
proper crop management, aimed at maximizing income and reducing environmental impacts of
agriculture activities. In precision viticulture, it is very important to know the hydropedological
variability (Morari et al., 2009; Costantini et al., 2009) of the vineyard to plan drainage,
irrigation, tillage, fertilization etc., as well as to improve the quality of grapes and wine.
A rapid, non-invasive and relatively cheap mapping of the soil apparent electric conductivity
(ECa) can be a very useful tool for identifying important soil map units and properties, in
particular, clay (Morari et al., 2009), water content (Davies R., 2004; Tromp-van Meerveld and
McDonnell, 2009; Costantini et al., 2009), bulk density and salinity (Doolittle et al., 2001). The
relationships between apparent electric conductivity (ECa) and soil hydrological parameters are
still under investigation (Cousin et al., 2009; Doussan and Ruy, 2009).
The goal of this work was to test the suitability of three different proximal sensors in a
vineyard on skeletal soils, and to relate the measured ECa with the clay content, skeleton and
hydrological parameters, namely field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP) and available water
(AWC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The studied vineyard, located in the Chianti area (Central Italy), was only 4 ha in size, but
heterogeneous in soils. All soils were difficult to be surveyed with the traditional hand auger,
since they were rather clayey (clay content of the fine earth ranging from 28 to 56%) and stony
(from 10 to 50 %). All soils were not saline.
The sensors used for this work (Fig.1) were: a) a single-frequency Electro-Magnetic Induction
sensor (Geonics EM38-DD), b) a multi-frequency EMI sensor (GSSI Profiler EMP- 400) and c) a
geoelectric system (ARP-Automatic Resistivity Profiling). The EM38-DD is an EMI sensor
composed by two EM38 sensors, coupled in perpendicular position (Fig.1a). Each sensor has an
intercoil spacing of 1 m and operates at a frequency of 14,600 Hz. The depths of the magnetic
field penetration are about 0.75 m and 1.5 m, respectively for the horizontal (HDP) and vertical
(VDP) dipoles modes (Geonics Limited, 1998). The instruments sensitivity varies as a non-linear
function of depth (McNeil, 1990).
The GSSI Profiler EMP-400 (Fig.1b) is a multifrequency EMI sensor, which can operate to
measure simultaneously up to 3 frequencies between 1,000 Hz and 16,000 Hz, with intercoil
spacing of 1.2 m. For this study we operated at 8, 10 and 15 kHz. The instrument can be used in
vertical dipole mode (VDP) or in horizontal dipole mode (HDP), but the instruments sensitivity
in function of depth is not still studied. The output of both the EM38-DD and Profiler is the
apparent electric conductivity (ECa), measured in mS m
-1
. Both the EMI sensors were supplied
with a DGPS.
The ARP device (Fig. 1c) was conceived by Geocarta, spin-off society of C.N.R.S. (National
Scientific Research Center, France). The system, similar to a disc plough, consists of a couple of
teeth discs operating as injection electrodes and of three couples of teeth discs, functioning as
receivers and measuring the difference of electrical potential. The distance between each couple
of receivers was conceived and calibrated to investigate three soil depths, about 0-50, 0-100 and
0-170 cm. The system, supplied with a DGPS, was pulled by a quad-bike.


Figure 1: The three proximal sensors used for this work. a) Geonics EM38-DD, b) GSSI Profiler EMP-400, c)
Geocarta ARP.

Resistivity values (ER), in .m, were obtained from the intensity of the injected current and
from the differences in electrical potential. These values can be easily transformed in ECa (mS
m
-1
) by the formula:

4 - 38
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 38 03/06/10 15:51
THREE PROXIMAL SENSORS TO ESTIMATE TEXTURE, SKELETON
AND SOIL WATER STORAGE IN VINEYARDS

S. Priori
(1)
, E.A.C. Costantini
(1)
, A. Agnelli
(1)
, S. Pellegrini
(1)
, E. Martini
(2)



(1) C.R.A.-A.B.P., Research Center for Agrobiology and Pedology, Piazza M.DAzeglio, 30, 50121, Firenze, Italy.
(2) University of Turin, Earth Science Department, Turin, Italy.
Corresponding author: simone.priori@entecra.it



ABSTRACT

Proximal sensors are becoming widely used in precision viticulture, due to the quick, easy and
non-invasive identification of soil spatial variability. The apparent soil electrical conductivity
(ECa) is the main parameter measured by sensors, which is correlated to many factors, like soil
water content, salinity, clay content and mineralogy, rock fragments, bulk density, and porosity.
This study compares three different sensors to delineate soil boundaries and estimate clay,
skeleton content and available water (AWC) in a vineyard of the Chianti region (Central Italy).
All three sensors produced ECa maps with similar pattern. Although the correlations between
ECa, clay and skeleton content were usually moderate, the correlations between ECa and some
important hydrological parameters, namely field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP) and available
water capacity (AWC), was very high.

KEYWORD
Soil precision viticulture geophysics EMI sensors apparent electrical conductivity.

INTRODUCTION

The use of instruments like GPS, GIS, remote sensing and soil monitoring technologies in
precision viticulture is becoming common for the most important farms (Proffitt et al., 2006). In
particular, the knowledge of the spatial variability of soil hydrological parameters is crucial for a
proper crop management, aimed at maximizing income and reducing environmental impacts of
agriculture activities. In precision viticulture, it is very important to know the hydropedological
variability (Morari et al., 2009; Costantini et al., 2009) of the vineyard to plan drainage,
irrigation, tillage, fertilization etc., as well as to improve the quality of grapes and wine.
A rapid, non-invasive and relatively cheap mapping of the soil apparent electric conductivity
(ECa) can be a very useful tool for identifying important soil map units and properties, in
particular, clay (Morari et al., 2009), water content (Davies R., 2004; Tromp-van Meerveld and
McDonnell, 2009; Costantini et al., 2009), bulk density and salinity (Doolittle et al., 2001). The
relationships between apparent electric conductivity (ECa) and soil hydrological parameters are
still under investigation (Cousin et al., 2009; Doussan and Ruy, 2009).
The goal of this work was to test the suitability of three different proximal sensors in a
vineyard on skeletal soils, and to relate the measured ECa with the clay content, skeleton and
hydrological parameters, namely field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP) and available water
(AWC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The studied vineyard, located in the Chianti area (Central Italy), was only 4 ha in size, but
heterogeneous in soils. All soils were difficult to be surveyed with the traditional hand auger,
since they were rather clayey (clay content of the fine earth ranging from 28 to 56%) and stony
(from 10 to 50 %). All soils were not saline.
The sensors used for this work (Fig.1) were: a) a single-frequency Electro-Magnetic Induction
sensor (Geonics EM38-DD), b) a multi-frequency EMI sensor (GSSI Profiler EMP- 400) and c) a
geoelectric system (ARP-Automatic Resistivity Profiling). The EM38-DD is an EMI sensor
composed by two EM38 sensors, coupled in perpendicular position (Fig.1a). Each sensor has an
intercoil spacing of 1 m and operates at a frequency of 14,600 Hz. The depths of the magnetic
field penetration are about 0.75 m and 1.5 m, respectively for the horizontal (HDP) and vertical
(VDP) dipoles modes (Geonics Limited, 1998). The instruments sensitivity varies as a non-linear
function of depth (McNeil, 1990).
The GSSI Profiler EMP-400 (Fig.1b) is a multifrequency EMI sensor, which can operate to
measure simultaneously up to 3 frequencies between 1,000 Hz and 16,000 Hz, with intercoil
spacing of 1.2 m. For this study we operated at 8, 10 and 15 kHz. The instrument can be used in
vertical dipole mode (VDP) or in horizontal dipole mode (HDP), but the instruments sensitivity
in function of depth is not still studied. The output of both the EM38-DD and Profiler is the
apparent electric conductivity (ECa), measured in mS m
-1
. Both the EMI sensors were supplied
with a DGPS.
The ARP device (Fig. 1c) was conceived by Geocarta, spin-off society of C.N.R.S. (National
Scientific Research Center, France). The system, similar to a disc plough, consists of a couple of
teeth discs operating as injection electrodes and of three couples of teeth discs, functioning as
receivers and measuring the difference of electrical potential. The distance between each couple
of receivers was conceived and calibrated to investigate three soil depths, about 0-50, 0-100 and
0-170 cm. The system, supplied with a DGPS, was pulled by a quad-bike.


Figure 1: The three proximal sensors used for this work. a) Geonics EM38-DD, b) GSSI Profiler EMP-400, c)
Geocarta ARP.

Resistivity values (ER), in .m, were obtained from the intensity of the injected current and
from the differences in electrical potential. These values can be easily transformed in ECa (mS
m
-1
) by the formula:

4 - 39
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 39 03/06/10 15:51
000 , 1
1
=
ER
ECa

The survey with the EM38-DD and the Profiler EMP-400 was performed on the same day in
August, when soils were dry on surface, whereas the survey with the ARP was carried out in
May, when soils were moister and the contact soils-electrodes better. For this work, we did not
consider the temperature and the moisture content of the soils, but the textural features only.
13 points were chosen for soil sampling and texture analysis on the basis of the ECa values. The
samples were tout venant of some kilograms because of the measurement of skeleton content.
Laboratory determination of the water content at FC and WP (v/v) was carried out by pressure
plate apparatus at -33 and -1,500 kPa matric potential, respectively (Kassel and Nielsen, 1986).
Each soil horizons was analyzed in triplicate, and the corresponding bulk density values were
used to convert -33 and -1,500 kPa gravimetric water content to a volumetric basis. AWC was
determined as the difference between water content at FC and WP.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The three instruments produced similar spatial patterns (Fig.2). During the proximal survey, the
EMI sensors (EM38-DD and Profiler EMP-400) in the HDP orientation registered negative or
very low values in some vineyard areas. This was probably due to the interference of the iron
wires of the vineyard rows or other iron materials with the magnetic field. Therefore, these wrong
data (negative, or very close to 0) measured in HDP orientation were deleted before data
interpolation.
As a whole, the ECa values measured by ARP device were higher, whereas the values
measured by Profiler and EM-38 were similar (Tab.1).

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of ECa (mS m
-1
) measured with the three devices. The negative and very low values
were not considered.
Profiler VDP Profiler HDP EM38 ARP

15kHz 10kHz 8kHz 15kHz 10kHz 8kHz VDP HDP 50 100 170
Mean
31.8 32.2 34.6 19.2 20.0 21.9 19.5 28.2 35.4 40.1 37.4
Median
26.7 26.3 29.0 15.8 16.4 18.2 19.1 23.6 32.3 33.3 29.4
Mode
20.4 17.6 23.8 14.2 14.0 16.2 19.1 15.3 28.6 34.5 100.0
Minimum
9.9 10.1 12.2 2.0 6.9 8.5 0.9 8.8 16.4 7.1 1.9
Maximum
78.8 79.4 81.6 46.2 46.7 49.0 47.9 71.6 83.3 142.9 111.1
Standard
dev.
14.3 15.0 15.3 9.3 8.9 9.2 7.3 12.8 13.8 24.5 25.4

The most significant correlations between the different instruments were: ARP-50 and
EM38_HDP, ARP-170 and EM38_VDP, ARP-170 and Profiler, EM38_VDP and Profiler in all
the configurations (Tab. 2).
Moderate or not significant correlations resulted between clay content at 0-50 cm and ECa of
all the configurations for the EM38 and the Profiler, while a better correlations resulted with the
ARP-50 (Tab.3). Clay content at 50-100 cm correlated either moderately with the ECa of Profiler
and EM38, or well with the ECa obtained from ARP-100. On the other hand, highly significant
correlations resulted between ECa and moisture content (in mm) at FC, WP and AWC.

Table 2: Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of the three sensors (n = 99, p < 0.01). The most significant correlations
between the different sensors are in bold. Correlation coefficient between the same device in different configurations
are in italic.

Prof_VDP15
Prof_VDP15 - Prof_VDP10
Prof_VDP10 0.999 - Prof_VDP8
Prof_VDP8 0.998 0.999 - Prof_HDP15
Prof_HDP15 0.978 0.979 0.979 - Prof_HDP10
Prof_HDP10 0.977 0.979 0.979 0.997 - Prof_HDP8
Prof_HDP8 0.977 0.981 0.982 0.996 0.997 - EM38_HDP
EM38_HDP 0.647 0.638 0.633 0.710 0.716 0.693 - EM38_VDP
EM38_VDP 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.919 0.923 0.922 0.764 - ARP-50
ARP-50 0.580 0.564 0.555 0.617 0.607 0.587 0.774 0.654 - ARP-100
ARP-100 0.699 0.688 0.683 0.717 0.710 0.699 0.774 0.753 0.920 - ARP-170
ARP-170 0.764 0.762 0.758 0.783 0.783 0.775 0.766 0.805 0.801 0.872 -


Table 3: Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between clay, skeleton, FC, WP, AWC and the different sensors (n =
13). Bold: p < 0.05; bold underlined: p < 0.01; normal: not significant.

Profiler VDP Profiler HDP EM38 ARP

15kHz 10kHz 8kHz 15kHz 10kHz 8kHz VDP HDP 50 100 170
clay 0-50 cm 0.532 0.517 0.503 0.493 0.507 0.482 0.418 0.363 0.682 0.647 0.608
clay 50-100 cm 0.610 0.585 0.569 0.568 0.578 0.553 0.530 0.587 0.808 0.815 0.653
skeleton content -0.663 -0.659 -0.654 -0.723 -0.713 -0.697 -0.661 -0.390 -0.702 -0.631 -0.659
FC 0-100 cm 0.904 0.890 0.879 0.920 0.921 0.910 0.899 0.773 0.908 0.962 0.925
WP 0-100 cm 0.902 0.884 0.870 0.870 0.866 0.850 0.885 0.748 0.937 0.970 0.850
AWC 0-100 cm 0.923 0.918 0.913 0.925 0.942 0.934 0.937 0.874 0.834 0.978 0.749




4 - 40
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 40 03/06/10 15:51
000 , 1
1
=
ER
ECa

The survey with the EM38-DD and the Profiler EMP-400 was performed on the same day in
August, when soils were dry on surface, whereas the survey with the ARP was carried out in
May, when soils were moister and the contact soils-electrodes better. For this work, we did not
consider the temperature and the moisture content of the soils, but the textural features only.
13 points were chosen for soil sampling and texture analysis on the basis of the ECa values. The
samples were tout venant of some kilograms because of the measurement of skeleton content.
Laboratory determination of the water content at FC and WP (v/v) was carried out by pressure
plate apparatus at -33 and -1,500 kPa matric potential, respectively (Kassel and Nielsen, 1986).
Each soil horizons was analyzed in triplicate, and the corresponding bulk density values were
used to convert -33 and -1,500 kPa gravimetric water content to a volumetric basis. AWC was
determined as the difference between water content at FC and WP.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The three instruments produced similar spatial patterns (Fig.2). During the proximal survey, the
EMI sensors (EM38-DD and Profiler EMP-400) in the HDP orientation registered negative or
very low values in some vineyard areas. This was probably due to the interference of the iron
wires of the vineyard rows or other iron materials with the magnetic field. Therefore, these wrong
data (negative, or very close to 0) measured in HDP orientation were deleted before data
interpolation.
As a whole, the ECa values measured by ARP device were higher, whereas the values
measured by Profiler and EM-38 were similar (Tab.1).

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of ECa (mS m
-1
) measured with the three devices. The negative and very low values
were not considered.
Profiler VDP Profiler HDP EM38 ARP

15kHz 10kHz 8kHz 15kHz 10kHz 8kHz VDP HDP 50 100 170
Mean
31.8 32.2 34.6 19.2 20.0 21.9 19.5 28.2 35.4 40.1 37.4
Median
26.7 26.3 29.0 15.8 16.4 18.2 19.1 23.6 32.3 33.3 29.4
Mode
20.4 17.6 23.8 14.2 14.0 16.2 19.1 15.3 28.6 34.5 100.0
Minimum
9.9 10.1 12.2 2.0 6.9 8.5 0.9 8.8 16.4 7.1 1.9
Maximum
78.8 79.4 81.6 46.2 46.7 49.0 47.9 71.6 83.3 142.9 111.1
Standard
dev.
14.3 15.0 15.3 9.3 8.9 9.2 7.3 12.8 13.8 24.5 25.4

The most significant correlations between the different instruments were: ARP-50 and
EM38_HDP, ARP-170 and EM38_VDP, ARP-170 and Profiler, EM38_VDP and Profiler in all
the configurations (Tab. 2).
Moderate or not significant correlations resulted between clay content at 0-50 cm and ECa of
all the configurations for the EM38 and the Profiler, while a better correlations resulted with the
ARP-50 (Tab.3). Clay content at 50-100 cm correlated either moderately with the ECa of Profiler
and EM38, or well with the ECa obtained from ARP-100. On the other hand, highly significant
correlations resulted between ECa and moisture content (in mm) at FC, WP and AWC.

Table 2: Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of the three sensors (n = 99, p < 0.01). The most significant correlations
between the different sensors are in bold. Correlation coefficient between the same device in different configurations
are in italic.

Prof_VDP15
Prof_VDP15 - Prof_VDP10
Prof_VDP10 0.999 - Prof_VDP8
Prof_VDP8 0.998 0.999 - Prof_HDP15
Prof_HDP15 0.978 0.979 0.979 - Prof_HDP10
Prof_HDP10 0.977 0.979 0.979 0.997 - Prof_HDP8
Prof_HDP8 0.977 0.981 0.982 0.996 0.997 - EM38_HDP
EM38_HDP 0.647 0.638 0.633 0.710 0.716 0.693 - EM38_VDP
EM38_VDP 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.919 0.923 0.922 0.764 - ARP-50
ARP-50 0.580 0.564 0.555 0.617 0.607 0.587 0.774 0.654 - ARP-100
ARP-100 0.699 0.688 0.683 0.717 0.710 0.699 0.774 0.753 0.920 - ARP-170
ARP-170 0.764 0.762 0.758 0.783 0.783 0.775 0.766 0.805 0.801 0.872 -


Table 3: Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between clay, skeleton, FC, WP, AWC and the different sensors (n =
13). Bold: p < 0.05; bold underlined: p < 0.01; normal: not significant.

Profiler VDP Profiler HDP EM38 ARP

15kHz 10kHz 8kHz 15kHz 10kHz 8kHz VDP HDP 50 100 170
clay 0-50 cm 0.532 0.517 0.503 0.493 0.507 0.482 0.418 0.363 0.682 0.647 0.608
clay 50-100 cm 0.610 0.585 0.569 0.568 0.578 0.553 0.530 0.587 0.808 0.815 0.653
skeleton content -0.663 -0.659 -0.654 -0.723 -0.713 -0.697 -0.661 -0.390 -0.702 -0.631 -0.659
FC 0-100 cm 0.904 0.890 0.879 0.920 0.921 0.910 0.899 0.773 0.908 0.962 0.925
WP 0-100 cm 0.902 0.884 0.870 0.870 0.866 0.850 0.885 0.748 0.937 0.970 0.850
AWC 0-100 cm 0.923 0.918 0.913 0.925 0.942 0.934 0.937 0.874 0.834 0.978 0.749




4 - 41
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 41 03/06/10 15:51

Fig.2: ECa maps of the vineyard, obtained with the three different sensors. The variogram parameters for the
interpolation were the same for all the maps (ordinary kriging).


CONCLUSIONS

The ECa pattern obtained with the three sensors was similar (Fig.2). The instruments could
provide for a rapid, non invasive and relatively cheap soil survey in a difficult environment, like
that of a vineyard on clayey and stony soils, although iron materials in the vineyard sometimes
interfered with the magnetic fields of the EMI sensors in the HDP configuration. The cumulative
response of Profiler did not change at different frequencies and was very similar to the
EM38_VDP response. On top of that, both sensors were strongly correlated with ARP-170,
except for EM38_HDP, which was better correlated with ARP-50 and ARP-100. Correlations
between ECa and hydrological parameters namely FC, WP and AWC resulted highly significant.
In conclusion, the proximal survey performed by any of these instruments can complement the
traditional soil survey methods and allow a high quality predictive mapping of important soil
hydrological properties like FC, WP and AWC.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to Annamaria Castrignan, Donatello Sollitto and Daniela De
Benedetto (CRA-SCA, Bari, Italy) for the loan, the advices and the assistance with the EM38-
DD, as well as to the SO.IN.G and the Geostudi Astier (Livorno) for the loan and the
collaboration with the ARP and the Profiler EMP-400, respectively. A special thank is for the
farm Barone Ricasoli s.p.a., Gaiole in Chianti, Siena (Italy) for the economic support to the
research and for granting the access to its vineyards.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cousin I., Besson A., Bourennane H., Pasquier C., Nicoullaud B., King D., Richard G., 2009.
From spatial-continuous electrical resistivity measurements to the soil hydraulic functioning at
the field scale. C.R. Geoscience, 341: 859-867.
Costantini, E. A. C., Pellegrini, S., Bucelli, P., Storchi, P., Vignozzi, N., Barbetti, R.,
Campagnolo, S., 2009. Relevance of the Lins and Host hydropedological models to predict
grape yield and wine quality. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13: 1635-1648.
Doussan C., Ruy S., 2009. Prediction of unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity with electrical
conductivity. Water Resources Research, 45, W10408.
Davies R., 2004. Mapping soil properties for irrigation development in the Riverland of South
Australia using EM38. SuperSoil 2004, 3d Australian and New Zealand Soils Conference, 5-9
December 2004, University of Sydney, Australia, published on CD_ROM, website
http://www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/s5/oral.
Doolittle J., Petersen M., Wheeler T., 2001. Comparison of two electromagnetic induction tools
in salinity appraisals. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 56: 257-262.
Geonics Limited, 1998. EM38 ground conductivity meter operating manual. Mississangua,
Ontario, Canada. www.geonics.com
McNeil J.D., 1990. Geonics EM38 Ground Conductivity Meter: EM38 Operating Manual,
Geonics Limited, Ontario, Canada.
Morari F., Castrignan A., Pagliarin C., 2009. Application of multivariate geostatistics in
delineating management zones within a gravelly vineyard using geo-electrical sensors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 68: 97-107.
Proffitt T., Bramley R., Lamb D., Winter E., 2006. Precision Viticulture.
http://www.pvaustralia.com.au/book.html, pp. 96.
Tromp-van Meerveld H.J., McDonnell J.J., 2009. Assessment of multi-frequency electromagnetic
induction for determining soil moisture patterns at hill slope scale. Journal of Hydrology, 368:
56-67.

4 - 42
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 42 03/06/10 15:51

Fig.2: ECa maps of the vineyard, obtained with the three different sensors. The variogram parameters for the
interpolation were the same for all the maps (ordinary kriging).


CONCLUSIONS

The ECa pattern obtained with the three sensors was similar (Fig.2). The instruments could
provide for a rapid, non invasive and relatively cheap soil survey in a difficult environment, like
that of a vineyard on clayey and stony soils, although iron materials in the vineyard sometimes
interfered with the magnetic fields of the EMI sensors in the HDP configuration. The cumulative
response of Profiler did not change at different frequencies and was very similar to the
EM38_VDP response. On top of that, both sensors were strongly correlated with ARP-170,
except for EM38_HDP, which was better correlated with ARP-50 and ARP-100. Correlations
between ECa and hydrological parameters namely FC, WP and AWC resulted highly significant.
In conclusion, the proximal survey performed by any of these instruments can complement the
traditional soil survey methods and allow a high quality predictive mapping of important soil
hydrological properties like FC, WP and AWC.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to Annamaria Castrignan, Donatello Sollitto and Daniela De
Benedetto (CRA-SCA, Bari, Italy) for the loan, the advices and the assistance with the EM38-
DD, as well as to the SO.IN.G and the Geostudi Astier (Livorno) for the loan and the
collaboration with the ARP and the Profiler EMP-400, respectively. A special thank is for the
farm Barone Ricasoli s.p.a., Gaiole in Chianti, Siena (Italy) for the economic support to the
research and for granting the access to its vineyards.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cousin I., Besson A., Bourennane H., Pasquier C., Nicoullaud B., King D., Richard G., 2009.
From spatial-continuous electrical resistivity measurements to the soil hydraulic functioning at
the field scale. C.R. Geoscience, 341: 859-867.
Costantini, E. A. C., Pellegrini, S., Bucelli, P., Storchi, P., Vignozzi, N., Barbetti, R.,
Campagnolo, S., 2009. Relevance of the Lins and Host hydropedological models to predict
grape yield and wine quality. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13: 1635-1648.
Doussan C., Ruy S., 2009. Prediction of unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity with electrical
conductivity. Water Resources Research, 45, W10408.
Davies R., 2004. Mapping soil properties for irrigation development in the Riverland of South
Australia using EM38. SuperSoil 2004, 3d Australian and New Zealand Soils Conference, 5-9
December 2004, University of Sydney, Australia, published on CD_ROM, website
http://www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/s5/oral.
Doolittle J., Petersen M., Wheeler T., 2001. Comparison of two electromagnetic induction tools
in salinity appraisals. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 56: 257-262.
Geonics Limited, 1998. EM38 ground conductivity meter operating manual. Mississangua,
Ontario, Canada. www.geonics.com
McNeil J.D., 1990. Geonics EM38 Ground Conductivity Meter: EM38 Operating Manual,
Geonics Limited, Ontario, Canada.
Morari F., Castrignan A., Pagliarin C., 2009. Application of multivariate geostatistics in
delineating management zones within a gravelly vineyard using geo-electrical sensors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 68: 97-107.
Proffitt T., Bramley R., Lamb D., Winter E., 2006. Precision Viticulture.
http://www.pvaustralia.com.au/book.html, pp. 96.
Tromp-van Meerveld H.J., McDonnell J.J., 2009. Assessment of multi-frequency electromagnetic
induction for determining soil moisture patterns at hill slope scale. Journal of Hydrology, 368:
56-67.

4 - 43
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 43 03/06/10 15:51
GEOLOGIC AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES APPLIED FOR
IDENTIFICATION OF WINE TERROIR UNITS BY DIGITAL IMAGE
PROCESSING, SPECTRORADIOMETRIC AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN
ENCRUZILHADA DO SUL, RS, BRAZIL
Rosemary Hoff
(1)
, Jorge Ricardo Ducati
(2)
, Magda Bergmann
(3)
(1)
Embrapa Uva e Vinho/CNPUV
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuria
Rua Livramento, 515 - 95700-000 - Bento Gonalves RS - Brasil
rosehoff@cnpuv.embrapa.br
(2)
Centro Estadual de Pesquisas em Sensoriamento Remoto e Meteorologia/CEPSRM
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Av. Bento Gonalves, 9500 91501-970 - Porto Alegre RS - Brasil
ducati@if.ufrgs.br
(3)
Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais/CPRM Servio Geolgico do Brasil
Rua Banco da Provncia, 105 CEP 90840-030 - Porto Alegre Brasil
mbergmann@pa.cprm.gov.br
ABSTRACT
Results in the characterization of a new wine terroir unit in south Brazil are reported.
Presently, several areas in Brazil are being studied, in an effort to define new wine terroirs
and improve the quality of Brazilian wines. This paper reports what is being done, by
Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) and its partners Remote Sensing and
Meteorological Research Center (CEPSRM/UFRGS) and Brazilian Geological Survey
(CPRM), in the Encruzilhada do Sul region, at Rio Grande do Sul State, that is part of the
Serra do Sudeste viticultural region. Satellite images from several sources (SRTM, ASTER,
ALOS) were used, together with field data (rock samples). Digital elevation models were built
and used to define areas with slopes and solar expositions adequate to vine growing, with
altitudes above 350 m. Spectroradiometry of rock samples was performed, to identify several
minerals (montmorilonite, illite, pyrophilite and kaolinite). Geologic maps were used to locate
rock types to collected in field trips; those rocks had their spectral response extracted from
radiometry, and fitted to the six bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem, resulting in a map of the
distribution of these rocks in some areas of interest. Two wineries were more closely studied.
The first area produces wine from 35 hectares of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Nebbiolo,
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. The other winery has 61 hectares and produces Pinot Noir and
Chardonnay grapes for sparkling wines. The study concludes that the use of remote sensing
resources and associated geotechnologies are effective to terroir studies.
KEYWORD
Brazilian wines; geology; geomorphology; spectroradiometry; geographical information
system.
INTRODUCTION
In Brazil, spectroradiometric studies have been developed to characterize new viticultural
geographic appellations, and for this effort, geotechnologies have been used by Embrapa and
Embrapa Grape and Wine Research Center (Centro Nacional de Pesquisas em Uva e
Vinho/CNPUV) is located in Bento Gonalves, at Rio Grande do Sul State, at the main
Brazilian wine production region. One of the more promising new studied areas is located
near Encruzilhada do Sul city, in Serra do Sudeste viticultural region (Figure 1). This area is
dominated by extensive grasslands with minor forest patches developed over old Precambrian
terrains represented mainly by granitic-gnaissic rocks. Soils are mainly cambisolos and
argisolos, poor in organic matter, well drained and occasionally gravely. The whole region is
part of the Pampa Biome (Embrapa 2008), which also covers large areas in neighboring
Uruguay and Argentina.
Figure 1. Location and vineyards in Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
Vineyards for fine wines (Vitis vinifera) were first introduced around 1970, and presently
there are more than 300 hectares with grapes such as Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet
Sauvignon, Merlot, Periquita, Teroldego, Marselan, Pinot Noir, Ancelota, Malbec, Touriga
Nacional, Gamay, Arinarnoa, Alicante Bouschet, Chardonnay, Gewrztraminer, Malvasia de
Cndia, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, and others. Such a large diversity of vineyards proves an
ongoing search for grape varieties that leads to a terroir identity. This identity, in fact, is
already suggested by Cemin and Ducati (2008), which detected spectral differences between
grape varieties in Encruzilhada do Sul, when compared with French and Chilean vineyards.
Further studies on the area were performed by Hoff et al. (2007), comparing geology and
relief units in the region, while Hoff et al. (2009) studied relief from two sets of orbital data;
Bergmann et al. (2009) linked digital elevation models (DEM) and geological surveys to
vineyards data. This work presents additional studies on this region, relating physical data as
rock and landscape, which give specificity to wines, and thus define a potential terroir.
4 - 44
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 44 03/06/10 15:51
GEOLOGIC AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES APPLIED FOR
IDENTIFICATION OF WINE TERROIR UNITS BY DIGITAL IMAGE
PROCESSING, SPECTRORADIOMETRIC AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN
ENCRUZILHADA DO SUL, RS, BRAZIL
Rosemary Hoff
(1)
, Jorge Ricardo Ducati
(2)
, Magda Bergmann
(3)
(1)
Embrapa Uva e Vinho/CNPUV
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuria
Rua Livramento, 515 - 95700-000 - Bento Gonalves RS - Brasil
rosehoff@cnpuv.embrapa.br
(2)
Centro Estadual de Pesquisas em Sensoriamento Remoto e Meteorologia/CEPSRM
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Av. Bento Gonalves, 9500 91501-970 - Porto Alegre RS - Brasil
ducati@if.ufrgs.br
(3)
Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais/CPRM Servio Geolgico do Brasil
Rua Banco da Provncia, 105 CEP 90840-030 - Porto Alegre Brasil
mbergmann@pa.cprm.gov.br
ABSTRACT
Results in the characterization of a new wine terroir unit in south Brazil are reported.
Presently, several areas in Brazil are being studied, in an effort to define new wine terroirs
and improve the quality of Brazilian wines. This paper reports what is being done, by
Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) and its partners Remote Sensing and
Meteorological Research Center (CEPSRM/UFRGS) and Brazilian Geological Survey
(CPRM), in the Encruzilhada do Sul region, at Rio Grande do Sul State, that is part of the
Serra do Sudeste viticultural region. Satellite images from several sources (SRTM, ASTER,
ALOS) were used, together with field data (rock samples). Digital elevation models were built
and used to define areas with slopes and solar expositions adequate to vine growing, with
altitudes above 350 m. Spectroradiometry of rock samples was performed, to identify several
minerals (montmorilonite, illite, pyrophilite and kaolinite). Geologic maps were used to locate
rock types to collected in field trips; those rocks had their spectral response extracted from
radiometry, and fitted to the six bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem, resulting in a map of the
distribution of these rocks in some areas of interest. Two wineries were more closely studied.
The first area produces wine from 35 hectares of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Nebbiolo,
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. The other winery has 61 hectares and produces Pinot Noir and
Chardonnay grapes for sparkling wines. The study concludes that the use of remote sensing
resources and associated geotechnologies are effective to terroir studies.
KEYWORD
Brazilian wines; geology; geomorphology; spectroradiometry; geographical information
system.
INTRODUCTION
In Brazil, spectroradiometric studies have been developed to characterize new viticultural
geographic appellations, and for this effort, geotechnologies have been used by Embrapa and
Embrapa Grape and Wine Research Center (Centro Nacional de Pesquisas em Uva e
Vinho/CNPUV) is located in Bento Gonalves, at Rio Grande do Sul State, at the main
Brazilian wine production region. One of the more promising new studied areas is located
near Encruzilhada do Sul city, in Serra do Sudeste viticultural region (Figure 1). This area is
dominated by extensive grasslands with minor forest patches developed over old Precambrian
terrains represented mainly by granitic-gnaissic rocks. Soils are mainly cambisolos and
argisolos, poor in organic matter, well drained and occasionally gravely. The whole region is
part of the Pampa Biome (Embrapa 2008), which also covers large areas in neighboring
Uruguay and Argentina.
Figure 1. Location and vineyards in Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
Vineyards for fine wines (Vitis vinifera) were first introduced around 1970, and presently
there are more than 300 hectares with grapes such as Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet
Sauvignon, Merlot, Periquita, Teroldego, Marselan, Pinot Noir, Ancelota, Malbec, Touriga
Nacional, Gamay, Arinarnoa, Alicante Bouschet, Chardonnay, Gewrztraminer, Malvasia de
Cndia, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, and others. Such a large diversity of vineyards proves an
ongoing search for grape varieties that leads to a terroir identity. This identity, in fact, is
already suggested by Cemin and Ducati (2008), which detected spectral differences between
grape varieties in Encruzilhada do Sul, when compared with French and Chilean vineyards.
Further studies on the area were performed by Hoff et al. (2007), comparing geology and
relief units in the region, while Hoff et al. (2009) studied relief from two sets of orbital data;
Bergmann et al. (2009) linked digital elevation models (DEM) and geological surveys to
vineyards data. This work presents additional studies on this region, relating physical data as
rock and landscape, which give specificity to wines, and thus define a potential terroir.
4 - 45
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 45 03/06/10 15:51
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cartography was based on SH-22-Y-A-VI-2 map 1:50,000 scale, from the Brazilian Army.
Digital elevation models (DEM) were generated from three orbital sources: the Space Shuttle
DEM (SRTM 2008) to characterize regional features on low resolution; the ASTER imager
(Abrams and Hook 2002) to study the areas on medium resolution; and ALOS satellite
(ALOS 2009) to characterize the vineyards on high resolution. Soil and geological maps were
produced by Embrapa and CPRM, respectively.
Thematic relief and landscape maps providing information were produced by
CEPSRM/UFRGS through digital image processing. Those products were grouped in a
Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, using ground and satellite data, to
produce a suitable agricultural zoning, searching for potential terroir units.
Digital elevation models produced slope, elevation, and solar orientation maps, which were
integrated, to be used in wine production planning.
Rock samples were collected in field trips, and analyzed with spectroradiometric techniques
by POSAM - Portable Spectroradiometer for Mineral identification and MISO - Mineral
Identification Software (Dowa, 2003) at CPRM. The spectral signatures lead to the
identification of the main species of minerals and their spectra was degraded to match the six
bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem, thus allowing a comparison with satellite data, leading to
the identification of rock types on images.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 2A shows the elevation map. Geomorphologic features like areas above 350 m are
highlighted, since these higher places tend to yield better wines. Relief features as slope and
solar orientation are important factors to wine quality. These features were crossed with areas
above than 350 m to show the best places to grape cropping (Figure 2B).


Figure 2. A: DEM generated from SRTM data, where shaded relief shows areas above 350 m;
B: from ASTER data, areas above 350 m, flat relief and northern exposition (Hoff et al.
2007). Dashed lines are roads.
Figure 3A shows the geologic map of the region. Figure 3B shows the reflectance spectra of
five rock types, expressed in the six bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem. These signatures
were used to detect these five rocks in the terrain imaged by ASTER, producing a classified
image for areas above 350 m (Figure 3C). Spectral radiometric techniques identified minerals
such as montmorilonite, illite, pyrophilite and kaolinite.

Figure 3. Geological map (A), adapted from CPRM (2008), showing location of wineries
Ldio Carraro (1) and Chandon do Brasil (2) in Encruzilhada do Sul; spectral signature of
rocks (B); classified image for geology (C), from Hoff et al. (2009).
Two vineyard areas were more closely studied. Figure 4 shows the Lidio Carraro winery,
with 35 ha of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes .
The digital elevation model showed maximum elevation of 360 m, and slopes mainly in 3-8%
and 8-30% classes; solar exposition is mostly North and Northeast.
The second area is Chandon do Brasil winery, which produces sparkling wine from Pinot
Noir and Chardonnay cropped over 61 ha. DEM indicated an elevation varying from 350 to
380 m, slopes from 3-8% to 8-30%, and aspect (solar exposition) between North, Northwest
and West (Figure 5).
4 - 46
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 46 03/06/10 15:51
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cartography was based on SH-22-Y-A-VI-2 map 1:50,000 scale, from the Brazilian Army.
Digital elevation models (DEM) were generated from three orbital sources: the Space Shuttle
DEM (SRTM 2008) to characterize regional features on low resolution; the ASTER imager
(Abrams and Hook 2002) to study the areas on medium resolution; and ALOS satellite
(ALOS 2009) to characterize the vineyards on high resolution. Soil and geological maps were
produced by Embrapa and CPRM, respectively.
Thematic relief and landscape maps providing information were produced by
CEPSRM/UFRGS through digital image processing. Those products were grouped in a
Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, using ground and satellite data, to
produce a suitable agricultural zoning, searching for potential terroir units.
Digital elevation models produced slope, elevation, and solar orientation maps, which were
integrated, to be used in wine production planning.
Rock samples were collected in field trips, and analyzed with spectroradiometric techniques
by POSAM - Portable Spectroradiometer for Mineral identification and MISO - Mineral
Identification Software (Dowa, 2003) at CPRM. The spectral signatures lead to the
identification of the main species of minerals and their spectra was degraded to match the six
bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem, thus allowing a comparison with satellite data, leading to
the identification of rock types on images.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 2A shows the elevation map. Geomorphologic features like areas above 350 m are
highlighted, since these higher places tend to yield better wines. Relief features as slope and
solar orientation are important factors to wine quality. These features were crossed with areas
above than 350 m to show the best places to grape cropping (Figure 2B).


Figure 2. A: DEM generated from SRTM data, where shaded relief shows areas above 350 m;
B: from ASTER data, areas above 350 m, flat relief and northern exposition (Hoff et al.
2007). Dashed lines are roads.
Figure 3A shows the geologic map of the region. Figure 3B shows the reflectance spectra of
five rock types, expressed in the six bands of ASTER SWIR subsystem. These signatures
were used to detect these five rocks in the terrain imaged by ASTER, producing a classified
image for areas above 350 m (Figure 3C). Spectral radiometric techniques identified minerals
such as montmorilonite, illite, pyrophilite and kaolinite.

Figure 3. Geological map (A), adapted from CPRM (2008), showing location of wineries
Ldio Carraro (1) and Chandon do Brasil (2) in Encruzilhada do Sul; spectral signature of
rocks (B); classified image for geology (C), from Hoff et al. (2009).
Two vineyard areas were more closely studied. Figure 4 shows the Lidio Carraro winery,
with 35 ha of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes .
The digital elevation model showed maximum elevation of 360 m, and slopes mainly in 3-8%
and 8-30% classes; solar exposition is mostly North and Northeast.
The second area is Chandon do Brasil winery, which produces sparkling wine from Pinot
Noir and Chardonnay cropped over 61 ha. DEM indicated an elevation varying from 350 to
380 m, slopes from 3-8% to 8-30%, and aspect (solar exposition) between North, Northwest
and West (Figure 5).
4 - 47
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 47 03/06/10 15:52
A -land use by
ALO8 AVNR merge
with PR8M band
mage processing
DEM by ALO8
PR8M: B -
elevation, C - slope
D - aspect {solar
exposition}
E- Granitic rock
{8uite ntrusiva
Encruzilhada do
8ul}.
Figure 4 Vincola Ldio Carraro, Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
A -land use by
ALO8 AVNR merge
PR8M
mage processing
DEM by ALO8
PR8M:B -
elevation; C -
slope; D - aspect
{solar exposition}
E - Metamorphic
rock {Complexo
Gnaissico Arroio
dos Ratos}.
Figure 5 Chandon do Brasil, Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed how the integrated use of geotechnologies and spectral analysis from
radiometry, supported by field data, can contribute effectively to viticulture studies aiming to
terroir characterization. Satellite images from several sources, such as low (SRTM), medium
(ASTER) and high (ALOS) resolutions, are effective to produce information on geological,
D
topographical, and solar orientation data, important to establish criteria to identify potential
terroir units, to agricultural zoning, and to strategies in vineyard and wine production.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was partly supported by the Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Cientfico e Tecnolgico/CNPq, in a project coordinated by Embrapa Uva e Vinho, in
partnership with CEPSRM and CPRM.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abrams, M., Hook, S. 2002. ASTER User Handbook: Advanced Spaceborne Thermal
Emission and Reflection Radiometer. USA: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory California
Institute of Technology, v.2, 2002, 135p. Available online in
http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/content/03_data/04_Documents/aster_user_guide_v2.pdf;
accessed in 2 apr. 2010.
ALOS - Advanced Land Observing Satellite. 2009. Available online in
https://ursa.aadn.alaska.edu/cgi-bin/login/guest/; accessed in 2 apr. 2010.
Bergmann, M.; Hoff, R.; Ducati, J.R.; Bombassaro, M.G.; Costa, G.L. 2009. Geologia e
vinho: Um novo enfoque para terroir vitcola na Regio de Encruzilhada do Sul, Brasil. In:
XII Congreso Latinoamericano de Viticultura y Enologa, Montevidu. Anales XII
CLAVE (CD). Montevideo: PROMOVER, 2009.
Cemin, G.; Ducati, J. R. 2008. On the Stability of Spectral Features of Four Vine Varieties in
Brazil, Chile and France. In: VIIth International Terroir Congress, 2008, Nyon.
Proceedings of the VIIth International Terroir Congress. Nyon: Agroscope Changins
Wdenswil, 2008. v. 1. p. 475-480.
CPRM Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais 2008. Mapa Geolgico do Rio
Grande do Sul. Escala 1:750.000. CPRM/MME. Available online in
http://www.cprm.gov.br/
DOWA Engineering Co., Ltd. 2003. POSAM POrtable SpectrorAdiometer for Mineral
identification and MISO Ver.1.0 Mineral Identification Software User's Manual, 22 pp.
Tokyo.
Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropcuria. 2009. A Embrapa nos biomas
brasileiros: Avanos no Manejo Sustentvel dos Recursos Naturais. MAPA, Braslia.
Available: http://www.embrapa.br/publicacoes/institucionais/laminas-biomas.pdf/view
Hoff, R.; Ducati, J. R.; Bergmann, M. 2009. Comparao de dados de modelo digital de
elevao - MDE: ASTER e SRTM por processamento digital de imagem para identificao
de terroir vitivincola na Folha Encruzilhada do Sul, RS, Brasil. In: XIV Simpsio
Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, 2009, Natal. Anais XIV Simpsio Brasileiro de
Sensoriamento Remoto. S. J. dos Campos : INPE, v.1. p.1-8. Available online in
http://marte.dpi.inpe.br/col/dpi.inpe.br/sbsr@80/2008/11.18.02.00.46/doc/215-222.pdf
Hoff, R.; Ducati, J. R.; Flores, C. A.; Iglesias, C M F. 2007. Aspectos geolgicos e
geomorfolgicos da identificao de critrios para estabelecimento de terroirs na Metade
Sul (Rio Grande Do Sul, Brasil) pela aplicao de processamento digital de imagem
ASTER. In: V Congreso Uruguayo de Geologa, 2007, Montevido. Resumenes V
Congreso Uruguayo de Geologa. Montevido : SUGEOLOGIA, 2007. v. 1. p. 120-120.
SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 2008. Available: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/
4 - 48
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 48 03/06/10 15:52
A -land use by
ALO8 AVNR merge
with PR8M band
mage processing
DEM by ALO8
PR8M: B -
elevation, C - slope
D - aspect {solar
exposition}
E- Granitic rock
{8uite ntrusiva
Encruzilhada do
8ul}.
Figure 4 Vincola Ldio Carraro, Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
A -land use by
ALO8 AVNR merge
PR8M
mage processing
DEM by ALO8
PR8M:B -
elevation; C -
slope; D - aspect
{solar exposition}
E - Metamorphic
rock {Complexo
Gnaissico Arroio
dos Ratos}.
Figure 5 Chandon do Brasil, Encruzilhada do Sul, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed how the integrated use of geotechnologies and spectral analysis from
radiometry, supported by field data, can contribute effectively to viticulture studies aiming to
terroir characterization. Satellite images from several sources, such as low (SRTM), medium
(ASTER) and high (ALOS) resolutions, are effective to produce information on geological,
D
topographical, and solar orientation data, important to establish criteria to identify potential
terroir units, to agricultural zoning, and to strategies in vineyard and wine production.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was partly supported by the Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Cientfico e Tecnolgico/CNPq, in a project coordinated by Embrapa Uva e Vinho, in
partnership with CEPSRM and CPRM.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abrams, M., Hook, S. 2002. ASTER User Handbook: Advanced Spaceborne Thermal
Emission and Reflection Radiometer. USA: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory California
Institute of Technology, v.2, 2002, 135p. Available online in
http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/content/03_data/04_Documents/aster_user_guide_v2.pdf;
accessed in 2 apr. 2010.
ALOS - Advanced Land Observing Satellite. 2009. Available online in
https://ursa.aadn.alaska.edu/cgi-bin/login/guest/; accessed in 2 apr. 2010.
Bergmann, M.; Hoff, R.; Ducati, J.R.; Bombassaro, M.G.; Costa, G.L. 2009. Geologia e
vinho: Um novo enfoque para terroir vitcola na Regio de Encruzilhada do Sul, Brasil. In:
XII Congreso Latinoamericano de Viticultura y Enologa, Montevidu. Anales XII
CLAVE (CD). Montevideo: PROMOVER, 2009.
Cemin, G.; Ducati, J. R. 2008. On the Stability of Spectral Features of Four Vine Varieties in
Brazil, Chile and France. In: VIIth International Terroir Congress, 2008, Nyon.
Proceedings of the VIIth International Terroir Congress. Nyon: Agroscope Changins
Wdenswil, 2008. v. 1. p. 475-480.
CPRM Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais 2008. Mapa Geolgico do Rio
Grande do Sul. Escala 1:750.000. CPRM/MME. Available online in
http://www.cprm.gov.br/
DOWA Engineering Co., Ltd. 2003. POSAM POrtable SpectrorAdiometer for Mineral
identification and MISO Ver.1.0 Mineral Identification Software User's Manual, 22 pp.
Tokyo.
Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropcuria. 2009. A Embrapa nos biomas
brasileiros: Avanos no Manejo Sustentvel dos Recursos Naturais. MAPA, Braslia.
Available: http://www.embrapa.br/publicacoes/institucionais/laminas-biomas.pdf/view
Hoff, R.; Ducati, J. R.; Bergmann, M. 2009. Comparao de dados de modelo digital de
elevao - MDE: ASTER e SRTM por processamento digital de imagem para identificao
de terroir vitivincola na Folha Encruzilhada do Sul, RS, Brasil. In: XIV Simpsio
Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, 2009, Natal. Anais XIV Simpsio Brasileiro de
Sensoriamento Remoto. S. J. dos Campos : INPE, v.1. p.1-8. Available online in
http://marte.dpi.inpe.br/col/dpi.inpe.br/sbsr@80/2008/11.18.02.00.46/doc/215-222.pdf
Hoff, R.; Ducati, J. R.; Flores, C. A.; Iglesias, C M F. 2007. Aspectos geolgicos e
geomorfolgicos da identificao de critrios para estabelecimento de terroirs na Metade
Sul (Rio Grande Do Sul, Brasil) pela aplicao de processamento digital de imagem
ASTER. In: V Congreso Uruguayo de Geologa, 2007, Montevido. Resumenes V
Congreso Uruguayo de Geologa. Montevido : SUGEOLOGIA, 2007. v. 1. p. 120-120.
SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 2008. Available: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/
4 - 49
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 49 03/06/10 15:52
INFLUENCE OF BASALT ON THE TERROIR OF THE COLUMBIA
VALLEY AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREA

K. R. Pogue
Department of Geology, Whitman College
345 Boyer Ave., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 USA
pogue@whitman.edu


ABSTRACT

The Columbia Valley American Viticultural Area (AVA) of the Pacific Northwest, USA is
the world's largest officially recognized viticultural area with basalt bedrock. However, most
Columbia Valley vineyards are planted in soils derived from thick loess and glacial flood
sediments, rather than the underlying bedrock. Recently, vineyard plantings have expanded
into parts of the AVA where basalt and basalt weathering products, derived either naturally or
through mechanical ripping, are a major soil component. Tests were conducted to determine
how the addition of a basalt component to soils could affect the terroir of Columbia Valley
vineyards. To test for the chemical influence of basalt, samples were obtained from soils
representative of the range of basalt influence and analyzed for iron content. Increases of 77%
to 233% in available iron were observed in vineyards with basalt component relative to
vineyards planted in grass-covered loess. To measure the thermal influence of basalt,
temperature data loggers were installed within soils and grape clusters in basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards. Temperature loggers in the basalt-covered vineyard recorded an
18% increase in average soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm, a 13% increase in average soil
temperature at a depth of 25 cm, and a 4% in average cluster temperature relative to those in
the grass-covered vineyard. Cluster temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard were
generally higher than in the grass-covered vineyard from late morning through early evening,
equilibrating rapidly near sunset.

KEYWORDS
basalt - terroir - soil - Columbia Valley


INTRODUCTION

Worldwide, the percentage of vineyards planted in basalt-derived soils is relatively small.
Notable viticultural areas with soils developed in weakly weathered to unweathered basalt
include the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Sicily's Mt. Etna. Regions that host vineyards
planted in older or more deeply weathered basaltic soils include western India, southern
Australia, Oregon's Willamette Valley, south-central France, northern Italy, and Hungary's
Badascony region. The world's largest government-designated viticultural region with basalt-
dominated bedrock is the Columbia Valley AVA, which encompasses over 45,000 km
2
of the
states of Washington and Oregon (Gregutt, 2002). The basalt was erupted during the Miocene
Epoch from volcanoes associated with the hot spot that now lies beneath Yellowstone
National Park in Wyoming (Pogue, 2009). The Columbia Valley AVA presently contains
over 2700 ha of vineyards that are located primarily on gentle slopes or on valley floors
below 400 m in elevation. Almost all of the vineyards are planted in loess derived from the
deflation of sediments deposited by a series of catastrophic Pleistocene glacial outburst
floods, known as the Missoula floods (Busacca, Meinert, 2003). At elevations below 330 m,
the loess commonly overlies sand, silt, and gravel deposited by the Missoula floods, while
above this elevation, the loess directly overlies basalt bedrock. Despite its age, the basalt is
not deeply weathered due to the combined affects of the region's arid climate and the
protective mantle of flood- and wind-deposited sediment. The most obvious effects of
weathering are fracture networks filled with calcium carbonate and iron oxide-stained clays
within the uppermost 1 m of the basalt. The soils in most Columbia Valley AVA vineyards
were derived by the glacial and fluvial erosion of regions dominated by granitic and
metasedimentary bedrock that lie north and east of the Columbia Valley AVA. They are
therefore rich in quartz, muscovite mica, and potassium feldspar, minerals not present in the
underlying basalt bedrock. Since the thickness of these soils generally exceeds the rooting
depth of the vines, basalt has had, until recently, almost no influence on terroir.
Over the last 10 years, viticulture in the Columbia Valley AVA has rapidly expanded.
Vineyards have recently been planted at higher elevations, on steeper slopes, and in rocky,
alluvial soils. The soils in these vineyards are commonly much thinner than those of the
traditional valley floor sites, and therefore vine roots are able to directly interact with basalt
bedrock or basalt-derived alluvium or colluvium. In preparation for planting, the thin soils are
often mechanically ripped to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m to increase water holding capacity and
available rooting depth. The ripping process crushes the upper parts of the weakly weathered
basalt bedrock and incorporates fractured basalt and basalt weathering products into the
overlying sediments, significantly altering their mineralogy and chemistry. The introduction
of basaltic minerals into soils derived from a granitic parent should increase the
concentrations of elements that are present in higher concentrations in basalt, such as iron.
Iron is an important nutrient for grapevines and unlike most elements, the concentration of
iron in grapes and vineyard soils has been demonstrated to be directly related (Negre,
Cordonnier, 1953). Iron concentrations in musts, which vary according to soil iron content,
have been shown to affect the stability, clarity, and color of wines (Riganakos, Veltsistas,
2003).
The incorporation of fractured basalt by ripping also significantly alters both the texture and
color of soils derived from fine-grained light-colored loess. In some recently planted
Columbia Valley vineyards, ripping has produced soils with a very high ratio of rock to loess,
and basalt is exposed over a significant percentage of the ground surface. The physical
properties of these basalt-rich soils are very different from the loess-dominated soils that are
typical of most Columbia Valley AVA vineyards. Unlike the highly erodible loess-dominated
soils, the rocky coarse-textured basalt-rich soils require no cover crop. Relative to a vegetated
ground surface, bare soil rich in basalt should absorb, store, and radiate more heat and
conduct heat to deeper levels of the soil more effectively (Gladstones, 1994; White, 2003).
Winegrowers have long recognized the thermal properties of basalt. In Germany's Forst
region, it has even been imported to warm vineyard soils (Clarke, 2002).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

To test the influence of basalt on the chemistry of Columbia Valley AVA soils, samples
were collected from diverse sites that typify the range of its involvement (Fig.1). Soil samples
were collected from: 1) ripped alluvial soils rich in basalt cobbles, 2) ripped alluvial soils with
scattered basalt cobbles, 3) steep hillsides with thin loess and basalt colluvium (unripped), 4)
steep hillsides with thin loess and basalt colluvium (ripped), and 5) gently sloping topography
4 - 50
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 50 03/06/10 15:52
INFLUENCE OF BASALT ON THE TERROIR OF THE COLUMBIA
VALLEY AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREA

K. R. Pogue
Department of Geology, Whitman College
345 Boyer Ave., Walla Walla, Washington 99362 USA
pogue@whitman.edu


ABSTRACT

The Columbia Valley American Viticultural Area (AVA) of the Pacific Northwest, USA is
the world's largest officially recognized viticultural area with basalt bedrock. However, most
Columbia Valley vineyards are planted in soils derived from thick loess and glacial flood
sediments, rather than the underlying bedrock. Recently, vineyard plantings have expanded
into parts of the AVA where basalt and basalt weathering products, derived either naturally or
through mechanical ripping, are a major soil component. Tests were conducted to determine
how the addition of a basalt component to soils could affect the terroir of Columbia Valley
vineyards. To test for the chemical influence of basalt, samples were obtained from soils
representative of the range of basalt influence and analyzed for iron content. Increases of 77%
to 233% in available iron were observed in vineyards with basalt component relative to
vineyards planted in grass-covered loess. To measure the thermal influence of basalt,
temperature data loggers were installed within soils and grape clusters in basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards. Temperature loggers in the basalt-covered vineyard recorded an
18% increase in average soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm, a 13% increase in average soil
temperature at a depth of 25 cm, and a 4% in average cluster temperature relative to those in
the grass-covered vineyard. Cluster temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard were
generally higher than in the grass-covered vineyard from late morning through early evening,
equilibrating rapidly near sunset.

KEYWORDS
basalt - terroir - soil - Columbia Valley


INTRODUCTION

Worldwide, the percentage of vineyards planted in basalt-derived soils is relatively small.
Notable viticultural areas with soils developed in weakly weathered to unweathered basalt
include the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Sicily's Mt. Etna. Regions that host vineyards
planted in older or more deeply weathered basaltic soils include western India, southern
Australia, Oregon's Willamette Valley, south-central France, northern Italy, and Hungary's
Badascony region. The world's largest government-designated viticultural region with basalt-
dominated bedrock is the Columbia Valley AVA, which encompasses over 45,000 km
2
of the
states of Washington and Oregon (Gregutt, 2002). The basalt was erupted during the Miocene
Epoch from volcanoes associated with the hot spot that now lies beneath Yellowstone
National Park in Wyoming (Pogue, 2009). The Columbia Valley AVA presently contains
over 2700 ha of vineyards that are located primarily on gentle slopes or on valley floors
below 400 m in elevation. Almost all of the vineyards are planted in loess derived from the
deflation of sediments deposited by a series of catastrophic Pleistocene glacial outburst
floods, known as the Missoula floods (Busacca, Meinert, 2003). At elevations below 330 m,
the loess commonly overlies sand, silt, and gravel deposited by the Missoula floods, while
above this elevation, the loess directly overlies basalt bedrock. Despite its age, the basalt is
not deeply weathered due to the combined affects of the region's arid climate and the
protective mantle of flood- and wind-deposited sediment. The most obvious effects of
weathering are fracture networks filled with calcium carbonate and iron oxide-stained clays
within the uppermost 1 m of the basalt. The soils in most Columbia Valley AVA vineyards
were derived by the glacial and fluvial erosion of regions dominated by granitic and
metasedimentary bedrock that lie north and east of the Columbia Valley AVA. They are
therefore rich in quartz, muscovite mica, and potassium feldspar, minerals not present in the
underlying basalt bedrock. Since the thickness of these soils generally exceeds the rooting
depth of the vines, basalt has had, until recently, almost no influence on terroir.
Over the last 10 years, viticulture in the Columbia Valley AVA has rapidly expanded.
Vineyards have recently been planted at higher elevations, on steeper slopes, and in rocky,
alluvial soils. The soils in these vineyards are commonly much thinner than those of the
traditional valley floor sites, and therefore vine roots are able to directly interact with basalt
bedrock or basalt-derived alluvium or colluvium. In preparation for planting, the thin soils are
often mechanically ripped to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m to increase water holding capacity and
available rooting depth. The ripping process crushes the upper parts of the weakly weathered
basalt bedrock and incorporates fractured basalt and basalt weathering products into the
overlying sediments, significantly altering their mineralogy and chemistry. The introduction
of basaltic minerals into soils derived from a granitic parent should increase the
concentrations of elements that are present in higher concentrations in basalt, such as iron.
Iron is an important nutrient for grapevines and unlike most elements, the concentration of
iron in grapes and vineyard soils has been demonstrated to be directly related (Negre,
Cordonnier, 1953). Iron concentrations in musts, which vary according to soil iron content,
have been shown to affect the stability, clarity, and color of wines (Riganakos, Veltsistas,
2003).
The incorporation of fractured basalt by ripping also significantly alters both the texture and
color of soils derived from fine-grained light-colored loess. In some recently planted
Columbia Valley vineyards, ripping has produced soils with a very high ratio of rock to loess,
and basalt is exposed over a significant percentage of the ground surface. The physical
properties of these basalt-rich soils are very different from the loess-dominated soils that are
typical of most Columbia Valley AVA vineyards. Unlike the highly erodible loess-dominated
soils, the rocky coarse-textured basalt-rich soils require no cover crop. Relative to a vegetated
ground surface, bare soil rich in basalt should absorb, store, and radiate more heat and
conduct heat to deeper levels of the soil more effectively (Gladstones, 1994; White, 2003).
Winegrowers have long recognized the thermal properties of basalt. In Germany's Forst
region, it has even been imported to warm vineyard soils (Clarke, 2002).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

To test the influence of basalt on the chemistry of Columbia Valley AVA soils, samples
were collected from diverse sites that typify the range of its involvement (Fig.1). Soil samples
were collected from: 1) ripped alluvial soils rich in basalt cobbles, 2) ripped alluvial soils with
scattered basalt cobbles, 3) steep hillsides with thin loess and basalt colluvium (unripped), 4)
steep hillsides with thin loess and basalt colluvium (ripped), and 5) gently sloping topography
4 - 51
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 51 03/06/10 15:52
with thick loess. In addition, as a control, an artificial soil sample (sample #6) was created by
crushing unweathered basalt. All samples were sieved to <1mm particle size. The availability
of iron in all samples was determined by a commercial soil laboratory using
diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an extractant.



Figure 1 Diagrammatic cross-section showing location of samples relative to soil type
and slope.

To measure the thermal effects of a basalt-covered ground surface, temperature data loggers
were inserted into the interiors of grape clusters in two vineyards located 2.5 km apart. The
surface of one vineyard is covered almost entirely by basalt cobbles while the other by a
combination of dry, grassy vegetation and brown, loess-based soil. Data loggers were placed
in 4 clusters in each vineyard. Clusters were selected to be approximately 0.5 m above the
ground surface and shaded by leaves from direct sunlight. Data loggers were also buried
midway between two rows in each vineyard at depths of 5 cm and 25 cm. The ambient air
temperature in each vineyard was recorded by a radiation-shielded temperature data logger
positioned 1.5 m above the ground. Data were collected at various times during July and
August of 2007.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 2 shows the concentration of available iron in each sample in parts per million. As
expected, sample #5 from the thick loess soils showed the lowest concentration (9 ppm).
Relative to the other soils, these soils contain virtually no basaltic component. The highest
concentration of iron (30 ppm) was measured in the alluvial soil with scattered basalt cobbles
(sample #2). Being farther from the main stream channel, this soil is older and more deeply
weathered than its cobble-rich counterpart (sample #1), which had a 37 percent lower iron
concentration (19 ppm). The sample of unripped thin loess-based soil from a steep hillside
(sample #3) contained 16 ppm iron, reflecting minor colluvial input from the basalt bedrock.
The 44% increase in available iron in sample #4 (23 ppm) relative to sample #3 is likely
related to the incorporation of weathered basalt by mechanical ripping. Sample #6, the
artificial soil created by crushing unweathered basalt, had an iron concentration of only 14
ppm, which emphasizes the critical role of weathering in the production of plant-available
iron.



Figure 2 Available iron in each sample.

Fig. 3 shows a graph of the average temperatures of grape clusters in the basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards and a graph of the difference in ambient air temperature in the two
vineyards from 5 days in late July 2007. The grape cluster data loggers in the basalt-covered
vineyard recorded higher temperatures between approximately 10:00 and 20:00 each day.



4 - 52
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 52 03/06/10 15:52
with thick loess. In addition, as a control, an artificial soil sample (sample #6) was created by
crushing unweathered basalt. All samples were sieved to <1mm particle size. The availability
of iron in all samples was determined by a commercial soil laboratory using
diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an extractant.



Figure 1 Diagrammatic cross-section showing location of samples relative to soil type
and slope.

To measure the thermal effects of a basalt-covered ground surface, temperature data loggers
were inserted into the interiors of grape clusters in two vineyards located 2.5 km apart. The
surface of one vineyard is covered almost entirely by basalt cobbles while the other by a
combination of dry, grassy vegetation and brown, loess-based soil. Data loggers were placed
in 4 clusters in each vineyard. Clusters were selected to be approximately 0.5 m above the
ground surface and shaded by leaves from direct sunlight. Data loggers were also buried
midway between two rows in each vineyard at depths of 5 cm and 25 cm. The ambient air
temperature in each vineyard was recorded by a radiation-shielded temperature data logger
positioned 1.5 m above the ground. Data were collected at various times during July and
August of 2007.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 2 shows the concentration of available iron in each sample in parts per million. As
expected, sample #5 from the thick loess soils showed the lowest concentration (9 ppm).
Relative to the other soils, these soils contain virtually no basaltic component. The highest
concentration of iron (30 ppm) was measured in the alluvial soil with scattered basalt cobbles
(sample #2). Being farther from the main stream channel, this soil is older and more deeply
weathered than its cobble-rich counterpart (sample #1), which had a 37 percent lower iron
concentration (19 ppm). The sample of unripped thin loess-based soil from a steep hillside
(sample #3) contained 16 ppm iron, reflecting minor colluvial input from the basalt bedrock.
The 44% increase in available iron in sample #4 (23 ppm) relative to sample #3 is likely
related to the incorporation of weathered basalt by mechanical ripping. Sample #6, the
artificial soil created by crushing unweathered basalt, had an iron concentration of only 14
ppm, which emphasizes the critical role of weathering in the production of plant-available
iron.



Figure 2 Available iron in each sample.

Fig. 3 shows a graph of the average temperatures of grape clusters in the basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards and a graph of the difference in ambient air temperature in the two
vineyards from 5 days in late July 2007. The grape cluster data loggers in the basalt-covered
vineyard recorded higher temperatures between approximately 10:00 and 20:00 each day.



4 - 53
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 53 03/06/10 15:52
Figure 3 Grape cluster temperatures and difference in ambient air temperature in
basalt- and grass-covered vineyards.
These time intervals are shaded on fig. 3. Although the ambient air temperature in the
vineyards during these intervals generally differed by less than 1C, the basalt-covered
vineyard cluster temperatures were often 3 to 5C higher than those in the grass-covered
vineyard.
Fig. 4 compares the average ambient air, ground surface, subsurface, and cluster
temperatures of the grass-covered and basalt-covered vineyards from 25 days in August of
2007. The higher ground surface and subsurface temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard
reflect the lower specific heat and higher thermal conductivity of basalt relative to grass and
loess. Radiant heat supplied by the higher surface temperatures increased average cluster
temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard relative to the grass-covered vineyard. The
relatively smaller increase in the average temperature of the basalt vineyard clusters reflects
the high specific heat of water, which constitutes most of their mass. Variations in berry
temperature have been shown to affect the production of phenolics, anthocyanins, and sugars
(Bergqvist et al., 2001). The average ambient air temperature in the two vineyards was
statistically the same, indicating that advection overwhelms the effects of the differing surface
materials.



Figure 4 Comparison of average temperatures in basalt- and grass-covered vineyards.

CONCLUSIONS

The terroir of some Columbia Valley AVA vineyards is significantly influenced by the
chemical and thermal properties of basalt. Vineyard soils in the Columbia Valley AVA that
incorporate basalt bedrock or basalt alluvium show substantial increases in available iron
relative to the more widely planted loess-based soils. The largest increases are observed in
older alluvial soils and in mechanically ripped soils that incorporate weathered bedrock. Since
the iron content of grapevines is directly related to the availability of iron in vineyard soil,
increased iron should also be evident in the grapes and wines produced from basalt-rich soils.
Vineyards within the Columbia Valley AVA covered by fractured basalt bedrock or basalt-
rich alluvium have higher average ground surface and subsurface temperatures than their
grass-covered counterparts. From late morning to early evening, grape clusters in basalt-
covered vineyards are heated to higher temperatures than clusters in grass covered vineyards.
The extra heat is derived from infrared radiation from the sun-warmed dark-colored basalt,
not from conduction from heated air. Cluster temperatures within the basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards rapidly equilibrate near sunset. No evidence was observed of the oft-
cited ability of surface stones to store heat and release it after sunset, at least not to the above
ground part of the grapevines. Due to advection, vineyard surface material appears to have
little affect on ambient air temperature.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Christophe Baron of Cayuse Vineyards and Norm McKibben of Seven Hills Vineyards
kindly provided permission to use their properties for this research. Students Greg Dering and
Karl Lang provide valuable assistance in the field. Instrumentation and analyses were funded
by Whitman College and the Keck Geology Consortium.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bergqvist J., Dokoozlian N., Ebisuda N., 2001. Sunlight exposure and temperature effects on
berry growth and composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache in the central San
Joaquin valley of California. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52, 1-7.

Busacca A., Meinert L., 2003. Wine and geologyThe terroir of Washington State. In:
Western Cordillera and Adjacent Areas. Swanson, T.W., Ed. Geological Society of
America Field Guide 4. p. 6985.

Clarke O., 2002. Oz Clarke's New Wine Atlas: Wine and Wine Regions of the World.
Webster's International Publishers. London.

Gladstones J., 1992. Viticulture and Environment. Winetitles. Underdale.

Gregutt P., 2002. Washington Wines and Wineries, the Essential Guide. University of
California Press. Berkeley.

Negre E. and Cordonnier R., 1953. Les Origines du Fer des Vins. Progres Agricole et
Viticole, 139: 160-164.

Pogue K., 2009. Folds, floods, and fine wine: Geologic influences on the terroir of the Columbia
basin. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geologic Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of
the Pacific Northwest. O'Connor, J., Dorsey, R., and Madin, I., Eds. Geological Society of
America Field Guide 15. p. 1-17.

White R., 2003. Soils for Fine Wines. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

4 - 54
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 54 03/06/10 15:52
Figure 3 Grape cluster temperatures and difference in ambient air temperature in
basalt- and grass-covered vineyards.
These time intervals are shaded on fig. 3. Although the ambient air temperature in the
vineyards during these intervals generally differed by less than 1C, the basalt-covered
vineyard cluster temperatures were often 3 to 5C higher than those in the grass-covered
vineyard.
Fig. 4 compares the average ambient air, ground surface, subsurface, and cluster
temperatures of the grass-covered and basalt-covered vineyards from 25 days in August of
2007. The higher ground surface and subsurface temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard
reflect the lower specific heat and higher thermal conductivity of basalt relative to grass and
loess. Radiant heat supplied by the higher surface temperatures increased average cluster
temperatures in the basalt-covered vineyard relative to the grass-covered vineyard. The
relatively smaller increase in the average temperature of the basalt vineyard clusters reflects
the high specific heat of water, which constitutes most of their mass. Variations in berry
temperature have been shown to affect the production of phenolics, anthocyanins, and sugars
(Bergqvist et al., 2001). The average ambient air temperature in the two vineyards was
statistically the same, indicating that advection overwhelms the effects of the differing surface
materials.



Figure 4 Comparison of average temperatures in basalt- and grass-covered vineyards.

CONCLUSIONS

The terroir of some Columbia Valley AVA vineyards is significantly influenced by the
chemical and thermal properties of basalt. Vineyard soils in the Columbia Valley AVA that
incorporate basalt bedrock or basalt alluvium show substantial increases in available iron
relative to the more widely planted loess-based soils. The largest increases are observed in
older alluvial soils and in mechanically ripped soils that incorporate weathered bedrock. Since
the iron content of grapevines is directly related to the availability of iron in vineyard soil,
increased iron should also be evident in the grapes and wines produced from basalt-rich soils.
Vineyards within the Columbia Valley AVA covered by fractured basalt bedrock or basalt-
rich alluvium have higher average ground surface and subsurface temperatures than their
grass-covered counterparts. From late morning to early evening, grape clusters in basalt-
covered vineyards are heated to higher temperatures than clusters in grass covered vineyards.
The extra heat is derived from infrared radiation from the sun-warmed dark-colored basalt,
not from conduction from heated air. Cluster temperatures within the basalt-covered and
grass-covered vineyards rapidly equilibrate near sunset. No evidence was observed of the oft-
cited ability of surface stones to store heat and release it after sunset, at least not to the above
ground part of the grapevines. Due to advection, vineyard surface material appears to have
little affect on ambient air temperature.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Christophe Baron of Cayuse Vineyards and Norm McKibben of Seven Hills Vineyards
kindly provided permission to use their properties for this research. Students Greg Dering and
Karl Lang provide valuable assistance in the field. Instrumentation and analyses were funded
by Whitman College and the Keck Geology Consortium.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bergqvist J., Dokoozlian N., Ebisuda N., 2001. Sunlight exposure and temperature effects on
berry growth and composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache in the central San
Joaquin valley of California. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52, 1-7.

Busacca A., Meinert L., 2003. Wine and geologyThe terroir of Washington State. In:
Western Cordillera and Adjacent Areas. Swanson, T.W., Ed. Geological Society of
America Field Guide 4. p. 6985.

Clarke O., 2002. Oz Clarke's New Wine Atlas: Wine and Wine Regions of the World.
Webster's International Publishers. London.

Gladstones J., 1992. Viticulture and Environment. Winetitles. Underdale.

Gregutt P., 2002. Washington Wines and Wineries, the Essential Guide. University of
California Press. Berkeley.

Negre E. and Cordonnier R., 1953. Les Origines du Fer des Vins. Progres Agricole et
Viticole, 139: 160-164.

Pogue K., 2009. Folds, floods, and fine wine: Geologic influences on the terroir of the Columbia
basin. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geologic Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of
the Pacific Northwest. O'Connor, J., Dorsey, R., and Madin, I., Eds. Geological Society of
America Field Guide 15. p. 1-17.

White R., 2003. Soils for Fine Wines. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

4 - 55
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 55 03/06/10 15:52
ARSENIC IN BERRIES AND ITS CORRELATION WITH NATURAL
SOIL CONTENT: EXPERIENCE IN TRENTINO (ITALY)
D. Bertoldi
(1,2)
, R. Larcher
(1)
, G. Nicolini
(1)
, M. Bertamini
(1)
, G. Concheri
(2)
(1)
IASMA Fondazione E. Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele allAdige (TN), Italy
daniela.bertoldi@iasma.it
(2)
Universit di Padove, Dip. Biotecnologie Agrarie, viale dellUniversit, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
ABSTRACT
Il lavoro presenta levoluzione dei contenuti di arsenico nelle uve durante lo sviluppo e la
maturazione, e la sua distribuzione nellacino; verifica inoltre la relazione tra i contenuti di As
nelle uve, nelle foglie e nei suoli caratterizzati da una dotazione differente e naturale di questo
elemento.
Nella bacca larsenico cresce durante la stagione vegetativa e a maturazione localizzato
nella polpa (50%), nella buccia (40%) e in minima parte nei semi.
La correlazione tra i contenuti di As nelle bacche raccolte in 18 vigneti, nelle corrispondenti
foglie e nei rispettivi suoli estratti con acetato di ammonio risulta statisticamente significativa.
KEY-WORDS
arsenico arsenico biodisponibile suolo Vitis acino ICP-MS
ABSTRACT
The work illustrates arsenic content in grapes during development and ripening and its
distribution in the berry, together with the relationship between As content in grape berries,
leaves and soils where this element is naturally present in different amounts.
Arsenic increases in the berry during the growing season and is located in the pulp (50%),
the skin (40%) and to a lesser extent in the seeds in ripe berries.
The correlation between the As content in berries collected in 18 vineyards and in the
corresponding leaves and soils, extracted using ammonium acetate, is statistically significant.
KEY-WORDS
arsenic bioavailable arsenic soil Vitis grape berry ICP-MS
INTRODUZIONE
Larsenico (As) naturalmente presente nella crosta terrestre, diffuso in vari tipi di rocce e
soprattutto nei sedimenti argillosi e negli scisti. un elemento calcofilo spesso associato a
solfuri minerali soprattutto di Fe, Cu e Pb quali pirite, calcopirite e galena ed ha un
comportamento geochimico simile al P (elemento antagonista). presente nellambiente sia
in forme inorganiche che organiche, interconvertibili tra loro (attraverso ad es. processi di
metilazione) a seguito di processi biotici e abiotici.
Nei suoli non contaminati, i livelli di As variano tra <0.1 e 95 mg/kg con medie mondiali in
genere inferiori a 10 mg/kg (Adriano, 2001; Kabata-Pendias, 2001). La solubilit di questo
elemento - e conseguentemente la sua concentrazione nella soluzione del suolo -
influenzata principalmente dalle condizioni redox, dal pH, dalla presenza di sostanza
organica e dallattivit biologica (Jones et al., 2000). Nella soluzione del suolo lAs
presente con stato di ossidazione (III) o (V). LAs(III) pi solubile, mobile e tossico
dellAs(V) che risulta essere comunque la specie fitodisponibile dominante nei suoli aerobici
(Adriano, 2001).
AllAs di origine naturale, geogenica, si pu aggiungere quello di derivazione antropica.
Tale elemento pu essere infatti emesso nellambiente in seguito allattivit industriale e
mineraria, alla combustione del carbone e dalle centrali geotermiche ed essere inoltre
presente come tracce nei concimi fosfatici e in molti fitofarmaci e defoglianti.
Conseguentemente, concentrazioni relativamente elevate possono talvolta essere ritrovate nel
suolo e destare preoccupazione in riferimento ad un possibile assorbimento da parte delle
piante con successivo trasferimento attraverso la catena alimentare fino alluomo, con rischi
di cancerogenicit. LInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ha infatti
classificato lAs ed i suoi composti inorganci come cancerogeni per luomo (gruppo 1) e i
suoi composti organici metabolizzati dalluomo (acido monometilarsonico e acido
dimetilarsinico) come possibili cancerogeni per luomo (gruppo 2B).
Bench i minerali e i composti dellAs siano piuttosto solubili, tuttavia, la maggior parte
dellAs nei suoli non risulta molto mobile n biodisponibile poich generalmente fortemente
associato a ossidi cristallini o amorfi di Fe e Al, nei terreni acidi, e al Ca in quelli basici
(Wenzel et al., 2001; Kabata-Pendias, 2001).
In condizioni aerobiche il desorbimento di As(V) dal suolo aumenta allaumentare del pH a
causa dellaumento delle cariche negative a livello dei colloidi del suolo (Smith et al., 1999;
Adriano, 2001). Tuttavia, un calo del pH, per esempio a livello della rizosfera, pu dissolvere
gli ossidi e idrossidi di Fe e Al con la conseguente co-dissoluzione dellAs legato a questa
frazione (Fitz, Wenzel, 2002). Al contrario, ladsorbimento di As(III) aumenta con il pH.
Nonostante sia gi stato osservato come lAs in genere si accumuli nelle radici e nelle
foglie pi vecchie (Kabata-Pendias, 2001), tuttavia informazioni pi dettagliate sulla sua
distribuzione in particolare nel caso della vite sono carenti.
Lo scopo del lavoro stato quello di verificare lesistenza di una correlazione tra i
contenuti di As nei suoli e nelle uve al fine di valutare la pericolosit dellutilizzo/consumo
di uve prodotte in aree geologiche naturalmente ricche di questo elemento. Si voluto inoltre
aumentare le conoscenze circa laccumulo e localizzazione dellAs nellacino duva
studiandone la variazione dei contenuti nella bacca durante lo sviluppo e la maturazione e la
distribuzione nelle diverse porzioni della bacca stessa.
MATERIALI E METODI
Evoluzione dei contenuti di As nella bacca.
Per lo studio dellevoluzione dei contenuti di As nella bacca intera durante lo sviluppo e la
maturazione, sono state considerate uve cv. Chardonnay (cl. 95, p.i. 3309), prelevate
dallallegagione (40 giorni prima dellinvaiatura) alla surmaturazione (60 gg dopo
linvaiatura) in 2 vigneti trentini localizzati a San Michele allAdige (SM, 289 m s.l.m.) e
Faedo-Maso Togn (MT, 723 m s.l.m.). Entrambi i vigneti insistevano su un suolo di tipo
alcalino (pH 8.11 e 7.99 rispettivamente) bench con diversa dotazione di calcare totale (499
g/kg e 222 g/kg rispettivamente). Da ciascun vigneto sono stati raccolti a cadenza
indicativamente settimanale, per un totale di 11-12 momenti, 4 campioni da 100 bacche
ciascuno. Le bacche sono state lavate con acido nitrico 1%, risciacquate con acqua ultrapura,
omogeneizzate, mineralizzate con acido nitrico concentrato in vaso chiuso (Bertoldi et al.,
2009) e analizzate mediante uno spettrometro di massa con sorgente al plasma accoppiata
induttivamente (ICP-MS) dotato di cella di collisione (gas He) per la rimozione di interferenti,
utilizzando lo Sc come standard interno.
4 - 56
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 56 03/06/10 15:52
ARSENIC IN BERRIES AND ITS CORRELATION WITH NATURAL
SOIL CONTENT: EXPERIENCE IN TRENTINO (ITALY)
D. Bertoldi
(1,2)
, R. Larcher
(1)
, G. Nicolini
(1)
, M. Bertamini
(1)
, G. Concheri
(2)
(1)
IASMA Fondazione E. Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele allAdige (TN), Italy
daniela.bertoldi@iasma.it
(2)
Universit di Padove, Dip. Biotecnologie Agrarie, viale dellUniversit, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
ABSTRACT
Il lavoro presenta levoluzione dei contenuti di arsenico nelle uve durante lo sviluppo e la
maturazione, e la sua distribuzione nellacino; verifica inoltre la relazione tra i contenuti di As
nelle uve, nelle foglie e nei suoli caratterizzati da una dotazione differente e naturale di questo
elemento.
Nella bacca larsenico cresce durante la stagione vegetativa e a maturazione localizzato
nella polpa (50%), nella buccia (40%) e in minima parte nei semi.
La correlazione tra i contenuti di As nelle bacche raccolte in 18 vigneti, nelle corrispondenti
foglie e nei rispettivi suoli estratti con acetato di ammonio risulta statisticamente significativa.
KEY-WORDS
arsenico arsenico biodisponibile suolo Vitis acino ICP-MS
ABSTRACT
The work illustrates arsenic content in grapes during development and ripening and its
distribution in the berry, together with the relationship between As content in grape berries,
leaves and soils where this element is naturally present in different amounts.
Arsenic increases in the berry during the growing season and is located in the pulp (50%),
the skin (40%) and to a lesser extent in the seeds in ripe berries.
The correlation between the As content in berries collected in 18 vineyards and in the
corresponding leaves and soils, extracted using ammonium acetate, is statistically significant.
KEY-WORDS
arsenic bioavailable arsenic soil Vitis grape berry ICP-MS
INTRODUZIONE
Larsenico (As) naturalmente presente nella crosta terrestre, diffuso in vari tipi di rocce e
soprattutto nei sedimenti argillosi e negli scisti. un elemento calcofilo spesso associato a
solfuri minerali soprattutto di Fe, Cu e Pb quali pirite, calcopirite e galena ed ha un
comportamento geochimico simile al P (elemento antagonista). presente nellambiente sia
in forme inorganiche che organiche, interconvertibili tra loro (attraverso ad es. processi di
metilazione) a seguito di processi biotici e abiotici.
Nei suoli non contaminati, i livelli di As variano tra <0.1 e 95 mg/kg con medie mondiali in
genere inferiori a 10 mg/kg (Adriano, 2001; Kabata-Pendias, 2001). La solubilit di questo
elemento - e conseguentemente la sua concentrazione nella soluzione del suolo -
influenzata principalmente dalle condizioni redox, dal pH, dalla presenza di sostanza
organica e dallattivit biologica (Jones et al., 2000). Nella soluzione del suolo lAs
presente con stato di ossidazione (III) o (V). LAs(III) pi solubile, mobile e tossico
dellAs(V) che risulta essere comunque la specie fitodisponibile dominante nei suoli aerobici
(Adriano, 2001).
AllAs di origine naturale, geogenica, si pu aggiungere quello di derivazione antropica.
Tale elemento pu essere infatti emesso nellambiente in seguito allattivit industriale e
mineraria, alla combustione del carbone e dalle centrali geotermiche ed essere inoltre
presente come tracce nei concimi fosfatici e in molti fitofarmaci e defoglianti.
Conseguentemente, concentrazioni relativamente elevate possono talvolta essere ritrovate nel
suolo e destare preoccupazione in riferimento ad un possibile assorbimento da parte delle
piante con successivo trasferimento attraverso la catena alimentare fino alluomo, con rischi
di cancerogenicit. LInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ha infatti
classificato lAs ed i suoi composti inorganci come cancerogeni per luomo (gruppo 1) e i
suoi composti organici metabolizzati dalluomo (acido monometilarsonico e acido
dimetilarsinico) come possibili cancerogeni per luomo (gruppo 2B).
Bench i minerali e i composti dellAs siano piuttosto solubili, tuttavia, la maggior parte
dellAs nei suoli non risulta molto mobile n biodisponibile poich generalmente fortemente
associato a ossidi cristallini o amorfi di Fe e Al, nei terreni acidi, e al Ca in quelli basici
(Wenzel et al., 2001; Kabata-Pendias, 2001).
In condizioni aerobiche il desorbimento di As(V) dal suolo aumenta allaumentare del pH a
causa dellaumento delle cariche negative a livello dei colloidi del suolo (Smith et al., 1999;
Adriano, 2001). Tuttavia, un calo del pH, per esempio a livello della rizosfera, pu dissolvere
gli ossidi e idrossidi di Fe e Al con la conseguente co-dissoluzione dellAs legato a questa
frazione (Fitz, Wenzel, 2002). Al contrario, ladsorbimento di As(III) aumenta con il pH.
Nonostante sia gi stato osservato come lAs in genere si accumuli nelle radici e nelle
foglie pi vecchie (Kabata-Pendias, 2001), tuttavia informazioni pi dettagliate sulla sua
distribuzione in particolare nel caso della vite sono carenti.
Lo scopo del lavoro stato quello di verificare lesistenza di una correlazione tra i
contenuti di As nei suoli e nelle uve al fine di valutare la pericolosit dellutilizzo/consumo
di uve prodotte in aree geologiche naturalmente ricche di questo elemento. Si voluto inoltre
aumentare le conoscenze circa laccumulo e localizzazione dellAs nellacino duva
studiandone la variazione dei contenuti nella bacca durante lo sviluppo e la maturazione e la
distribuzione nelle diverse porzioni della bacca stessa.
MATERIALI E METODI
Evoluzione dei contenuti di As nella bacca.
Per lo studio dellevoluzione dei contenuti di As nella bacca intera durante lo sviluppo e la
maturazione, sono state considerate uve cv. Chardonnay (cl. 95, p.i. 3309), prelevate
dallallegagione (40 giorni prima dellinvaiatura) alla surmaturazione (60 gg dopo
linvaiatura) in 2 vigneti trentini localizzati a San Michele allAdige (SM, 289 m s.l.m.) e
Faedo-Maso Togn (MT, 723 m s.l.m.). Entrambi i vigneti insistevano su un suolo di tipo
alcalino (pH 8.11 e 7.99 rispettivamente) bench con diversa dotazione di calcare totale (499
g/kg e 222 g/kg rispettivamente). Da ciascun vigneto sono stati raccolti a cadenza
indicativamente settimanale, per un totale di 11-12 momenti, 4 campioni da 100 bacche
ciascuno. Le bacche sono state lavate con acido nitrico 1%, risciacquate con acqua ultrapura,
omogeneizzate, mineralizzate con acido nitrico concentrato in vaso chiuso (Bertoldi et al.,
2009) e analizzate mediante uno spettrometro di massa con sorgente al plasma accoppiata
induttivamente (ICP-MS) dotato di cella di collisione (gas He) per la rimozione di interferenti,
utilizzando lo Sc come standard interno.
4 - 57
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 57 03/06/10 15:52
Distribuzione dellAs nellacino.
Per lo studio della distribuzione dellAs nelle diverse frazioni dellacino, da ciascun
appezzamento sono stati raccolti settimanalmente ulteriori 4 campioni da 100 bacche. Tale
campionamento stato effettuato nellintervallo di composizione delle uve tra i 20 e i 24
Brix (corrispondente ad un periodo di circa 4 settimane) in modo da corrispondere a diversi
livelli di maturazione tecnologica. Queste bacche sono state lavate e divise in modo da
ottenere separatamente campioni di bucce e semi. Le 2 frazioni sono state omogeneizzate,
mineralizzate e analizzate mediante ICP-MS. Il contenuto di As nella polpa calcolato per
differenza a partire dal contenuto nella bacca intera a cui sono sottratti i contributi di semi e
buccia.
Correlazione tra i contenuti di As di suoli, bacche e foglie.
La correlazione tra i contenuti di As nelle bacche, nelle foglie e nei rispettivi suoli stata
valutata su campioni raccolti in 11 diversi vigneti localizzati in provincia di Trento,
caratterizzati da condizioni pedo-climatiche e geologiche differenti (pH del suolo variabile tra
5.6 e 8.1, calcare totale variabile tra 5 e 700 g/kg). In 7 di questi vigneti i campionamenti sono
stati effettuati anche in un secondo anno.
Presso questi vigneti, in prossimit della vendemmia, sono stati quindi raccolti campioni di
bacche (con le stesse modalit sopra descritte), foglie (quarta foglia dopo il secondo
grappolo), e suoli (fino ad una profondit di 60 cm). Le foglie sono state lavate con acido
citrico 0.2%, seccate a 40C, macinate, mineralizzate con acido nitrico concentrato e acqua
ossigenata in vaso chiuso e analizzate mediante ICP-MS. I suoli sono stati seccati a
temperatura ambiente e setacciati a 2 mm. E stato quantificato sia lAs pseudototale
dissolvibile in acqua regia dopo mineralizzazione in microonde (ISO 11466/1995), sia lAs
estraibile in acetato di ammonio 1M a pH 7 (SSIR, 2004). Il termine pseudototale si
riferisce alla non completa dissoluzione della frazione silicatica del suolo da parte dellacqua
regia (Page et al., 1982).
Elaborazioni statistiche
Lelaborazione dei dati stata effettuata mediante le procedure statistiche del pacchetto
software STATISTICA 8.0 (StatSoft, 2008).
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
In entrambi i vigneti, i contenuti di As (espressi per bacca) aumentano nellacino durante lo
sviluppo e la maturazione (Fig. 1).
0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
-45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60
gg dall'inizio invaiatura

g
/
1
0
0

b
a
c
c
h
e
vigneto SM
vigneto MT
Fig. 1. Variazione dei contenuti (media err. std., N=4 per ogni punto) di As nella bacca
durante la stagione nei 2 vigneti
A livello dellacino, e considerando le medie geometriche, la maggior parte dellAs
localizzato nella polpa (50% rispetto al contenuto totale nella bacca) e nella buccia (40%), con
contenuti percentuali non statisticamente differenti (test ANOVA, p<0.05, N=40) mentre il
restante 10% localizzato nei semi (Fig. 2).
polpa buccia semi
0
20
40
60
80
100
%
Mediana
25%-75%
Interv. Non-Outlier
Fig. 2. Distribuzione statistica del contenuto percentuale di As nelle diverse porzioni
dellacino (N=40)
Considerando tutti i campioni analizzati nei 2 anni, il contenuto di As nelle bacche varia tra
<0.09 e 6.23 g/kg peso secco (p.s.) mentre il contenuto nelle foglie varia tra 16.3 e 205.9
g/kg p.s.. Tali valori sono decisamente o tendenzialmente inferiori a quelli riportati da Ko et
al (2007), pari rispettivamente a 70 g/kg p.s. per le bacche e 60-410 g/kg p.s. per le foglie.
Sono invece simili a quanto osservato da Fang et al (2010) in uva passa cinese, che riportano
livelli sempre inferiori al loro limite di rilevamento (7 g/kg).
Il contenuto pseudototale di As naturalmente presente nei corrispondenti suoli varia tra
5.67 e 76.7 mg/kg. In un caso il contenuto supera il valore di 50 mg/kg indicato come limite
dal DM 471/99 per le aree ad uso commerciale/industriale. Si tratta di un vigneto posizionato
in unarea geologicamente ricca di As per la presenza di pirite (FeS
2
) e calcopirite (CuFeS
2
)
che contengono, come noto, significative quantit di altri elementi tra cui soprattutto As, Zn e
Pb. Un ulteriore campione supera il valore di 20 mg/kg indicato come limite per le aree ad uso
verde pubblico, privato e residenziale.
Il rapporto percentuale tra il contenuto estratto in acetato di ammonio e il contenuto
pseudototale dissolvibile in acqua regia varia tra 0.13 e 2.55%, con valori tendenzialmente
pi bassi nei vigneti con suolo pi acido e meno calcareo (dati non mostrati). Orescanin et al
(2003) hanno riscontrato in suoli vitati croati una frazione di As scambiabile (estratta in
acetato di ammonio) pari al 5-10% del contenuto totale, percentuali pi che doppie rispetto al
quelle da noi quantificate. Wenzel et al (2001) riportano invece contenuti percentuali di As
inferiori al 3.8% del totale nella frazione non-specifically sorbed estratta con (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
0.05M.
Il test di Pearson rileva lesistenza di una correlazione significativa (r = 0.77; p<0.05) tra i
contenuti di As nelle bacche e nelle foglie prelevate nello stesso vigneto e stagione (Fig. 3).
Una buona correlazione stata osservata anche tra i contenuti rilevati nelle bacche e quelli
del suolo estratto con acetato di ammonio 1 M (r = 0.76; p<0.05; Fig. 3), considerabili come i
contenuti biodisponibili quindi pi facilmente assorbibili dalla pianta. Minore e non
statisticamente significativa risulta invece la correlazione (r = 0.42) tra i contenuti nelle
bacche e quelli del suolo dissolvibili in acqua regia.
4 - 58
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 58 03/06/10 15:52
Distribuzione dellAs nellacino.
Per lo studio della distribuzione dellAs nelle diverse frazioni dellacino, da ciascun
appezzamento sono stati raccolti settimanalmente ulteriori 4 campioni da 100 bacche. Tale
campionamento stato effettuato nellintervallo di composizione delle uve tra i 20 e i 24
Brix (corrispondente ad un periodo di circa 4 settimane) in modo da corrispondere a diversi
livelli di maturazione tecnologica. Queste bacche sono state lavate e divise in modo da
ottenere separatamente campioni di bucce e semi. Le 2 frazioni sono state omogeneizzate,
mineralizzate e analizzate mediante ICP-MS. Il contenuto di As nella polpa calcolato per
differenza a partire dal contenuto nella bacca intera a cui sono sottratti i contributi di semi e
buccia.
Correlazione tra i contenuti di As di suoli, bacche e foglie.
La correlazione tra i contenuti di As nelle bacche, nelle foglie e nei rispettivi suoli stata
valutata su campioni raccolti in 11 diversi vigneti localizzati in provincia di Trento,
caratterizzati da condizioni pedo-climatiche e geologiche differenti (pH del suolo variabile tra
5.6 e 8.1, calcare totale variabile tra 5 e 700 g/kg). In 7 di questi vigneti i campionamenti sono
stati effettuati anche in un secondo anno.
Presso questi vigneti, in prossimit della vendemmia, sono stati quindi raccolti campioni di
bacche (con le stesse modalit sopra descritte), foglie (quarta foglia dopo il secondo
grappolo), e suoli (fino ad una profondit di 60 cm). Le foglie sono state lavate con acido
citrico 0.2%, seccate a 40C, macinate, mineralizzate con acido nitrico concentrato e acqua
ossigenata in vaso chiuso e analizzate mediante ICP-MS. I suoli sono stati seccati a
temperatura ambiente e setacciati a 2 mm. E stato quantificato sia lAs pseudototale
dissolvibile in acqua regia dopo mineralizzazione in microonde (ISO 11466/1995), sia lAs
estraibile in acetato di ammonio 1M a pH 7 (SSIR, 2004). Il termine pseudototale si
riferisce alla non completa dissoluzione della frazione silicatica del suolo da parte dellacqua
regia (Page et al., 1982).
Elaborazioni statistiche
Lelaborazione dei dati stata effettuata mediante le procedure statistiche del pacchetto
software STATISTICA 8.0 (StatSoft, 2008).
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
In entrambi i vigneti, i contenuti di As (espressi per bacca) aumentano nellacino durante lo
sviluppo e la maturazione (Fig. 1).
0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
-45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60
gg dall'inizio invaiatura

g
/
1
0
0

b
a
c
c
h
e
vigneto SM
vigneto MT
Fig. 1. Variazione dei contenuti (media err. std., N=4 per ogni punto) di As nella bacca
durante la stagione nei 2 vigneti
A livello dellacino, e considerando le medie geometriche, la maggior parte dellAs
localizzato nella polpa (50% rispetto al contenuto totale nella bacca) e nella buccia (40%), con
contenuti percentuali non statisticamente differenti (test ANOVA, p<0.05, N=40) mentre il
restante 10% localizzato nei semi (Fig. 2).
polpa buccia semi
0
20
40
60
80
100
%
Mediana
25%-75%
Interv. Non-Outlier
Fig. 2. Distribuzione statistica del contenuto percentuale di As nelle diverse porzioni
dellacino (N=40)
Considerando tutti i campioni analizzati nei 2 anni, il contenuto di As nelle bacche varia tra
<0.09 e 6.23 g/kg peso secco (p.s.) mentre il contenuto nelle foglie varia tra 16.3 e 205.9
g/kg p.s.. Tali valori sono decisamente o tendenzialmente inferiori a quelli riportati da Ko et
al (2007), pari rispettivamente a 70 g/kg p.s. per le bacche e 60-410 g/kg p.s. per le foglie.
Sono invece simili a quanto osservato da Fang et al (2010) in uva passa cinese, che riportano
livelli sempre inferiori al loro limite di rilevamento (7 g/kg).
Il contenuto pseudototale di As naturalmente presente nei corrispondenti suoli varia tra
5.67 e 76.7 mg/kg. In un caso il contenuto supera il valore di 50 mg/kg indicato come limite
dal DM 471/99 per le aree ad uso commerciale/industriale. Si tratta di un vigneto posizionato
in unarea geologicamente ricca di As per la presenza di pirite (FeS
2
) e calcopirite (CuFeS
2
)
che contengono, come noto, significative quantit di altri elementi tra cui soprattutto As, Zn e
Pb. Un ulteriore campione supera il valore di 20 mg/kg indicato come limite per le aree ad uso
verde pubblico, privato e residenziale.
Il rapporto percentuale tra il contenuto estratto in acetato di ammonio e il contenuto
pseudototale dissolvibile in acqua regia varia tra 0.13 e 2.55%, con valori tendenzialmente
pi bassi nei vigneti con suolo pi acido e meno calcareo (dati non mostrati). Orescanin et al
(2003) hanno riscontrato in suoli vitati croati una frazione di As scambiabile (estratta in
acetato di ammonio) pari al 5-10% del contenuto totale, percentuali pi che doppie rispetto al
quelle da noi quantificate. Wenzel et al (2001) riportano invece contenuti percentuali di As
inferiori al 3.8% del totale nella frazione non-specifically sorbed estratta con (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
0.05M.
Il test di Pearson rileva lesistenza di una correlazione significativa (r = 0.77; p<0.05) tra i
contenuti di As nelle bacche e nelle foglie prelevate nello stesso vigneto e stagione (Fig. 3).
Una buona correlazione stata osservata anche tra i contenuti rilevati nelle bacche e quelli
del suolo estratto con acetato di ammonio 1 M (r = 0.76; p<0.05; Fig. 3), considerabili come i
contenuti biodisponibili quindi pi facilmente assorbibili dalla pianta. Minore e non
statisticamente significativa risulta invece la correlazione (r = 0.42) tra i contenuti nelle
bacche e quelli del suolo dissolvibili in acqua regia.
4 - 59
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 59 03/06/10 15:52
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
ln[suolo] o ln[foglia]
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
l
n
[
b
a
c
c
a
]
suolo (acqua regia)
suolo (ammonio acetato)
foglie
Fig. 3. Correlazione tra i contenuti (trasformati in logaritmo) di As nelle bacche, nelle foglie
e nel suolo estratto con acqua regia o con acetato di ammonio 1M.
CONCLUSIONI
Il presente lavoro ha messo in luce la dinamica dellaumento dei contenuti di As nelle
bacche durante lo sviluppo e la maturazione, nonch la localizzazione largamente
preferenziale di tale elemento a livello di buccia e polpa. Ha messo in evidenza inoltre
lesistenza di una buona correlazione dei contenuti di As nelle bacche mature con quelli nei
suoli estratti con acetato di ammonio, oltre che con quelli presenti nelle foglie.
Viti cresciute sui suoli maggiormente dotati di As (es. particolari aree geologiche)
presentano uve con contenuti pi elevati di questo elemento. Tuttavia, nel piano sperimentale
non sono state riscontrate quantit di As nelle uve tali da destare alcuna preoccupazione per la
salute umana, essendo stati rilevati contenuti massimi pari a 6.23 g/kg p.s. a fronte di una
dose considerata tossica di 5-50 mg/giorno per gli adulti. I contenuti presenti in un kg di uva
(peso secco) corrispondono invece al 25-50% della dose giornaliera di As richiesta per un
uomo adulto mentre la quantit di As ingerita quotidianamente attraverso la dieta varia
generalmente tra 0.04 e 1.4 mg (Pais, Jones, 1997).
RINGRAZIAMENTI
Il presente lavoro stato svolto nellambito di un dottorato di ricerca in Viticoltura,
Enologia e Marketing delle Imprese Vitivinicole (Universit degli Studi di Padova). Gli autori
ringraziano il personale tecnico dellUnit Viticoltura della Fondazione Mach Istituto
Agrario San Michele allAdige per laiuto nella fase di campionamento.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
Adriano D.C., 2001. Arsenic. In: Trace elements in terrestrial environments.
Biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals. Adriano D.C., Ed. II edizione. New
York: Springer-Verlag. n: 220-261
Bertoldi D., Larcher R., Nicolini G., Bertamini M., Concheri G., 2009. Distribution of rare
earth elements in Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay berries. Vitis, 48(1): 49-51.
Fang Y.L., Zhang A., Wang H., Li H., Zhang Z.W., Chen S.X., Luan L.Y., 2010. Health risk
assessment of trace elements in Chinese raisins produced in Xinjiang province. Food
Control, 21: 732-739.
Fitz W.J., Wenzel W.W., 2002. Arsenic trasformation in the soil-rhizosphere-plant system:
fundamentals and potential application to phytoremediation. Journal of Biotechnology, 99:
259-278.
ISO 11466, 1995. Soil quality -Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia.
Jones C.A., Langer H.W., Anderson K., McDermott T.R., Inskeep W.P., 2000. Rates of
microbially mediated arsenate reduction and solubilization. Soil Science Society of
America Journal, 64: 600-608.
Kabata-Pendias A., 2001. Elements of group V. In: Trace elements in soils and plants.
Kabata-Pendias A., Ed. III edizione. Boca Raton: CRC Press. n: 225-232
Ko B.-G., Vogeler I., Bolan N. S., Clothier B., Green S., Kennedy J., 2007. Mobility of
copper, chromium and arsenic from treated timber into grapevines. Science of the Total
Environment, 388: 35-42.
Orescanin V., Katunar A., Kutle A., Valkovic V., 2003. Heavy metal in soil, grape, and wine.
Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques, 21(1): 171-180.
Page A.L., Miller R.H., Kenney D.R., 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and
Microbiological Properties. 2 edizione. Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Soil
Science Society of America.
Pais I., Jones J.B., 1997. Trace elements. In :The Handbook of trace elements. Pais I., Jones
J.B, Eds. Boca Raton: St. Lucie Press. n: 86
Smith E., Naidu R., Alston A.M., 1999. Chemistry of arsenic in soils: I. Sorption of arsenate
and arsenite by four Australian soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28: 1719-1726.
SSIR (2004). Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual, Soil Survey Investigation Report n
42, metodo 5A8.
StatSoft Inc., 2008. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8.0. Tulsa, OK,
74104, USA
Wenzel W.W., Kirchbaumer N., Prohaska T., Stingeder G., Lombi E., Adriano D.C., 2001.
Arsenic fractionation in soils using an improved sequential extraction procedure. Analytica
Chimica Acta, 436: 309-323.
4 - 60
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 60 03/06/10 15:52
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
ln[suolo] o ln[foglia]
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
l
n
[
b
a
c
c
a
]
suolo (acqua regia)
suolo (ammonio acetato)
foglie
Fig. 3. Correlazione tra i contenuti (trasformati in logaritmo) di As nelle bacche, nelle foglie
e nel suolo estratto con acqua regia o con acetato di ammonio 1M.
CONCLUSIONI
Il presente lavoro ha messo in luce la dinamica dellaumento dei contenuti di As nelle
bacche durante lo sviluppo e la maturazione, nonch la localizzazione largamente
preferenziale di tale elemento a livello di buccia e polpa. Ha messo in evidenza inoltre
lesistenza di una buona correlazione dei contenuti di As nelle bacche mature con quelli nei
suoli estratti con acetato di ammonio, oltre che con quelli presenti nelle foglie.
Viti cresciute sui suoli maggiormente dotati di As (es. particolari aree geologiche)
presentano uve con contenuti pi elevati di questo elemento. Tuttavia, nel piano sperimentale
non sono state riscontrate quantit di As nelle uve tali da destare alcuna preoccupazione per la
salute umana, essendo stati rilevati contenuti massimi pari a 6.23 g/kg p.s. a fronte di una
dose considerata tossica di 5-50 mg/giorno per gli adulti. I contenuti presenti in un kg di uva
(peso secco) corrispondono invece al 25-50% della dose giornaliera di As richiesta per un
uomo adulto mentre la quantit di As ingerita quotidianamente attraverso la dieta varia
generalmente tra 0.04 e 1.4 mg (Pais, Jones, 1997).
RINGRAZIAMENTI
Il presente lavoro stato svolto nellambito di un dottorato di ricerca in Viticoltura,
Enologia e Marketing delle Imprese Vitivinicole (Universit degli Studi di Padova). Gli autori
ringraziano il personale tecnico dellUnit Viticoltura della Fondazione Mach Istituto
Agrario San Michele allAdige per laiuto nella fase di campionamento.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
Adriano D.C., 2001. Arsenic. In: Trace elements in terrestrial environments.
Biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals. Adriano D.C., Ed. II edizione. New
York: Springer-Verlag. n: 220-261
Bertoldi D., Larcher R., Nicolini G., Bertamini M., Concheri G., 2009. Distribution of rare
earth elements in Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay berries. Vitis, 48(1): 49-51.
Fang Y.L., Zhang A., Wang H., Li H., Zhang Z.W., Chen S.X., Luan L.Y., 2010. Health risk
assessment of trace elements in Chinese raisins produced in Xinjiang province. Food
Control, 21: 732-739.
Fitz W.J., Wenzel W.W., 2002. Arsenic trasformation in the soil-rhizosphere-plant system:
fundamentals and potential application to phytoremediation. Journal of Biotechnology, 99:
259-278.
ISO 11466, 1995. Soil quality -Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia.
Jones C.A., Langer H.W., Anderson K., McDermott T.R., Inskeep W.P., 2000. Rates of
microbially mediated arsenate reduction and solubilization. Soil Science Society of
America Journal, 64: 600-608.
Kabata-Pendias A., 2001. Elements of group V. In: Trace elements in soils and plants.
Kabata-Pendias A., Ed. III edizione. Boca Raton: CRC Press. n: 225-232
Ko B.-G., Vogeler I., Bolan N. S., Clothier B., Green S., Kennedy J., 2007. Mobility of
copper, chromium and arsenic from treated timber into grapevines. Science of the Total
Environment, 388: 35-42.
Orescanin V., Katunar A., Kutle A., Valkovic V., 2003. Heavy metal in soil, grape, and wine.
Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques, 21(1): 171-180.
Page A.L., Miller R.H., Kenney D.R., 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and
Microbiological Properties. 2 edizione. Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Soil
Science Society of America.
Pais I., Jones J.B., 1997. Trace elements. In :The Handbook of trace elements. Pais I., Jones
J.B, Eds. Boca Raton: St. Lucie Press. n: 86
Smith E., Naidu R., Alston A.M., 1999. Chemistry of arsenic in soils: I. Sorption of arsenate
and arsenite by four Australian soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28: 1719-1726.
SSIR (2004). Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual, Soil Survey Investigation Report n
42, metodo 5A8.
StatSoft Inc., 2008. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8.0. Tulsa, OK,
74104, USA
Wenzel W.W., Kirchbaumer N., Prohaska T., Stingeder G., Lombi E., Adriano D.C., 2001.
Arsenic fractionation in soils using an improved sequential extraction procedure. Analytica
Chimica Acta, 436: 309-323.
4 - 61
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 61 03/06/10 15:52
EVALUATION OF TWO TRANSMITTANCE METERS IN
ESTIMATING CHLOROPHYLL AND NITROGEN
CONCENTRATIONS IN GRAPEVINE CULTIVARS
D. Taskos
(1)
, K. Karakioulakis
(2)
, N. Theodorou
(2)
, J.T. Tsialtas
(3)
, E. Zioziou
(2)
,
N. Nikolaou
(2)
, S. Koundouras
(2)
(1)
Boutari S.A., Goumenissa Winery, 613 00 Goumenissa, Greece, taskos@pel.forthnet.gr
(2)
Laboratory of Viticulture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece,
skoundou@agro.auth.gr
(3)
NAGREF, Cotton and Industrial Plants Institute, 574 00 Sindos, Greece, tsialtas01@windowslive.com



ABSTRACT
Two transmittance-based chlorophyll meters (SPAD-502 and CCM-200) were evaluated in
estimating chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (N) levels in grapevine leaves. The study was
conducted in a fertilization experiment [0 (N0), 60 (N1) and 120 (N2) kg N/ha] during the
summer 2009, in two commercial vineyards located in Northern Greece and planted with cvs
Cabernet-Sauvignon and Xinomavro (Vitis vinifera L.). When data were pooled over cultivars
and samplings, leaves of N2 vines had the highest N and Chl content, as well as SPAD and
CCM readings, followed by the respective values of N1. However, neither of the devices
could detect the seasonal decline in leaf N and Chl content. Significant relationships between
extracted Chl and measured leaf N were found in both cultivars. A strong linear function
related SPAD and CCM readings in both cultivars. Total Chl and N were strongly correlated
with SPAD and CCM readings in Cabernet Sauvignon (p<0.001) while relationships were
poor for SPAD and not significant for CCM in Xinomavro. The results suggest that non-
destructive chlorophyll estimations by transmittance-based meters are not applicable in all
situations without specific calibrations necessary to improve their utility and accuracy over
grapevine cultivars.
KEYWORD
SPAD-502 CCM-200 chlorophyll nitrogen grapevine N fertilization
INTRODUCTION
Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient in grapevine, as it participates in many
physiological processes and has the potential to manipulate vine growth and productivity with
significant implications for grape and wine composition (Bell and Henschke, 2005).
Monitoring of vine N status in the field can be important in determining N fertilizer amount
and time of application. Since chlorophyll (Chl) is a nitrogenous pigment, leaf Chl content
provides an indirect estimation of N plant status (Steele et al., 2008). However, conventional
extraction of leaf Chl with various organic solvents is laborious, time consuming and
destructive, thus not adapted for N fertilization scheduling. Recently, non-destructive leaf
"greenness" measurements have been advocated for rapid determination of leaf Chl and N
status, mainly in annual crops (Filella et al., 1995; Bullock and Anderson, 1998) while fewer
studies have been conducted on woody species as grapevine (Fanizza et al., 1991).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of two handheld transmittance-based
Chl content meters in estimating Chl and N levels in intact leaves of two grapevine cultivars,
in an N fertilization experiment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in two commercial vineyard blocks located in Goumenissa
(Northern Greece) in the summer of 2009, planted with cvs Cabernet-Sauvignon and
Xinomavro (Vitis vinifera L.) respectively and grafted onto 1103P. Vines were spaced 2.2
1.3 m and trained on a spur-pruned bilateral cordon. Nitrogen in the form of NH
4
NO
3
and
corresponding to three rates [0 (N0), 60 (N1) and 120 (N2) kg/ha of N] was applied at
budburst. The experimental design was that of completely randomised blocks with three
replications. Individual plots consisted of 6 vines distributed on two adjacent rows, and were
separated by at least 6 border vines within a row.
Two handheld chlorophyll meters were evaluated: soil-plant analysis development meter
(SPAD-502, Minolta Co., Osaka, Japan) and chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200, Opti-
Sciences, Tyngsboro, USA). Measurements with the SPAD and CCM devices were conducted
on three exterior, fully expanded leaves per plot, located on the basal shoot nodes, on four
occasions during the growing season [berry set (d1), bunch closure (d2), veraison (d3) and
harvest (d4)]. For each leaf, three readings on separate lobs were averaged to represent one
observation. Immediately following Chl meter readings, leaves were cut, sealed in plastic
bags and transported to the laboratory in a cooler for Chl and N determination. For each of the
leaves sampled, three 1 cm
2
disks were cut from the same leaf areas used for Chl meter
readings, weighed and extracted for 3 h in 80% ethanol solution, at 78C in a J.P. Selecta
Precisterm bath (Barcelona, Spain). Chl a and Chl b concentration of the aliquot was
estimated according to the equations proposed by Arnon (1949) after measurement of the
optical density at 645 and 663 nm using a 6305 UV/VIS mini spectrophotometer (Jenway Ltd,
Essex, UK), and results were expressed on a fresh weight basis. The remaining leaf tissues
were dried at 70C and used for total leaf nitrogen measurement (% dry weight) by an
automated combustion elemental analyzer (PDZ Europa, Cheshire, UK).
Data were subjected to analysis of variance and correlation analysis using SPSS software
(version 14.0, SPSS Inc., IL, USA). Only the mean of the three measurements per plot was
used in data analysis. Comparison of means was performed using Duncans multiple range
test at p<0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Leaf N concentration was reduced significantly with the progress of growing season in both
varieties, especially until veraison (d3). N fertilization significantly increased leaf N
concentration with higher levels in N2 vines for both cultivars (Fig. 1). When data were
pooled over samplings, N concentration was 1.96 % in N0, 2.09 % in N1 and 2.38 % in N2 in
Cabernet Sauvignon (p<0.001) and 1.94 %, 2.08 % and 2.21 % respectively, in Xinomavro
(p<0.001). ANOVA did not detect any sampling fertilization interaction in any of the
varieties studied. Direct comparisons among cultivars could not be made, as cultivars were
located in separate blocs.
4 - 62
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 62 03/06/10 15:52
EVALUATION OF TWO TRANSMITTANCE METERS IN
ESTIMATING CHLOROPHYLL AND NITROGEN
CONCENTRATIONS IN GRAPEVINE CULTIVARS
D. Taskos
(1)
, K. Karakioulakis
(2)
, N. Theodorou
(2)
, J.T. Tsialtas
(3)
, E. Zioziou
(2)
,
N. Nikolaou
(2)
, S. Koundouras
(2)
(1)
Boutari S.A., Goumenissa Winery, 613 00 Goumenissa, Greece, taskos@pel.forthnet.gr
(2)
Laboratory of Viticulture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece,
skoundou@agro.auth.gr
(3)
NAGREF, Cotton and Industrial Plants Institute, 574 00 Sindos, Greece, tsialtas01@windowslive.com



ABSTRACT
Two transmittance-based chlorophyll meters (SPAD-502 and CCM-200) were evaluated in
estimating chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (N) levels in grapevine leaves. The study was
conducted in a fertilization experiment [0 (N0), 60 (N1) and 120 (N2) kg N/ha] during the
summer 2009, in two commercial vineyards located in Northern Greece and planted with cvs
Cabernet-Sauvignon and Xinomavro (Vitis vinifera L.). When data were pooled over cultivars
and samplings, leaves of N2 vines had the highest N and Chl content, as well as SPAD and
CCM readings, followed by the respective values of N1. However, neither of the devices
could detect the seasonal decline in leaf N and Chl content. Significant relationships between
extracted Chl and measured leaf N were found in both cultivars. A strong linear function
related SPAD and CCM readings in both cultivars. Total Chl and N were strongly correlated
with SPAD and CCM readings in Cabernet Sauvignon (p<0.001) while relationships were
poor for SPAD and not significant for CCM in Xinomavro. The results suggest that non-
destructive chlorophyll estimations by transmittance-based meters are not applicable in all
situations without specific calibrations necessary to improve their utility and accuracy over
grapevine cultivars.
KEYWORD
SPAD-502 CCM-200 chlorophyll nitrogen grapevine N fertilization
INTRODUCTION
Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient in grapevine, as it participates in many
physiological processes and has the potential to manipulate vine growth and productivity with
significant implications for grape and wine composition (Bell and Henschke, 2005).
Monitoring of vine N status in the field can be important in determining N fertilizer amount
and time of application. Since chlorophyll (Chl) is a nitrogenous pigment, leaf Chl content
provides an indirect estimation of N plant status (Steele et al., 2008). However, conventional
extraction of leaf Chl with various organic solvents is laborious, time consuming and
destructive, thus not adapted for N fertilization scheduling. Recently, non-destructive leaf
"greenness" measurements have been advocated for rapid determination of leaf Chl and N
status, mainly in annual crops (Filella et al., 1995; Bullock and Anderson, 1998) while fewer
studies have been conducted on woody species as grapevine (Fanizza et al., 1991).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of two handheld transmittance-based
Chl content meters in estimating Chl and N levels in intact leaves of two grapevine cultivars,
in an N fertilization experiment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in two commercial vineyard blocks located in Goumenissa
(Northern Greece) in the summer of 2009, planted with cvs Cabernet-Sauvignon and
Xinomavro (Vitis vinifera L.) respectively and grafted onto 1103P. Vines were spaced 2.2
1.3 m and trained on a spur-pruned bilateral cordon. Nitrogen in the form of NH
4
NO
3
and
corresponding to three rates [0 (N0), 60 (N1) and 120 (N2) kg/ha of N] was applied at
budburst. The experimental design was that of completely randomised blocks with three
replications. Individual plots consisted of 6 vines distributed on two adjacent rows, and were
separated by at least 6 border vines within a row.
Two handheld chlorophyll meters were evaluated: soil-plant analysis development meter
(SPAD-502, Minolta Co., Osaka, Japan) and chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200, Opti-
Sciences, Tyngsboro, USA). Measurements with the SPAD and CCM devices were conducted
on three exterior, fully expanded leaves per plot, located on the basal shoot nodes, on four
occasions during the growing season [berry set (d1), bunch closure (d2), veraison (d3) and
harvest (d4)]. For each leaf, three readings on separate lobs were averaged to represent one
observation. Immediately following Chl meter readings, leaves were cut, sealed in plastic
bags and transported to the laboratory in a cooler for Chl and N determination. For each of the
leaves sampled, three 1 cm
2
disks were cut from the same leaf areas used for Chl meter
readings, weighed and extracted for 3 h in 80% ethanol solution, at 78C in a J.P. Selecta
Precisterm bath (Barcelona, Spain). Chl a and Chl b concentration of the aliquot was
estimated according to the equations proposed by Arnon (1949) after measurement of the
optical density at 645 and 663 nm using a 6305 UV/VIS mini spectrophotometer (Jenway Ltd,
Essex, UK), and results were expressed on a fresh weight basis. The remaining leaf tissues
were dried at 70C and used for total leaf nitrogen measurement (% dry weight) by an
automated combustion elemental analyzer (PDZ Europa, Cheshire, UK).
Data were subjected to analysis of variance and correlation analysis using SPSS software
(version 14.0, SPSS Inc., IL, USA). Only the mean of the three measurements per plot was
used in data analysis. Comparison of means was performed using Duncans multiple range
test at p<0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Leaf N concentration was reduced significantly with the progress of growing season in both
varieties, especially until veraison (d3). N fertilization significantly increased leaf N
concentration with higher levels in N2 vines for both cultivars (Fig. 1). When data were
pooled over samplings, N concentration was 1.96 % in N0, 2.09 % in N1 and 2.38 % in N2 in
Cabernet Sauvignon (p<0.001) and 1.94 %, 2.08 % and 2.21 % respectively, in Xinomavro
(p<0.001). ANOVA did not detect any sampling fertilization interaction in any of the
varieties studied. Direct comparisons among cultivars could not be made, as cultivars were
located in separate blocs.
4 - 63
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 63 03/06/10 15:52

Figure 1. Seasonal variation of leaf N concentration (% dry weight) in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro;
N0, N1 and N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha, respectively.

Total Chl (a+b) followed a similar seasonal pattern with leaf N, decreasing values from d1
to d4 in all N treatments (Fig. 2). Chl a was more intensively degraded than Chl b (Netto et
al., 2005) before veraison (d3), especially in Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas Chl a and Chl b
followed an opposite pattern after veraison, with increasing values for Chl a (Fig. 2). These
results largely explain the late season increase in the Chl a/b ratio in both varieties. According
to Kitajima and Hogan (2003), increase of the Chl a/b ratio is an indication of plant
acclimation to N limitation, conditions that occurred during the late stages of the growing
period in this study.
N application significantly increased Chl content in leaves of both varieties, with highest
levels in N2 for both cultivars (4.40 and 3.83 mg/g in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro
respectively, pooled data across samplings) while significant differences between N0 and N1
were only observed in Xinomavro (3.11 and 3.43 mg/g respectively). Similar results were
obtained when Chl content was expressed per leaf area (data not shown).
A regression using data from the four sampling times (n=72) showed a strong positive
correlation between leaf N and extracted Chl in both varieties (p<0.001; Tab. 1 and Tab. 2)
suggesting a direct response of Chl synthesis to N levels in leaves (Syvertsen, 1987), with
higher coefficients for Chl a compared to Chl b. All Chl traits were positively correlated with
each other with few exceptions (Tab. 1 and Tab. 2). However, variation of total Chl was
highly related to changes in Chl a, in both varieties.
Leaves of N2 vines had constantly the highest SPAD and CCM readings followed by the
respective readings of N1 in both cultivars (Fig. 3). However, Chl meter readings from both
devices remained relatively stable during the growth period, with no significant difference
between samplings.
SPAD and CCM readings were strongly correlated with each other in both varieties (Tab. 1
and Tab. 2). Although previous studies in grapevines have reported quadratic relationships
between SPAD readings and leaf traits (Steele et al., 2008), in our study, best-fitted curves
between both Chl meter readings and leaf Chl or N were linear (Fanizza et al., 1991). This
result is probably due to the narrow range of Chl variation in the conditions of this experiment
(Jifon et al., 2005).

Figure 2. Seasonal variation of leaf chlorophyll [Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b)] concentration and Chl a/b ratio in
Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro; N0, N1 and N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha, respectively.
4 - 64
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 64 03/06/10 15:52

Figure 1. Seasonal variation of leaf N concentration (% dry weight) in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro;
N0, N1 and N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha, respectively.

Total Chl (a+b) followed a similar seasonal pattern with leaf N, decreasing values from d1
to d4 in all N treatments (Fig. 2). Chl a was more intensively degraded than Chl b (Netto et
al., 2005) before veraison (d3), especially in Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas Chl a and Chl b
followed an opposite pattern after veraison, with increasing values for Chl a (Fig. 2). These
results largely explain the late season increase in the Chl a/b ratio in both varieties. According
to Kitajima and Hogan (2003), increase of the Chl a/b ratio is an indication of plant
acclimation to N limitation, conditions that occurred during the late stages of the growing
period in this study.
N application significantly increased Chl content in leaves of both varieties, with highest
levels in N2 for both cultivars (4.40 and 3.83 mg/g in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro
respectively, pooled data across samplings) while significant differences between N0 and N1
were only observed in Xinomavro (3.11 and 3.43 mg/g respectively). Similar results were
obtained when Chl content was expressed per leaf area (data not shown).
A regression using data from the four sampling times (n=72) showed a strong positive
correlation between leaf N and extracted Chl in both varieties (p<0.001; Tab. 1 and Tab. 2)
suggesting a direct response of Chl synthesis to N levels in leaves (Syvertsen, 1987), with
higher coefficients for Chl a compared to Chl b. All Chl traits were positively correlated with
each other with few exceptions (Tab. 1 and Tab. 2). However, variation of total Chl was
highly related to changes in Chl a, in both varieties.
Leaves of N2 vines had constantly the highest SPAD and CCM readings followed by the
respective readings of N1 in both cultivars (Fig. 3). However, Chl meter readings from both
devices remained relatively stable during the growth period, with no significant difference
between samplings.
SPAD and CCM readings were strongly correlated with each other in both varieties (Tab. 1
and Tab. 2). Although previous studies in grapevines have reported quadratic relationships
between SPAD readings and leaf traits (Steele et al., 2008), in our study, best-fitted curves
between both Chl meter readings and leaf Chl or N were linear (Fanizza et al., 1991). This
result is probably due to the narrow range of Chl variation in the conditions of this experiment
(Jifon et al., 2005).

Figure 2. Seasonal variation of leaf chlorophyll [Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b)] concentration and Chl a/b ratio in
Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro; N0, N1 and N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha, respectively.
4 - 65
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 65 03/06/10 15:52

Figure 3. Seasonal variation of SPAD and CCM readings in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro; N0, N1 and
N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg /ha, respectively.

In Cabernet Sauvignon, SPAD and CCM readings were significantly correlated with leaf
Chl traits and N concentration, although correlation coefficients were low (Tab. 1). Moreover,
Chl meter readings were better correlated with Chl a than Chl b, as previously reported in
other plants (Madeira et al., 2003). In Xinomavro, relationships were generally poor for
SPAD and not significant for CCM (Tab. 2), possibly due to the thicker leaves of this variety
(Jiffon et al., 2005).

Table 1. Correlation coefficients and significance level for the leaf traits determined in Cabernet Sauvignon.
*, **, ***: significant coefficients at p<0.05, p<0.01, or p<0.001, respectively, ns: not significant (n=72);
Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b): (mg g
-1
fresh weight); N (% dry weight).
Chl a Chl b Chl a/b N SPAD CCM
Chl (a+b) 0.878*** 0.740*** 0.543*** 0.878*** 0.490*** 0.461***
Chl a 0.329** 0.868*** 0.886*** 0.484*** 0.437***
Chl b ns 0.488*** 0.286* 0.295*
Chl a/b 0.644*** 0.371*** 0.329**
N 0.464*** 0.419***
SPAD 0.952***






Table 2. Correlation coefficients and significance level for the leaf traits determined in Xinomavro.
*, **, ***: significant coefficients at p<0.05, p<0.01, or p<0.001, respectively, ns: not significant (n=72);
Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b): (mg g
-1
fresh weight); N (% dry weight).
Chl a Chl b Chl a/b N SPAD CCM
Chl (a+b) 0.907*** 0.893*** 0.507*** 0.824*** 0.348** ns
Chl a 0.620*** 0.811*** 0.825*** 0.294* ns
Chl b ns 0.659*** 0.305** ns
Chl a/b 0.545*** ns ns
N 0.345** 0.246*
SPAD 0.903***
CONCLUSIONS
Leaf Chl and N concentration were linearly related to SPAD and CCM readings in
grapevine. However, correlation coefficients were stronger in Cabernet Sauvignon than
Xinomavro, especially for the CCM device. Moreover, none of the devices was able to detect
the seasonal N and Chl pattern. The results suggest that non-destructive chlorophyll
estimations by transmittance-based meters are not applicable in all situations for accurate N
status monitoring during vine growth cycle, and that specific calibrations are recommendable
to improve their utility and accuracy across grapevine cultivars. However, both devices
accurately distinguished N application levels and thus can serve as an indicator of seasonal N
nutritional status.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arnon D.I., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chlorophlasts and polyphenol oxidase in Beta
vulgaris. Plant Phys., 24: 1-15.
Bell S.-J. and Henschke P.A., 2005. Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes,
fermentation and wine. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res., 11: 242-295.
Bullock D.G. and Anderson D.S., 1998. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll
meter for nitrogen management in corn. J. Plant Nutr., 21: 741-755.
Fanizza G., Della Gatta C. and Bagnulo C., 1991. A non-destructive determination of leaf
chlorophyll in Vitis vinifera. Ann. appl. Biol., 119: 203-205.
Filella I., Serrano I., Serra J. and Penuelas J., 1995. Evaluating wheat nitrogen status with
canopy reflectances indices and discriminant analysis. Crop. Sci., 35: 1400-1405.
Jifon J.L., Syvertsen J.P. and Whaley E., 2005. Growth environment and leaf anatomy affect
non-destructive estimates of chlorophyll and nitrogen in Citrus sp. leaves. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci., 130: 152-158.
Kitajima K. and Hogan K.P., 2003. Increases of chlorophyll a/b ratios during acclimation of
tropical woody seedlings to nitrogen limitation and high light. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 857-
865.
Madeira A.C., Ferreira A., de Varennes A. and Vieira A.I., 2003. SPAD meter versus
Tristimulus colorimeter to estimate chlorophyll content and leaf color in sweet pepper.
Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 34: 2461-2470.
Netto A.T., Campostrini E., Goncalves de Oiveira J., Bressan-Smith R.E., 2004.
Photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen, chlorophyll a fluorescence and SPAD-502 readings in
coffee leaves. Scientia Hort., 104: 199-209.
Steel M.R., Gitelson A.A. and Rundquist D.C., 2008. A comparison of two techniques for
nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll content in grapevine leaves. Agron. J., 100: 779-
782.
4 - 66
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 66 03/06/10 15:52

Figure 3. Seasonal variation of SPAD and CCM readings in Cabernet Sauvignon and Xinomavro; N0, N1 and
N2 correspond to 0, 60 and 120 kg /ha, respectively.

In Cabernet Sauvignon, SPAD and CCM readings were significantly correlated with leaf
Chl traits and N concentration, although correlation coefficients were low (Tab. 1). Moreover,
Chl meter readings were better correlated with Chl a than Chl b, as previously reported in
other plants (Madeira et al., 2003). In Xinomavro, relationships were generally poor for
SPAD and not significant for CCM (Tab. 2), possibly due to the thicker leaves of this variety
(Jiffon et al., 2005).

Table 1. Correlation coefficients and significance level for the leaf traits determined in Cabernet Sauvignon.
*, **, ***: significant coefficients at p<0.05, p<0.01, or p<0.001, respectively, ns: not significant (n=72);
Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b): (mg g
-1
fresh weight); N (% dry weight).
Chl a Chl b Chl a/b N SPAD CCM
Chl (a+b) 0.878*** 0.740*** 0.543*** 0.878*** 0.490*** 0.461***
Chl a 0.329** 0.868*** 0.886*** 0.484*** 0.437***
Chl b ns 0.488*** 0.286* 0.295*
Chl a/b 0.644*** 0.371*** 0.329**
N 0.464*** 0.419***
SPAD 0.952***






Table 2. Correlation coefficients and significance level for the leaf traits determined in Xinomavro.
*, **, ***: significant coefficients at p<0.05, p<0.01, or p<0.001, respectively, ns: not significant (n=72);
Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b): (mg g
-1
fresh weight); N (% dry weight).
Chl a Chl b Chl a/b N SPAD CCM
Chl (a+b) 0.907*** 0.893*** 0.507*** 0.824*** 0.348** ns
Chl a 0.620*** 0.811*** 0.825*** 0.294* ns
Chl b ns 0.659*** 0.305** ns
Chl a/b 0.545*** ns ns
N 0.345** 0.246*
SPAD 0.903***
CONCLUSIONS
Leaf Chl and N concentration were linearly related to SPAD and CCM readings in
grapevine. However, correlation coefficients were stronger in Cabernet Sauvignon than
Xinomavro, especially for the CCM device. Moreover, none of the devices was able to detect
the seasonal N and Chl pattern. The results suggest that non-destructive chlorophyll
estimations by transmittance-based meters are not applicable in all situations for accurate N
status monitoring during vine growth cycle, and that specific calibrations are recommendable
to improve their utility and accuracy across grapevine cultivars. However, both devices
accurately distinguished N application levels and thus can serve as an indicator of seasonal N
nutritional status.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arnon D.I., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chlorophlasts and polyphenol oxidase in Beta
vulgaris. Plant Phys., 24: 1-15.
Bell S.-J. and Henschke P.A., 2005. Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes,
fermentation and wine. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res., 11: 242-295.
Bullock D.G. and Anderson D.S., 1998. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll
meter for nitrogen management in corn. J. Plant Nutr., 21: 741-755.
Fanizza G., Della Gatta C. and Bagnulo C., 1991. A non-destructive determination of leaf
chlorophyll in Vitis vinifera. Ann. appl. Biol., 119: 203-205.
Filella I., Serrano I., Serra J. and Penuelas J., 1995. Evaluating wheat nitrogen status with
canopy reflectances indices and discriminant analysis. Crop. Sci., 35: 1400-1405.
Jifon J.L., Syvertsen J.P. and Whaley E., 2005. Growth environment and leaf anatomy affect
non-destructive estimates of chlorophyll and nitrogen in Citrus sp. leaves. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci., 130: 152-158.
Kitajima K. and Hogan K.P., 2003. Increases of chlorophyll a/b ratios during acclimation of
tropical woody seedlings to nitrogen limitation and high light. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 857-
865.
Madeira A.C., Ferreira A., de Varennes A. and Vieira A.I., 2003. SPAD meter versus
Tristimulus colorimeter to estimate chlorophyll content and leaf color in sweet pepper.
Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 34: 2461-2470.
Netto A.T., Campostrini E., Goncalves de Oiveira J., Bressan-Smith R.E., 2004.
Photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen, chlorophyll a fluorescence and SPAD-502 readings in
coffee leaves. Scientia Hort., 104: 199-209.
Steel M.R., Gitelson A.A. and Rundquist D.C., 2008. A comparison of two techniques for
nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll content in grapevine leaves. Agron. J., 100: 779-
782.
4 - 67
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 67 03/06/10 15:52
ASSESSMENT OF THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS IN
THE STUDY OF VINEYARD SOIL (RIGOSOL)

Djordjevi, A.
1
, *ivoti, Lj.
1
, Sivev, B.
1
, Paji, V.
1
, Rankovi-Vasi, Z.
1
, Radovanovi,
D
1
.

1
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade, Zemun, Republic of Serbia,
*ljubaz@agrif.bg.ac.rs


ABSTRACT
A study of soil pH on the experimental field resulted in a high variability of pH on a very
small scale. This kind of heterogenity in soil pH have effects on growth of two grapevine
varieties on rootstock Kober 5BB: Riesling and Pinot Noir A number of 104 soil samples
were taken from an area of 1.43 ha from two depths. A goal of this experiment was to find
the optimum number of samples for pH studies, and to implement the obtained results in
further investigation on experimental fields. Therefore, in this paper we compared diferent
deterministic interpolation techniques: inverse distance weight, splines and local polynomial
interpolation, on the results of soil pH. Root mean square error (RMSE) statistitics obtained
after cross validation procedure was used for the choice of appropriate exponent value for
IDW, spline and local interpolation. The obtained interpolation parameters were used for
mapping the field and the most accurate technique was IDW, which was further used in
creation of pH maps with lower number of samples: 54, 34, 29, 24, 19 and only 14 pH
samples. Maps were classified and compared by means of percentage difference in area
among classes of pH in respect to classes obtained after maximum sampling. The results
indicated that the criteria of 15% of change in pH area over classes could be satisfied with
only on third of the samples. An obtained results will be used for further sampling of the
whole experimental area.

KEYWORD
vineyard, soil, pH, interpolation, IDW, RBF, LP


INTRODUCTION
The feasibility of site-specific management relies on the understanding of temporal and
spatial components of variability. Spatial variability of soil properties may vary due to natural
variations or imposed sources of variability. The variability of soil properties could be
vertically and horizontally along a field. The structure of variability in soil properties showed
differences according to sampling spacing, soil properties, and method used in the study
(Trangmar et al., 1985). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have potential for handling
information on variable soil conditions at all scales (Lark and Bolam, 1997) and the standard
use of GIS implies the manipulation of data layer and generation of secondary data.
The accuracy of both geostatistical and deterministic interpolation methods was analysed in
several studies (Laslet et al., 1987; Weber and Englund, 1992; Gotway et al., 1996;
Kravchenko and Bullock, 1999; Li et al., 2007). Laslett et al. (1987) found splines to be
better than IDW and Kriging in the analysis of soil pH, while other authors have found
kriging better then IDW in the analysis of some other soil properties (Gotway et al., 1996).
Weber and Englund (1992) have found IDW producing better results than kriging. Many
conflincting reports were found taking into consideration the use of basic statistics to
predetermine both interpolation method and their parameters, and they are reported in
Kravchenko and Bullock (1999), Weber and Englund (1992) and Gotway et al. (1996).
Taking into consideration the variability of the results of previous studies the objectives of
this study were to: a) assses the accuracy of well known deterministic interpolation
techniques, IDW, splines and local interpolation, in mapping soil topsoil and subsoil pH
through the manipulation of various parameters attributable to each technique, b) choose the
appropriate technique for the examination of classes of topsoil and subsoil pH on the lower
sampling density datasets obtained by eliminating samplng points from the dense grid, c)
predict the optimal number of samples in mapping the soil pH on a basis of a produced maps.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study area is vineyard at Experimental Station Faculty of Agriculture Radmilovac,
which is located 8 km south-east from Belgrade on hilly terrain, at an altitude of 150 m. Total
area of experimental field is 1.43 ha. Experimental field has rectangular shape, with a length
of 140 m, and width of 102 m. According to soil taxonomy soils are defined as Rigosols. The
region is characterized with temperate continental climate; air temperature for the period
1961-2001 increase for 1C and mean annual is 11.8C, which is in accordance with the
forecast change (Vukovi et al., 2009). During vegetation period precipitation average 401.7
mm and belong to sub-humid category. Kober 5BB is ideal rootstock drought common and
tolerance to lime-based soils. An experimental field is divided in two parts; the upper part of
the field is under cv. Pinot Noir, and the downer part of the field is under cv. Riesling. Total
number of 104 samples for the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) were taken. The
sampling space within a row was 10 m, while inter-row space was 15 m. Each sampling point
and borders of the field were recorded and geo-referenced by using Trimble global
positioning system. Soil pH in 1 N KCl was measured with glass electrode by using pH meter
method.
Soils with a pH less than 4.5 in KCl in the topsoil could be considered toxic to most crops.
The effect of pH of crops is presented by soil pH classes in Tab. 1 (Cerling, 1990). Three
deterministic interpolative techniques characterized with their simplicity and easy handling
are used in this study.

Tab. 1 Classes of soil pH in KCl
Group Intensity of acidity pH in KCl
1 Very extreme <4.5
2 Moderately acid 4.5-5.0
3 Acid 5.0-5.5
4 Acid to neutral 5.5-6.0
5 Neutral >6.0

Inverse distance weight (IDW) is deterministic interpolation technique which implements
directly the assumption that the things that are close to one another are more alike than those
that are farther apart, therefore, within this interpolator a value at an un sampled location is a
weighted average of known data points within surrounding neighborhood (Shepard, 1968).
Measured values closer to the prediction location will have more impact than those farther
away. Therefore, an assumption is that a local influence of each measured point diminishes
with distance. It is an exact interpolator. The area calculated by using IDW depends on the
selection of neighborhood strategy and power parameter.
Radial basis functions (RBF) methods are a series of exact interpolation techniques. It
consists of five different functions each resulting in different interpolation surface. Although
4 - 68
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 68 03/06/10 15:52
ASSESSMENT OF THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS IN
THE STUDY OF VINEYARD SOIL (RIGOSOL)

Djordjevi, A.
1
, *ivoti, Lj.
1
, Sivev, B.
1
, Paji, V.
1
, Rankovi-Vasi, Z.
1
, Radovanovi,
D
1
.

1
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade, Zemun, Republic of Serbia,
*ljubaz@agrif.bg.ac.rs


ABSTRACT
A study of soil pH on the experimental field resulted in a high variability of pH on a very
small scale. This kind of heterogenity in soil pH have effects on growth of two grapevine
varieties on rootstock Kober 5BB: Riesling and Pinot Noir A number of 104 soil samples
were taken from an area of 1.43 ha from two depths. A goal of this experiment was to find
the optimum number of samples for pH studies, and to implement the obtained results in
further investigation on experimental fields. Therefore, in this paper we compared diferent
deterministic interpolation techniques: inverse distance weight, splines and local polynomial
interpolation, on the results of soil pH. Root mean square error (RMSE) statistitics obtained
after cross validation procedure was used for the choice of appropriate exponent value for
IDW, spline and local interpolation. The obtained interpolation parameters were used for
mapping the field and the most accurate technique was IDW, which was further used in
creation of pH maps with lower number of samples: 54, 34, 29, 24, 19 and only 14 pH
samples. Maps were classified and compared by means of percentage difference in area
among classes of pH in respect to classes obtained after maximum sampling. The results
indicated that the criteria of 15% of change in pH area over classes could be satisfied with
only on third of the samples. An obtained results will be used for further sampling of the
whole experimental area.

KEYWORD
vineyard, soil, pH, interpolation, IDW, RBF, LP


INTRODUCTION
The feasibility of site-specific management relies on the understanding of temporal and
spatial components of variability. Spatial variability of soil properties may vary due to natural
variations or imposed sources of variability. The variability of soil properties could be
vertically and horizontally along a field. The structure of variability in soil properties showed
differences according to sampling spacing, soil properties, and method used in the study
(Trangmar et al., 1985). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have potential for handling
information on variable soil conditions at all scales (Lark and Bolam, 1997) and the standard
use of GIS implies the manipulation of data layer and generation of secondary data.
The accuracy of both geostatistical and deterministic interpolation methods was analysed in
several studies (Laslet et al., 1987; Weber and Englund, 1992; Gotway et al., 1996;
Kravchenko and Bullock, 1999; Li et al., 2007). Laslett et al. (1987) found splines to be
better than IDW and Kriging in the analysis of soil pH, while other authors have found
kriging better then IDW in the analysis of some other soil properties (Gotway et al., 1996).
Weber and Englund (1992) have found IDW producing better results than kriging. Many
conflincting reports were found taking into consideration the use of basic statistics to
predetermine both interpolation method and their parameters, and they are reported in
Kravchenko and Bullock (1999), Weber and Englund (1992) and Gotway et al. (1996).
Taking into consideration the variability of the results of previous studies the objectives of
this study were to: a) assses the accuracy of well known deterministic interpolation
techniques, IDW, splines and local interpolation, in mapping soil topsoil and subsoil pH
through the manipulation of various parameters attributable to each technique, b) choose the
appropriate technique for the examination of classes of topsoil and subsoil pH on the lower
sampling density datasets obtained by eliminating samplng points from the dense grid, c)
predict the optimal number of samples in mapping the soil pH on a basis of a produced maps.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study area is vineyard at Experimental Station Faculty of Agriculture Radmilovac,
which is located 8 km south-east from Belgrade on hilly terrain, at an altitude of 150 m. Total
area of experimental field is 1.43 ha. Experimental field has rectangular shape, with a length
of 140 m, and width of 102 m. According to soil taxonomy soils are defined as Rigosols. The
region is characterized with temperate continental climate; air temperature for the period
1961-2001 increase for 1C and mean annual is 11.8C, which is in accordance with the
forecast change (Vukovi et al., 2009). During vegetation period precipitation average 401.7
mm and belong to sub-humid category. Kober 5BB is ideal rootstock drought common and
tolerance to lime-based soils. An experimental field is divided in two parts; the upper part of
the field is under cv. Pinot Noir, and the downer part of the field is under cv. Riesling. Total
number of 104 samples for the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) were taken. The
sampling space within a row was 10 m, while inter-row space was 15 m. Each sampling point
and borders of the field were recorded and geo-referenced by using Trimble global
positioning system. Soil pH in 1 N KCl was measured with glass electrode by using pH meter
method.
Soils with a pH less than 4.5 in KCl in the topsoil could be considered toxic to most crops.
The effect of pH of crops is presented by soil pH classes in Tab. 1 (Cerling, 1990). Three
deterministic interpolative techniques characterized with their simplicity and easy handling
are used in this study.

Tab. 1 Classes of soil pH in KCl
Group Intensity of acidity pH in KCl
1 Very extreme <4.5
2 Moderately acid 4.5-5.0
3 Acid 5.0-5.5
4 Acid to neutral 5.5-6.0
5 Neutral >6.0

Inverse distance weight (IDW) is deterministic interpolation technique which implements
directly the assumption that the things that are close to one another are more alike than those
that are farther apart, therefore, within this interpolator a value at an un sampled location is a
weighted average of known data points within surrounding neighborhood (Shepard, 1968).
Measured values closer to the prediction location will have more impact than those farther
away. Therefore, an assumption is that a local influence of each measured point diminishes
with distance. It is an exact interpolator. The area calculated by using IDW depends on the
selection of neighborhood strategy and power parameter.
Radial basis functions (RBF) methods are a series of exact interpolation techniques. It
consists of five different functions each resulting in different interpolation surface. Although
4 - 69
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 69 03/06/10 15:52
being exact interpolators these methods could predict values higher and lower than measured
maximum and minimum values. RBFs are formed in geostatistics around each data location.
Splines consist of polynomials, which describe pieces of a line or surface, and they are fitted
together so that they join smoothly (Webster and Oliver, 2001).
Local Polynomial interpolation (Schaum, 2008) is an inexact interpolator that predicts a
value that is different from the measured value. It presents a kind of combination of global
polynomial methods and moving average procedure. Local polynomial interpolation fits
many polynomials, each within specified overlapping neighborhoods. This kind of
interpolation provides surfaces that accounts for more local variation. Instead of using all
data, like in global polynomial interpolation, it uses data within localized windows.
Statistical analysis and spatial predictions in this paper were conducted by using
Geostatistical Wizard implemented in ArcGIS 9.2 version.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data description is achieved through basic summary statistics, including means, medians,
variances and skewness. A statistical summary of the pH in 1N KCl on two depths is
presented in Tab. 2.

Tab. 2 Summary statistics for topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) pH in KCl
Soil pH N Min Max Range Mean Median Var
CV
(%)
Skewness Kurtosis
Topsoil
(0-30 cm)
104 3.73 7.93 4.2 5.31 4.86 1.48 23.1 0.479 1.775
Subsoil
(30-60 cm)
104 3.55 7.36 3.81 5.05 4.57 1.38 23.3 0.707 2.07

Cross-validation is commonly used to validate the accuracy of interpolation (Voltz and
Webster, 1990). It is achieved by eliminating information, generally one observation at a
time, estimating the value at that location with the remaining data and then computing the
difference between the actual and estimated value for each data location (Davis, 1987). For
the comparison of different interpolation techniques, we examined the difference between the
measured and predicted data by using the mean error and the root mean squared error
(Robinson and Metternicht, 2006). The best cross-validation parameters for IDW, splines and
local interpolation are shown in Tab. 3.

Tab. 3 Parameters returning the lowest RMSE for IDW, Splines and Local Polynomial
Interpolation for top soil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm)
Soil pH Power Neighboor ME RMSE
Topsoil (0-30 cm)
IDW 4 10 -0.005068 0.3461
Splines 1 10 -0.01349 0.3846
Local 2 10 0.01377 0.3625
Subsoil (30-60 cm)
IDW 4 10 -0.0247 0.4123
Splines 1 10 -0.02135 0.431
Local 2 10 0.01069 0.4802

In all IDW tests, the best weighting parameter was found to be four. This suggests that the
weights diminish rapidly from the sample point over the chosen radius. In all cases for RBFs,
the best exponent value was found to be one (completely regularized spline) suggesting that
lower order polynomials were sufficient at representing the variation on the field. The same
neighborhood variation was used also for local interpolation.
The interpolated maps of soil pH with the lowest RMSE from the cross-validation process
are presented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 for each method.



Fig. 1 Interpolated maps of pH in KCl for the depth 0-30 cm, created on a basis of the lowest
RMSE obtained after cross validation by deterministic interpolative techniques.


Fig. 2 Interpolated maps of pH in KCl transformed with square root transformation, for the
depth 30-60 cm, created on a basis of the lowest RMSE obtained after cross validation by
deterministic interpolative techniques.

Obtained results in Tab. 3 suggest IDW as the most accurate technique among three
techniques used for both topsoil and subsoil pH analysis.
In further analysis, our goal was to obtain the maps of soil pH with lower number of
sampling points by use of this technique. In the Tab. 4 and Tab. 5 are presented the areas for
each pH class obtained after interpolation with diminished number of sampling points. Maps
were produced with 54, 34, 29, 24, 19 and 14 sampling points. The simple comparison of the
area of pH classes obtained with lower number of points with those pH classes obtained with
maximum observation points is given as a percentage difference.

Tab. 4 The area of different pH classes in topsoil (0-30 cm) obtained with IDW for lower
number of sampling points used, also expressed as a percentage difference
pH
class
A104
(m
2
)
A54
(m
2
)
%
A34
(m
2
)
%
A29
(m
2
)
%
A24
(m
2
)
%
A19
(m
2
)
%
A14
(m
2
)
%
<4.5 5783.2 5924.3 2.4 5617.3 2.9 5893.9 1.9 5431.3 6.1 5514.4 4.6 5161.0 10.8
4.5-5 2151.1 2350.7 9.3 2540.4 18.1 2331.8 8.4 2633.2 22.4 3321.8 54.4 4470.3 107.8
5-5.5 1157.4 998.5 13.7 936.5 19.1 985.5 14.9 1330.0 14.9 1357.4 17.3 733.0 36.7
5.5-6 943.8 1165.6 23.5 772.6 18.1 814.6 13.7 597.2 36.7 513.9 45.6 457.5 51.5
>6 4230.7 3827.1 9.5 4399.2 4.0 4240.2 0.2 4274.4 1.0 3558.6 15.9 3444.3 18.6

RBF LP IDW
<4.5
4.5-5.0
5.0-5.5
5.5-6.0
>6.0
pH in KCl
IDW RBF LP
<4.5
4.5-5.0
5.0-5.5
5.5-6.0
>6.0
pH in KCl
4 - 70
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 70 03/06/10 15:52
being exact interpolators these methods could predict values higher and lower than measured
maximum and minimum values. RBFs are formed in geostatistics around each data location.
Splines consist of polynomials, which describe pieces of a line or surface, and they are fitted
together so that they join smoothly (Webster and Oliver, 2001).
Local Polynomial interpolation (Schaum, 2008) is an inexact interpolator that predicts a
value that is different from the measured value. It presents a kind of combination of global
polynomial methods and moving average procedure. Local polynomial interpolation fits
many polynomials, each within specified overlapping neighborhoods. This kind of
interpolation provides surfaces that accounts for more local variation. Instead of using all
data, like in global polynomial interpolation, it uses data within localized windows.
Statistical analysis and spatial predictions in this paper were conducted by using
Geostatistical Wizard implemented in ArcGIS 9.2 version.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data description is achieved through basic summary statistics, including means, medians,
variances and skewness. A statistical summary of the pH in 1N KCl on two depths is
presented in Tab. 2.

Tab. 2 Summary statistics for topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) pH in KCl
Soil pH N Min Max Range Mean Median Var
CV
(%)
Skewness Kurtosis
Topsoil
(0-30 cm)
104 3.73 7.93 4.2 5.31 4.86 1.48 23.1 0.479 1.775
Subsoil
(30-60 cm)
104 3.55 7.36 3.81 5.05 4.57 1.38 23.3 0.707 2.07

Cross-validation is commonly used to validate the accuracy of interpolation (Voltz and
Webster, 1990). It is achieved by eliminating information, generally one observation at a
time, estimating the value at that location with the remaining data and then computing the
difference between the actual and estimated value for each data location (Davis, 1987). For
the comparison of different interpolation techniques, we examined the difference between the
measured and predicted data by using the mean error and the root mean squared error
(Robinson and Metternicht, 2006). The best cross-validation parameters for IDW, splines and
local interpolation are shown in Tab. 3.

Tab. 3 Parameters returning the lowest RMSE for IDW, Splines and Local Polynomial
Interpolation for top soil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm)
Soil pH Power Neighboor ME RMSE
Topsoil (0-30 cm)
IDW 4 10 -0.005068 0.3461
Splines 1 10 -0.01349 0.3846
Local 2 10 0.01377 0.3625
Subsoil (30-60 cm)
IDW 4 10 -0.0247 0.4123
Splines 1 10 -0.02135 0.431
Local 2 10 0.01069 0.4802

In all IDW tests, the best weighting parameter was found to be four. This suggests that the
weights diminish rapidly from the sample point over the chosen radius. In all cases for RBFs,
the best exponent value was found to be one (completely regularized spline) suggesting that
lower order polynomials were sufficient at representing the variation on the field. The same
neighborhood variation was used also for local interpolation.
The interpolated maps of soil pH with the lowest RMSE from the cross-validation process
are presented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 for each method.



Fig. 1 Interpolated maps of pH in KCl for the depth 0-30 cm, created on a basis of the lowest
RMSE obtained after cross validation by deterministic interpolative techniques.


Fig. 2 Interpolated maps of pH in KCl transformed with square root transformation, for the
depth 30-60 cm, created on a basis of the lowest RMSE obtained after cross validation by
deterministic interpolative techniques.

Obtained results in Tab. 3 suggest IDW as the most accurate technique among three
techniques used for both topsoil and subsoil pH analysis.
In further analysis, our goal was to obtain the maps of soil pH with lower number of
sampling points by use of this technique. In the Tab. 4 and Tab. 5 are presented the areas for
each pH class obtained after interpolation with diminished number of sampling points. Maps
were produced with 54, 34, 29, 24, 19 and 14 sampling points. The simple comparison of the
area of pH classes obtained with lower number of points with those pH classes obtained with
maximum observation points is given as a percentage difference.

Tab. 4 The area of different pH classes in topsoil (0-30 cm) obtained with IDW for lower
number of sampling points used, also expressed as a percentage difference
pH
class
A104
(m
2
)
A54
(m
2
)
%
A34
(m
2
)
%
A29
(m
2
)
%
A24
(m
2
)
%
A19
(m
2
)
%
A14
(m
2
)
%
<4.5 5783.2 5924.3 2.4 5617.3 2.9 5893.9 1.9 5431.3 6.1 5514.4 4.6 5161.0 10.8
4.5-5 2151.1 2350.7 9.3 2540.4 18.1 2331.8 8.4 2633.2 22.4 3321.8 54.4 4470.3 107.8
5-5.5 1157.4 998.5 13.7 936.5 19.1 985.5 14.9 1330.0 14.9 1357.4 17.3 733.0 36.7
5.5-6 943.8 1165.6 23.5 772.6 18.1 814.6 13.7 597.2 36.7 513.9 45.6 457.5 51.5
>6 4230.7 3827.1 9.5 4399.2 4.0 4240.2 0.2 4274.4 1.0 3558.6 15.9 3444.3 18.6

RBF LP IDW
<4.5
4.5-5.0
5.0-5.5
5.5-6.0
>6.0
pH in KCl
IDW RBF LP
<4.5
4.5-5.0
5.0-5.5
5.5-6.0
>6.0
pH in KCl
4 - 71
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 71 03/06/10 15:52
This kind of analysis was found to be not very reliable due to the fact that the obtained
results expressed as a percentage of difference among classes depends on the number of
sampling points included in each class, and if the number of sampling points is very low, the
borders among classes will be narrower. Nevertheless, for the two major and grapevine
growth and development limiting classes in our experimental field, namely, pH <4.5 and pH
>6, which sum 70% of total area of topsoil, the percentage of difference seems to be quite
reasonable, being lower than 10% in 54, 34, 29 and 24 sampling points maps. The map
produced with 29 points is if relatively expressed more accurate than those produced with 34
and 54 points. The maps produced with 14 and 19 sampling points cannot be considered
reliable.
Regarding subsoil results (Tab. 5), two major classes (pH <4.5 and pH >6), take 71% of
total area, and the same behavior was obtained for 54, 34, 29 and 24 samples, meaning that
24 samples are adequate to represent these classes. The presentation of other classes is
acceptable with 34 sampling points, meaning almost 1/3 of maximum.

Tab. 5 The area of different pH classes (in m
2
) in subsoil (30-60 cm) obtained with IDW for
lower number of sampling points used, also expressed as a percentage difference

pH
class
B104
(m
2
)
B54
(m
2
)
%
B34
(m
2
)
%
B29
(m
2
)
%
B24
(m
2
)
%
B19
(m
2
)
%
B14
(m
2
)
%
<4.5
7157.1 7055.6 1.4 7081.7 1.1 7088.2 1.0 6623.3 7.5 7102.1 0.8 7612.4 6.4
4.5-5
1635.5 1912.1 16.9 1604.5 1.9 1735.7 6.1 2107.3 28.8 2220.5 35.8 2596.6 58.8
5-5.5
1354.7 1318.6 2.7 1185.4 12.5 1320.7 2.5 1380.3 1.9 1066.4 21.3 478.3 64.7
5.5-6
1110.5 1105.9 0.4 1215.3 9.4 1460.6 31.5 1199.1 8.0 504.2 54.6 450.6 59.4
>6
3008.3 2873.9 4.5 3179.1 5.7 2660.9 11.5 2956.0 1.7 3372.9 12.1 3128.2 4.0

CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we tried to express the estimation accuracy of interpolative methods as a
relative difference in the area of pH classes obtained with lower number of points to those
obtained with maximum number of sampling points. A decline in number of sampling points
that we used to produce maps of soil pH indicated that adequate maps could be created with
29 samples in topsoil depth and with 34 samples in subsoil depth. The higher number of
sampling points used for map creation does not seem to be an accuracy advantage if
expressed in relative units.
Studies that involve soil sampling following a regular grid are limited to some hectares, and
a similar approach used for larger areas is time consuming and costly. A balance must be
found among the scientific objective, human and monetary resources, and time. The results of
this study are very important because the optimal number of samples which is obtained to be
one third of maximum for both soil depths should be a guide for further analysis on the field
of ES Radmilovac which consists of more tenths of hectares of all type of cultivation,
including 12 hectares of grapevine that should be investigated in future.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was part of project: Organic production of grape and wine and all grapevine
products and is partially sponsored by the Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Science,
Technologies and Development under grant no TR-20093.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cerling, V.V. (1990). Diagnostika patini seljsko-hozalistcennvih kultur. Moskva-Leningrad:
Agropromizdat.
Davis, B.M. (1987). Uses and abuses of cross-validation in geostatistics. Math. Geol. 19,
241248.
Gotway, C.A., Ferguson, R.B., Hergert,G.W. and Peterson, T.A. (1996). Comparison of
kriging and inverse-distance methods for mapping soil parameters. Am. J. Soil Sci. 60,
12371247.
Kravchenko, A.N. and Bullock, D.G. (1999). A comparative study of interpolation methods
for mapping soil properties. J. Agronomy 91, 393400.
Lark, R.M., and Bolam, H.C. (1997). Uncertainty in prediction and interpretation of spatially
variable data on soils. Geoderma 77: 263-282.
Laslett, G.M., McBratney, A.B., Pahl, P.J. and Hutchinson, M.F. (1987). Comparison of
several spatial prediction methods for soil pH. J. Soil Sci. 38, 325341.
Li Yan, Shi Zhou, Wu Ci-fang, Li Hong-yi, and Li Feng (2007). Improved Prediction and
Reduction of Sampling Density for Soil Salinity by Different Geostatistical Methods
Agricultural Sciences in China, Vol. 6 (7): 832-841.
Robinson, T.P. and Metternicht, G. (2006). Testing the performance of spatial interpolation
techniques for mapping soil properties. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 50: 97
108.
Shepard, D. (1968). A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data,
Proc. 23rd National Conference ACM, ACM, 517-524.
Schaum, A. (2008). Principles of local polynomial interpolation, aipr, pp.1-6, 37th IEEE
Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop.
Trangmar, B.B., Yost,R.S., & Uehara, G. (1985). Application of geostatistics to spatial
studies of soil properties. Advancement in Agronomy, 38, 4594.
Voltz, M., Webster, R. (1990). A comparison of kriging, cubic splines and classification for
predicting soil properties from sample information. J.Soil Sci. 41, 473490.
Vukovi, ., urevi V., Petrovi N., Sivev B., Rankovi-Vasi Z. (2009). Simulation of
climate changes for Europe with special analysis for important vineyard areas of Serbia,
Proceeding 32
nd
World Congress of Vine and Wine, pp. 47-48. www.oiv2009.hr
Weber, D. and Englund, E. (1992). Evaluation and comparison of spatial interpolators. Math.
Geol. 24, 381391.
Webster, R. and Oliver, M.A. (2001). Geostatistics for Environmental Scientists. John Wiley
and Sons, Brisbane, Australia.
4 - 72
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 72 03/06/10 15:52
This kind of analysis was found to be not very reliable due to the fact that the obtained
results expressed as a percentage of difference among classes depends on the number of
sampling points included in each class, and if the number of sampling points is very low, the
borders among classes will be narrower. Nevertheless, for the two major and grapevine
growth and development limiting classes in our experimental field, namely, pH <4.5 and pH
>6, which sum 70% of total area of topsoil, the percentage of difference seems to be quite
reasonable, being lower than 10% in 54, 34, 29 and 24 sampling points maps. The map
produced with 29 points is if relatively expressed more accurate than those produced with 34
and 54 points. The maps produced with 14 and 19 sampling points cannot be considered
reliable.
Regarding subsoil results (Tab. 5), two major classes (pH <4.5 and pH >6), take 71% of
total area, and the same behavior was obtained for 54, 34, 29 and 24 samples, meaning that
24 samples are adequate to represent these classes. The presentation of other classes is
acceptable with 34 sampling points, meaning almost 1/3 of maximum.

Tab. 5 The area of different pH classes (in m
2
) in subsoil (30-60 cm) obtained with IDW for
lower number of sampling points used, also expressed as a percentage difference

pH
class
B104
(m
2
)
B54
(m
2
)
%
B34
(m
2
)
%
B29
(m
2
)
%
B24
(m
2
)
%
B19
(m
2
)
%
B14
(m
2
)
%
<4.5
7157.1 7055.6 1.4 7081.7 1.1 7088.2 1.0 6623.3 7.5 7102.1 0.8 7612.4 6.4
4.5-5
1635.5 1912.1 16.9 1604.5 1.9 1735.7 6.1 2107.3 28.8 2220.5 35.8 2596.6 58.8
5-5.5
1354.7 1318.6 2.7 1185.4 12.5 1320.7 2.5 1380.3 1.9 1066.4 21.3 478.3 64.7
5.5-6
1110.5 1105.9 0.4 1215.3 9.4 1460.6 31.5 1199.1 8.0 504.2 54.6 450.6 59.4
>6
3008.3 2873.9 4.5 3179.1 5.7 2660.9 11.5 2956.0 1.7 3372.9 12.1 3128.2 4.0

CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we tried to express the estimation accuracy of interpolative methods as a
relative difference in the area of pH classes obtained with lower number of points to those
obtained with maximum number of sampling points. A decline in number of sampling points
that we used to produce maps of soil pH indicated that adequate maps could be created with
29 samples in topsoil depth and with 34 samples in subsoil depth. The higher number of
sampling points used for map creation does not seem to be an accuracy advantage if
expressed in relative units.
Studies that involve soil sampling following a regular grid are limited to some hectares, and
a similar approach used for larger areas is time consuming and costly. A balance must be
found among the scientific objective, human and monetary resources, and time. The results of
this study are very important because the optimal number of samples which is obtained to be
one third of maximum for both soil depths should be a guide for further analysis on the field
of ES Radmilovac which consists of more tenths of hectares of all type of cultivation,
including 12 hectares of grapevine that should be investigated in future.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was part of project: Organic production of grape and wine and all grapevine
products and is partially sponsored by the Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Science,
Technologies and Development under grant no TR-20093.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cerling, V.V. (1990). Diagnostika patini seljsko-hozalistcennvih kultur. Moskva-Leningrad:
Agropromizdat.
Davis, B.M. (1987). Uses and abuses of cross-validation in geostatistics. Math. Geol. 19,
241248.
Gotway, C.A., Ferguson, R.B., Hergert,G.W. and Peterson, T.A. (1996). Comparison of
kriging and inverse-distance methods for mapping soil parameters. Am. J. Soil Sci. 60,
12371247.
Kravchenko, A.N. and Bullock, D.G. (1999). A comparative study of interpolation methods
for mapping soil properties. J. Agronomy 91, 393400.
Lark, R.M., and Bolam, H.C. (1997). Uncertainty in prediction and interpretation of spatially
variable data on soils. Geoderma 77: 263-282.
Laslett, G.M., McBratney, A.B., Pahl, P.J. and Hutchinson, M.F. (1987). Comparison of
several spatial prediction methods for soil pH. J. Soil Sci. 38, 325341.
Li Yan, Shi Zhou, Wu Ci-fang, Li Hong-yi, and Li Feng (2007). Improved Prediction and
Reduction of Sampling Density for Soil Salinity by Different Geostatistical Methods
Agricultural Sciences in China, Vol. 6 (7): 832-841.
Robinson, T.P. and Metternicht, G. (2006). Testing the performance of spatial interpolation
techniques for mapping soil properties. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 50: 97
108.
Shepard, D. (1968). A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data,
Proc. 23rd National Conference ACM, ACM, 517-524.
Schaum, A. (2008). Principles of local polynomial interpolation, aipr, pp.1-6, 37th IEEE
Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop.
Trangmar, B.B., Yost,R.S., & Uehara, G. (1985). Application of geostatistics to spatial
studies of soil properties. Advancement in Agronomy, 38, 4594.
Voltz, M., Webster, R. (1990). A comparison of kriging, cubic splines and classification for
predicting soil properties from sample information. J.Soil Sci. 41, 473490.
Vukovi, ., urevi V., Petrovi N., Sivev B., Rankovi-Vasi Z. (2009). Simulation of
climate changes for Europe with special analysis for important vineyard areas of Serbia,
Proceeding 32
nd
World Congress of Vine and Wine, pp. 47-48. www.oiv2009.hr
Weber, D. and Englund, E. (1992). Evaluation and comparison of spatial interpolators. Math.
Geol. 24, 381391.
Webster, R. and Oliver, M.A. (2001). Geostatistics for Environmental Scientists. John Wiley
and Sons, Brisbane, Australia.
4 - 73
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 73 03/06/10 15:52
RISPOSTE ENOLOGICHE DEL NERO DAVOLA SU SUOLI A
DIVERSO GRADO DI SALINITA
Antonio Sparacio
1
, Giuseppe Genna
1
, Leo Prinzivalli
1
, Salvatore Sparla
1
, Vincenzo
Melia
1
, Salvatore Raimondi
2
, Antonella Verzera
3
(1)
Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino Via Libert 66, Palermo Italia a.sparacio@vitevino.it
(2)
DAAT Universit degli Studi di Palermo- Viale delle Scienze, Palermo Italia sraimond@unipa.it
(3)
DCOB - Universit degli Studi di Messina Salita Sperone 31, Messina Italia averzera@pharma.unime.it
RIASSUNTO
Vengono riportati i risultati enologici di uno studio condotto sul Nero dAvola in un tipico
ambiente viticolo siciliano, in cui insistono suoli che presentano un diverso grado di salinit.
La salinit di un suolo il tenore in sali solubili presenti in un terreno. I Sali sono
indispensabili per la vita delle piante, ma se la loro quantit elevata pu pregiudicarne la
vita. Un suolo si definisce salino quando il valore della conduttivit elettrica dellestratto
acquoso a saturazione pari o superiore a 4. La conduttivit elettrica (ECe) direttamente
proporzionale al contenuto di sali solubili. In Sicilia i suoli affetti da salinit occupano
unarea di 600.000 ettari, concentrati principalmente nella Sicilia centro meridionale ed in
parte in quella occidentale. La prova sperimentale si svolta in unazienda viticola ubicata nel
comune di Santa Margherita Belice (AG) a 280 m. slm, in un vigneto di Nero dAvola,
allevato a controspalliera. La caratteristica di questo vigneto quella avere lungo i filari, che
dallalto vanno verso il basso, un diverso tenore di contenuto salino tanto che stato possibile
impostare tre differenti tesi. Alla vendemmia le uve delle singole tesi sono state vinificate,
presso la cantina sperimentale dellIRVV, adottando un identico protocollo di trasformazione
per non interferire sulla qualit finale dei prodotti.
Per verificare eventuali differenze nei vini delle diverse tesi, sono stati determinati i parametri
analitici pi importanti, tra cui i polifenoli, gli antociani, i flavonoidi, la componente
minerale, ecc. Sono state effettuate, inoltre, le analisi strumentali qualitative e quantitative dei
composti volatili responsabili della componente aromatica.
PAROLE CHIAVE
Nero dAvola Sicilia - suoli salini - salinit
ABSTRACT
We show the results of a study on Nero d'Avola in a typical Sicilian environment, with soil
at different salinity. The salinity of soil is its content of soluble salts. The salts are essential
for plant life, but high quantity can affect negatively. A soil is defined saline as the value of
electrical conductivity of the aqueous extract at saturation is equal to or greater than 4.
Electrical conductivity (ECe) is directly proportional to the content of soluble salts. In Sicily,
the land "affected" by salinity have an area of 600,000 hectares, concentrated mainly in
central southern Sicily and partly in the west. The experimental test was conducted in the
municipality of Santa Margherita Belice (AG) at 280 m. asl, in a vineyard of Nero d'Avola,
trained in espalier. The characteristic of this vineyard is to have along the rows which
concentration of salt content changes so that it was possible to set three different thesis. At
harvest the grapes of each thesis were fermented in the experimental winery of IRVV by
identical protocol processing for not interfering on the quality of final products. To verify
possible differences in the wines of various thesis, the most important analytical parameters
have been determined, including polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, the mineral
component, etc. We realize also instrumental qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile
compounds responsible for flavor component.
KEYWORD
Nero dAvola Sicily - salinity
INTRODUZIONE
La salinit di un suolo il tenore in sali solubili presenti in un terreno (vengono definiti sali
solubili tutti i composti chimici caratterizzati da solubilit pi elevata di quella del gesso). I
sali sono indispensabili per la vita delle piante, ma se la loro quantit nel terreno elevata,
pu pregiudicarne la vita. Un suolo si definisce salino quando il valore della conduttivit
elettrica dellestratto acquoso a saturazione pari o superiore a 4. La conduttivit elettrica
(ECe) direttamente proporzionale al contenuto di sali solubili. Leccesso di salinit pu
provocare essiccamento fisiologico dei vegetali, aumento della resistenza idraulica delle radici
e delle foglie, alterazione del contenuto di ormoni, danneggiamento diretto del processo di
fotosintesi, ecc. In Sicilia i suoli affetti da salinit occupano unarea di 600.000 ettari,
concentrati principalmente nella Sicilia centro meridionale ed in parte in quella occidentale
(figura 1).
La bibliografia scientifica relativa al comportamento
della vite sui suoli salini abbastanza carente, pertanto
si pensato di effettuare uno studio per verificare
linfluenza della salinit sulla qualit delle produzioni
vitivinicole, con lo scopo anche di valorizzare una
produzione di vini specifici legati a particolari ambienti
pedo-climatici.
Figura 1 - I suoli salini in Sicilia
MATERIALI E METODI
Le prove sperimentali si sono svolte nel biennio 2007-2008 in unazienda viticola ubicata
nel comune di Santa Margherita Belice (AG) a 280 m. slm; stato scelto un vigneto di Nero
dAvola, allevato a controspalliera con potatura a cordone speronato, in leggera pendenza con
esposizione a sud-est. La caratteristica di questo vigneto quella avere lungo i filari, che
dallalto vanno verso il basso, un diverso tenore di contenuto salino (grafico 1) tanto che
stato possibile impostare tre differenti tesi:
Tesi 1: contenuto salino trascurabile (test - valore medio dei primi 105 cm. ECe 0,7 dS m
-1
)
Tesi 2: contenuto salino medio (mediamente salino - ECe dei primi 55 cm. 1,2 dS m
-1
, da
55 a 105 cm. 2,1 dS m
-1
)
Tesi 3: contenuto salino forte (salino - ECe dei primi 55 cm. 1,0 dS m
-1
, da 55 a 105 cm. 7,6
dS m
-1
)
Alla vendemmia le uve delle singole tesi sono state raccolte in cassette e trasferite presso la
cantina sperimentale dellIRVV per la vinificazione. Per non interferire sulla qualit finale dei
prodotti, stato adottato un identico protocollo di trasformazione delle uve per le tre tesi che
comprende: raccolta manuale delle uve in cassette, pigiadiraspatura, aggiunta di 5 g/hl di SO
2
,
inoculo di lieviti selezionati, fermentazione a temperatura controllata (+28 C.) con tre
follature al giorno, svinatura e pressatura delle vinacce, travasi (almeno 2) ed
imbottigliamento. Per verificare eventuali differenze nei vini delle diverse tesi, sono stati
4 - 74
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 74 03/06/10 15:52
RISPOSTE ENOLOGICHE DEL NERO DAVOLA SU SUOLI A
DIVERSO GRADO DI SALINITA
Antonio Sparacio
1
, Giuseppe Genna
1
, Leo Prinzivalli
1
, Salvatore Sparla
1
, Vincenzo
Melia
1
, Salvatore Raimondi
2
, Antonella Verzera
3
(1)
Istituto Regionale della Vite e del Vino Via Libert 66, Palermo Italia a.sparacio@vitevino.it
(2)
DAAT Universit degli Studi di Palermo- Viale delle Scienze, Palermo Italia sraimond@unipa.it
(3)
DCOB - Universit degli Studi di Messina Salita Sperone 31, Messina Italia averzera@pharma.unime.it
RIASSUNTO
Vengono riportati i risultati enologici di uno studio condotto sul Nero dAvola in un tipico
ambiente viticolo siciliano, in cui insistono suoli che presentano un diverso grado di salinit.
La salinit di un suolo il tenore in sali solubili presenti in un terreno. I Sali sono
indispensabili per la vita delle piante, ma se la loro quantit elevata pu pregiudicarne la
vita. Un suolo si definisce salino quando il valore della conduttivit elettrica dellestratto
acquoso a saturazione pari o superiore a 4. La conduttivit elettrica (ECe) direttamente
proporzionale al contenuto di sali solubili. In Sicilia i suoli affetti da salinit occupano
unarea di 600.000 ettari, concentrati principalmente nella Sicilia centro meridionale ed in
parte in quella occidentale. La prova sperimentale si svolta in unazienda viticola ubicata nel
comune di Santa Margherita Belice (AG) a 280 m. slm, in un vigneto di Nero dAvola,
allevato a controspalliera. La caratteristica di questo vigneto quella avere lungo i filari, che
dallalto vanno verso il basso, un diverso tenore di contenuto salino tanto che stato possibile
impostare tre differenti tesi. Alla vendemmia le uve delle singole tesi sono state vinificate,
presso la cantina sperimentale dellIRVV, adottando un identico protocollo di trasformazione
per non interferire sulla qualit finale dei prodotti.
Per verificare eventuali differenze nei vini delle diverse tesi, sono stati determinati i parametri
analitici pi importanti, tra cui i polifenoli, gli antociani, i flavonoidi, la componente
minerale, ecc. Sono state effettuate, inoltre, le analisi strumentali qualitative e quantitative dei
composti volatili responsabili della componente aromatica.
PAROLE CHIAVE
Nero dAvola Sicilia - suoli salini - salinit
ABSTRACT
We show the results of a study on Nero d'Avola in a typical Sicilian environment, with soil
at different salinity. The salinity of soil is its content of soluble salts. The salts are essential
for plant life, but high quantity can affect negatively. A soil is defined saline as the value of
electrical conductivity of the aqueous extract at saturation is equal to or greater than 4.
Electrical conductivity (ECe) is directly proportional to the content of soluble salts. In Sicily,
the land "affected" by salinity have an area of 600,000 hectares, concentrated mainly in
central southern Sicily and partly in the west. The experimental test was conducted in the
municipality of Santa Margherita Belice (AG) at 280 m. asl, in a vineyard of Nero d'Avola,
trained in espalier. The characteristic of this vineyard is to have along the rows which
concentration of salt content changes so that it was possible to set three different thesis. At
harvest the grapes of each thesis were fermented in the experimental winery of IRVV by
identical protocol processing for not interfering on the quality of final products. To verify
possible differences in the wines of various thesis, the most important analytical parameters
have been determined, including polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, the mineral
component, etc. We realize also instrumental qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile
compounds responsible for flavor component.
KEYWORD
Nero dAvola Sicily - salinity
INTRODUZIONE
La salinit di un suolo il tenore in sali solubili presenti in un terreno (vengono definiti sali
solubili tutti i composti chimici caratterizzati da solubilit pi elevata di quella del gesso). I
sali sono indispensabili per la vita delle piante, ma se la loro quantit nel terreno elevata,
pu pregiudicarne la vita. Un suolo si definisce salino quando il valore della conduttivit
elettrica dellestratto acquoso a saturazione pari o superiore a 4. La conduttivit elettrica
(ECe) direttamente proporzionale al contenuto di sali solubili. Leccesso di salinit pu
provocare essiccamento fisiologico dei vegetali, aumento della resistenza idraulica delle radici
e delle foglie, alterazione del contenuto di ormoni, danneggiamento diretto del processo di
fotosintesi, ecc. In Sicilia i suoli affetti da salinit occupano unarea di 600.000 ettari,
concentrati principalmente nella Sicilia centro meridionale ed in parte in quella occidentale
(figura 1).
La bibliografia scientifica relativa al comportamento
della vite sui suoli salini abbastanza carente, pertanto
si pensato di effettuare uno studio per verificare
linfluenza della salinit sulla qualit delle produzioni
vitivinicole, con lo scopo anche di valorizzare una
produzione di vini specifici legati a particolari ambienti
pedo-climatici.
Figura 1 - I suoli salini in Sicilia
MATERIALI E METODI
Le prove sperimentali si sono svolte nel biennio 2007-2008 in unazienda viticola ubicata
nel comune di Santa Margherita Belice (AG) a 280 m. slm; stato scelto un vigneto di Nero
dAvola, allevato a controspalliera con potatura a cordone speronato, in leggera pendenza con
esposizione a sud-est. La caratteristica di questo vigneto quella avere lungo i filari, che
dallalto vanno verso il basso, un diverso tenore di contenuto salino (grafico 1) tanto che
stato possibile impostare tre differenti tesi:
Tesi 1: contenuto salino trascurabile (test - valore medio dei primi 105 cm. ECe 0,7 dS m
-1
)
Tesi 2: contenuto salino medio (mediamente salino - ECe dei primi 55 cm. 1,2 dS m
-1
, da
55 a 105 cm. 2,1 dS m
-1
)
Tesi 3: contenuto salino forte (salino - ECe dei primi 55 cm. 1,0 dS m
-1
, da 55 a 105 cm. 7,6
dS m
-1
)
Alla vendemmia le uve delle singole tesi sono state raccolte in cassette e trasferite presso la
cantina sperimentale dellIRVV per la vinificazione. Per non interferire sulla qualit finale dei
prodotti, stato adottato un identico protocollo di trasformazione delle uve per le tre tesi che
comprende: raccolta manuale delle uve in cassette, pigiadiraspatura, aggiunta di 5 g/hl di SO
2
,
inoculo di lieviti selezionati, fermentazione a temperatura controllata (+28 C.) con tre
follature al giorno, svinatura e pressatura delle vinacce, travasi (almeno 2) ed
imbottigliamento. Per verificare eventuali differenze nei vini delle diverse tesi, sono stati
4 - 75
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 75 03/06/10 15:52
determinati, adottando le metodiche ufficiali di analisi, i parametri analitici pi importanti, tra
cui anche i polifenoli, gli antociani, i flavonoidi, la componente minerale, ecc. Sui vini sono
state effettuate, inoltre, le analisi strumentali qualitative e quantitative dei composti volatili
responsabili dellaroma.
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
I parametri analitici dei mosti (tabella 1) delle singole tesi non mostrano accentuate
differenze nella gradazione zuccherina e nellacidit titolabile, delle differenze pi
significative, invece, ci sono nel pH.
Nei vini delle diverse tesi esistono differenze abbastanza significative dei dati relativi ai
polifenoli, agli antociani, ai flavonoidi ed allintensit colorante; questultimi parametri
risultano pi alti nella tesi con contenuto salino forte. Il contenuto salino dei suoli ha
influenzato in maniera decisiva la componente minerale dei vini (grafico2.). In particolare tra
i diversi parametri quello che ha subito una certa variazione fra le diverse tesi il dato relativo
ai solfati, con valori pi bassi nel test e valori pi elevati nel vino della tesi salino; tale
andamento simile nelle due annate di osservazione anche se con valori differenti. Le analisi
sulla componente volatile dei vini sono state effettuate sui campioni di entrambe le
vendemmie (tabella 2). Nei vini del 2007 i campioni delle tesi mediamente salino e
salino presentano valori simili degli esteri e comunque pi elevati rispetto al test. La tesi
salino presenta una quantit superiore (dati non riportati) di succinato di dietile (delicato
odore di frutta), mentre il campione mediamente salino si differenzia per un quantitativo pi
elevato (dati non riportati) di esanoato di etile (fruttato di mela). Anche gli alcoli presentano
valori pi alti nelle tesi salino e mediamente salino. La compente terpenica pi elevata
nel campione della seconda tesi e pi basso nel test; in questa classe sono stati rilevati (dati
non riportati) il limonene (solo nel salino), il terpinolene (solo nel mediamente salino), il
-linalolo (costante nei tre campioni), mentre il (Z)-nerolidolo (delicatamente erbaceo,
floreale) presenta quantit che diminuiscono dal salino al test. Anche nei campioni del
2008 possibile riscontrare una notevole differenza nei contenuti di esteri, alcoli, acidi e
terpeni delle tesi salino e mediamente salino, in genere pi elevati rispetto al test. Da un
punto di vista aromatico, e per le due annate di osservazione, si pu senza dubbio affermare
che i vini delle tesi mediamente salino e salino sono quelli pi apprezzati, mentre quelli
relativi al testimone risultano di aroma complessivamente meno intenso ed armonico.

CONCLUSIONI
Alla luce dei dati rilevati sui vini frutto di questa sperimentazione biennale, possibile
tracciare un quadro abbastanza preciso sui risultati ottenuti. Appare chiaro come la salinit,
che caratterizza in modo particolare i suoli di questareale viticolo siciliano, influenzi
decisamente il comportamento e le risposte enologiche del Nero dAvola. Infatti i vini che si
ottengono si caratterizzano per avere dei parametri analitici migliori rispetto a quelli
ottenuti nel terreno in cui il livello di salinit basso; anche il profilo aromatico di questi vini,
come si evince dai dati strumentali sulla componente volatile, senza dubbio pi complesso,
pi intenso ed armonico. La componente minerale dei vini, pi elevata nei campioni ottenuti
da suoli con media ed alta salinit, pu influenzare positivamente il loro quadro
organolettico; infatti le analisi sensoriali effettuate sui campioni ottenuti nella vendemmia
2007, i cui dati sono riportati in un precedente lavoro (Sparacio et al., 2009), evidenziano un
particolare gradimento della componente gustativa da parte del gruppo di assaggiatori.
Considerato che su questi suoli il Nero dAvola ha dato dei risultati incoraggianti, soprattutto
per quel che riguarda le caratteristiche dei vini che si possono produrre, resta da verificare
fino a quali livelli di salinit possibile riuscire a produrre a determinati livelli qualitativi
0
2
4
6
8
10
10 25 50 75 100
profondit (cm)
E
C
e

d
S

m
-
1
tesi 1
tesi 2
tesi 3
senza interferire negativamente sulla vita delle piante. In questo senso risulta di particolare
importanza lausilio dellirrigazione, da effettuare con acque dolci per lisciviare i sali che in
estate, per effetto di elevati livelli di evapotraspirazione, tendono ad aumentare la loro
concentrazione nel terreno.
RINGRAZIAMENTI
Si ringrazia la Dr.ssa Paola Catanzaro del laboratorio centrale dellIRVV per le analisi
relative alla componente minerale dei vini.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
- Chapman V., (1966). Salinity and Acidity. H. Boyko (ed.), Junk Publ. The Hague,
Netherlands, 23-42.
- Fregoni M., (1998). Viticoltura di qualit. Edizioni LInformatore Agrario
- Moolman J.H., (1983). The effect of irrigation practices in the Bree River valley on the salt
content of a small river. Irr. Sci., 4.
- Sparacio A. et al., (2009). Suoli salini e qualit del Nero dAvola. In Atti Enoforum,
Piacenza, Sive.
- Verzera A. et al. The influence of the soil salinity on the sensory characteristic and volatile
aroma compounds of the Nero dAvola wine. In corso di pubblicazione
Grafico 1 - Andamento della salinit nel suolo
Tabella 1 -Alcuni parametri analitici delle diverse tesi
Mosto Vino

Babo
Acid.
Tit.
(g/l)
pH Alcool %
Acid.
Tit.
(g/l)
Acido
Tartarico
(g/l)
Polifenoli
totali
(mg/l)
Antociani
(mg/l)
Flavonoidi
(mg/l)
Intensit
colorante
Tonalit
Test 17,0 7,0 3,13 12,0 6 3,19 1336 270 852 7,84 0,53
Med. Salino 17,5 7,1 3,03 12,5 6,7 3,61 1491 295 960 9,34 0,44
2
0
0
7

Salino 17,6 7,2 3,29 12,5 6,4 4,16 1659 329 1165 9,56 0,43
Test 16,8 7,7 3,32 11,6 5,3 3,60 1342 248 1130 7,49 0,48
Med. Salino 17,3 6,0 3,31 11,7 6,2 3,80 1309 261 1153 7,64 0,42
2
0
0
8

Salino 17,5 6,6 3,41 12,1 5,1 2,90 1622 281 1378 8,81 0,41
4 - 76
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 76 03/06/10 15:52
determinati, adottando le metodiche ufficiali di analisi, i parametri analitici pi importanti, tra
cui anche i polifenoli, gli antociani, i flavonoidi, la componente minerale, ecc. Sui vini sono
state effettuate, inoltre, le analisi strumentali qualitative e quantitative dei composti volatili
responsabili dellaroma.
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
I parametri analitici dei mosti (tabella 1) delle singole tesi non mostrano accentuate
differenze nella gradazione zuccherina e nellacidit titolabile, delle differenze pi
significative, invece, ci sono nel pH.
Nei vini delle diverse tesi esistono differenze abbastanza significative dei dati relativi ai
polifenoli, agli antociani, ai flavonoidi ed allintensit colorante; questultimi parametri
risultano pi alti nella tesi con contenuto salino forte. Il contenuto salino dei suoli ha
influenzato in maniera decisiva la componente minerale dei vini (grafico2.). In particolare tra
i diversi parametri quello che ha subito una certa variazione fra le diverse tesi il dato relativo
ai solfati, con valori pi bassi nel test e valori pi elevati nel vino della tesi salino; tale
andamento simile nelle due annate di osservazione anche se con valori differenti. Le analisi
sulla componente volatile dei vini sono state effettuate sui campioni di entrambe le
vendemmie (tabella 2). Nei vini del 2007 i campioni delle tesi mediamente salino e
salino presentano valori simili degli esteri e comunque pi elevati rispetto al test. La tesi
salino presenta una quantit superiore (dati non riportati) di succinato di dietile (delicato
odore di frutta), mentre il campione mediamente salino si differenzia per un quantitativo pi
elevato (dati non riportati) di esanoato di etile (fruttato di mela). Anche gli alcoli presentano
valori pi alti nelle tesi salino e mediamente salino. La compente terpenica pi elevata
nel campione della seconda tesi e pi basso nel test; in questa classe sono stati rilevati (dati
non riportati) il limonene (solo nel salino), il terpinolene (solo nel mediamente salino), il
-linalolo (costante nei tre campioni), mentre il (Z)-nerolidolo (delicatamente erbaceo,
floreale) presenta quantit che diminuiscono dal salino al test. Anche nei campioni del
2008 possibile riscontrare una notevole differenza nei contenuti di esteri, alcoli, acidi e
terpeni delle tesi salino e mediamente salino, in genere pi elevati rispetto al test. Da un
punto di vista aromatico, e per le due annate di osservazione, si pu senza dubbio affermare
che i vini delle tesi mediamente salino e salino sono quelli pi apprezzati, mentre quelli
relativi al testimone risultano di aroma complessivamente meno intenso ed armonico.

CONCLUSIONI
Alla luce dei dati rilevati sui vini frutto di questa sperimentazione biennale, possibile
tracciare un quadro abbastanza preciso sui risultati ottenuti. Appare chiaro come la salinit,
che caratterizza in modo particolare i suoli di questareale viticolo siciliano, influenzi
decisamente il comportamento e le risposte enologiche del Nero dAvola. Infatti i vini che si
ottengono si caratterizzano per avere dei parametri analitici migliori rispetto a quelli
ottenuti nel terreno in cui il livello di salinit basso; anche il profilo aromatico di questi vini,
come si evince dai dati strumentali sulla componente volatile, senza dubbio pi complesso,
pi intenso ed armonico. La componente minerale dei vini, pi elevata nei campioni ottenuti
da suoli con media ed alta salinit, pu influenzare positivamente il loro quadro
organolettico; infatti le analisi sensoriali effettuate sui campioni ottenuti nella vendemmia
2007, i cui dati sono riportati in un precedente lavoro (Sparacio et al., 2009), evidenziano un
particolare gradimento della componente gustativa da parte del gruppo di assaggiatori.
Considerato che su questi suoli il Nero dAvola ha dato dei risultati incoraggianti, soprattutto
per quel che riguarda le caratteristiche dei vini che si possono produrre, resta da verificare
fino a quali livelli di salinit possibile riuscire a produrre a determinati livelli qualitativi
0
2
4
6
8
10
10 25 50 75 100
profondit (cm)
E
C
e

d
S

m
-
1
tesi 1
tesi 2
tesi 3
senza interferire negativamente sulla vita delle piante. In questo senso risulta di particolare
importanza lausilio dellirrigazione, da effettuare con acque dolci per lisciviare i sali che in
estate, per effetto di elevati livelli di evapotraspirazione, tendono ad aumentare la loro
concentrazione nel terreno.
RINGRAZIAMENTI
Si ringrazia la Dr.ssa Paola Catanzaro del laboratorio centrale dellIRVV per le analisi
relative alla componente minerale dei vini.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
- Chapman V., (1966). Salinity and Acidity. H. Boyko (ed.), Junk Publ. The Hague,
Netherlands, 23-42.
- Fregoni M., (1998). Viticoltura di qualit. Edizioni LInformatore Agrario
- Moolman J.H., (1983). The effect of irrigation practices in the Bree River valley on the salt
content of a small river. Irr. Sci., 4.
- Sparacio A. et al., (2009). Suoli salini e qualit del Nero dAvola. In Atti Enoforum,
Piacenza, Sive.
- Verzera A. et al. The influence of the soil salinity on the sensory characteristic and volatile
aroma compounds of the Nero dAvola wine. In corso di pubblicazione
Grafico 1 - Andamento della salinit nel suolo
Tabella 1 -Alcuni parametri analitici delle diverse tesi
Mosto Vino

Babo
Acid.
Tit.
(g/l)
pH Alcool %
Acid.
Tit.
(g/l)
Acido
Tartarico
(g/l)
Polifenoli
totali
(mg/l)
Antociani
(mg/l)
Flavonoidi
(mg/l)
Intensit
colorante
Tonalit
Test 17,0 7,0 3,13 12,0 6 3,19 1336 270 852 7,84 0,53
Med. Salino 17,5 7,1 3,03 12,5 6,7 3,61 1491 295 960 9,34 0,44
2
0
0
7

Salino 17,6 7,2 3,29 12,5 6,4 4,16 1659 329 1165 9,56 0,43
Test 16,8 7,7 3,32 11,6 5,3 3,60 1342 248 1130 7,49 0,48
Med. Salino 17,3 6,0 3,31 11,7 6,2 3,80 1309 261 1153 7,64 0,42
2
0
0
8

Salino 17,5 6,6 3,41 12,1 5,1 2,90 1622 281 1378 8,81 0,41
4 - 77
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 77 03/06/10 15:52
Grafico 2 Componente minerale dei vini
Tabella 2 - Frazione volatile dei vini delle diverse tesi (mg/L
-1
)
Esteri Alcoli Acidi Terpeni
Test 970,57 129,55 5,93 0,67
Mediamente
salino
1237,72 170,96 4,44 4,72
2
0
0
7

Salino 1295,67 184,96 4,85 2,31
Test 1213,35 242,62 10,08 4,51
Mediamente
salino
1878,55 301,82 27,63 8,77
2
0
0
8

Salino 2082,91 291,81 18,01 8,36
635
648
704
403
426
469
35 32 29 27
33
36
135
140
136129
120
142
12
13 10
10 9
14
65
71 72
79
75
64
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
m
g
/
l
SOLFATI CLORURI Mg Na Ca
Test-2007
Med. Salino-2007
Salino-2007
Test-2008
Med. Salino-2008
Salino-2008
PROPOSAL OF ZONIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
TERROIRS IN THE YALDE-NAJERILLA-URUUELA VINE
GROWING AREA (DOC RIOJA, SPAIN), BASED ON THE SOIL
INFLUENCE.
E. Garca-Escudero
1
, J. M. Martnez
1
, E. P. Prez
1
, R. Lpez
1
and I. Martn
1
1
Servicio de Investigacin y Desarrollo Tecnolgico Agroalimentario (SIDTA-CIDA)-ICVV.
Ctra. Logroo-Mendavia NA-134 Km. 90. 26071 Logroo, La Rioja. (Spain).
e-mail: sisrsuelos.cida@larioja.org, Tfno:+36-941291833
ABSTRACT
Natural Terroir Units (NTU) are being delimited in vine growing area DOCa Rioja, in
collaboration with Uruuela Cooperative, to characterized specific and singular Tempranillo
(Vitis vinifera, L.) wines. NTU selection is based on detailed cartography (1:20.000),
managed by the Soil Information System of La Rioja (SISR), and in the analysis of pedologic,
climatic, lithologic, and relief features of Najerilla Valley.
The five NTU, placed on river and torrential platforms with similar lithology of original
materials, have been selected with series of soils belong to the Alfisol, Inceptisol and Mollisol
orders. The main purpose of this project is to measure the influence produced by soil
properties of each series of soil (effective depth, water reserve, clay and carbonates
percentage, potassium and magnesium) in musts and wines of this vine growing area.
KEY-WORDS
Terroir soil Tempranillo grapevine - wine
INTRODUCTION
Terroir can be defined as an interactive ecosystem, in a given place, including climate, soil,
and the vine (rootstock and cultivar), (Seguin G.,1988; Van Leeuwen C. et al., 2006). The
effect of climate was greatest on most parameters, followed by soil and cultivar. (Van
Leeuwen et al., 2004).
As part of the characterization of wine terroirs, a proposal for the establishment of possible
relationships between natural factors, especially soil, and the physico-chemical and
organoleptic characteristics of wines made with Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera, L.) in the
Uruuela environment (La Rioja, Spain) is put forward. This municipality, with a vineyard
area of 1,200 ha, is located in the lower Najerilla riverine, whose soils are gravels, cobbles
and stones materials originating in parent silty-sand and sand matrix. The main pedogenetic
processes relate partial translocation of carbonates and clay illuviation. The surface was
modeled on the Neogene geological materials of Najera formation. Those original materials
are covered with Quaternary deposits from the river (terrace) and torrential (alluvial fan and
glacis) modeling.
The primary landforms are slopes and platforms, with altitudes ranging from 440 to 583
m.s.l., as a result of an intense water modeling.
The area is characterized by a dry Mediterranean climate, with semi-arid tendency, and a
strong daily, monthly, seasonal and annual thermal oscillation. As a unit climate can be
classified as temperate mesomediterranean (Papadakis). The average values of annual
precipitation and temperature are 436 mm and 13.2 C respectively.
4 - 78
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 78 03/06/10 15:52
Grafico 2 Componente minerale dei vini
Tabella 2 - Frazione volatile dei vini delle diverse tesi (mg/L
-1
)
Esteri Alcoli Acidi Terpeni
Test 970,57 129,55 5,93 0,67
Mediamente
salino
1237,72 170,96 4,44 4,72
2
0
0
7

Salino 1295,67 184,96 4,85 2,31
Test 1213,35 242,62 10,08 4,51
Mediamente
salino
1878,55 301,82 27,63 8,77
2
0
0
8

Salino 2082,91 291,81 18,01 8,36
635
648
704
403
426
469
35 32 29 27
33
36
135
140
136129
120
142
12
13 10
10 9
14
65
71 72
79
75
64
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
m
g
/
l
SOLFATI CLORURI Mg Na Ca
Test-2007
Med. Salino-2007
Salino-2007
Test-2008
Med. Salino-2008
Salino-2008
PROPOSAL OF ZONIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
TERROIRS IN THE YALDE-NAJERILLA-URUUELA VINE
GROWING AREA (DOC RIOJA, SPAIN), BASED ON THE SOIL
INFLUENCE.
E. Garca-Escudero
1
, J. M. Martnez
1
, E. P. Prez
1
, R. Lpez
1
and I. Martn
1
1
Servicio de Investigacin y Desarrollo Tecnolgico Agroalimentario (SIDTA-CIDA)-ICVV.
Ctra. Logroo-Mendavia NA-134 Km. 90. 26071 Logroo, La Rioja. (Spain).
e-mail: sisrsuelos.cida@larioja.org, Tfno:+36-941291833
ABSTRACT
Natural Terroir Units (NTU) are being delimited in vine growing area DOCa Rioja, in
collaboration with Uruuela Cooperative, to characterized specific and singular Tempranillo
(Vitis vinifera, L.) wines. NTU selection is based on detailed cartography (1:20.000),
managed by the Soil Information System of La Rioja (SISR), and in the analysis of pedologic,
climatic, lithologic, and relief features of Najerilla Valley.
The five NTU, placed on river and torrential platforms with similar lithology of original
materials, have been selected with series of soils belong to the Alfisol, Inceptisol and Mollisol
orders. The main purpose of this project is to measure the influence produced by soil
properties of each series of soil (effective depth, water reserve, clay and carbonates
percentage, potassium and magnesium) in musts and wines of this vine growing area.
KEY-WORDS
Terroir soil Tempranillo grapevine - wine
INTRODUCTION
Terroir can be defined as an interactive ecosystem, in a given place, including climate, soil,
and the vine (rootstock and cultivar), (Seguin G.,1988; Van Leeuwen C. et al., 2006). The
effect of climate was greatest on most parameters, followed by soil and cultivar. (Van
Leeuwen et al., 2004).
As part of the characterization of wine terroirs, a proposal for the establishment of possible
relationships between natural factors, especially soil, and the physico-chemical and
organoleptic characteristics of wines made with Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera, L.) in the
Uruuela environment (La Rioja, Spain) is put forward. This municipality, with a vineyard
area of 1,200 ha, is located in the lower Najerilla riverine, whose soils are gravels, cobbles
and stones materials originating in parent silty-sand and sand matrix. The main pedogenetic
processes relate partial translocation of carbonates and clay illuviation. The surface was
modeled on the Neogene geological materials of Najera formation. Those original materials
are covered with Quaternary deposits from the river (terrace) and torrential (alluvial fan and
glacis) modeling.
The primary landforms are slopes and platforms, with altitudes ranging from 440 to 583
m.s.l., as a result of an intense water modeling.
The area is characterized by a dry Mediterranean climate, with semi-arid tendency, and a
strong daily, monthly, seasonal and annual thermal oscillation. As a unit climate can be
classified as temperate mesomediterranean (Papadakis). The average values of annual
precipitation and temperature are 436 mm and 13.2 C respectively.
4 - 79
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 79 03/06/10 15:52
Different areas, defined as Natural Terroir Units (NTU) (Carey et al., 2008), were delimited.
The selection of NTUs was based on detailed mapping (1:20,000) which manages the Soil
Information System of La Rioja (SISR), defining for the area 29 series and 23 map units (Soil
Surface Staff, 2006). The climatic, soil, lithology and relief of the lower Najerilla riverine are
also taken into account.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Based on their distribution and importance (Fig. 1), we considered five NTUs. In each of the
NTUs three representative vineyards were chosen (Fig. 2 and Tab. 1). To reduce variability
attributable to variety for farm management factors, the study was focused on the Tempranillo
variety, grafted on Richter 110 rootstock. The vineyards were in full production, with an age
ranging from 10 to 25 years, and an average planting density 3,000 plants/ ha, with a
deviation of 200. According to the characteristics of each NTU, the vineyard was trellised in
VSP (espalier) (Royat double cordon system) or bush vines (gobelet).
Fig. 1. Soil mapping (1:20.000) of Uruuela (DOCa Rioja-Spain).
In each plot, a "sampling unit" was bounded in which all surveys and measures were
conducted. Monitored parameters were:
Vineyard nutritional status. Mineral composition (macro and micro-elements) of leaf
blades and petioles sampled at veraison. (Garca-Escudero E. et al., 2006).
Yield components, vigour indicators and vegetative-productive plant balance. At
harvest, grape yield, cluster number, average berry and cluster weight per vine were
measured. Wood pruning per vine, shoot weight and Ravaz Index were assessed at post
harvest.
Ripening process. Winemaking. To determine the optimal date of harvest, sugar
concentration (probable degree), acidity and colour components were monitored in musts
during maturation on a weekly basis. For each plot a sample or 150 kg was harvested and
then elaborated in 100 l. stainless steel vats. The alcoholic fermentation was conducted with
active dry yeasts, at room temperature. Malolactic fermentation was induced by commercial
lactic bacteria inoculation. Thus, fifteen wines were elaborated, from the experimental
vineyards (three plots per NTU), in which pH, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, potassium,
alcoholic degree, colour intensity, tonality, total phenolic index and anthocyanins were
determined. Wines were blindly tasted.
Weather data. Climatic data were measured in the close vicinity with an automatic weather
station (coordinates (zone 30) UTM X: 523,622, UTM Y: 4,701,100 and altitude: 465 m)
management by Agroclimatic Information Service of La Rioja (SIAR).
Fig. 2. Map and topographic section across of selectioned plots in the delimited NTUs
Tab.1. Soil characteristics and representative soil profiles of Natural Terroir Units (NTUs).
NTU 1 NTU 2 NTU 3 NTU 5 NTU 6
Classification (Soil
Taxonomy, 2006)
Calcic Haploxeralfs,
loamy-skeletal,
mixed, mesic
Fluventic
Haploxerepts,
loamy, mixed, mesic
Calcic Palexeralfs,
clayey, mixed,
mesic
Typic Calcixerepts,
loamy-skeletal,
carbonatic, mesic
Petrocalcic
Palexerolls, loamy-
skeletal, carbonatic,
mesic
Landscape unit
Terrace II Najerilla
river
Alluvial depth Yalde
river
Terrace III Najerilla
river
Glacis IV
Terrace IV Najerilla
river
Parent materials
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Sands, silts and
clays
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Gravels and cobbles
in sandy loam matrix
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Rock fragments (%) 40-80 5-10 15-40 15-40 40-80
Effective depth (cm) 110 150 90 115 50
Clay (%) 17-30 24-25 45-55 15 20
Carbonates (%) 3.5-5 3-7.5 40-50 45-60 55
Water availability Low Moderate-high Moderate-high Moderate-low Low
Representative soil
profile

4 - 80
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 80 03/06/10 15:52
Different areas, defined as Natural Terroir Units (NTU) (Carey et al., 2008), were delimited.
The selection of NTUs was based on detailed mapping (1:20,000) which manages the Soil
Information System of La Rioja (SISR), defining for the area 29 series and 23 map units (Soil
Surface Staff, 2006). The climatic, soil, lithology and relief of the lower Najerilla riverine are
also taken into account.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Based on their distribution and importance (Fig. 1), we considered five NTUs. In each of the
NTUs three representative vineyards were chosen (Fig. 2 and Tab. 1). To reduce variability
attributable to variety for farm management factors, the study was focused on the Tempranillo
variety, grafted on Richter 110 rootstock. The vineyards were in full production, with an age
ranging from 10 to 25 years, and an average planting density 3,000 plants/ ha, with a
deviation of 200. According to the characteristics of each NTU, the vineyard was trellised in
VSP (espalier) (Royat double cordon system) or bush vines (gobelet).
Fig. 1. Soil mapping (1:20.000) of Uruuela (DOCa Rioja-Spain).
In each plot, a "sampling unit" was bounded in which all surveys and measures were
conducted. Monitored parameters were:
Vineyard nutritional status. Mineral composition (macro and micro-elements) of leaf
blades and petioles sampled at veraison. (Garca-Escudero E. et al., 2006).
Yield components, vigour indicators and vegetative-productive plant balance. At
harvest, grape yield, cluster number, average berry and cluster weight per vine were
measured. Wood pruning per vine, shoot weight and Ravaz Index were assessed at post
harvest.
Ripening process. Winemaking. To determine the optimal date of harvest, sugar
concentration (probable degree), acidity and colour components were monitored in musts
during maturation on a weekly basis. For each plot a sample or 150 kg was harvested and
then elaborated in 100 l. stainless steel vats. The alcoholic fermentation was conducted with
active dry yeasts, at room temperature. Malolactic fermentation was induced by commercial
lactic bacteria inoculation. Thus, fifteen wines were elaborated, from the experimental
vineyards (three plots per NTU), in which pH, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, potassium,
alcoholic degree, colour intensity, tonality, total phenolic index and anthocyanins were
determined. Wines were blindly tasted.
Weather data. Climatic data were measured in the close vicinity with an automatic weather
station (coordinates (zone 30) UTM X: 523,622, UTM Y: 4,701,100 and altitude: 465 m)
management by Agroclimatic Information Service of La Rioja (SIAR).
Fig. 2. Map and topographic section across of selectioned plots in the delimited NTUs
Tab.1. Soil characteristics and representative soil profiles of Natural Terroir Units (NTUs).
NTU 1 NTU 2 NTU 3 NTU 5 NTU 6
Classification (Soil
Taxonomy, 2006)
Calcic Haploxeralfs,
loamy-skeletal,
mixed, mesic
Fluventic
Haploxerepts,
loamy, mixed, mesic
Calcic Palexeralfs,
clayey, mixed,
mesic
Typic Calcixerepts,
loamy-skeletal,
carbonatic, mesic
Petrocalcic
Palexerolls, loamy-
skeletal, carbonatic,
mesic
Landscape unit
Terrace II Najerilla
river
Alluvial depth Yalde
river
Terrace III Najerilla
river
Glacis IV
Terrace IV Najerilla
river
Parent materials
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Sands, silts and
clays
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Gravels and cobbles
in sandy loam matrix
Gravels and cobbles
in sand matrix
Rock fragments (%) 40-80 5-10 15-40 15-40 40-80
Effective depth (cm) 110 150 90 115 50
Clay (%) 17-30 24-25 45-55 15 20
Carbonates (%) 3.5-5 3-7.5 40-50 45-60 55
Water availability Low Moderate-high Moderate-high Moderate-low Low
Representative soil
profile

4 - 81
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 81 03/06/10 15:52
Statistical analysis. Treatment effects on measured variables were tested using ANOVA
(univariate linear model), and comparisons among treatment means were made using the
Tukeys test calculated at p < 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
We present 2009 campaign results respect to mineral composition of leaves (Tab. 2), yield
components (Tab. 3), physical-chemical parameters of wines produced (Tab. 4 and Tab. 5). In
a preliminary assessment, the results show clear differences for the NTU 2. This NTU,
corresponds to a Yalde river flood plain, with high soil fertility and elevate effective depth,
presented the highest values of yield and vigour. Also, the physical-chemical analysis of
wines in the NTU 2 reached the lowest alcoholic degree and colour parameters (anthocyanins,
colour intensity and total polyphenols). Components of the acidity in NTU 2 wine showed the
lowest tartaric acid and the highest potassium concentrations, which contributed to the
increase of wine pH. In NTU 2 must, potassium highest levels were observed, this was in
accordance with the potassium concentration in both leaf blade and petiole. In the blind
tasting panel the NTU 2 wine had the lowest score (data not shown).
Tab. 2. Principal mineral composition of leaf blades and petioles (% dry matter), at veraison. Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in leaf analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
Tab. 3. Yield components. Vigour parameters. Uruuela 2009.

Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05) in yield components data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test
Tab. 4. Analytic composition of wines. Alcoholic degree and colour parameters. Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in wine analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
Leaf
tissue
NTU N P K Ca Mg
1 2.15 ab 0.15 0.66 b 2.82 0.31
2 2.47 a 0.19 1.02 a 3.23 0.28
3 2.08 ab 0.16 0.68 b 3.11 0.38
5 2.18 ab 0.21 0.56 b 2.96 0.33
Leaf
blade
6 2.04 b 0.15 0.60 b 3.24 0.32
1 0.46 0.16 0.65 b 1.66 0.66
2 0.52 0.22 1.90 a 1.89 0.53
3 0.43 0.14 0.65 b 1.64 0.76
5 0.46 0.25 0.57 b 1.97 0.74
Petiole
6 0.42 0.20 0.64 b 2.27 0.77
NTU
Weight
shoot (g)
Weight
bunch (kg)
Weight of 100
berries (g)
Grape yield
(kg/vine)
Weight of pruning wood
(WPW) (kg wood/vine)
Ravaz
index
1 73.1 0.367 235.6 4.1 0.79 ab 4.61
2 104.9 0.486 257.6 6.05 1.11 a 5.43
3 85.3 0.414 246.1 5.25 0.95 ab 5.65
5 81.8 0.374 235.3 4.91 0.78 ab 6.31
6 59.9 0.340 216.3 4.93 0.60 b 8.61
NTU
Alcoholic
degree
Colour
intensity
Tonality
Total phenolic
index (280 nm)
Anthocyanins
(mg/l)
1 12.7 8.30 ab 0.600 ab 53.9 717.0
2 12.6 6.01 b 0.672 a 45.0 656.0
3 12.9 8.02 ab 0.567 ab 52.0 737.9
5 12.5 11.5 a 0.502 b 58.0 890.2
6 13.1 10.9 a 0.518 b 58.8 786.7
Tab. 5. Analytic composition of wines. Acidity parameters.Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in wine analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
CONCLUSIONS
In Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyards of Uruuela municipality (La Rioja region), we
can define five Natural Terroir Units (NTUs), based on detailed cartography and in the
pedologic, climatic, lithologic, and relief characteristics, with a different soil type in each
NTU. This terroir survey, carried out during 2009 season, with three homogeneous and
representative vineyard plots of each soil type, revealed some different between NTUs in the
vine and wine parameters monitored. However, more experiments seasons are require to can
discuss the terroir effect on vine development and wine typicity in this area.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This survey is based on research (P.R.12.09) that was financially supported by Consejera
de Agricultura, Ganadera y Desarrollo Rural, La Rioja Government.
We thank Bodegas Patrocinio, Uruuela, for providing the experimental vineyards and
collaborate in the study.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Carey V., Saayman D., Archer E., Barbeau G. and Wallace M., 2008. Viticultural terroirs in
Stellenbosch, South Africa. I. The identification of natural terroir units. Journal
International Science Vigne Vin, n 4: 169-183.
Garca-Escudero E., Lorenzo I., Romero I., Garca C., Villar M.T., Lpez D., Ibez S.,
Martn I., 2006. Niveles de referencia en base a calidad para el diagnstico foliar en el
mbito de la D.O.Ca. Rioja. Nutricin mineral: aspectos fisiolgicos, agronmicos y
ambientales. XI Simposio ibrico sobre nutricin mineral de las plantas, n 2: 335-342.
Seguin G., 1988. Ecosystems of the great red wines produced in the maritime climate of
Bordeaus. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Maritime Climate Winegrowing. L.
Fuller-Perrine, Eds. Edition. Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University,
Geneva, N.Y., n: 36-53.
Soil Survey Staff Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
2006. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Tenth Edition. Blacksburg, Virginia: Pocahontas Press, Inc.
Van Leeuwen C., Friant P., Chon X., Tregoat O., Koundouras S., Dubourdieu D., 2004.
Influence of climate, soil, and cultivar on terroir. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture, n 55.3: 207-217.
Van Leeuwen C., Seguin G., 2006. The concept of terroir in viticulture. Journal Wine
Research, n 17.1: 1-10.
NTU pH
Titratable acidity
(g/l tartaric acid)
Tartaric
acid (g/l)
Potassium
(mg/l)
1 3.72 ab 5.28 2.11 ab 1244.8 ab
2 3.90 a 4.71 1.74 b 1427.9 a
3 3.67 ab 5.55 2.31 ab 1216.8 ab
5 3.57 b 5.55 2.78 a 1098.2 b
6 3.68 ab 5.32 2.60 ab 1226.8 ab
4 - 82
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 82 03/06/10 15:52
Statistical analysis. Treatment effects on measured variables were tested using ANOVA
(univariate linear model), and comparisons among treatment means were made using the
Tukeys test calculated at p < 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
We present 2009 campaign results respect to mineral composition of leaves (Tab. 2), yield
components (Tab. 3), physical-chemical parameters of wines produced (Tab. 4 and Tab. 5). In
a preliminary assessment, the results show clear differences for the NTU 2. This NTU,
corresponds to a Yalde river flood plain, with high soil fertility and elevate effective depth,
presented the highest values of yield and vigour. Also, the physical-chemical analysis of
wines in the NTU 2 reached the lowest alcoholic degree and colour parameters (anthocyanins,
colour intensity and total polyphenols). Components of the acidity in NTU 2 wine showed the
lowest tartaric acid and the highest potassium concentrations, which contributed to the
increase of wine pH. In NTU 2 must, potassium highest levels were observed, this was in
accordance with the potassium concentration in both leaf blade and petiole. In the blind
tasting panel the NTU 2 wine had the lowest score (data not shown).
Tab. 2. Principal mineral composition of leaf blades and petioles (% dry matter), at veraison. Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in leaf analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
Tab. 3. Yield components. Vigour parameters. Uruuela 2009.

Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05) in yield components data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test
Tab. 4. Analytic composition of wines. Alcoholic degree and colour parameters. Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in wine analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
Leaf
tissue
NTU N P K Ca Mg
1 2.15 ab 0.15 0.66 b 2.82 0.31
2 2.47 a 0.19 1.02 a 3.23 0.28
3 2.08 ab 0.16 0.68 b 3.11 0.38
5 2.18 ab 0.21 0.56 b 2.96 0.33
Leaf
blade
6 2.04 b 0.15 0.60 b 3.24 0.32
1 0.46 0.16 0.65 b 1.66 0.66
2 0.52 0.22 1.90 a 1.89 0.53
3 0.43 0.14 0.65 b 1.64 0.76
5 0.46 0.25 0.57 b 1.97 0.74
Petiole
6 0.42 0.20 0.64 b 2.27 0.77
NTU
Weight
shoot (g)
Weight
bunch (kg)
Weight of 100
berries (g)
Grape yield
(kg/vine)
Weight of pruning wood
(WPW) (kg wood/vine)
Ravaz
index
1 73.1 0.367 235.6 4.1 0.79 ab 4.61
2 104.9 0.486 257.6 6.05 1.11 a 5.43
3 85.3 0.414 246.1 5.25 0.95 ab 5.65
5 81.8 0.374 235.3 4.91 0.78 ab 6.31
6 59.9 0.340 216.3 4.93 0.60 b 8.61
NTU
Alcoholic
degree
Colour
intensity
Tonality
Total phenolic
index (280 nm)
Anthocyanins
(mg/l)
1 12.7 8.30 ab 0.600 ab 53.9 717.0
2 12.6 6.01 b 0.672 a 45.0 656.0
3 12.9 8.02 ab 0.567 ab 52.0 737.9
5 12.5 11.5 a 0.502 b 58.0 890.2
6 13.1 10.9 a 0.518 b 58.8 786.7
Tab. 5. Analytic composition of wines. Acidity parameters.Uruuela 2009.
Different letters in same column indicate significant differences (p<0.05)
in wine analysis data between NTUs, applying Tukeys test.
CONCLUSIONS
In Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyards of Uruuela municipality (La Rioja region), we
can define five Natural Terroir Units (NTUs), based on detailed cartography and in the
pedologic, climatic, lithologic, and relief characteristics, with a different soil type in each
NTU. This terroir survey, carried out during 2009 season, with three homogeneous and
representative vineyard plots of each soil type, revealed some different between NTUs in the
vine and wine parameters monitored. However, more experiments seasons are require to can
discuss the terroir effect on vine development and wine typicity in this area.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This survey is based on research (P.R.12.09) that was financially supported by Consejera
de Agricultura, Ganadera y Desarrollo Rural, La Rioja Government.
We thank Bodegas Patrocinio, Uruuela, for providing the experimental vineyards and
collaborate in the study.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Carey V., Saayman D., Archer E., Barbeau G. and Wallace M., 2008. Viticultural terroirs in
Stellenbosch, South Africa. I. The identification of natural terroir units. Journal
International Science Vigne Vin, n 4: 169-183.
Garca-Escudero E., Lorenzo I., Romero I., Garca C., Villar M.T., Lpez D., Ibez S.,
Martn I., 2006. Niveles de referencia en base a calidad para el diagnstico foliar en el
mbito de la D.O.Ca. Rioja. Nutricin mineral: aspectos fisiolgicos, agronmicos y
ambientales. XI Simposio ibrico sobre nutricin mineral de las plantas, n 2: 335-342.
Seguin G., 1988. Ecosystems of the great red wines produced in the maritime climate of
Bordeaus. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Maritime Climate Winegrowing. L.
Fuller-Perrine, Eds. Edition. Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University,
Geneva, N.Y., n: 36-53.
Soil Survey Staff Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
2006. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Tenth Edition. Blacksburg, Virginia: Pocahontas Press, Inc.
Van Leeuwen C., Friant P., Chon X., Tregoat O., Koundouras S., Dubourdieu D., 2004.
Influence of climate, soil, and cultivar on terroir. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture, n 55.3: 207-217.
Van Leeuwen C., Seguin G., 2006. The concept of terroir in viticulture. Journal Wine
Research, n 17.1: 1-10.
NTU pH
Titratable acidity
(g/l tartaric acid)
Tartaric
acid (g/l)
Potassium
(mg/l)
1 3.72 ab 5.28 2.11 ab 1244.8 ab
2 3.90 a 4.71 1.74 b 1427.9 a
3 3.67 ab 5.55 2.31 ab 1216.8 ab
5 3.57 b 5.55 2.78 a 1098.2 b
6 3.68 ab 5.32 2.60 ab 1226.8 ab
4 - 83
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 83 03/06/10 15:52
VALIDATION OF THE VITICULTURE ZONING METHODOLOGY
APPLIED TO DETERMINE THE HOMOGENOUS SOIL UNITS
PRESENT ON D.O. RIBERA DEL DUERO REGION
*
Gonzlez-SanJos ML
(1)
, Gmez-Miguel V
(2)
, Rivero-Prez MD
(1)
, Mihnea M
(1)
y
Velasco-Lpez T
(1)
(1)
Department of Biotechnology and Food Science. University of Burgos.
Plaza Misael Bauelos s/n, 09001 Burgos, Spain.
marglez@ubu.es. * Author to whom correspondence should be sent.
(2)
Dpto Edafologa. Escuela Tcnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrnomos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid,
28040 Madrid, Spain.
vicente.gomez@upm.es
ABSTRACT
The methodology to viticulture zoning developed and proposed by Gmez-Miguel and
Sots (1992) has been studied in order to validate it. This was the main aim of this work,
which shows only partial results because data from more vintages will be collected during the
next vintages.
The proposed validation is based on the comparison of quality levels of the viticulture
products (grapes) grown in different Homogeneous Soil Units (HSU) but classified as the
same level of quality. HSUs classified as optimum in Ribera del Duero Denomination of
Origin (D.O.) region were chosen for this validation study. The three more important
Optimum Units were selected. They represented around of 50% of the global surface of
vineyards on the Ribera del Duero viticulture D.O. zone. Five different vineyards in each
Unit were chosen. Trying to select the most similar vineyards to reduce variability factors,
other selection criteria applied were grape variety, clone, rootstocks, age, training systems and
cultural practices.
Three grape samples were collected around of each selected vineyards at the Technological
maturity stage of the grapes. Different oenological quality parameters were analysed on the
collected grapes. After the statistical treatment of the whole analytical data, obtained from
grapes collected during two consecutive vintages, some significant results can be pointed out.
Among them, it is interesting to note that, in general, variability due to vintage was stronger
than that due to the HSU. In a similar way, variability due to vineyards was also significant,
and in general, it was bigger than variability due to Units. Furthermore, the whole data
showed similar levels of quality after comparing grapes from each HSU studied.
These results seem to validate the proposed methodology. That is, the methodology is valid
to determine HSU which can produce grape of a similar quality, and then it can be applied to
the correct or appropriate use of the agriculture medium.
KEYWORD
Viticulture zoning methodology validation grape quality
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, it is undisputable the relationships among soil, climate, landscape and other
factors of the agriculture medium, with the characteristics of the wine grapes as composition,
colour, astringency, and so on. In fact, a lot researcher groups all over the world have been
studying these influences and relationships for decades. To sum up all the precedent studies,
now it is totally accepted that the interaction terroir-vine-viticulture is the base to obtain
quality grapes from which make quality wine. Furthermore, this multiple interaction is the
base to obtain wines with personality and with particularly expression of the medium in which
grapes grown.
During the last 90s, Gmez-Miguel and Sots developed and proposed a methodology to
viticulture zoning (Sots y Gmes-Miguel, 1992; Gmez-Miguel and Sots, 2003). This
methodology has been applied in the most significant and important Spanish Viticultural and
Oenological Denomination of Origin (D.O.) regions, such as Ribera del Duero, Rioja, Toro,
among others. Cited authors indicated this methodology is useful to determine Homogeneous
Soil Units (HSU) even if these co-exit in the same vineyard. So, cited authors said that this
methodology is an appropriate method to the correct ordering and exploitation of the medium
according to its viticulture and oenological use.
The validation of this methodology has not been carried out completely yet, and this is the
main aim of this works. The proposed validation is based on the comparison of quality levels
of the viticulture products (grapes) grown in different HSU classified as the same level of
quality. The study is being carried out in vineyards of Ribera del Duero D.O. region. HSUs,
classified as optimum, were chosen for this validation study. The three more important
Optimum Units were selected. They represented around of 50% of the global surface of
vineyards in the Ribera del Duero D.O. region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The three more important and extensive HSUs selected for this study were defined from
the zoning study of Ribera del Duero Denomination of Origin carried out by Sots and
Gmez-Miguel (1992). They were the Units 6, 11 and 14. For more information about this
Units consult (Gonzlez-Sanjos et al., 2008). As it is described in the previous cited work,
five different vineyards in each Unit were chosen. Trying to select the most similar vineyards
to reduce variability factors, other selection criteria applied were grape variety, clone,
rootstocks, age, training systems and other cultural practices
Three grape samples were collected, around each selected vineyard, at the Technological
maturity stage of the grapes, which are correlated with adequate levels of sugar, acidity,
phenolic content (nowadays named phenolic maturity), so that good sanitary stages and even
with good levels of aroma precursor compounds (Gonzlez-Sanjos et al. 1991). The
harvesting periods were around the middle of October, and in general time between the first
and the last sampling was around two weeks. Depending on the vintage, time sampling
difference was large, 16 days in the first vintages, or short, tree days in the second one.
Three lots of 25 Kg of grapes were picked up from each selected vineyard. One cluster by
vine was taken, and sampled vines were randomly chosen with a Z distribution around the
vineyard. Grapes were transported in plastic boxes to the laboratory as soon as possible after
their collection. From each sampled lot, groups of single grapes were obtained separating
manually two o three grapes of each cluster. Then, three groups of 100 single grapes were
randomly formed and they were used to analyse the composition of the grapes. Grapes were
manually peeled, skins were used to evaluate phenolic composition, pulps were pressed to
obtain the respective must where parameters related to sugars and acidity were measured.
Titrable acidity (TA) expressed as g/L of tartaric acid, pH, conductivity (Cnd), K and Cl
measurements so as reducing sugars (RS) were determined according to OIV methods (1990).
Brix was evaluated by direct measured on refractometer. Malic Acid content was evaluated
by enzymatic methodology. Phenolic extracts were obtained by maceration of skins with
4 - 84
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 84 03/06/10 15:52
VALIDATION OF THE VITICULTURE ZONING METHODOLOGY
APPLIED TO DETERMINE THE HOMOGENOUS SOIL UNITS
PRESENT ON D.O. RIBERA DEL DUERO REGION
*
Gonzlez-SanJos ML
(1)
, Gmez-Miguel V
(2)
, Rivero-Prez MD
(1)
, Mihnea M
(1)
y
Velasco-Lpez T
(1)
(1)
Department of Biotechnology and Food Science. University of Burgos.
Plaza Misael Bauelos s/n, 09001 Burgos, Spain.
marglez@ubu.es. * Author to whom correspondence should be sent.
(2)
Dpto Edafologa. Escuela Tcnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrnomos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid,
28040 Madrid, Spain.
vicente.gomez@upm.es
ABSTRACT
The methodology to viticulture zoning developed and proposed by Gmez-Miguel and
Sots (1992) has been studied in order to validate it. This was the main aim of this work,
which shows only partial results because data from more vintages will be collected during the
next vintages.
The proposed validation is based on the comparison of quality levels of the viticulture
products (grapes) grown in different Homogeneous Soil Units (HSU) but classified as the
same level of quality. HSUs classified as optimum in Ribera del Duero Denomination of
Origin (D.O.) region were chosen for this validation study. The three more important
Optimum Units were selected. They represented around of 50% of the global surface of
vineyards on the Ribera del Duero viticulture D.O. zone. Five different vineyards in each
Unit were chosen. Trying to select the most similar vineyards to reduce variability factors,
other selection criteria applied were grape variety, clone, rootstocks, age, training systems and
cultural practices.
Three grape samples were collected around of each selected vineyards at the Technological
maturity stage of the grapes. Different oenological quality parameters were analysed on the
collected grapes. After the statistical treatment of the whole analytical data, obtained from
grapes collected during two consecutive vintages, some significant results can be pointed out.
Among them, it is interesting to note that, in general, variability due to vintage was stronger
than that due to the HSU. In a similar way, variability due to vineyards was also significant,
and in general, it was bigger than variability due to Units. Furthermore, the whole data
showed similar levels of quality after comparing grapes from each HSU studied.
These results seem to validate the proposed methodology. That is, the methodology is valid
to determine HSU which can produce grape of a similar quality, and then it can be applied to
the correct or appropriate use of the agriculture medium.
KEYWORD
Viticulture zoning methodology validation grape quality
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, it is undisputable the relationships among soil, climate, landscape and other
factors of the agriculture medium, with the characteristics of the wine grapes as composition,
colour, astringency, and so on. In fact, a lot researcher groups all over the world have been
studying these influences and relationships for decades. To sum up all the precedent studies,
now it is totally accepted that the interaction terroir-vine-viticulture is the base to obtain
quality grapes from which make quality wine. Furthermore, this multiple interaction is the
base to obtain wines with personality and with particularly expression of the medium in which
grapes grown.
During the last 90s, Gmez-Miguel and Sots developed and proposed a methodology to
viticulture zoning (Sots y Gmes-Miguel, 1992; Gmez-Miguel and Sots, 2003). This
methodology has been applied in the most significant and important Spanish Viticultural and
Oenological Denomination of Origin (D.O.) regions, such as Ribera del Duero, Rioja, Toro,
among others. Cited authors indicated this methodology is useful to determine Homogeneous
Soil Units (HSU) even if these co-exit in the same vineyard. So, cited authors said that this
methodology is an appropriate method to the correct ordering and exploitation of the medium
according to its viticulture and oenological use.
The validation of this methodology has not been carried out completely yet, and this is the
main aim of this works. The proposed validation is based on the comparison of quality levels
of the viticulture products (grapes) grown in different HSU classified as the same level of
quality. The study is being carried out in vineyards of Ribera del Duero D.O. region. HSUs,
classified as optimum, were chosen for this validation study. The three more important
Optimum Units were selected. They represented around of 50% of the global surface of
vineyards in the Ribera del Duero D.O. region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The three more important and extensive HSUs selected for this study were defined from
the zoning study of Ribera del Duero Denomination of Origin carried out by Sots and
Gmez-Miguel (1992). They were the Units 6, 11 and 14. For more information about this
Units consult (Gonzlez-Sanjos et al., 2008). As it is described in the previous cited work,
five different vineyards in each Unit were chosen. Trying to select the most similar vineyards
to reduce variability factors, other selection criteria applied were grape variety, clone,
rootstocks, age, training systems and other cultural practices
Three grape samples were collected, around each selected vineyard, at the Technological
maturity stage of the grapes, which are correlated with adequate levels of sugar, acidity,
phenolic content (nowadays named phenolic maturity), so that good sanitary stages and even
with good levels of aroma precursor compounds (Gonzlez-Sanjos et al. 1991). The
harvesting periods were around the middle of October, and in general time between the first
and the last sampling was around two weeks. Depending on the vintage, time sampling
difference was large, 16 days in the first vintages, or short, tree days in the second one.
Three lots of 25 Kg of grapes were picked up from each selected vineyard. One cluster by
vine was taken, and sampled vines were randomly chosen with a Z distribution around the
vineyard. Grapes were transported in plastic boxes to the laboratory as soon as possible after
their collection. From each sampled lot, groups of single grapes were obtained separating
manually two o three grapes of each cluster. Then, three groups of 100 single grapes were
randomly formed and they were used to analyse the composition of the grapes. Grapes were
manually peeled, skins were used to evaluate phenolic composition, pulps were pressed to
obtain the respective must where parameters related to sugars and acidity were measured.
Titrable acidity (TA) expressed as g/L of tartaric acid, pH, conductivity (Cnd), K and Cl
measurements so as reducing sugars (RS) were determined according to OIV methods (1990).
Brix was evaluated by direct measured on refractometer. Malic Acid content was evaluated
by enzymatic methodology. Phenolic extracts were obtained by maceration of skins with
4 - 85
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 85 03/06/10 15:52
methanol acidulate with formic acid, according to the procedure described by Izcara and
Gonzlez-Sanjos, (2001). Global phenolic content (total polyphenols, TP, expressed as mg/L
of gallic acid), so as some phenolic families (total anthocyanins, ACYpH, expressed as mg/L
of malvidin-3-glucoside, and catechins (CAT) quantified as mg/L of D-catechin) were
evaluated by classical spectrophotometric methodologies, all of them described in Garca-
Barcelo (1990). Furthermore, total phenolic-tartaric-ester contents (E-TH2) were analysed
according to Mazza et al., (1999) and Total Flavonol levels (FLA Neu) by Neu reactions. The
Glories colour parameters, colour intensity (CIntensity), tonality (To) and percentage of red,
yellow (Ye) and Blue were measured on methanol extract of the skins.
The analysis of the variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significant Difference test (LSD)
were used to detect differences and to establish which data could be considered statistically
different. A significance level of = 0.05 was used. Multivariante analysis were also applied,
Factorial Analysis were applied to the global analysis of the data. All statistical analyses were
carried out using the statistics package Statgraphics Plus 4.0 (1999, Manugistics Inc.).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Firstly to comment the obtained results, authors want to note that this paper present partial
results (from two vintages) which will be completed and corroborated, with data from new
vintages. Secondly, it is important to comment that the climatology on the viticultural region
under study was very unfortunate in different aspect during the year under study. So, the
meteorology of the first year was very adverse, affecting notably to the development of
clusters and grapes so as the ripening process. Important Spring frost, strong hails during
May, so as a warm summer, not hot enough, caused that some of the selected vineyards did
not show the best conditions to produce adequate quality grapes. According to these
comments, even if grapes were harvested from the 15 vineyards under study only data from
11 of them will be showed and commented in this work. Only data from grapes with an
adequate level of technological quality will be considered. During the second vintage
meteorology was loss adverse, however a strong hail storm during spring and a frost at the
beginning of the autumn, damaged largely two of the vineyards selected for this study. For
that reason, at in the first year of study, even if samples were collected from the 15 selected
vineyards, only data from 13 of them have been included in this study.
The diverse factors of variability on the composition of the grapes are well known. Some of
them are: the intra vineyard variability, due to own metabolism of each vine and cluster; the
inter variability due to vineyards even if these are close, due to soil units, cultural practice and
so on and the inter variability due to the vintages, especially associate to climatic conditions.
The experimental design applied in this study try to consider all of them. So, the three lots
collected around each selected vineyard try to collect the intra-vineyard-variability and the
five vineyards selected form each HSU try to collect the inter-vineyard-variability. Obviously
the extension of this study to different vinatge tries to collect also the inter-annual-variability.
The two last types of variability are showed in figure 1, which showed, as example, the results
from two of the parameters studied. Similar results were observed in the other studied
oenological characteristics.
The results showed large variability due to vineyards, but this was also dependent on the
year or vintage. So, the inter-vineyards variability can be very important (large vertical lines)
or insignificant (short vertical lines).
Global results also showed a clear effect of the year, as it can be observed in the figure 2.
Factorial Component Analysis showed how data of the grapes from each vintage were well
separated on the left and the right of the figure, respectively. The multivariante analysis also
showed the intra-vineyards variability of the vineyards, which is showed by the dispersion of
the points. Very close points correspond with grape-lots from the vineyards with a small intra-
variability and disperse points correspond with vineyards with a large intra-variability.
Figure 1. Scatter-plots of Variance Components Analysis. Solid horizontal lines are drawn
at the means of the data for each factor level (HTU). Points are drawn at the average values
for each vineyard of each HTU, vertical lines indicate the difference among means of each
vineyard and the means of its respective HTU.
Figure 2. Distribution, on the plane defined by the two main Factor Components, of the
grapes from each lot analysed on the two studied vintages. Each point is the score of each lot
after a multi-data analyse. Point on the left/right: grapes from 1
st
and 2
nd
vintage respectively.
Fir s t Component
S
e
c
o
n
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 - 4 - 5
5
4
3
2
1
0
- 1
- 2
- 3
- 4
UHT
6
11
14
20 0 8
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 1 4
9
1 1
1 3
1 5
1 7
1 9
2 1
20 0 8
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 1 4
3 , 7
5 , 7
7 , 7
9 , 7
1 1 ,7
2 0 07
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 14
4 , 4
5 , 4
6 , 4
7 , 4
8 , 4
9 , 4
1 s t vi n t a g e 2 n d v i n t a g e
T
r
i
t
u
l
a
b
l
e
A
c
i
d
i
t
y
2 0 07
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 14
0 , 9
1 , 2
1 , 5
1 , 8
2 , 1
2 , 4
C
o
l
o
u
r
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
H S U H S U
20 0 8
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 1 4
9
1 1
1 3
1 5
1 7
1 9
2 1
20 0 8
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 1 4
3 , 7
5 , 7
7 , 7
9 , 7
1 1 ,7
2 0 07
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 14
4 , 4
5 , 4
6 , 4
7 , 4
8 , 4
9 , 4
1 s t vi n t a g e 2 n d v i n t a g e
T
r
i
t
u
l
a
b
l
e
A
c
i
d
i
t
y
2 0 07
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 14
0 , 9
1 , 2
1 , 5
1 , 8
2 , 1
2 , 4
C
o
l
o
u
r
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
H S U H S U
4 - 86
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 86 03/06/10 15:52
methanol acidulate with formic acid, according to the procedure described by Izcara and
Gonzlez-Sanjos, (2001). Global phenolic content (total polyphenols, TP, expressed as mg/L
of gallic acid), so as some phenolic families (total anthocyanins, ACYpH, expressed as mg/L
of malvidin-3-glucoside, and catechins (CAT) quantified as mg/L of D-catechin) were
evaluated by classical spectrophotometric methodologies, all of them described in Garca-
Barcelo (1990). Furthermore, total phenolic-tartaric-ester contents (E-TH2) were analysed
according to Mazza et al., (1999) and Total Flavonol levels (FLA Neu) by Neu reactions. The
Glories colour parameters, colour intensity (CIntensity), tonality (To) and percentage of red,
yellow (Ye) and Blue were measured on methanol extract of the skins.
The analysis of the variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significant Difference test (LSD)
were used to detect differences and to establish which data could be considered statistically
different. A significance level of = 0.05 was used. Multivariante analysis were also applied,
Factorial Analysis were applied to the global analysis of the data. All statistical analyses were
carried out using the statistics package Statgraphics Plus 4.0 (1999, Manugistics Inc.).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Firstly to comment the obtained results, authors want to note that this paper present partial
results (from two vintages) which will be completed and corroborated, with data from new
vintages. Secondly, it is important to comment that the climatology on the viticultural region
under study was very unfortunate in different aspect during the year under study. So, the
meteorology of the first year was very adverse, affecting notably to the development of
clusters and grapes so as the ripening process. Important Spring frost, strong hails during
May, so as a warm summer, not hot enough, caused that some of the selected vineyards did
not show the best conditions to produce adequate quality grapes. According to these
comments, even if grapes were harvested from the 15 vineyards under study only data from
11 of them will be showed and commented in this work. Only data from grapes with an
adequate level of technological quality will be considered. During the second vintage
meteorology was loss adverse, however a strong hail storm during spring and a frost at the
beginning of the autumn, damaged largely two of the vineyards selected for this study. For
that reason, at in the first year of study, even if samples were collected from the 15 selected
vineyards, only data from 13 of them have been included in this study.
The diverse factors of variability on the composition of the grapes are well known. Some of
them are: the intra vineyard variability, due to own metabolism of each vine and cluster; the
inter variability due to vineyards even if these are close, due to soil units, cultural practice and
so on and the inter variability due to the vintages, especially associate to climatic conditions.
The experimental design applied in this study try to consider all of them. So, the three lots
collected around each selected vineyard try to collect the intra-vineyard-variability and the
five vineyards selected form each HSU try to collect the inter-vineyard-variability. Obviously
the extension of this study to different vinatge tries to collect also the inter-annual-variability.
The two last types of variability are showed in figure 1, which showed, as example, the results
from two of the parameters studied. Similar results were observed in the other studied
oenological characteristics.
The results showed large variability due to vineyards, but this was also dependent on the
year or vintage. So, the inter-vineyards variability can be very important (large vertical lines)
or insignificant (short vertical lines).
Global results also showed a clear effect of the year, as it can be observed in the figure 2.
Factorial Component Analysis showed how data of the grapes from each vintage were well
separated on the left and the right of the figure, respectively. The multivariante analysis also
showed the intra-vineyards variability of the vineyards, which is showed by the dispersion of
the points. Very close points correspond with grape-lots from the vineyards with a small intra-
variability and disperse points correspond with vineyards with a large intra-variability.
Figure 1. Scatter-plots of Variance Components Analysis. Solid horizontal lines are drawn
at the means of the data for each factor level (HTU). Points are drawn at the average values
for each vineyard of each HTU, vertical lines indicate the difference among means of each
vineyard and the means of its respective HTU.
Figure 2. Distribution, on the plane defined by the two main Factor Components, of the
grapes from each lot analysed on the two studied vintages. Each point is the score of each lot
after a multi-data analyse. Point on the left/right: grapes from 1
st
and 2
nd
vintage respectively.
Fir s t Component
S
e
c
o
n
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 - 4 - 5
5
4
3
2
1
0
- 1
- 2
- 3
- 4
UHT
6
11
14
20 0 8
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 1 4
9
1 1
1 3
1 5
1 7
1 9
2 1
20 0 8
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 1 4
3 , 7
5 , 7
7 , 7
9 , 7
1 1 ,7
2 0 07
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 14
4 , 4
5 , 4
6 , 4
7 , 4
8 , 4
9 , 4
1 s t vi n t a g e 2 n d v i n t a g e
T
r
i
t
u
l
a
b
l
e
A
c
i
d
i
t
y
2 0 07
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 14
0 , 9
1 , 2
1 , 5
1 , 8
2 , 1
2 , 4
C
o
l
o
u
r
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
H S U H S U
20 0 8
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 1 4
9
1 1
1 3
1 5
1 7
1 9
2 1
20 0 8
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 1 4
3 , 7
5 , 7
7 , 7
9 , 7
1 1 ,7
2 0 07
U HT
A
c
i
d
e
z

t
o
t
a
l
6 11 14
4 , 4
5 , 4
6 , 4
7 , 4
8 , 4
9 , 4
1 s t vi n t a g e 2 n d v i n t a g e
T
r
i
t
u
l
a
b
l
e
A
c
i
d
i
t
y
2 0 07
U HT
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
d
a
d
6 11 14
0 , 9
1 , 2
1 , 5
1 , 8
2 , 1
2 , 4
C
o
l
o
u
r
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
H S U H S U
4 - 87
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 87 03/06/10 15:52
Vintage 1rst 2nd
UHT 6 11 14 6 11 14
SR (g/L) 228,8 7 a 226,9 17,9 a 226,7 6,6 a 216,3 13,7 a 220,7 11,3 a 225,3 19,9 a
Brix 22,2 1,1 b 22,2 1,9 b 24,4 0,4 a 22,4 1,1 a 23,2 1,2 a 22,9 1 a
Malic (g/L) 4,4 1 a 3,7 1 ab 2,9 0,8 b 5,5 1,3 a 3,9 0,5 b 4,2 0,8 b
pH 3,29 0,19 b 3,3 0,15 b 3,5 0,06 a 3,57 0,26 a 3,5 0,1 a 3,64 0,27 a
TA (g/L) 7,18 1,4 a 6,96 1,39 a 5,01 0,5 b 7,01 2,03 a 6,16 0,41 ab 5,18 1,33 b
Cnd (mS) 2,22 0,24 a 2,08 0,22 a 2,13 0,15 a 2,44 0,18 a 2,22 0,28 b 2,37 0,25 ab
K (mg/L) 1353 178 ab 1229 67 b 1386 225 a 1642 176 a 1452 84 b 1621 281 a
Cl (mg/L) 18,5 4,7 a 17,2 5,9 a 19,2 4,3 a 40,5 17,5 a 36,5 12,9 a 39 18,5 a
TP (mg/L) 1678 217 b 1734 266 b 2104 227 a 1857 461 a 1760 290 a 1863 237 a
CAT (mg/L) 316 66 c 383 54 b 496 110 a 516 69 a 440 163 a 495 98 a
ACY pH
(mg/L) 1100 85 a 1076 179 a 1100, 57 a 964 88 a 877 205 a 942 123 a
FLA N (mg/L) 74,8 9,6 b 72,2 11,5 b 83,9 6,6 a 104,7 7,3 b 105,5 21,1 b 123 35,4 a
E-TH2 (mg/L) 14,3 1,66 a 14,4 2,5 a 13,9 0,6 a 13,8 1,3 b 13 2,5 b 16,4 3,4 a
CIntensity
(1mm) 1,38 0,20 b 1,43 0,34 b 1,89 0,24 a 2,18 0,3 b 2,41 0,32 a 2,39 0,24 ab
Tonality 0,47 0,06 a 0,45 0,07 a 0,43 0,02 a 0,22 0,02 a 0,23 0,03 a 0,22 0,02 a
% Yellow 29,4 2,6 a 28,7 2,95 a 28,3 1 a 17,7 0,9 a 17,6 1,67 a 17,6 1,1 a
% Red 63,1 3,3 a 64,9 4,2 a 65,5 1,2 a 79,7 2,2 a 76,4 4,2 b 78,8 3,5 ab
% Blue 7,5 1,87 a 5,9 1,14 b 6,2 0,6 b 2,6 1,56 b 4,8 1,81 a 3,6 2,5 ab
Furthermore, multivariante analysis showed that the grapes from the different studied units
were very similar in composition among them, although this similitude depends also on the
vintage. So, data from second vintage are globally more aggregated than those from the first
one and no intra grouping were glimpsed. However, data from the first vintage allow
glimpsing a slight aggregation of the data by units. This fact is also observed by invariant
analysis of the studies variables (table 1) which showed that data from the first vintage
showed more statistical significant differences among HSU than data from the second one.
Table 1. Mean values and deviation of each indicated parameter and HSU obtained at each
studied vintages. Letters indicate significant differences among values for each vintage. LSD
(Fisher's least significant difference) method to = 0,05 was applied.
The similitude among grapes of the three studied units will be also clearly observed in the
figure 3, which showed the global data summarized on the graphical representation of the
average data of grapes from each HSU studied. The general composition profiles showed in
this figure were very similar, that means that, in general, grapes showed similar oenological
characteristics independent of the soil units in which they were cultivated.
CONCLUSIONS
These results seem to validate the proposed methodology. That is to say, the methodology is
valid to determine HSU which can produce grapes of the similar quality, and then it can be
applied to the correct or appropriate use of the agriculture medium.
Figure 3. Global oenological characteristic profile of the grapes of each studied HSU. Points
showed mean values of grapes by units independent on vineyard and vintage. n= 27, 24 and
21 to HSU 6, 11 and 14, respectively. .
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors want to thank all the wineries and vineyards owners who give them the
possibility to take samples from the selected vineyards. Furthermore, they thank the financial
support from the Autonomous Government of Castilla y Len, Spain, through the Research
Proyect of reference BU025A06.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Garca-Barcel J. 1990. Tcnicas analticas para vinos. GAB Ed, Barcelona, Spain.
Gmez-Miguel V. and Sots V. 2003. Zonificacin del terroir en Espaa. In: Terroir,
Zonazione, Viticoltura: trattato internazionale. Ed. Fregoni M., Schuster D. and Paoletti A.
Phytoline, Rivoli Veronese, Italy. pp 187-226
Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L., Barrn L.J.R., Junquera B., Robredo L.M. 1991. Application of
principal component analysis to ripening indices for wine grapes. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis, 4, 245-255.
Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L., Rivero M.D., Bleoju M. and Gmez- Miguel, V. 2008. In: VIIe
Congrs International des Terroirs Viticoles 2008 Acta. ACW Ed. Nyon, Suisse. Vol.2, 641-7.
Izcara E. and Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L. 2001. Anlisis de mtodos rpidos de extraccin para
seguir la maduracin fenlica de la uva. Enlogos, 14, 14-18.
OIV. 1990. Recueil des Mthodes Internationales dAnalyse des vins et des mots. Office
International de la Vigne et du Vin, Pars.
Mazza G., Fukumoto L., Delaquis P., Girard B. and Ewert B. 1999. Anthocyanins, phenolics
and color of Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wines from British Columbia. Journal of
Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47, 4009-4017.
Sots V. and Gmez-Miguel V. 1992. Delimitacin de zonas vitcolas en la Denominacin
de Origen Ribera de Duero. Informes Tcnicos ETSIA. UPM, Madrid, Spain.
0
8
16
24
32
TA
Malic
RS/10
Brix
pH
K/100
Cl
Conductiv ity
TP (g/L)
CAT/100
Acy pH (g/L)
FLA Neu/10
E-TH2
CIntensity
Tonality
% Ye
% Red/10
% Blue
HSU 6 HSU 11 HSU 14
4 - 88
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 88 03/06/10 15:52
Vintage 1rst 2nd
UHT 6 11 14 6 11 14
SR (g/L) 228,8 7 a 226,9 17,9 a 226,7 6,6 a 216,3 13,7 a 220,7 11,3 a 225,3 19,9 a
Brix 22,2 1,1 b 22,2 1,9 b 24,4 0,4 a 22,4 1,1 a 23,2 1,2 a 22,9 1 a
Malic (g/L) 4,4 1 a 3,7 1 ab 2,9 0,8 b 5,5 1,3 a 3,9 0,5 b 4,2 0,8 b
pH 3,29 0,19 b 3,3 0,15 b 3,5 0,06 a 3,57 0,26 a 3,5 0,1 a 3,64 0,27 a
TA (g/L) 7,18 1,4 a 6,96 1,39 a 5,01 0,5 b 7,01 2,03 a 6,16 0,41 ab 5,18 1,33 b
Cnd (mS) 2,22 0,24 a 2,08 0,22 a 2,13 0,15 a 2,44 0,18 a 2,22 0,28 b 2,37 0,25 ab
K (mg/L) 1353 178 ab 1229 67 b 1386 225 a 1642 176 a 1452 84 b 1621 281 a
Cl (mg/L) 18,5 4,7 a 17,2 5,9 a 19,2 4,3 a 40,5 17,5 a 36,5 12,9 a 39 18,5 a
TP (mg/L) 1678 217 b 1734 266 b 2104 227 a 1857 461 a 1760 290 a 1863 237 a
CAT (mg/L) 316 66 c 383 54 b 496 110 a 516 69 a 440 163 a 495 98 a
ACY pH
(mg/L) 1100 85 a 1076 179 a 1100, 57 a 964 88 a 877 205 a 942 123 a
FLA N (mg/L) 74,8 9,6 b 72,2 11,5 b 83,9 6,6 a 104,7 7,3 b 105,5 21,1 b 123 35,4 a
E-TH2 (mg/L) 14,3 1,66 a 14,4 2,5 a 13,9 0,6 a 13,8 1,3 b 13 2,5 b 16,4 3,4 a
CIntensity
(1mm) 1,38 0,20 b 1,43 0,34 b 1,89 0,24 a 2,18 0,3 b 2,41 0,32 a 2,39 0,24 ab
Tonality 0,47 0,06 a 0,45 0,07 a 0,43 0,02 a 0,22 0,02 a 0,23 0,03 a 0,22 0,02 a
% Yellow 29,4 2,6 a 28,7 2,95 a 28,3 1 a 17,7 0,9 a 17,6 1,67 a 17,6 1,1 a
% Red 63,1 3,3 a 64,9 4,2 a 65,5 1,2 a 79,7 2,2 a 76,4 4,2 b 78,8 3,5 ab
% Blue 7,5 1,87 a 5,9 1,14 b 6,2 0,6 b 2,6 1,56 b 4,8 1,81 a 3,6 2,5 ab
Furthermore, multivariante analysis showed that the grapes from the different studied units
were very similar in composition among them, although this similitude depends also on the
vintage. So, data from second vintage are globally more aggregated than those from the first
one and no intra grouping were glimpsed. However, data from the first vintage allow
glimpsing a slight aggregation of the data by units. This fact is also observed by invariant
analysis of the studies variables (table 1) which showed that data from the first vintage
showed more statistical significant differences among HSU than data from the second one.
Table 1. Mean values and deviation of each indicated parameter and HSU obtained at each
studied vintages. Letters indicate significant differences among values for each vintage. LSD
(Fisher's least significant difference) method to = 0,05 was applied.
The similitude among grapes of the three studied units will be also clearly observed in the
figure 3, which showed the global data summarized on the graphical representation of the
average data of grapes from each HSU studied. The general composition profiles showed in
this figure were very similar, that means that, in general, grapes showed similar oenological
characteristics independent of the soil units in which they were cultivated.
CONCLUSIONS
These results seem to validate the proposed methodology. That is to say, the methodology is
valid to determine HSU which can produce grapes of the similar quality, and then it can be
applied to the correct or appropriate use of the agriculture medium.
Figure 3. Global oenological characteristic profile of the grapes of each studied HSU. Points
showed mean values of grapes by units independent on vineyard and vintage. n= 27, 24 and
21 to HSU 6, 11 and 14, respectively. .
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors want to thank all the wineries and vineyards owners who give them the
possibility to take samples from the selected vineyards. Furthermore, they thank the financial
support from the Autonomous Government of Castilla y Len, Spain, through the Research
Proyect of reference BU025A06.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Garca-Barcel J. 1990. Tcnicas analticas para vinos. GAB Ed, Barcelona, Spain.
Gmez-Miguel V. and Sots V. 2003. Zonificacin del terroir en Espaa. In: Terroir,
Zonazione, Viticoltura: trattato internazionale. Ed. Fregoni M., Schuster D. and Paoletti A.
Phytoline, Rivoli Veronese, Italy. pp 187-226
Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L., Barrn L.J.R., Junquera B., Robredo L.M. 1991. Application of
principal component analysis to ripening indices for wine grapes. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis, 4, 245-255.
Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L., Rivero M.D., Bleoju M. and Gmez- Miguel, V. 2008. In: VIIe
Congrs International des Terroirs Viticoles 2008 Acta. ACW Ed. Nyon, Suisse. Vol.2, 641-7.
Izcara E. and Gonzlez-Sanjos M.L. 2001. Anlisis de mtodos rpidos de extraccin para
seguir la maduracin fenlica de la uva. Enlogos, 14, 14-18.
OIV. 1990. Recueil des Mthodes Internationales dAnalyse des vins et des mots. Office
International de la Vigne et du Vin, Pars.
Mazza G., Fukumoto L., Delaquis P., Girard B. and Ewert B. 1999. Anthocyanins, phenolics
and color of Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wines from British Columbia. Journal of
Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47, 4009-4017.
Sots V. and Gmez-Miguel V. 1992. Delimitacin de zonas vitcolas en la Denominacin
de Origen Ribera de Duero. Informes Tcnicos ETSIA. UPM, Madrid, Spain.
0
8
16
24
32
TA
Malic
RS/10
Brix
pH
K/100
Cl
Conductiv ity
TP (g/L)
CAT/100
Acy pH (g/L)
FLA Neu/10
E-TH2
CIntensity
Tonality
% Ye
% Red/10
% Blue
HSU 6 HSU 11 HSU 14
4 - 89
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 89 03/06/10 15:52
TYPICITE ET TERROIR : IMPORTANCE RELATIVE DU TYPE DE
SOL ET DU NIVEAU DE MATURITE DANS LA TYPOLOGIE
SENSORIELLE DU VIN.

TYPICALITY AND TERROIR : COMPARISON OF SOIL TYPE AND
HARVEST DATE EFFECTS ON THE SENSORIAL STYLE OF WINE.

Champenois Rjane
(1)
, Cadot Yves
(1)
,

Caille Soline
(2)
, Samson Alain
(3)
and Cheynier
Vronique
(2)

(1)
INRA, UE 1117, UMT Vinitera,
F-49070 Beaucouz, France
Yves.cadot@angers.inra.fr
(2)
INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l'nologie,
F-34060 Montpellier, France
(3)
INRA, UE999 Pech-Rouge,
F-11430 Gruissan, France.


RESUME
Le lien fonctionnel entre typicit et terroir a t tudi en prenant en compte deux
dimensions importantes : le type de sol et la date de vendanges. Ces deux facteurs sont, des
degrs divers, considrs comme facteurs explicatifs de leffet terroir. Trois parcelles de
Cabernet franc, sur trois types de sols diffrents et revendiquant des AOP varies (Anjou
Villages, Anjou Rouge et Saumur Champigny) ont t vinifies, en triplicata, deux
dates espaces de 14 jours. Les vins, vinifis selon un protocole standardis, ont t analyss
sensoriellement par un jury de professionnels (question de typicit : Anjou Rouge vs Anjou
Villages) et par un jury expert (profil conventionnel). Pour valuer la notion de maturit
phnolique (teneur et aptitude lextraction), les composs phnoliques ont t analyss la
vendange, au dcuvage, mais galement au moment de lanalyse sensorielle.
Les rsultats montrent que si le type de sol a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels des
vins, son effet sur la typicit a t faible. La date de vendanges, au contraire, a permis de
discriminer les profils sensoriels mais galement les notes de typicit. Concernant les
composs phnoliques, si la teneur et la composition en anthocyanes tait dpendante de la
date de vendanges, elle na pas t explicative de la typicit, sauf quand les anthocyanes
totales ont t mesures lors de lanalyse sensorielle (effet couleur). La quantit de tanins
condenss nest pas apparue dpendante des parcelles mais de la date de vendanges. La
qualit des tanins contenus dans le vin au dcuvage sest rvle diffrente selon la date de
vendanges et explicative de la typicit. Enfin, la couleur des vins, lie leur composition en
composs phnoliques, a influenc la perception de la typicit.
Cette tude illustre limportance de certaines pratiques dans leffet terroir, le type de sol
ayant un effet direct beaucoup moins important que ne laissent supposer les rsultats
denqutes auprs des producteurs.

MOTS CLES
Terroir Typicit - Tanins condenss Anthocyanes Cabernet franc - Vitis vinifera

ABSTRACT
Harvest date is a critical point to the winemaker, in order to produce wine with a distinctive
style. In particular the relation between ripening stage and extractability of flavonoids must be
highlighted.
The extractability of flavonoids (flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins) from grapes was monitored at
two stages of maturity (veraison + 30 days, veraison + 44 days). Berries were obtained from
three plots with different types of soil in term of water status, from 3 AOC (Anjou-Villages-
Brissac, Anjou and Saumur Champigny) and were elaborated in triplicate. Flavonoids were
analysed before and after winemaking, by RP-LC-DAD, after fractionation and thiolysis for
the proanthocyanidins. Sensory analysis was performed eight month after harvest, by a
sensory expert panel (Quantitative descriptive analysis) and by wine experts, (assessment of
the typicality). Wine experts were producers, winemakers, and oenologists from the area.
The results showed that the type of soil allowed to discriminate the wines according to
some sensory attributes, but its effect on the typicality was weak. On the contrary, the date of
grape harvest, allowed discriminating the wine according to their sensory profiles and also to
their typicality scores. Concerning the flavonoids, if the content and the composition in
anthocyanins were dependent on the date of grape harvest, it was not connected to the
typicality, except when anthocyanins were analyzed just before sensory analysis. The quantity
of condensed tannins was not dependent on plots but on harvest date. The quality of tannins
contained in the wine at devatting was different according to hatvest date. Moreover, quantity
and quality of condensed tanins were highly correlated to the typicality scores. Finally, if the
anthocyanin contents of wines were correlated with typicality, the composition in the final
wine were not predicted by composition at devatting. The influence of anthocyanins seemed
to be due to perception of the color of wines in the typicality judgment.
This study illustrated the importance of harvest and vatting practices in the terroir effect,
with a soil effect less important as often admitted.

KEYWORDS
Terroir Typicality Condensed tanins Anthocyanins - Cabernet franc - Vitis vinifera


INTRODUCTION
La date de rcolte est un moment important dans le cycle de production : elle synthtise un
itinraire viticole et suppose dans ses choix des anticipations quant au futur itinraire
nologique. Pour comprendre les dterminants des choix de dates de rcolte, des critres
technologiques sont aisment identifiables. Ces critres technologiques sont plus ou moins
bien connus et/ou matriss. Parmi les dterminants technologiques, la maturit phnolique
est un critre essentiel dvaluation de la maturit. La maturit phnolique prend en compte
la teneur globale en polyphnols, mais aussi leur structure et leur aptitude lextraction
(Glories, 1998). Ainsi, la maturit phnolique peut tre dfinie comme le niveau de maturit
permettant lobtention simultane dun potentiel important et dune bonne capacit de
diffusion dans le vin. Nanmoins, cette notion reste encore peu prcise, car les volutions au
cours de la maturation ne sont pas clairement tablies, et les proprits des tanins condenss et
les dterminants de leur extractibilit sont peu connus (Cadot, et al., 2006; Fournand et al.,
2006). De nombreux auteurs montrent limportance de ces composs sur la qualit des
produits (visuelles, gustatives et somesthsiques), en particulier dans le cas des vins rouges
(Brossaud et al., 2001; Vidal et al., 2004). La synthse de ces composs est fortement
dpendante de facteurs biotiques et abiotiques (Winkel-Shirley, 2002).
4 - 90
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 90 03/06/10 15:52
TYPICITE ET TERROIR : IMPORTANCE RELATIVE DU TYPE DE
SOL ET DU NIVEAU DE MATURITE DANS LA TYPOLOGIE
SENSORIELLE DU VIN.

TYPICALITY AND TERROIR : COMPARISON OF SOIL TYPE AND
HARVEST DATE EFFECTS ON THE SENSORIAL STYLE OF WINE.

Champenois Rjane
(1)
, Cadot Yves
(1)
,

Caille Soline
(2)
, Samson Alain
(3)
and Cheynier
Vronique
(2)

(1)
INRA, UE 1117, UMT Vinitera,
F-49070 Beaucouz, France
Yves.cadot@angers.inra.fr
(2)
INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l'nologie,
F-34060 Montpellier, France
(3)
INRA, UE999 Pech-Rouge,
F-11430 Gruissan, France.


RESUME
Le lien fonctionnel entre typicit et terroir a t tudi en prenant en compte deux
dimensions importantes : le type de sol et la date de vendanges. Ces deux facteurs sont, des
degrs divers, considrs comme facteurs explicatifs de leffet terroir. Trois parcelles de
Cabernet franc, sur trois types de sols diffrents et revendiquant des AOP varies (Anjou
Villages, Anjou Rouge et Saumur Champigny) ont t vinifies, en triplicata, deux
dates espaces de 14 jours. Les vins, vinifis selon un protocole standardis, ont t analyss
sensoriellement par un jury de professionnels (question de typicit : Anjou Rouge vs Anjou
Villages) et par un jury expert (profil conventionnel). Pour valuer la notion de maturit
phnolique (teneur et aptitude lextraction), les composs phnoliques ont t analyss la
vendange, au dcuvage, mais galement au moment de lanalyse sensorielle.
Les rsultats montrent que si le type de sol a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels des
vins, son effet sur la typicit a t faible. La date de vendanges, au contraire, a permis de
discriminer les profils sensoriels mais galement les notes de typicit. Concernant les
composs phnoliques, si la teneur et la composition en anthocyanes tait dpendante de la
date de vendanges, elle na pas t explicative de la typicit, sauf quand les anthocyanes
totales ont t mesures lors de lanalyse sensorielle (effet couleur). La quantit de tanins
condenss nest pas apparue dpendante des parcelles mais de la date de vendanges. La
qualit des tanins contenus dans le vin au dcuvage sest rvle diffrente selon la date de
vendanges et explicative de la typicit. Enfin, la couleur des vins, lie leur composition en
composs phnoliques, a influenc la perception de la typicit.
Cette tude illustre limportance de certaines pratiques dans leffet terroir, le type de sol
ayant un effet direct beaucoup moins important que ne laissent supposer les rsultats
denqutes auprs des producteurs.

MOTS CLES
Terroir Typicit - Tanins condenss Anthocyanes Cabernet franc - Vitis vinifera

ABSTRACT
Harvest date is a critical point to the winemaker, in order to produce wine with a distinctive
style. In particular the relation between ripening stage and extractability of flavonoids must be
highlighted.
The extractability of flavonoids (flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins) from grapes was monitored at
two stages of maturity (veraison + 30 days, veraison + 44 days). Berries were obtained from
three plots with different types of soil in term of water status, from 3 AOC (Anjou-Villages-
Brissac, Anjou and Saumur Champigny) and were elaborated in triplicate. Flavonoids were
analysed before and after winemaking, by RP-LC-DAD, after fractionation and thiolysis for
the proanthocyanidins. Sensory analysis was performed eight month after harvest, by a
sensory expert panel (Quantitative descriptive analysis) and by wine experts, (assessment of
the typicality). Wine experts were producers, winemakers, and oenologists from the area.
The results showed that the type of soil allowed to discriminate the wines according to
some sensory attributes, but its effect on the typicality was weak. On the contrary, the date of
grape harvest, allowed discriminating the wine according to their sensory profiles and also to
their typicality scores. Concerning the flavonoids, if the content and the composition in
anthocyanins were dependent on the date of grape harvest, it was not connected to the
typicality, except when anthocyanins were analyzed just before sensory analysis. The quantity
of condensed tannins was not dependent on plots but on harvest date. The quality of tannins
contained in the wine at devatting was different according to hatvest date. Moreover, quantity
and quality of condensed tanins were highly correlated to the typicality scores. Finally, if the
anthocyanin contents of wines were correlated with typicality, the composition in the final
wine were not predicted by composition at devatting. The influence of anthocyanins seemed
to be due to perception of the color of wines in the typicality judgment.
This study illustrated the importance of harvest and vatting practices in the terroir effect,
with a soil effect less important as often admitted.

KEYWORDS
Terroir Typicality Condensed tanins Anthocyanins - Cabernet franc - Vitis vinifera


INTRODUCTION
La date de rcolte est un moment important dans le cycle de production : elle synthtise un
itinraire viticole et suppose dans ses choix des anticipations quant au futur itinraire
nologique. Pour comprendre les dterminants des choix de dates de rcolte, des critres
technologiques sont aisment identifiables. Ces critres technologiques sont plus ou moins
bien connus et/ou matriss. Parmi les dterminants technologiques, la maturit phnolique
est un critre essentiel dvaluation de la maturit. La maturit phnolique prend en compte
la teneur globale en polyphnols, mais aussi leur structure et leur aptitude lextraction
(Glories, 1998). Ainsi, la maturit phnolique peut tre dfinie comme le niveau de maturit
permettant lobtention simultane dun potentiel important et dune bonne capacit de
diffusion dans le vin. Nanmoins, cette notion reste encore peu prcise, car les volutions au
cours de la maturation ne sont pas clairement tablies, et les proprits des tanins condenss et
les dterminants de leur extractibilit sont peu connus (Cadot, et al., 2006; Fournand et al.,
2006). De nombreux auteurs montrent limportance de ces composs sur la qualit des
produits (visuelles, gustatives et somesthsiques), en particulier dans le cas des vins rouges
(Brossaud et al., 2001; Vidal et al., 2004). La synthse de ces composs est fortement
dpendante de facteurs biotiques et abiotiques (Winkel-Shirley, 2002).
4 - 91
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 91 03/06/10 15:52
Tableau 1. Relation entre scores de typicit et parcelles
/ dates de vendange. AR : Anjou Rouge . AV :
Anjou-Villages . ANOVA ; tests Newman-Keuls
Typicality "AR" Typicality "AV"
Category LS means Groups Category LS means Groups
CYR 5.10 A LEB 3.53 A
LEB 5.01 A CYR 3.25 A
BMO 4.83 A BMO 2.84 A
V44 5.37 A V44 4.19 A
V30 4.59 B V30 2.22 B
Le sol est gnralement mis en avant dans le systme terroir. Ce systme confre au vin des
caractristiques particulires, la typicit. La typicit dun produit peut tre caractrise par des
proprits dappartenance un type, mais galement des proprits de distinction (Casabianca
et al., 2005). La typicit lie au terroir est associe une origine gographique dlimite, et
prsente des caractristiques reprables et revendiques (Cadot, 2006).
Nous faisons lhypothse que si le sol peut influencer la qualit du produit, ce sont certains
actes techniques saillants qui expliquent le mieux la qualit finale du vin. Dans le cas de cette
tude, nous avons valu linfluence des actes techniques associs la notion de maturit
phnolique .

MATERIEL ET METHODES
Le dispositif exprimental tait constitu de 3 parcelles sur lesquelles le producteur a
conduit les vignes dans loptique de produire des vins revendiquant les AOC suivantes :
Saumur Champigny (CYR), Anjou (BMO) et Anjou Villages-Brissac (LEB). Les
rcoltes ont t ralises deux dates espaces de 14 jours : vraison + 35 jours (V30) et
vraison + 49 jours (V44) (29 septembre 2008 et 13 octobre 2008). Les vinifications ont t
ralises en triple. La dure de cuvaison tait de 9 jours, correspondant une valeur commune
dans la rgion. 200 baies (encuvage - dcuvage) ont t analyses selon le protocole dcrit par
Roggero pour les anthocyanes (Roggero et al., 1992) et par Cadot pour les tanins condenss
(Cadot et al., 2006). Le rendement de thiolyse a t valu en calculant de rapport entre
lintgration de lextrait aprs fractionement avant thiolyse et aprs thiolyse, afin de rendre
compte dune possible volution du rendement de thiolyse en fonction du niveau de maturit
(Kennedy & Jones, 2001). Au moment de lanalyse sensorielle (juin 2009), les vins ont
galement t analyss, selon des mthodes classiques. Sur les vins finis, deux analyses
sensorielles ont t ralises : (i) un profil conventionnel par un jury expert, mthode drive
de lanalyse quantitative descriptive (QDA), (Stone, 1974), (ii) deux questions de typicit, par
un jury de professionnels, compos de vignerons, nologues et techniciens de la zone
dtude, selon une mthode drive de Ballester (Ballester et al., 2005). Le dispositif
exprimental concernant les analyses sensorielles a t dcrit prcdemment par Cadot (Cadot
et al., 2010). Treize descripteurs ont t gnrs par le jury expert (2 visuels, 8 olfactifs, 3
gustatifs et somesthsiques). Les traitements statistiques ont t raliss avec le logiciel
XLSTAT 2009 (ADDINSOFT, France).

RESULTATS DISCUSSION
Lorigine des vins na pas eu dincidence sur les notes de typicit, au contraire des dates de
vendanges : les rcoltes les plus tardives ont t juges plus typiques pour les deux tests.
(Tableau 1). Il est clair que le niveau de maturit plus avanc a eu une influence sur la qualit
des vins (qualit au sens de composition spcifique). Cet effet t plus net pour la typicit
Anjou-Villages .En effet, cette Appellation dOrigine Contrle (AOC) est considre
comme une AOC premium . Nanmoins plusieurs descripteurs du profil conventionnel ont
t significativement relis lorigine des vins (Tableau 2). LEB a t not significativement
(+) fonc, (+) fruits cuits, (+) alcool, et (+)
astringent. BMO a t not significativement
(+) cassis et (+) astringent. Enfin, CYR a t
not significativement () intense, (+) soufre
et (+) acide. Concernant les dates de
vendanges, V30 a t not (+) clair, (+)
rouge orang, (+) herbac et (+) humus, ce
Tableau 2. Profil sensoriel. Rsultats de lANOVA. Les
probabilits infrieures 0.05 sont notes en gras.
Attributes Model Judge Origin Date Origin*Date
Colour intensity <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.001
Shade <0.0001 <0.0001 0.767 <0.0001 0.131
Herbaceous <0.0001 <0.0001 0.063 0.010 0.424
Blackcurrant <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0001 0.492 0.172
Other red fruits <0.0001 <0.0001 0.571 0.114 0.266
Cooked fruits <0.0001 <0.0001 0.002 0.0004 0.633
Spice <0.0001 <0.0001 0.142 0.034 0.542
Humus <0.0001 <0.0001 0.465 <0.0001 0.360
Alcohol <0.0001 <0.0001 0.024 0.022 0.787
Sulfur <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.174 0.001
Acid <0.0001 <0.0001 0.016 0.636 0.978
Bitter <0.0001 <0.0001 0.337 0.036 0.368
Astringent <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.659 0.392
qui est en accord avec le niveau de maturit plus faible. V44 a t not (+) fonc, (+) violet,
(+) fruits cuits, (+) pices, (+) alcool et (+) amer. Les analyses biochimiques ont confirm ces
rsultats concernant leffet date de vendanges. En effet, les vins des dates V44 taient
significativement plus alcooliss, plus
riches en anthocyanes, nuance bleue
plus marque (A620) et moins acides
(Tableau 3). La figure 2 illustre le lien
entre la teneur en tanins condenss et (i)
la typicit Anjou Villages dune
part, (ii), la date de rcolte et lorigine
des raisins dautre part. La teneur en
tanins condenss a eu des consquences
sur la typicit, et les diffrences entre
teneurs ne sexpliquent pas par
lorigine, mais par les dates de rcolte.
Une teneur plus leve en tanins
condenss au dcuvage, explique par
une date de rcolte plus tardive a eu comme consquence une note de typicit plus leve. De
la mme faon, la figure 3 illustre le lien entre le degr moyen de polymrisation (mDP) des
tanins condenss des tanins extraits (dcuvage) et (i) la typicit Anjou Villages dune part,
(ii), la date de rcolte et lorigine des raisins dautre part. Un mDP des vins au dcuvage, plus
lev, a eu des consquences positives sur la note de typicit. Les diffrences entre mDP ne
sexpliquent pas par lorigine des parcelles, mais par les dates de rcolte : les mDP au
dcuvage ont t significativement plus levs
pour les vendanges tardives. Le tableau 3
rsume lensemble des relations entre la
composition biochimique des vins, la note de
typicit, la date de rcolte et lorigine des
raisins. Le rendement de thiolyse a t
significativement plus faible lors des
vendanges plus tardives, confirmant
lhypothse mise par Kennedy, expliquant
que lvolution des tanins condenss lors de la
maturation pourrait tre en partie masque par
une diminution du rendement de
dpolymrisation (Kennedy & Jones, 2001).
Globalement, la composition en tanins
condenss lors du dcuvage (quantit et
composition spcifique) a t diffrente selon
la date de rcolte, et elle a affect la note de
typicit. Lorigine des parcelles na pas t
mise en vidence, sauf pour la teneur en
catchine des units terminales. Lors dtudes
prcdentes sur Cabernet, aucune volution
nette de la composition des raisins durant la
maturation na t mise en vidence
(Harbertson et al., 2002; Kennedy et al., 2002,
Fournand et al., 2006). Dans cette tude, la
Figure 1. Teneurs en tanins condenss (vin au dcuvage).
Relation avec le score de typicit, la parcelle et la date de
vendanges. Box plots. AV+ : notes typicit sup. ; AV= :
notes typicit moy. ; AV : notes typicit inf.

Figure 2. Degr de polymrisation des tanins condenss (vin
au dcuvage). Relation avec le score de typicit, la parcelle
et la date de vendanges. Box plots. AV+ : notes typicit
sup. ; AV= : notes typicit moy. ; AV : notes typicit inf.
4 - 92
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 92 03/06/10 15:52
Tableau 1. Relation entre scores de typicit et parcelles
/ dates de vendange. AR : Anjou Rouge . AV :
Anjou-Villages . ANOVA ; tests Newman-Keuls
Typicality "AR" Typicality "AV"
Category LS means Groups Category LS means Groups
CYR 5.10 A LEB 3.53 A
LEB 5.01 A CYR 3.25 A
BMO 4.83 A BMO 2.84 A
V44 5.37 A V44 4.19 A
V30 4.59 B V30 2.22 B
Le sol est gnralement mis en avant dans le systme terroir. Ce systme confre au vin des
caractristiques particulires, la typicit. La typicit dun produit peut tre caractrise par des
proprits dappartenance un type, mais galement des proprits de distinction (Casabianca
et al., 2005). La typicit lie au terroir est associe une origine gographique dlimite, et
prsente des caractristiques reprables et revendiques (Cadot, 2006).
Nous faisons lhypothse que si le sol peut influencer la qualit du produit, ce sont certains
actes techniques saillants qui expliquent le mieux la qualit finale du vin. Dans le cas de cette
tude, nous avons valu linfluence des actes techniques associs la notion de maturit
phnolique .

MATERIEL ET METHODES
Le dispositif exprimental tait constitu de 3 parcelles sur lesquelles le producteur a
conduit les vignes dans loptique de produire des vins revendiquant les AOC suivantes :
Saumur Champigny (CYR), Anjou (BMO) et Anjou Villages-Brissac (LEB). Les
rcoltes ont t ralises deux dates espaces de 14 jours : vraison + 35 jours (V30) et
vraison + 49 jours (V44) (29 septembre 2008 et 13 octobre 2008). Les vinifications ont t
ralises en triple. La dure de cuvaison tait de 9 jours, correspondant une valeur commune
dans la rgion. 200 baies (encuvage - dcuvage) ont t analyses selon le protocole dcrit par
Roggero pour les anthocyanes (Roggero et al., 1992) et par Cadot pour les tanins condenss
(Cadot et al., 2006). Le rendement de thiolyse a t valu en calculant de rapport entre
lintgration de lextrait aprs fractionement avant thiolyse et aprs thiolyse, afin de rendre
compte dune possible volution du rendement de thiolyse en fonction du niveau de maturit
(Kennedy & Jones, 2001). Au moment de lanalyse sensorielle (juin 2009), les vins ont
galement t analyss, selon des mthodes classiques. Sur les vins finis, deux analyses
sensorielles ont t ralises : (i) un profil conventionnel par un jury expert, mthode drive
de lanalyse quantitative descriptive (QDA), (Stone, 1974), (ii) deux questions de typicit, par
un jury de professionnels, compos de vignerons, nologues et techniciens de la zone
dtude, selon une mthode drive de Ballester (Ballester et al., 2005). Le dispositif
exprimental concernant les analyses sensorielles a t dcrit prcdemment par Cadot (Cadot
et al., 2010). Treize descripteurs ont t gnrs par le jury expert (2 visuels, 8 olfactifs, 3
gustatifs et somesthsiques). Les traitements statistiques ont t raliss avec le logiciel
XLSTAT 2009 (ADDINSOFT, France).

RESULTATS DISCUSSION
Lorigine des vins na pas eu dincidence sur les notes de typicit, au contraire des dates de
vendanges : les rcoltes les plus tardives ont t juges plus typiques pour les deux tests.
(Tableau 1). Il est clair que le niveau de maturit plus avanc a eu une influence sur la qualit
des vins (qualit au sens de composition spcifique). Cet effet t plus net pour la typicit
Anjou-Villages .En effet, cette Appellation dOrigine Contrle (AOC) est considre
comme une AOC premium . Nanmoins plusieurs descripteurs du profil conventionnel ont
t significativement relis lorigine des vins (Tableau 2). LEB a t not significativement
(+) fonc, (+) fruits cuits, (+) alcool, et (+)
astringent. BMO a t not significativement
(+) cassis et (+) astringent. Enfin, CYR a t
not significativement () intense, (+) soufre
et (+) acide. Concernant les dates de
vendanges, V30 a t not (+) clair, (+)
rouge orang, (+) herbac et (+) humus, ce
Tableau 2. Profil sensoriel. Rsultats de lANOVA. Les
probabilits infrieures 0.05 sont notes en gras.
Attributes Model Judge Origin Date Origin*Date
Colour intensity <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.001
Shade <0.0001 <0.0001 0.767 <0.0001 0.131
Herbaceous <0.0001 <0.0001 0.063 0.010 0.424
Blackcurrant <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0001 0.492 0.172
Other red fruits <0.0001 <0.0001 0.571 0.114 0.266
Cooked fruits <0.0001 <0.0001 0.002 0.0004 0.633
Spice <0.0001 <0.0001 0.142 0.034 0.542
Humus <0.0001 <0.0001 0.465 <0.0001 0.360
Alcohol <0.0001 <0.0001 0.024 0.022 0.787
Sulfur <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.174 0.001
Acid <0.0001 <0.0001 0.016 0.636 0.978
Bitter <0.0001 <0.0001 0.337 0.036 0.368
Astringent <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.659 0.392
qui est en accord avec le niveau de maturit plus faible. V44 a t not (+) fonc, (+) violet,
(+) fruits cuits, (+) pices, (+) alcool et (+) amer. Les analyses biochimiques ont confirm ces
rsultats concernant leffet date de vendanges. En effet, les vins des dates V44 taient
significativement plus alcooliss, plus
riches en anthocyanes, nuance bleue
plus marque (A620) et moins acides
(Tableau 3). La figure 2 illustre le lien
entre la teneur en tanins condenss et (i)
la typicit Anjou Villages dune
part, (ii), la date de rcolte et lorigine
des raisins dautre part. La teneur en
tanins condenss a eu des consquences
sur la typicit, et les diffrences entre
teneurs ne sexpliquent pas par
lorigine, mais par les dates de rcolte.
Une teneur plus leve en tanins
condenss au dcuvage, explique par
une date de rcolte plus tardive a eu comme consquence une note de typicit plus leve. De
la mme faon, la figure 3 illustre le lien entre le degr moyen de polymrisation (mDP) des
tanins condenss des tanins extraits (dcuvage) et (i) la typicit Anjou Villages dune part,
(ii), la date de rcolte et lorigine des raisins dautre part. Un mDP des vins au dcuvage, plus
lev, a eu des consquences positives sur la note de typicit. Les diffrences entre mDP ne
sexpliquent pas par lorigine des parcelles, mais par les dates de rcolte : les mDP au
dcuvage ont t significativement plus levs
pour les vendanges tardives. Le tableau 3
rsume lensemble des relations entre la
composition biochimique des vins, la note de
typicit, la date de rcolte et lorigine des
raisins. Le rendement de thiolyse a t
significativement plus faible lors des
vendanges plus tardives, confirmant
lhypothse mise par Kennedy, expliquant
que lvolution des tanins condenss lors de la
maturation pourrait tre en partie masque par
une diminution du rendement de
dpolymrisation (Kennedy & Jones, 2001).
Globalement, la composition en tanins
condenss lors du dcuvage (quantit et
composition spcifique) a t diffrente selon
la date de rcolte, et elle a affect la note de
typicit. Lorigine des parcelles na pas t
mise en vidence, sauf pour la teneur en
catchine des units terminales. Lors dtudes
prcdentes sur Cabernet, aucune volution
nette de la composition des raisins durant la
maturation na t mise en vidence
(Harbertson et al., 2002; Kennedy et al., 2002,
Fournand et al., 2006). Dans cette tude, la
Figure 1. Teneurs en tanins condenss (vin au dcuvage).
Relation avec le score de typicit, la parcelle et la date de
vendanges. Box plots. AV+ : notes typicit sup. ; AV= :
notes typicit moy. ; AV : notes typicit inf.

Figure 2. Degr de polymrisation des tanins condenss (vin
au dcuvage). Relation avec le score de typicit, la parcelle
et la date de vendanges. Box plots. AV+ : notes typicit
sup. ; AV= : notes typicit moy. ; AV : notes typicit inf.
4 - 93
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 93 03/06/10 15:53
composition des raisins a affect leur
extractibilit, modifiant ainsi la composition du
vin au dcuvage. Lvolution de la composition
des tanins condenss des baies semble mal
mesure par les mthodes employes. Mais elle
est rvle par (i) une volution du rendement
de thiolyse (ce qui suggre une modification de
la composition des baies), (ii) par une
composition diffrente aprs dcuvage (ce qui
suggre une modification de leur extractibilit).
Ainsi, la notion de maturit phnolique
semble bien dmontre. Les variations de
composition en tanins condenss en fonction de
lorigine des baies, mises en vidence par des
tudes prcdentes pouvaient sexpliquer par
les diffrences de niveau de maturit des baies
des zones rcoltes et du matriel vgtal
diffrent : porte greffe, clone et ge de la vigne,
diffrents en fonction des zones, (Brossaud, et
al., 1999). Dans le cas de cette tude, lorigine
des baies a eu un effet limit, voire nul.

CONCLUSION
Les rsultats montrent que lorigine des vins
a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels
des vins, mais que son effet sur la typicit a t faible. Au contraire, la date de vendanges a
permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels mais galement les notes de typicit. Concernant
les composs phnoliques, la teneur et la composition en anthocyanes nont pas t
explicatives de la typicit, sauf quand les anthocyanes totales ont t mesures lors de
lanalyse sensorielle (effet couleur). La quantit de tanins condenss nest pas apparue
dpendante des parcelles mais de la date de vendanges. La qualit des tanins contenus
dans le vin au dcuvage sest rvle diffrente selon la date de vendanges et explicative de la
typicit. Enfin, la couleur des vins, lie leur composition en composs phnoliques, a
influenc la perception de la typicit.
Cette tude illustre limportance des pratiques lies la notion de maturit phnolique
sur la typicit des vins. Lorigine des parcelles a eu un effet beaucoup moins important que ne
laissent supposer lide, communment admise, de la prvalence du sol dans le systme des
AOC.


REMERCIEMENTS
Les auteurs tiennent remercier les vignerons propritaires des parcelles exprimentales,
Marie-Hlne Bouvet et Anne Mge pour la prise en charge des prlvements et des analyses
et Michel Cosneau pour la vinification et llevage des vins. Nous remercions
particulirement Mr. Erik Picou pour son aide dans la ralisation des profils sensoriels ainsi
que tous les dgustateurs. Ces travaux ont t conduits par lINRA, avec le soutien du Conseil
Rgional des Pays de la Loire, de Viniflhor et dInterLoire

Tableau 3. Relations entre composition des vins et
scores de typicit / dates de rcolte. ANOVAs.
Seules les probabilits <0.05 sont reportes.
Biochem. Typicality Date Plot
Harvest date 0.020 N/A N/A
Plot N/A N/A
Total anthocyanins
Delphinidin 0.001 0.018
Cyanidin
Petunidin
Peonidin 0.001
Malvidin 0.005
Acetyled 0.012
Coumaroyled 0.0001 < 0.001 0.026
Condensed tanins 0.050 < 0.001
Thiolysis yield 0.002
Catechin 0.040
Epicatechin 0.022 < 0.0001
Epicatechin-3-gal. 0.031 0.006
Epigallocatechin 0.083 < 0.0001
mDP 0.016 < 0.0001
% galloylation
% prodelphinidin 0.005 < 0.0001
Total acidity 0.018 0.004
Alcohol 0.006 < 0.0001
Dry extract
Total phenolic index
Total anthocyanins 0.006 < 0.0001
A420 0.024
A520
A620 0.030 0.005
Wine at
sensory
analysis
Wine at
devatting
Pr (ANOVA)
BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Ballester, J., Dacremont, C., Le Fur, Y., & Etievant, P. (2005). The role of olfaction in the
elaboration and use of the Chardonnay wine concept. Food Quality and Preference, 16(4),
351-359.
Brossaud, F., Cheynier, V., Asselin, C., & Moutounet, M. (1999). Flavonoid compositional
differences of grapes among site test plantings of Cabernet franc. American Journal of Enology
and Viticulture, 50(3), 277-284.
Brossaud, F., Cheynier, V., & Noble, A. C. (2001). Bitterness and astringency of grape and wine
polyphenols. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 7(1), 33-39.
Cadot, Y. (2006). Le lien du vin au terroir : complexit du concept de typicit. Revue des
Oenologues, 118, 9-11.
Cadot, Y., Caille, S., Samson, A., Barbeau, G., & Cheynier, V. (2010). Sensory dimension of
wine typicality related to a terroir by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, Just About Right
analysis and typicality assessment. Analytica Chimica Acta, 660(1-2), 53-62.
Cadot, Y., Miana-Castell, M. T., & Chevalier, M. (2006). Flavan-3-ol compositional changes in
grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Franc) before veraison, using two complementary
analytical approaches, HPLC reversed phase and histochemistry. Analytica Chimica Acta,
563(1-2), 65-75.
Casabianca, F., Sylvander, B., Noel, Y., Beranger, C., Coulon, J. B., & Roncin, F. (2005). Terroir
et typicit : deux concepts cls des appellations d'origine contrle, essai de dfinitions
scientifiques et oprationnelles. In I.-. INAO, Colloque International de restitution des travaux
de recherches sur les indications et appellations d'origine gographiques. Paris (France).
Fournand, D., Vicens, A., Sidhoum, L., Souquet, J. M., Moutounet, M., & Cheynier, V. (2006).
Accumulation and Extractability of Grape Skin Tannins and Anthocyanins at Different
Advanced Physiological Stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(19), 7331-
7338.
Glories, Y. (1998). Les composs phnoliques. La notion de maturation phnolique. In P.
Ribereau-Gayon, Trait d'nologie. Volume II. Chimie du vin stabilisation et traitements.
Paris: Dunod.
Harbertson, J. F., Kennedy, J. A., & Adams, D. O. (2002). Tannin in skins and seeds of Cabernet
Sauvignon, Syrah, and Pinot noir berries during ripening. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture, 53(1), 54-59.
Kennedy, J. A., & Jones, G. P. (2001). Analysis of proanthocyanidin cleavage products following
acid-catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry, 49(4), 1740-1746.
Kennedy, J. A., Matthews, M. A., & Waterhouse, A. L. (2002). Effect of maturity and vine water
status on grape skin and wine flavonoids. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 53(4),
268-274.
Roggero, J. P., Archier, P., & Coen, S. (1992). Etude par CLHP des compositions phenolique et
anthocyanique d'un mot de raisin en fermentation. Sciences Des Aliments, 12, 37-46.
Stone, H. (1974). Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis. Food Technology, 24-
28.
Vidal, S., Francis, L., Noble, A., Kwiatkowski, M., Cheynier, V., & Waters, E. (2004). Taste and
mouth-feel properties of different types of tannin-like polyphenolic compounds and
anthocyanins in wine. Analytica Chimica Acta, 513(1), 57-65.
Winkel-Shirley, B. (2002). Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Current Opinion in
Plant Biology, 5(3), 218-223.

4 - 94
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 94 03/06/10 15:53
composition des raisins a affect leur
extractibilit, modifiant ainsi la composition du
vin au dcuvage. Lvolution de la composition
des tanins condenss des baies semble mal
mesure par les mthodes employes. Mais elle
est rvle par (i) une volution du rendement
de thiolyse (ce qui suggre une modification de
la composition des baies), (ii) par une
composition diffrente aprs dcuvage (ce qui
suggre une modification de leur extractibilit).
Ainsi, la notion de maturit phnolique
semble bien dmontre. Les variations de
composition en tanins condenss en fonction de
lorigine des baies, mises en vidence par des
tudes prcdentes pouvaient sexpliquer par
les diffrences de niveau de maturit des baies
des zones rcoltes et du matriel vgtal
diffrent : porte greffe, clone et ge de la vigne,
diffrents en fonction des zones, (Brossaud, et
al., 1999). Dans le cas de cette tude, lorigine
des baies a eu un effet limit, voire nul.

CONCLUSION
Les rsultats montrent que lorigine des vins
a permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels
des vins, mais que son effet sur la typicit a t faible. Au contraire, la date de vendanges a
permis de discriminer les profils sensoriels mais galement les notes de typicit. Concernant
les composs phnoliques, la teneur et la composition en anthocyanes nont pas t
explicatives de la typicit, sauf quand les anthocyanes totales ont t mesures lors de
lanalyse sensorielle (effet couleur). La quantit de tanins condenss nest pas apparue
dpendante des parcelles mais de la date de vendanges. La qualit des tanins contenus
dans le vin au dcuvage sest rvle diffrente selon la date de vendanges et explicative de la
typicit. Enfin, la couleur des vins, lie leur composition en composs phnoliques, a
influenc la perception de la typicit.
Cette tude illustre limportance des pratiques lies la notion de maturit phnolique
sur la typicit des vins. Lorigine des parcelles a eu un effet beaucoup moins important que ne
laissent supposer lide, communment admise, de la prvalence du sol dans le systme des
AOC.


REMERCIEMENTS
Les auteurs tiennent remercier les vignerons propritaires des parcelles exprimentales,
Marie-Hlne Bouvet et Anne Mge pour la prise en charge des prlvements et des analyses
et Michel Cosneau pour la vinification et llevage des vins. Nous remercions
particulirement Mr. Erik Picou pour son aide dans la ralisation des profils sensoriels ainsi
que tous les dgustateurs. Ces travaux ont t conduits par lINRA, avec le soutien du Conseil
Rgional des Pays de la Loire, de Viniflhor et dInterLoire

Tableau 3. Relations entre composition des vins et
scores de typicit / dates de rcolte. ANOVAs.
Seules les probabilits <0.05 sont reportes.
Biochem. Typicality Date Plot
Harvest date 0.020 N/A N/A
Plot N/A N/A
Total anthocyanins
Delphinidin 0.001 0.018
Cyanidin
Petunidin
Peonidin 0.001
Malvidin 0.005
Acetyled 0.012
Coumaroyled 0.0001 < 0.001 0.026
Condensed tanins 0.050 < 0.001
Thiolysis yield 0.002
Catechin 0.040
Epicatechin 0.022 < 0.0001
Epicatechin-3-gal. 0.031 0.006
Epigallocatechin 0.083 < 0.0001
mDP 0.016 < 0.0001
% galloylation
% prodelphinidin 0.005 < 0.0001
Total acidity 0.018 0.004
Alcohol 0.006 < 0.0001
Dry extract
Total phenolic index
Total anthocyanins 0.006 < 0.0001
A420 0.024
A520
A620 0.030 0.005
Wine at
sensory
analysis
Wine at
devatting
Pr (ANOVA)
BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Ballester, J., Dacremont, C., Le Fur, Y., & Etievant, P. (2005). The role of olfaction in the
elaboration and use of the Chardonnay wine concept. Food Quality and Preference, 16(4),
351-359.
Brossaud, F., Cheynier, V., Asselin, C., & Moutounet, M. (1999). Flavonoid compositional
differences of grapes among site test plantings of Cabernet franc. American Journal of Enology
and Viticulture, 50(3), 277-284.
Brossaud, F., Cheynier, V., & Noble, A. C. (2001). Bitterness and astringency of grape and wine
polyphenols. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 7(1), 33-39.
Cadot, Y. (2006). Le lien du vin au terroir : complexit du concept de typicit. Revue des
Oenologues, 118, 9-11.
Cadot, Y., Caille, S., Samson, A., Barbeau, G., & Cheynier, V. (2010). Sensory dimension of
wine typicality related to a terroir by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, Just About Right
analysis and typicality assessment. Analytica Chimica Acta, 660(1-2), 53-62.
Cadot, Y., Miana-Castell, M. T., & Chevalier, M. (2006). Flavan-3-ol compositional changes in
grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Franc) before veraison, using two complementary
analytical approaches, HPLC reversed phase and histochemistry. Analytica Chimica Acta,
563(1-2), 65-75.
Casabianca, F., Sylvander, B., Noel, Y., Beranger, C., Coulon, J. B., & Roncin, F. (2005). Terroir
et typicit : deux concepts cls des appellations d'origine contrle, essai de dfinitions
scientifiques et oprationnelles. In I.-. INAO, Colloque International de restitution des travaux
de recherches sur les indications et appellations d'origine gographiques. Paris (France).
Fournand, D., Vicens, A., Sidhoum, L., Souquet, J. M., Moutounet, M., & Cheynier, V. (2006).
Accumulation and Extractability of Grape Skin Tannins and Anthocyanins at Different
Advanced Physiological Stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(19), 7331-
7338.
Glories, Y. (1998). Les composs phnoliques. La notion de maturation phnolique. In P.
Ribereau-Gayon, Trait d'nologie. Volume II. Chimie du vin stabilisation et traitements.
Paris: Dunod.
Harbertson, J. F., Kennedy, J. A., & Adams, D. O. (2002). Tannin in skins and seeds of Cabernet
Sauvignon, Syrah, and Pinot noir berries during ripening. American Journal of Enology and
Viticulture, 53(1), 54-59.
Kennedy, J. A., & Jones, G. P. (2001). Analysis of proanthocyanidin cleavage products following
acid-catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry, 49(4), 1740-1746.
Kennedy, J. A., Matthews, M. A., & Waterhouse, A. L. (2002). Effect of maturity and vine water
status on grape skin and wine flavonoids. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 53(4),
268-274.
Roggero, J. P., Archier, P., & Coen, S. (1992). Etude par CLHP des compositions phenolique et
anthocyanique d'un mot de raisin en fermentation. Sciences Des Aliments, 12, 37-46.
Stone, H. (1974). Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis. Food Technology, 24-
28.
Vidal, S., Francis, L., Noble, A., Kwiatkowski, M., Cheynier, V., & Waters, E. (2004). Taste and
mouth-feel properties of different types of tannin-like polyphenolic compounds and
anthocyanins in wine. Analytica Chimica Acta, 513(1), 57-65.
Winkel-Shirley, B. (2002). Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Current Opinion in
Plant Biology, 5(3), 218-223.

4 - 95
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 95 03/06/10 15:53
POTENTIEL DES SOLS VITICOLES ET QUALIT DES VINS
BROUSSET JM
a
, PICQUE D
a
, GUERIN L
b
, GOULET E
b,c
, PERROT N
a
a
UMR 782, GMPA, INRA, AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon
b
IFV du Val de Loire, 42, rue G. Morel, F-49071 Beaucouz / 46, Av. G. Eiffel, F-37095 Tours cedex 2
c
InterLoire, 12, rue E. Pallu F-37000 TOURS
RSUM
La qualit des vins dpend de diffrents facteurs et procds, notamment de la nature des
terrains viticoles. Dans ce travail, nous avons cherch tablir les liens entre descripteurs
pdologiques des parcelles et descripteurs sensoriels des vins. Sur la base de Classifications
Ascendantes Hirarchiques (CAH) et dAnalyses en Composante Principale (ACP), il a t
possible dtablir des liens entre la nature des parcelles (sableuse, argileuse, sablo-
graveuleuse) et certains descripteurs sensoriels des vins (chaleur, astringence, fruit noir) et
plus globalement avec le type de vins labors.
Mots-cls : pdologie, type de vin, CAH, ACP.
ABSTRACT
Wine quality depends on various factors and processes, including type of soil. In this study,
we sought to establish links between pedological data and sensory attributes of wines. Based
on Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), it
was possible to establish links between the nature of the parcels (sandy, clayey, gravelly-sand)
and some wine sensory descriptors (heat, astringency, black fruit) and more generally with the
type of wines.
Keywords : pedology, Wine type, HAC, PCA.
1. INTRODUCTION
Llaboration de vins de qualit dpend notamment de la qualit des baies de raisin
rcoltes, c'est--dire de leur degr de maturit, et de la conduite des fermentations. Cest la
premire tape du processus qui nous intresse ici. Lvolution des raisins dpend de
nombreux facteurs dont les principaux sont lis au climat et au sol (Garcia de Cortazar Atauri,
2006). Cependant, tandis que le climat est li un millsime, les donnes pdologiques sont
peu variables dans le temps. Daprs les travaux de Morlat (2001), les sols peuvent tre
regroups selon certains paramtres (texture, profondeur, calcaire actif, ). Lensemble de
ces paramtres influence fortement le fonctionnement de la plante et donc la composition des
baies. En se basant sur lhypothse de lexistence dun potentiel qualitatif dun sol, nous
proposons dessayer dtablir une relation entre type de sol et type de vin. Pour cela, des
classifications des parcelles (donnes pdologiques) et des vins qui en sont issus (donnes
sensorielles) ont t ralises par des mthodes de Classification Ascendante Hirarchique
(CAH) et dAnalyse en Composante Principale (ACP). Par la suite, une identification des
liens est entreprise entre dune part les donnes pdologiques et les donnes sensorielles des
vins et dautre part entre classification des parcelles et classification des vins.
Le couplage des donnes pdologiques et des donnes danalyse sensorielle des vins
permettra dobtenir une classification qui servira de base pour ltude de la maturation des
baies.
2. MATRIEL ET MTHODES
2.1 Le rseau de parcelles
Cette tude sappuie sur les donnes pdologiques collectes par la Cellule Terroir Viticole
dAngers. Le rseau de parcelles, utilis par lInstitut Franais de la Vigne et du Vin (IFV)
depuis une dizaine dannes, est situ en moyenne valle de la Loire et le cpage est le
Cabernet franc. Les 26 parcelles sont situes sur les 5 appellations rouges de la rgion
(tableau 1). Les variables pdologiques utilises pour cette classification sont issues de la
bibliographie (Morlat, 2001) et dun recueil dexpertise ralis auprs dexperts de la filire
(vignerons et communaut scientifique). Les lments de texture et la quantit de calcaire ont
t pris en compte sur 3 horizons (en surface, en profondeur et roche mre). Le pH et la
profondeur du sol exploitable par les racines ont t galement utiliss (tableau 2).
Tableau 1. Prsentation des parcelles du rseau Cabernet franc de la moyenne valle de la Loire
Rgion AOC Parcelles
Bourgueil 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
St Nicolas de Bourgueil 206, 207, 208, 219 Touraine
Chinon 210, 211, 212, 213, 218
Anjou PAP, LEB, BMO, CHAL, MAT, RAH, LEC, CHAU, MAR
Anjou
Saumur CYR, SOU, MB
Tableau 2. Variables pdologiques caractrisant les sols viticoles
A
R
G
s
(
%
)
A
R
G
p

(
%
)
R
G
r
m

(
%
)
S
s

(
%
)

S
p

(
%
)

S
r
m
(
%
)
L
s

(
%
)

L
p

(
%
)

L
r
m
(
%
)
E
G
s

(
%
)
E
G
p

(
%
)
E
G
r
m

(
%
)
p
H
P
R
O
F

(
c
m
)
C
A
s
(
g
/
k
g
)

C
A
p
(
g
/
k
g
)

C
A
r
m
(
g
/
k
g
)

D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
e
u
r
s

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
a
t
i
f
s

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

p
H
P
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r

d
u

s
o
l

e
x
p
l
o
i
t
a
b
l
e

p
a
r

l
e
s

r
a
c
i
n
e
s

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

2.2. Analyse des vins
Sur lensemble de ces parcelles, les raisins sont vinifis de manire identique afin
dintroduire le minimum de biais sur le vin fini. Aprs llevage, les vins sont dgusts par un
jury professionnel compos de 15 viticulteurs de la rgion. Plusieurs variables sont ainsi
values (chaleur, acidit, notes aromatiques, astringence et amertume).
2.3. Traitement des donnes
Le principe de la CAH (Lebart et al., 1995) consiste fusionner chaque tape les deux
clusters les plus proches au sens de la distance choisie. Le processus de classification sarrte
quand les deux clusters restant fusionnent dans lunique cluster qui contient toutes les
observations. Une hirarchie de partitions se prsente donc sous la forme de dendrogramme.
LAnalyse en Composante Principale (ACP) est une mthode de reprsentation graphique
en 2 dimensions dun ensemble dobservations caractrises par plus de deux paramtres. Le
4 - 96
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 96 03/06/10 15:53
POTENTIEL DES SOLS VITICOLES ET QUALIT DES VINS
BROUSSET JM
a
, PICQUE D
a
, GUERIN L
b
, GOULET E
b,c
, PERROT N
a
a
UMR 782, GMPA, INRA, AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon
b
IFV du Val de Loire, 42, rue G. Morel, F-49071 Beaucouz / 46, Av. G. Eiffel, F-37095 Tours cedex 2
c
InterLoire, 12, rue E. Pallu F-37000 TOURS
RSUM
La qualit des vins dpend de diffrents facteurs et procds, notamment de la nature des
terrains viticoles. Dans ce travail, nous avons cherch tablir les liens entre descripteurs
pdologiques des parcelles et descripteurs sensoriels des vins. Sur la base de Classifications
Ascendantes Hirarchiques (CAH) et dAnalyses en Composante Principale (ACP), il a t
possible dtablir des liens entre la nature des parcelles (sableuse, argileuse, sablo-
graveuleuse) et certains descripteurs sensoriels des vins (chaleur, astringence, fruit noir) et
plus globalement avec le type de vins labors.
Mots-cls : pdologie, type de vin, CAH, ACP.
ABSTRACT
Wine quality depends on various factors and processes, including type of soil. In this study,
we sought to establish links between pedological data and sensory attributes of wines. Based
on Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), it
was possible to establish links between the nature of the parcels (sandy, clayey, gravelly-sand)
and some wine sensory descriptors (heat, astringency, black fruit) and more generally with the
type of wines.
Keywords : pedology, Wine type, HAC, PCA.
1. INTRODUCTION
Llaboration de vins de qualit dpend notamment de la qualit des baies de raisin
rcoltes, c'est--dire de leur degr de maturit, et de la conduite des fermentations. Cest la
premire tape du processus qui nous intresse ici. Lvolution des raisins dpend de
nombreux facteurs dont les principaux sont lis au climat et au sol (Garcia de Cortazar Atauri,
2006). Cependant, tandis que le climat est li un millsime, les donnes pdologiques sont
peu variables dans le temps. Daprs les travaux de Morlat (2001), les sols peuvent tre
regroups selon certains paramtres (texture, profondeur, calcaire actif, ). Lensemble de
ces paramtres influence fortement le fonctionnement de la plante et donc la composition des
baies. En se basant sur lhypothse de lexistence dun potentiel qualitatif dun sol, nous
proposons dessayer dtablir une relation entre type de sol et type de vin. Pour cela, des
classifications des parcelles (donnes pdologiques) et des vins qui en sont issus (donnes
sensorielles) ont t ralises par des mthodes de Classification Ascendante Hirarchique
(CAH) et dAnalyse en Composante Principale (ACP). Par la suite, une identification des
liens est entreprise entre dune part les donnes pdologiques et les donnes sensorielles des
vins et dautre part entre classification des parcelles et classification des vins.
Le couplage des donnes pdologiques et des donnes danalyse sensorielle des vins
permettra dobtenir une classification qui servira de base pour ltude de la maturation des
baies.
2. MATRIEL ET MTHODES
2.1 Le rseau de parcelles
Cette tude sappuie sur les donnes pdologiques collectes par la Cellule Terroir Viticole
dAngers. Le rseau de parcelles, utilis par lInstitut Franais de la Vigne et du Vin (IFV)
depuis une dizaine dannes, est situ en moyenne valle de la Loire et le cpage est le
Cabernet franc. Les 26 parcelles sont situes sur les 5 appellations rouges de la rgion
(tableau 1). Les variables pdologiques utilises pour cette classification sont issues de la
bibliographie (Morlat, 2001) et dun recueil dexpertise ralis auprs dexperts de la filire
(vignerons et communaut scientifique). Les lments de texture et la quantit de calcaire ont
t pris en compte sur 3 horizons (en surface, en profondeur et roche mre). Le pH et la
profondeur du sol exploitable par les racines ont t galement utiliss (tableau 2).
Tableau 1. Prsentation des parcelles du rseau Cabernet franc de la moyenne valle de la Loire
Rgion AOC Parcelles
Bourgueil 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
St Nicolas de Bourgueil 206, 207, 208, 219 Touraine
Chinon 210, 211, 212, 213, 218
Anjou PAP, LEB, BMO, CHAL, MAT, RAH, LEC, CHAU, MAR
Anjou
Saumur CYR, SOU, MB
Tableau 2. Variables pdologiques caractrisant les sols viticoles
A
R
G
s
(
%
)
A
R
G
p

(
%
)
R
G
r
m

(
%
)
S
s

(
%
)

S
p

(
%
)

S
r
m
(
%
)
L
s

(
%
)

L
p

(
%
)

L
r
m
(
%
)
E
G
s

(
%
)
E
G
p

(
%
)
E
G
r
m

(
%
)
p
H
P
R
O
F

(
c
m
)
C
A
s
(
g
/
k
g
)

C
A
p
(
g
/
k
g
)

C
A
r
m
(
g
/
k
g
)

D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
e
u
r
s

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
a
t
i
f
s

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

A
r
g
i
l
e

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

S
a
b
l
e

G
r
o
s
s
i
e
r

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

L
i
m
o
n

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

E
l

m
e
n
t
s

g
r
o
s
s
i
e
r
s

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

p
H
P
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r

d
u

s
o
l

e
x
p
l
o
i
t
a
b
l
e

p
a
r

l
e
s

r
a
c
i
n
e
s

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
)

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
p
r
o
f
o
n
d
e
u
r
)

C
a
l
c
a
i
r
e

A
c
t
i
f

(
r
o
c
h
e

m

r
e
)

2.2. Analyse des vins
Sur lensemble de ces parcelles, les raisins sont vinifis de manire identique afin
dintroduire le minimum de biais sur le vin fini. Aprs llevage, les vins sont dgusts par un
jury professionnel compos de 15 viticulteurs de la rgion. Plusieurs variables sont ainsi
values (chaleur, acidit, notes aromatiques, astringence et amertume).
2.3. Traitement des donnes
Le principe de la CAH (Lebart et al., 1995) consiste fusionner chaque tape les deux
clusters les plus proches au sens de la distance choisie. Le processus de classification sarrte
quand les deux clusters restant fusionnent dans lunique cluster qui contient toutes les
observations. Une hirarchie de partitions se prsente donc sous la forme de dendrogramme.
LAnalyse en Composante Principale (ACP) est une mthode de reprsentation graphique
en 2 dimensions dun ensemble dobservations caractrises par plus de deux paramtres. Le
4 - 97
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 97 03/06/10 15:53
calcul des composantes principales est effectu partir de la matrice des corrlations. Le but
est dobtenir une reprsentation la plus fidle possible de lensemble des observations. La
reprsentativit des variables et des observations est juge par la valeur du cosinus carr. Plus
cette valeur est proche de 1, meilleure est la reprsentation dans le plan.
3. RSULTATS ET DISCUSSION
3.1. Classification des parcelles par CAH et ACP
Le dendrogramme obtenu par la CAH (figure 1) montre une sparation claire en 4 groupes.
La parcelle CHAU (S4) se dmarque et semble tre un cas particulier compte tenu de la faible
profondeur du sol exploitable par les racines. Les deux groupes suivants de parcelles se
diffrencient par une appartenance des terrains dominante sableuse (S1/S2) ou
dominante argileuse (S3). Dans le premier cas, on trouve essentiellement des parcelles de la
rgion de Touraine. Dans le second, les parcelles dAnjou et du Saumurois sont les plus
reprsentes. Deux sous groupes peuvent tre dfinis au sein du groupe des parcelles
sableuses par la quantit dlments grossiers prsent dans le sol. On distingue ainsi des
parcelles sableuses (S2) et des parcelles sablo graveleuses (S1).
Dendrogramme
M
B
C
H
A
L
2
1
1
M
A
T
P
A
P
C
Y
R
2
1
3
2
0
3
M
A
R
L
E
B
C
H
A
U
S
O
U
2
1
0
2
0
6
2
0
2
B
M
O
2
1
2
2
0
8
2
0
4
2
1
8
2
0
1
2
0
7
2
0
5
L
E
C
2
1
9
R
A
H
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
D
i
s
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
t

Biplot (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)


MB
CYR
SOU
MAR
CHAU
LEC
RAH
MAT
CHAL BMO
LEB
PAP 219
218 213
212
211
210
208
207
206
205
204
203
202
201
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
Figure 1 : Arbre de classification des parcelles en
fonction des donnes pdologiques
Figure 2. Reprsentation des variables et des parcelles
sur F1/F2 de lACP
Le plan factoriel F1/F2 de lACP (figure 2) ralise sur les mmes donnes pdologiques
explique 57% de la variance. Sur la composante F1, une forte corrlation est observe entre
les variables % Argile et % Limon (tout horizon de sol confondu) en nette opposition avec les
variables % Sable. La deuxime composante met en vidence une influence de la profondeur
du sol (PROF), du pH et des variables % Sable en opposition avec les Elments Grossiers (%
EG tout horizon de sol confondu). La projection des individus sur le plan factoriel de lACP
nous permet galement de caractriser diffrents groupes. Les groupes dfinis partir de la
CAH peuvent galement tre dfinis dans ce plan.
Tableau 3. Rcapitulatif des rsultats obtenus par CAH et ACP sur les donnes pdologiques
Groupes Parcelles Caractrisation
S1 RAH, LEC, 205, 207, 219 Texture sablo-graveleuse
S2 SOU, BMO, 201, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212, 218 Texture sableuse
S3 LEB, MAR, CYR, 203, 213, PAP, CHAL, MAT, MB, 211 Texture argileuse
S4 CHAU Texture sablo-graveleuse + profondeur
S1 S3 S4 S2
S4
S1
S2
S3
Ainsi, la combinaison des rsultats de ces deux analyses nous permet de dterminer 3
groupes et un cas particulier (tableau 3) et de les caractriser en fonction des variables
pdologiques. Une classification similaire a t ralise sans la parcelle CHAU afin den
attnuer leffet par lintermdiaire de la variable profondeur du sol , mais la classification
reste inchange.
3.2 Classification des vins par CAH
La figure 3 prsente le dendrogramme obtenu par la mthode de classification ralise sur
les variables de dgustation des vins.
Dendrogramme
C
H
A
L
R
A
H
C
H
A
U
L
E
B
C
Y
R
L
E
C
M
A
R
B
M
O
P
A
P
M
A
T
2
0
3
2
0
4
2
0
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
0
1
2
1
0
2
1
3
S
O
U
2
1
9
2
0
5
2
0
6
2
0
7
2
0
8
2
1
8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
D
i
s
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
t

Figure 3. Arbre de classification des vin identifis par leur nom de parcelle en fonction des donnes sensorielles
Trois groupes ont t identifis par cette mthode (tableau 4) et permettent de dfinir 3
classes de vins ayant leurs caractristiques propres. Les groupes V1 et V2 sont caractriss
par des parcelles de Touraine (SOU tant une exception) tandis que le groupe V3 est
caractris par des parcelles dAnjou.
Tableau 4. Groupes et caractristiques des vins identifis par leurs noms de parcelle sur la base les donnes sensorielles
Groupes Vins issus des parcelles Caractristiques
V1 (vert) 213, SOU, 219, 205, 206, 207, 208, 218 Peu dalcool, armes de dbut de maturit
V2 (jaune) 203, 204, 202, 212, 211, 201, 210 Amertume, armes plus volus
V3 (rouge)
CHAL, RAH, CHAU, LEB, CYR, LEC, MAR,
BMO, PAP, MAT
Diversit des armes, structure plus apprcie
Le groupe V1 prsente des caractristiques de vins lgers, destins tre bu rapidement
(taux dalcool plus faible, armes de dbut de maturation, peu de tanins). A linverse, le
groupe V3 prsente des caractristiques de vins plus structurs, pouvant tre conservs
quelques annes (chaleur, tanins, armes plus complexes). Le groupe V2 est un intermdiaire,
avec une structure plus apprcie des dgustateurs que celle du groupe V1 mais une prsence
de lamertume encore prononce (signe dune maturit phnolique plus faible que celle du
groupe V3).
3.3. Liens entre caractristiques pdologiques des parcelles et caractristiques
sensorielles des vins
Les variables issues de lanalyse sensorielle des vins ont t intgres par groupe comme
variables supplmentaires dans lACP ralise sur les variables pdologiques. Elles ont t
divises en 3 groupes de manire ce que les groupes correspondent aux diffrentes maturits
des baies. La maturit technologique est caractrise par le sucre et lacidit, la maturit
phnolique par lastringence et lamertume et la maturit aromatique par les notes
V3 V2 V1
4 - 98
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 98 03/06/10 15:53
calcul des composantes principales est effectu partir de la matrice des corrlations. Le but
est dobtenir une reprsentation la plus fidle possible de lensemble des observations. La
reprsentativit des variables et des observations est juge par la valeur du cosinus carr. Plus
cette valeur est proche de 1, meilleure est la reprsentation dans le plan.
3. RSULTATS ET DISCUSSION
3.1. Classification des parcelles par CAH et ACP
Le dendrogramme obtenu par la CAH (figure 1) montre une sparation claire en 4 groupes.
La parcelle CHAU (S4) se dmarque et semble tre un cas particulier compte tenu de la faible
profondeur du sol exploitable par les racines. Les deux groupes suivants de parcelles se
diffrencient par une appartenance des terrains dominante sableuse (S1/S2) ou
dominante argileuse (S3). Dans le premier cas, on trouve essentiellement des parcelles de la
rgion de Touraine. Dans le second, les parcelles dAnjou et du Saumurois sont les plus
reprsentes. Deux sous groupes peuvent tre dfinis au sein du groupe des parcelles
sableuses par la quantit dlments grossiers prsent dans le sol. On distingue ainsi des
parcelles sableuses (S2) et des parcelles sablo graveleuses (S1).
Dendrogramme
M
B
C
H
A
L
2
1
1
M
A
T
P
A
P
C
Y
R
2
1
3
2
0
3
M
A
R
L
E
B
C
H
A
U
S
O
U
2
1
0
2
0
6
2
0
2
B
M
O
2
1
2
2
0
8
2
0
4
2
1
8
2
0
1
2
0
7
2
0
5
L
E
C
2
1
9
R
A
H
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
D
i
s
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
t

Biplot (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)


MB
CYR
SOU
MAR
CHAU
LEC
RAH
MAT
CHAL BMO
LEB
PAP 219
218 213
212
211
210
208
207
206
205
204
203
202
201
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
Figure 1 : Arbre de classification des parcelles en
fonction des donnes pdologiques
Figure 2. Reprsentation des variables et des parcelles
sur F1/F2 de lACP
Le plan factoriel F1/F2 de lACP (figure 2) ralise sur les mmes donnes pdologiques
explique 57% de la variance. Sur la composante F1, une forte corrlation est observe entre
les variables % Argile et % Limon (tout horizon de sol confondu) en nette opposition avec les
variables % Sable. La deuxime composante met en vidence une influence de la profondeur
du sol (PROF), du pH et des variables % Sable en opposition avec les Elments Grossiers (%
EG tout horizon de sol confondu). La projection des individus sur le plan factoriel de lACP
nous permet galement de caractriser diffrents groupes. Les groupes dfinis partir de la
CAH peuvent galement tre dfinis dans ce plan.
Tableau 3. Rcapitulatif des rsultats obtenus par CAH et ACP sur les donnes pdologiques
Groupes Parcelles Caractrisation
S1 RAH, LEC, 205, 207, 219 Texture sablo-graveleuse
S2 SOU, BMO, 201, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212, 218 Texture sableuse
S3 LEB, MAR, CYR, 203, 213, PAP, CHAL, MAT, MB, 211 Texture argileuse
S4 CHAU Texture sablo-graveleuse + profondeur
S1 S3 S4 S2
S4
S1
S2
S3
Ainsi, la combinaison des rsultats de ces deux analyses nous permet de dterminer 3
groupes et un cas particulier (tableau 3) et de les caractriser en fonction des variables
pdologiques. Une classification similaire a t ralise sans la parcelle CHAU afin den
attnuer leffet par lintermdiaire de la variable profondeur du sol , mais la classification
reste inchange.
3.2 Classification des vins par CAH
La figure 3 prsente le dendrogramme obtenu par la mthode de classification ralise sur
les variables de dgustation des vins.
Dendrogramme
C
H
A
L
R
A
H
C
H
A
U
L
E
B
C
Y
R
L
E
C
M
A
R
B
M
O
P
A
P
M
A
T
2
0
3
2
0
4
2
0
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
0
1
2
1
0
2
1
3
S
O
U
2
1
9
2
0
5
2
0
6
2
0
7
2
0
8
2
1
8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
D
i
s
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
t

Figure 3. Arbre de classification des vin identifis par leur nom de parcelle en fonction des donnes sensorielles
Trois groupes ont t identifis par cette mthode (tableau 4) et permettent de dfinir 3
classes de vins ayant leurs caractristiques propres. Les groupes V1 et V2 sont caractriss
par des parcelles de Touraine (SOU tant une exception) tandis que le groupe V3 est
caractris par des parcelles dAnjou.
Tableau 4. Groupes et caractristiques des vins identifis par leurs noms de parcelle sur la base les donnes sensorielles
Groupes Vins issus des parcelles Caractristiques
V1 (vert) 213, SOU, 219, 205, 206, 207, 208, 218 Peu dalcool, armes de dbut de maturit
V2 (jaune) 203, 204, 202, 212, 211, 201, 210 Amertume, armes plus volus
V3 (rouge)
CHAL, RAH, CHAU, LEB, CYR, LEC, MAR,
BMO, PAP, MAT
Diversit des armes, structure plus apprcie
Le groupe V1 prsente des caractristiques de vins lgers, destins tre bu rapidement
(taux dalcool plus faible, armes de dbut de maturation, peu de tanins). A linverse, le
groupe V3 prsente des caractristiques de vins plus structurs, pouvant tre conservs
quelques annes (chaleur, tanins, armes plus complexes). Le groupe V2 est un intermdiaire,
avec une structure plus apprcie des dgustateurs que celle du groupe V1 mais une prsence
de lamertume encore prononce (signe dune maturit phnolique plus faible que celle du
groupe V3).
3.3. Liens entre caractristiques pdologiques des parcelles et caractristiques
sensorielles des vins
Les variables issues de lanalyse sensorielle des vins ont t intgres par groupe comme
variables supplmentaires dans lACP ralise sur les variables pdologiques. Elles ont t
divises en 3 groupes de manire ce que les groupes correspondent aux diffrentes maturits
des baies. La maturit technologique est caractrise par le sucre et lacidit, la maturit
phnolique par lastringence et lamertume et la maturit aromatique par les notes
V3 V2 V1
4 - 99
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 99 03/06/10 15:53
aromatiques (vgtal, fruit rouge, fruit noir, animal et empyreumatique) Les figures 4, 5 et 6
prsentent les coordonnes des variables (pdologiques et sensorielles) dans le plan factoriel
F1/F2 de lACP.
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
Acidit
Chaleur - alcool
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
Amertume
Astringence
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
%ARGs
%ARGp
%ARGrm
%Ss
%Sp
%Srm
%Ls
%Lp
%Lrm
lments
grossiers
surface
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers roche
mre
Profondeur
totale sol
pH
CAs
CAp
CA Rm
Fruits rouges
Fruits noirs
Note vgtale
Note animale
Note
empyreumatique
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Figure 4, 5 et 6. Reprsentation des variables et des variables supplmentaires dans F1/F2
Lalcool est situ dans la partie suprieure droite du plan. Cette variable est anti-corrle
une profondeur de sol importante et la prsence de sable. Dans le plan F1/F2, la variable
acidit est mal reprsente (cosinus carr proche de 0) ; son interprtation est donc
impossible. Lastringence se situe loppos des variables sable et profondeur du sol tandis
que la variable amertume se situe loppos des variables argile et limon. Les variables
aromatiques se rpartissent de manire logique avec une volution selon laxe 2 lie la
maturation des baies (vgtal puis fruit rouge et enfin fruit noir). La note aromatique fruit
noir , reprsentative des vins issus de baies de maturit plus aboutie, est anti-corrle avec la
prsence de sable et une profondeur du sol importante. Les notes empyreumatiques et
animales, situes dans la partie suprieure droite du plan, sont galement anti-corrles avec
la prsence de sable et la profondeur du sol. Il semblerait que le sable et la profondeur du sol
soient des facteurs limitants de la maturit et de la diversit des armes.
Dune manire plus gnrale, la tendance qui ressort de ces 3 figures semble tre la capacit
plus prononce des sols argileux produire des vins plus structurs (chaleur, astringence, fruit
noir), issus de baies de maturit plus pousse. Les sols sableux seraient plus propices
llaboration de vins lgers.
La figure 7 est la reprsentation graphique des parcelles dans le plan factoriel F1/F2 ralise
sur les donnes pdologiques. Chacune des parcelles est reprsente par la couleur
correspondante aux groupes de vins issus de la classification sur les donnes sensorielles
rpertories dans le tableau 4. Une sparation est observe selon laxe 1. Le groupe de vin V1
(vert) se situe principalement sur la gauche du plan factoriel, caractris par les variables %
Sable et % dElments Grossiers (parcelles sableuses et sablo graveleuses). Le groupe V3
(rouge) correspond essentiellement des parcelles tendance argileuse. Enfin, les vins du
groupe V2 (jaune) se rpartissent de manire htrogne dans le plan factoriel. Ces
observations confirment les tendances observes dans les figures 4, 5 et 6. Les vins plus
structurs (V3) sont issus des parcelles les plus argileuses alors que les vins plus lgers (V1)
sont produits sur les parcelles tendance sableuse.
Cependant, les pourcentages dexplication des plans ainsi que la reprsentation de certaines
variables supplmentaires sont relativement faibles. Les rsultats doivent tre interprts avec
prudence ; nous ne pouvons parler que de tendances.
Observations (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
MB
CYR
SOU
MAR
CHAU
LEC
RAH
MAT
CHAL
BMO
LEB
PAP
219
218
213
212
211
210
208
207
206
205
204
203
202
201
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
Figure 7. Positionnement des parcelles (groupe S1 S4) dans le plan F1/F2 de lACP ralise sur les donnes
pdologiques. Les couleurs correspondent aux types de vins issus des parcelles.
4. CONCLUSION
Nous avons pu identifier 4 groupes de parcelles dont la principale opposition se fait au
niveau de la texture (sableuse ou argileuse). On note galement une importance du taux
dlments grossiers en ce qui concerne les parcelles sableuses. En mettant en relation cette
classification avec les donnes danalyse sensorielle des vins, nous avons galement montr
un lien entre type de sol et type de vin. Les parcelles dominante sableuses sont propices
llaboration de vins lgers, ncessitant une maturation des baies moins pousse, tandis que
les parcelles argileuses permettent denvisager des vins plus structurs destins tre
conservs quelques temps.
Cependant, la significativit de ce lien est moyenne. La qualit des vin ne dpend pas
uniquement des facteurs pdologiques. Le systme est plus complexe dcrire et certaines
variables (mtorologie, techniques culturales) manquent pour mieux expliquer la qualit des
vins.
Rfrences
Coombe, B.G., McCarthy, M.G., 2000, Dynamics of grape berry growth and physiology of
ripening. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 6:131-135.
Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, I., 2006, Adaptation du modle STICS la vigne (Vitis vinifera
L.). Utilisation dans le cadre dune tude dimpacte du changement climatique lchelle
de la France. Thse, Ecole Nationale Suprieure Agronomique de Montpellier.
Lebart, L., Morineau, A., Piron, M., 1995, Statistique exploratoire multidimensionnelle.
Dunod, Paris.
Morlat, R., 2001, Le terroir viticole : Contribution l'tude de sa caractrisation et de son
influence sur les vins. Applications aux vignobles rouges de Moyenne Valle de la Loire.
Thse de doctorat d'Etat de lUniversit de Bordeaux.
SABLE ARGILE
S4
S1
S2
S3
4 - 100
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 100 03/06/10 15:53
aromatiques (vgtal, fruit rouge, fruit noir, animal et empyreumatique) Les figures 4, 5 et 6
prsentent les coordonnes des variables (pdologiques et sensorielles) dans le plan factoriel
F1/F2 de lACP.
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
Acidit
Chaleur - alcool
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
CA Rm
CAp
CAs
pH
Profondeur
totale sol
lments
grossiers roche
mre
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers
surface
%Lrm
%Lp
%Ls
%Srm
%Sp
%Ss
%ARGrm
%ARGp
%ARGs
Amertume
Astringence
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Variables (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
%ARGs
%ARGp
%ARGrm
%Ss
%Sp
%Srm
%Ls
%Lp
%Lrm
lments
grossiers
surface
lments
grossiers
profondeur
lments
grossiers roche
mre
Profondeur
totale sol
pH
CAs
CAp
CA Rm
Fruits rouges
Fruits noirs
Note vgtale
Note animale
Note
empyreumatique
-1
-0,75
-0,5
-0,25
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
-1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
variables actives Variables supplmentaires
Figure 4, 5 et 6. Reprsentation des variables et des variables supplmentaires dans F1/F2
Lalcool est situ dans la partie suprieure droite du plan. Cette variable est anti-corrle
une profondeur de sol importante et la prsence de sable. Dans le plan F1/F2, la variable
acidit est mal reprsente (cosinus carr proche de 0) ; son interprtation est donc
impossible. Lastringence se situe loppos des variables sable et profondeur du sol tandis
que la variable amertume se situe loppos des variables argile et limon. Les variables
aromatiques se rpartissent de manire logique avec une volution selon laxe 2 lie la
maturation des baies (vgtal puis fruit rouge et enfin fruit noir). La note aromatique fruit
noir , reprsentative des vins issus de baies de maturit plus aboutie, est anti-corrle avec la
prsence de sable et une profondeur du sol importante. Les notes empyreumatiques et
animales, situes dans la partie suprieure droite du plan, sont galement anti-corrles avec
la prsence de sable et la profondeur du sol. Il semblerait que le sable et la profondeur du sol
soient des facteurs limitants de la maturit et de la diversit des armes.
Dune manire plus gnrale, la tendance qui ressort de ces 3 figures semble tre la capacit
plus prononce des sols argileux produire des vins plus structurs (chaleur, astringence, fruit
noir), issus de baies de maturit plus pousse. Les sols sableux seraient plus propices
llaboration de vins lgers.
La figure 7 est la reprsentation graphique des parcelles dans le plan factoriel F1/F2 ralise
sur les donnes pdologiques. Chacune des parcelles est reprsente par la couleur
correspondante aux groupes de vins issus de la classification sur les donnes sensorielles
rpertories dans le tableau 4. Une sparation est observe selon laxe 1. Le groupe de vin V1
(vert) se situe principalement sur la gauche du plan factoriel, caractris par les variables %
Sable et % dElments Grossiers (parcelles sableuses et sablo graveleuses). Le groupe V3
(rouge) correspond essentiellement des parcelles tendance argileuse. Enfin, les vins du
groupe V2 (jaune) se rpartissent de manire htrogne dans le plan factoriel. Ces
observations confirment les tendances observes dans les figures 4, 5 et 6. Les vins plus
structurs (V3) sont issus des parcelles les plus argileuses alors que les vins plus lgers (V1)
sont produits sur les parcelles tendance sableuse.
Cependant, les pourcentages dexplication des plans ainsi que la reprsentation de certaines
variables supplmentaires sont relativement faibles. Les rsultats doivent tre interprts avec
prudence ; nous ne pouvons parler que de tendances.
Observations (axes F1 et F2 : 57,12 %)
MB
CYR
SOU
MAR
CHAU
LEC
RAH
MAT
CHAL
BMO
LEB
PAP
219
218
213
212
211
210
208
207
206
205
204
203
202
201
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
F1 (33,04 %)
F
2

(
2
4
,
0
8

%
)
Figure 7. Positionnement des parcelles (groupe S1 S4) dans le plan F1/F2 de lACP ralise sur les donnes
pdologiques. Les couleurs correspondent aux types de vins issus des parcelles.
4. CONCLUSION
Nous avons pu identifier 4 groupes de parcelles dont la principale opposition se fait au
niveau de la texture (sableuse ou argileuse). On note galement une importance du taux
dlments grossiers en ce qui concerne les parcelles sableuses. En mettant en relation cette
classification avec les donnes danalyse sensorielle des vins, nous avons galement montr
un lien entre type de sol et type de vin. Les parcelles dominante sableuses sont propices
llaboration de vins lgers, ncessitant une maturation des baies moins pousse, tandis que
les parcelles argileuses permettent denvisager des vins plus structurs destins tre
conservs quelques temps.
Cependant, la significativit de ce lien est moyenne. La qualit des vin ne dpend pas
uniquement des facteurs pdologiques. Le systme est plus complexe dcrire et certaines
variables (mtorologie, techniques culturales) manquent pour mieux expliquer la qualit des
vins.
Rfrences
Coombe, B.G., McCarthy, M.G., 2000, Dynamics of grape berry growth and physiology of
ripening. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 6:131-135.
Garcia de Cortazar Atauri, I., 2006, Adaptation du modle STICS la vigne (Vitis vinifera
L.). Utilisation dans le cadre dune tude dimpacte du changement climatique lchelle
de la France. Thse, Ecole Nationale Suprieure Agronomique de Montpellier.
Lebart, L., Morineau, A., Piron, M., 1995, Statistique exploratoire multidimensionnelle.
Dunod, Paris.
Morlat, R., 2001, Le terroir viticole : Contribution l'tude de sa caractrisation et de son
influence sur les vins. Applications aux vignobles rouges de Moyenne Valle de la Loire.
Thse de doctorat d'Etat de lUniversit de Bordeaux.
SABLE ARGILE
S4
S1
S2
S3
4 - 101
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 101 03/06/10 15:53
INFLUENZA DI ALCUNI ASPETTI AMBIENTALI SUL CONTENUTO DI
STILBENI NEL VINO NELLAREA DELLA DOC SANGIOVESE DI
ROMAGNA (ITALIA)
Matteo GATTI
(1,2)
, Silvia CIVARDI
(2)
, Maurizio ZAMBONI
(2)
, Luigi BAVARESCO
(2)
,
Federico FERRARI
(3)
, Stefano RAIMONDI
(4)
, Marco SIMONI
(5)
, Driss ELOTHMANI
(1)
,
Frdrique JOURJON
(1)
(1)
Laboratoire GRAPPE, Ecole Suprieure dAgriculture
55 rue Rabelais, B.P. 30748, 49007 Angers Cedex 01, France
d.elothmani@groupe-esa.com; f.jourjon@groupe-esa.com
(2)
Istituto di Frutti-Viticoltura, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Via E. Parmense 84, 29199 Piacenza, Italia
matteo.gatti@unicatt.it; silvia.civardi@unicatt.it; maurizio.zamboni@unicatt.it; luigi.bavaresco@unicatt.it
(3)
Istituto di Chimica Agraria e Ambientale, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Via E. Parmense 84, 29199 Piacenza, Italia
federico.ferrari@unicatt.it
(4)
I.TER Soc. coop.
Via Brugnoli 11, 40122 Bologna, Italia
raimondi@pedologia.net
(5)
ASTRA Innovazione e Sviluppo s.r.l.
Via Tebano 45, 48018 Faenza (RA), Italia
Marco.Simoni@astrainnovazione.it
RIASSUNTO
Nellambito della zonazione della Doc Sangiovese di Romagna sono stati descritti 25 siti
sperimentali, aventi diversa origine geologica, in cui stato individuato un vigneto omogeneo per
la determinazione dei principali parametri viticoli ed enologici. In seguito stato analizzato il
contenuto di stilbeni nei vini al fine di approfondirne il legame con le caratteristiche
geopedologiche. Lo studio descrive la relazione positiva tra laltitudine e il contenuto di trans-
piceide nelle province di Forl e Ravenna e di trans-resveratrolo a Ravenna. I suoli con maggiore
calcare attivo hanno fornito vini pi ricchi in stilbeni.
PAROLE CHIAVE
Formazione geologica Calcare attivo - Stilbeni Sangiovese
ABSTRACT
The Sangiovese di Romagna zoning characterized 25 sites, based on a different geological
origin. For each site, a representative commercial vineyard was chosen and the main viticultural
and oenological parameters were recorded. The wine stilbene content was analyzed to investigate
the effect of the geological origin and the soil composition. Positive relations between site
elevation and trans-resveratrol and site elevation and trans-piceid were observed in the Ravenna
and, Forl and Ravenna area, respectively. The higher the active lime in the soils the richer the
stilbenes in the wines.
KEYWORD
Geology Active lime Stilbenes Sangiovese
INTRODUZIONE
Gli stilbeni sono composti fenolici a basso peso molecolare presenti in numerose famiglie di
piante, tra cui le Vitaceae, aventi carattere costitutivo oppure inducibile dallesposizione a fattori
di stress. Da lungo tempo assodato che il trans-resveratrolo, il primo ad essere stato scoperto
(Langcake, Price, 1977) e quindi il pi noto, svolge un importante ruolo antifungino
(fitoalessina), ma recenti sperimentazioni lo hanno indicato come importante antiossidante
naturale (Sienmann, Creasy, 1992; Renaud, de Lorgeril, 1992), nonch come possibile fattore di
longevit della pianta, poich implicato nel metabolismo delle sirtuine della vite (Busconi et al.,
2009). Gli stilbeni rivestono pertanto unimportanza notevole sia sul piano della vitalit del
vigneto che dal punto di vista salutistico e nutraceutico rappresentando un parametro qualitativo
delluva e dei vini che da essa ne derivano. Nella vite, la sintesi di dette molecole legata
allattivazione della Stilbene sintasi (Rupprich, Kindl, 1978) da parte di elicitori biotici, tra cui le
principali crittogame (Jeandet et al., 1995; Bavaresco et al., 1997, 2008a), ma anche abiotici
legati alle condizioni ambientali (Bavaresco et al. 2005, 2007; de Andrs-de Prado et al., 2007) e
colturali (Bavaresco et al., 2008b). Poich le potenzialit viticole di un ambiente dipendono dalle
interazioni che legano il vitigno a specifiche condizioni climatiche, geopedologiche,
paesaggistiche e colturali cos come indicato dalla definizione di terroir, recentemente adottata
dallOiv, si ritiene opportuno inserire nellambito della zonazione viticola per lindividuazione
delle terre pi idonee alla coltura della vite, lo studio di alcuni metaboliti secondari al fine di
individuarne il legame con il territorio, indipendentemente dallintensit della pressione fungina
(Adrian et al., 2000).
Il presente lavoro vuole approfondire leventuale interazione esistente tra lorigine geologica
del suolo e il tenore di stilbeni del vino, finora sconosciuta, nonch verificare in pieno campo
leffetto del calcare attivo e di alcune componenti paesaggistiche.
MATERIALI E METODI
Nellambito di un progetto di zonazione viticola della Collina Romagnola, coordinato dal
C.R.P.V. e riferito, nello specifico, allarea di produzione del Sangiovese di Romagna, sono
stati individuati 25 siti omogenei nelle colline di Faenza (otto), Forl-Cesena (dieci) e Rimini
(sette). La scelta dei vigneti ha preso in considerazione le principali unit geologiche
dellAppennino romagnolo formatesi tra la fine del Terziario e linizio del Quaternario ovvero, la
Formazione Marnoso Arenacea (FMA), la Formazione delle Argille Azzurre (FAA) e la pi
recente Formazione del Margine Appenninico (AES). I vigneti, impiantati a Sangiovese biotipo
romagnolo spesso derivato da materiale standard e innestato su ibridi Berlandieri per Riparia,
erano allevati a cordone speronato con una densit dimpianto di circa 3500 ceppi/ha e distanza
media tra i filari pari a 3 m. I siti osservati erano collocati a unaltitudine variabile tra i 45 e i 280
m s.l.m. con pendenza differente a seconda della relativa unit geologica. Lo studio delleffetto
della formazione geologica stato epurato dellinterazione con laltitudine individuando due zone
altimetriche (< 100 m e 100-160 m) entro le quali sono stati considerati tre siti per ciascuna unit
geologica; solo per FMA stata considerata unicamente laltimetria superiore. Annualmente sono
state rilevate le principali caratteristiche vegeto-produttive delle viti e, alla vendemmia, stata
prelevata una quota di uva pari a circa 80 kg, poi micro-vinificata. Sui vini ottenuti stata
eseguita la determinazione dei principali parametri della qualit e, nel maggio 2009, dopo
centrifugazione di 5 minuti a 3500 rpm, stato dosato il contenuto degli stilbeni nei vini della
vendemmia 2008 per iniezione diretta in HPLC (Agilent HP 1100 Waldbronn, Germania)
4 - 102
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 102 03/06/10 15:53
INFLUENZA DI ALCUNI ASPETTI AMBIENTALI SUL CONTENUTO DI
STILBENI NEL VINO NELLAREA DELLA DOC SANGIOVESE DI
ROMAGNA (ITALIA)
Matteo GATTI
(1,2)
, Silvia CIVARDI
(2)
, Maurizio ZAMBONI
(2)
, Luigi BAVARESCO
(2)
,
Federico FERRARI
(3)
, Stefano RAIMONDI
(4)
, Marco SIMONI
(5)
, Driss ELOTHMANI
(1)
,
Frdrique JOURJON
(1)
(1)
Laboratoire GRAPPE, Ecole Suprieure dAgriculture
55 rue Rabelais, B.P. 30748, 49007 Angers Cedex 01, France
d.elothmani@groupe-esa.com; f.jourjon@groupe-esa.com
(2)
Istituto di Frutti-Viticoltura, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Via E. Parmense 84, 29199 Piacenza, Italia
matteo.gatti@unicatt.it; silvia.civardi@unicatt.it; maurizio.zamboni@unicatt.it; luigi.bavaresco@unicatt.it
(3)
Istituto di Chimica Agraria e Ambientale, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Via E. Parmense 84, 29199 Piacenza, Italia
federico.ferrari@unicatt.it
(4)
I.TER Soc. coop.
Via Brugnoli 11, 40122 Bologna, Italia
raimondi@pedologia.net
(5)
ASTRA Innovazione e Sviluppo s.r.l.
Via Tebano 45, 48018 Faenza (RA), Italia
Marco.Simoni@astrainnovazione.it
RIASSUNTO
Nellambito della zonazione della Doc Sangiovese di Romagna sono stati descritti 25 siti
sperimentali, aventi diversa origine geologica, in cui stato individuato un vigneto omogeneo per
la determinazione dei principali parametri viticoli ed enologici. In seguito stato analizzato il
contenuto di stilbeni nei vini al fine di approfondirne il legame con le caratteristiche
geopedologiche. Lo studio descrive la relazione positiva tra laltitudine e il contenuto di trans-
piceide nelle province di Forl e Ravenna e di trans-resveratrolo a Ravenna. I suoli con maggiore
calcare attivo hanno fornito vini pi ricchi in stilbeni.
PAROLE CHIAVE
Formazione geologica Calcare attivo - Stilbeni Sangiovese
ABSTRACT
The Sangiovese di Romagna zoning characterized 25 sites, based on a different geological
origin. For each site, a representative commercial vineyard was chosen and the main viticultural
and oenological parameters were recorded. The wine stilbene content was analyzed to investigate
the effect of the geological origin and the soil composition. Positive relations between site
elevation and trans-resveratrol and site elevation and trans-piceid were observed in the Ravenna
and, Forl and Ravenna area, respectively. The higher the active lime in the soils the richer the
stilbenes in the wines.
KEYWORD
Geology Active lime Stilbenes Sangiovese
INTRODUZIONE
Gli stilbeni sono composti fenolici a basso peso molecolare presenti in numerose famiglie di
piante, tra cui le Vitaceae, aventi carattere costitutivo oppure inducibile dallesposizione a fattori
di stress. Da lungo tempo assodato che il trans-resveratrolo, il primo ad essere stato scoperto
(Langcake, Price, 1977) e quindi il pi noto, svolge un importante ruolo antifungino
(fitoalessina), ma recenti sperimentazioni lo hanno indicato come importante antiossidante
naturale (Sienmann, Creasy, 1992; Renaud, de Lorgeril, 1992), nonch come possibile fattore di
longevit della pianta, poich implicato nel metabolismo delle sirtuine della vite (Busconi et al.,
2009). Gli stilbeni rivestono pertanto unimportanza notevole sia sul piano della vitalit del
vigneto che dal punto di vista salutistico e nutraceutico rappresentando un parametro qualitativo
delluva e dei vini che da essa ne derivano. Nella vite, la sintesi di dette molecole legata
allattivazione della Stilbene sintasi (Rupprich, Kindl, 1978) da parte di elicitori biotici, tra cui le
principali crittogame (Jeandet et al., 1995; Bavaresco et al., 1997, 2008a), ma anche abiotici
legati alle condizioni ambientali (Bavaresco et al. 2005, 2007; de Andrs-de Prado et al., 2007) e
colturali (Bavaresco et al., 2008b). Poich le potenzialit viticole di un ambiente dipendono dalle
interazioni che legano il vitigno a specifiche condizioni climatiche, geopedologiche,
paesaggistiche e colturali cos come indicato dalla definizione di terroir, recentemente adottata
dallOiv, si ritiene opportuno inserire nellambito della zonazione viticola per lindividuazione
delle terre pi idonee alla coltura della vite, lo studio di alcuni metaboliti secondari al fine di
individuarne il legame con il territorio, indipendentemente dallintensit della pressione fungina
(Adrian et al., 2000).
Il presente lavoro vuole approfondire leventuale interazione esistente tra lorigine geologica
del suolo e il tenore di stilbeni del vino, finora sconosciuta, nonch verificare in pieno campo
leffetto del calcare attivo e di alcune componenti paesaggistiche.
MATERIALI E METODI
Nellambito di un progetto di zonazione viticola della Collina Romagnola, coordinato dal
C.R.P.V. e riferito, nello specifico, allarea di produzione del Sangiovese di Romagna, sono
stati individuati 25 siti omogenei nelle colline di Faenza (otto), Forl-Cesena (dieci) e Rimini
(sette). La scelta dei vigneti ha preso in considerazione le principali unit geologiche
dellAppennino romagnolo formatesi tra la fine del Terziario e linizio del Quaternario ovvero, la
Formazione Marnoso Arenacea (FMA), la Formazione delle Argille Azzurre (FAA) e la pi
recente Formazione del Margine Appenninico (AES). I vigneti, impiantati a Sangiovese biotipo
romagnolo spesso derivato da materiale standard e innestato su ibridi Berlandieri per Riparia,
erano allevati a cordone speronato con una densit dimpianto di circa 3500 ceppi/ha e distanza
media tra i filari pari a 3 m. I siti osservati erano collocati a unaltitudine variabile tra i 45 e i 280
m s.l.m. con pendenza differente a seconda della relativa unit geologica. Lo studio delleffetto
della formazione geologica stato epurato dellinterazione con laltitudine individuando due zone
altimetriche (< 100 m e 100-160 m) entro le quali sono stati considerati tre siti per ciascuna unit
geologica; solo per FMA stata considerata unicamente laltimetria superiore. Annualmente sono
state rilevate le principali caratteristiche vegeto-produttive delle viti e, alla vendemmia, stata
prelevata una quota di uva pari a circa 80 kg, poi micro-vinificata. Sui vini ottenuti stata
eseguita la determinazione dei principali parametri della qualit e, nel maggio 2009, dopo
centrifugazione di 5 minuti a 3500 rpm, stato dosato il contenuto degli stilbeni nei vini della
vendemmia 2008 per iniezione diretta in HPLC (Agilent HP 1100 Waldbronn, Germania)
4 - 103
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 103 03/06/10 15:53
abbinata a un detector a diodi (DAD) settato a 306 e 325 nm utilizzando una colonna C18
Supelco Supelcosil.
I dati raccolti sono stati elaborati mediante lanalisi della varianza (ANOVA) a un criterio di
classificazione considerando come fonti di variazione la Formazione geologica e il Calcare
attivo; le medie sono state comparate con il test SNK (p<0.05). La relazione esistente tra
altitudine e tenore di stilbeni del vino stata studiata mediante la regressione lineare.
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
Nei vini Sangiovese 2008 analizzati stata ricercata la presenza di numerosi stilbeni
riscontrando concentrazioni interessanti di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo. Non sono stati
rilevati il pallidolo, il piceatannolo, - ed -viniferina nonch la forma cis- di piceide e
resveratrolo. Il trans-piceide variato da concentrazioni pressoch nulle in alcuni vigneti del
margine appenninico a livelli considerevoli superiori a 6 mg/L di alcuni siti delle Argille azzurre
del riminese. Le concentrazioni di trans-resveratrolo, seppur inferiori rispetto al precedente
composto, sono oscillate tra 0.3 e 4.5 mg/L.
Il ruolo dellaltitudine sul tenore di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo stato ricercato mediante
la definizione di correlazioni lineari per le diverse province osservando coefficienti di
correlazione altamente significativi (p<0.01) nel caso del trans-piceide a Forl-Cesena e a
Ravenna e del trans-resveratrolo a Ravenna. Il risultato, parzialmente atteso, concorda con
quanto osservato nel corso di precedenti sperimentazioni (Bavaresco et al., 2007) ma assume,
nelle condizioni di coltura descritte, un andamento lineare senza raggiungere un plateau (Figure
1, 2 e 3).
Figura 1 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di
trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese della provincia di
Forl-Cesena
Figura 2 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di
trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese della provincia di
Ravenna
Tabella 1 : Contenuto di trans-resveratrolo e di trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese in funzione del calcare attivo
del suolo
Calcare attivo trans-Resveratrolo (mg/L) trans-Piceide (mg/L)
< 2 % 1.10 a 1.07 a
2-5 % 1.44 ab 1.30 a
> 5 % 1.90 b 3.51 b
A lettere diverse corrispondono medie significativamente differenti per p 0,05 al test S-N-K
Figura 3 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di trans-resveratrolo nei vini Sangiovese del Ravennate
Leffetto del calcare attivo, contenuto nei primi strati del profilo, sul contenuto di stilbeni del
vino stato studiato suddividendo i siti in tre classi (Tab. 1). Il trans-resveratrolo variato da un
minimo di 1.10 mg/L a un massimo di 1.97 mg/L; i vini dei siti con calcare attivo inferiore al 2%
erano significativamente meno ricchi in trans-resveratrolo rispetto a quelli pi calcarei con
almeno il 5% di calcare attivo. Considerando il trans-piceide che oscillato tra 1.07 mg/L e 3.51
mg/L, i siti con calcare attivo superiore al 5% hanno mostrato un contenuto superiore a tutti gli
altri in misura pi che significativa. Dalle prime osservazioni ci pare corretto ritenere che in
questi ambienti sia necessaria una buona dotazione di calcare attivo per registrare un sensibile
incremento degli stilbeni nel vino e in particolare nel caso del trans-piceide per il quale si ritiene
necessaria una dotazione del suolo molto buona. I risultati ottenuti hanno inoltre confermato,
sulla base della maggior variabilit dei 25 vigneti, quanto precedentemente osservato su viti
allevate in vaso (Bavaresco et al., 2005; 2008a).
Sulla base dei riscontri precedentemente descritti diventa interessante analizzare leventuale
effetto che la formazione geologica del sito di coltivazione, esercita sulla sintesi degli stilbeni.
Infatti, lAppennino romagnolo si compone di rocce sedimentarie di prevalente origine marina,
spesso diversificabili in funzione del tenore in calcare attivo dei suoli, nonch per componenti
paesaggistiche rilevanti al fine della viticoltura di qualit. I suoli del margine appenninico, da
rocce risalenti al pleistocene (AES), sono moderatamente ondulati, profondi, a tessitura fine,
soggetti a ristagno idrico e privi di calcare. Considerando la formazione pliocenica delle Argille
Azzurre emergono notevoli differenze rispetto ad AES, legate allinclinazione dei pendii, alla
minore profondit del suolo, alla tessitura media e alla dotazione calcarea pi consistente. La
Formazione Marnoso Arenacea (FMA) ha suoli a tessitura molto variabile riguardo alla tipologia
del substrato, mentre la dotazione calcarea generalmente elevata.
Complessivamente si pu affermare che la formazione geologica abbia influenzato la sintesi
degli stilbeni poi riscontrati nel vino. I siti della Formazione delle Argille Azzurre hanno
presentato una concentrazione di trans-piceide di 2.86 mg/L, significativamente superiore
rispetto a quella del Margine appenninico (0.94 mg/L); la Formazione Marnoso Arenacea si
invece collocata su valori intermedi (Fig. 4). I vini afferenti alle unit geologiche FAA e FMA
hanno mostrato un tenore di trans-resveratrolo significativamente superiore (circa 1.6 mg/L)
rispetto a quelli del margine appenninico (0.99 mg/L).
4 - 104
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 104 03/06/10 15:53
abbinata a un detector a diodi (DAD) settato a 306 e 325 nm utilizzando una colonna C18
Supelco Supelcosil.
I dati raccolti sono stati elaborati mediante lanalisi della varianza (ANOVA) a un criterio di
classificazione considerando come fonti di variazione la Formazione geologica e il Calcare
attivo; le medie sono state comparate con il test SNK (p<0.05). La relazione esistente tra
altitudine e tenore di stilbeni del vino stata studiata mediante la regressione lineare.
RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
Nei vini Sangiovese 2008 analizzati stata ricercata la presenza di numerosi stilbeni
riscontrando concentrazioni interessanti di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo. Non sono stati
rilevati il pallidolo, il piceatannolo, - ed -viniferina nonch la forma cis- di piceide e
resveratrolo. Il trans-piceide variato da concentrazioni pressoch nulle in alcuni vigneti del
margine appenninico a livelli considerevoli superiori a 6 mg/L di alcuni siti delle Argille azzurre
del riminese. Le concentrazioni di trans-resveratrolo, seppur inferiori rispetto al precedente
composto, sono oscillate tra 0.3 e 4.5 mg/L.
Il ruolo dellaltitudine sul tenore di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo stato ricercato mediante
la definizione di correlazioni lineari per le diverse province osservando coefficienti di
correlazione altamente significativi (p<0.01) nel caso del trans-piceide a Forl-Cesena e a
Ravenna e del trans-resveratrolo a Ravenna. Il risultato, parzialmente atteso, concorda con
quanto osservato nel corso di precedenti sperimentazioni (Bavaresco et al., 2007) ma assume,
nelle condizioni di coltura descritte, un andamento lineare senza raggiungere un plateau (Figure
1, 2 e 3).
Figura 1 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di
trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese della provincia di
Forl-Cesena
Figura 2 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di
trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese della provincia di
Ravenna
Tabella 1 : Contenuto di trans-resveratrolo e di trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese in funzione del calcare attivo
del suolo
Calcare attivo trans-Resveratrolo (mg/L) trans-Piceide (mg/L)
< 2 % 1.10 a 1.07 a
2-5 % 1.44 ab 1.30 a
> 5 % 1.90 b 3.51 b
A lettere diverse corrispondono medie significativamente differenti per p 0,05 al test S-N-K
Figura 3 : Effetto dellaltitudine sul contenuto di trans-resveratrolo nei vini Sangiovese del Ravennate
Leffetto del calcare attivo, contenuto nei primi strati del profilo, sul contenuto di stilbeni del
vino stato studiato suddividendo i siti in tre classi (Tab. 1). Il trans-resveratrolo variato da un
minimo di 1.10 mg/L a un massimo di 1.97 mg/L; i vini dei siti con calcare attivo inferiore al 2%
erano significativamente meno ricchi in trans-resveratrolo rispetto a quelli pi calcarei con
almeno il 5% di calcare attivo. Considerando il trans-piceide che oscillato tra 1.07 mg/L e 3.51
mg/L, i siti con calcare attivo superiore al 5% hanno mostrato un contenuto superiore a tutti gli
altri in misura pi che significativa. Dalle prime osservazioni ci pare corretto ritenere che in
questi ambienti sia necessaria una buona dotazione di calcare attivo per registrare un sensibile
incremento degli stilbeni nel vino e in particolare nel caso del trans-piceide per il quale si ritiene
necessaria una dotazione del suolo molto buona. I risultati ottenuti hanno inoltre confermato,
sulla base della maggior variabilit dei 25 vigneti, quanto precedentemente osservato su viti
allevate in vaso (Bavaresco et al., 2005; 2008a).
Sulla base dei riscontri precedentemente descritti diventa interessante analizzare leventuale
effetto che la formazione geologica del sito di coltivazione, esercita sulla sintesi degli stilbeni.
Infatti, lAppennino romagnolo si compone di rocce sedimentarie di prevalente origine marina,
spesso diversificabili in funzione del tenore in calcare attivo dei suoli, nonch per componenti
paesaggistiche rilevanti al fine della viticoltura di qualit. I suoli del margine appenninico, da
rocce risalenti al pleistocene (AES), sono moderatamente ondulati, profondi, a tessitura fine,
soggetti a ristagno idrico e privi di calcare. Considerando la formazione pliocenica delle Argille
Azzurre emergono notevoli differenze rispetto ad AES, legate allinclinazione dei pendii, alla
minore profondit del suolo, alla tessitura media e alla dotazione calcarea pi consistente. La
Formazione Marnoso Arenacea (FMA) ha suoli a tessitura molto variabile riguardo alla tipologia
del substrato, mentre la dotazione calcarea generalmente elevata.
Complessivamente si pu affermare che la formazione geologica abbia influenzato la sintesi
degli stilbeni poi riscontrati nel vino. I siti della Formazione delle Argille Azzurre hanno
presentato una concentrazione di trans-piceide di 2.86 mg/L, significativamente superiore
rispetto a quella del Margine appenninico (0.94 mg/L); la Formazione Marnoso Arenacea si
invece collocata su valori intermedi (Fig. 4). I vini afferenti alle unit geologiche FAA e FMA
hanno mostrato un tenore di trans-resveratrolo significativamente superiore (circa 1.6 mg/L)
rispetto a quelli del margine appenninico (0.99 mg/L).
4 - 105
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 105 03/06/10 15:53
b
b
a
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
AES FMA FAA
t
r
a
n
s
-
P
i
c
e
i
d
e
(
m
g
/
L
)
Figura 4: Contenuto di trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna in funzione dellorigine geologica
b b
a
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
AES FMA FAA
t
r
a
n
s
-
R
e
s
v
e
r
a
t
r
o
l
o
(
m
g
/
L
)
Figura 5: Contenuto di trans-resveratrolo nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna in funzione dellorigine geologica
I siti delle Argille Azzurre hanno presentato una concentrazione di trans-piceide di 2.86 mg/L,
significativamente superiore rispetto a quella del Margine appenninico (0.94 mg/L); la
Formazione Marnoso-arenacea si invece collocata su valori intermedi. I vini afferenti alle unit
geologiche FAA e FMA hanno mostrato un tenore di trans-resveratrolo significativamente
superiore (circa 1.6 mg/L) rispetto a quelli del margine appenninico (0.99 mg/L) (Fig. 5). Seppur
con riferimento alla sola vendemmia 2008, ragionevole osservare come i livelli pi scarsi di
trans-resveratrolo e di trans-piceide siano collegati a siti del margine appenninico ben distinti
dalle altre formazioni geologiche in particolare per il modesto contenuto in calcare degli strati
superficiali. Le dinamiche dellacqua nel suolo e in particolare le conoscenze degli equilibri del
potassio legati alla componente argillosa e alla capacit di scambio cationico potrebbero spiegare
ulteriormente tale evidenza (Bavaresco et al., 2006).
CONCLUSIONI
Il lavoro verifica lesistenza di una relazione positiva esistente tra laltitudine del sito di
coltivazione e la presenza di stilbeni nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna. Limportanza del calcare
attivo nellinduzione della sintesi degli stilbeni e in particolare del trans-resveratrolo stata
confermata. Sulla base di unesperienza di pieno campo condotta in 25 siti sperimentali, stato
individuato il 5% di calcare attivo come soglia minima necessaria per incrementare la
concentrazione di stilbeni nei vini. La formazione geologica ha presumibilmente influenzato la
sintesi degli stilbeni nella vite poich nei vini prodotti sulla Formazione delle Argille Azzurre
sono sempre state osservate concentrazioni superiori di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo rispetto
a quelli del Margine appenninico.
I risultati presentati necessitano comunque di ulteriori conferme e rappresentano un contributo
preliminare allo studio delle interazioni intercorrenti tra il terroir e la sintesi degli stilbeni.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
Adrian M., Jeandet P., Breuil A.C., Levite A. D., Debord S., Bessis, R., 2000. Assay of
resveratrol and derivative stilbenes in wines by direct injection High Performance Liquid
Chromatography. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 51: 37-41.
Bavaresco, L., Petegolli D., Cant E., Fregoni M., Chiusa G., Trevisan M.,1997. Elicitation and
accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine berries infected by B. cinerea. Vitis, 36: 77-
83.
Bavaresco L., Civardi S., Pezzutto S., Vezzulli S., Ferrari F., 2005. Grape production,
technological parameters, and stilbenic compounds as affected by lime-induced chlorosis. Vitis,
44: 63-65.
Bavaresco L., Civardi S., Pezzutto S., Ferrari F., 2006. Effetto della concimazione potassica sulla
nutrizione minerale, produzione, qualit e stilbeni del vitigno Cabernet Sauvignon. Italus
Hortus 13 (3): 85-89.
Bavaresco L., Pezzutto S., Gatti M., Mattivi F., 2007. Role of the variety and some
environmental factors on grape stilbenes. Vitis, 46: 57-61.
Bavaresco L., Vezzulli S., Civardi S., Gatti M., Battilani P., Pietri A., Ferrari F., 2008a. Effect of
lime-induced chlorosis on ochratoxin-A and stilbenic phytoalexins in grapevine (V. vinifera L.)
berries infected by Aspergillus carbonarius. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56: 2085-2089.
Bavaresco L., Gatti M., Pezzutto S., Fregoni M., Mattivi F., 2008b. Effect of leaf removal on
grape yield, quality, and stilbenes. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 59: 292-298.
Busconi M., Reggi S., Fogher C., Bavaresco L., 2009. Evidence of a sirtuin gene family in
grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant. Physiol. Biochem., 47: 650-652.
De Andrs-de Prado, R, Yuste-Rojas, M., Sort, X., Andrs-Lacueva, C., Torres, M., Lamuela-
Ravents, R.M., 2007. Effect of soil type on wine produced from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache
in commercial vineyards. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 779-786.
Jeandet P., Bessis R., Sbaghi M., Meunier P., Trollat P., 1995. Resveratrol content of wines of
different ages: relationships with fungal disease pressure in the vineyard. Am. J. Enol. Vitic.,
46: 1-3.
Langcake P., Pryce R.J., 1977. The production of resveratrol and the viniferins by grapevines in
response to ultraviolet irradiation. Phytochemistry, 16: 1193-1196.
Renaud S., De Lorgeril M., 1992. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the Franch paradox for coronary
hearth disease. The Lancet, 339: 1523-1526.
Rupprich N., Kindl H., 1978. Stilbene synthases and stilbene carboxylates synthases, I.
Enzymaticsynthesis of 3,5,4 trihydroxystilbene from p-coumaroil coenzyme A and malonyl
coenzyme A. Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem., 359: 165-172.
Sienmann E.H., Creasy L.L., 1992. Concentration of phytoalexin resveratrol in wine. Am. J.
Enol. Vitic., 43: 49-52.
4 - 106
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 106 03/06/10 15:53
b
b
a
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
AES FMA FAA
t
r
a
n
s
-
P
i
c
e
i
d
e
(
m
g
/
L
)
Figura 4: Contenuto di trans-piceide nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna in funzione dellorigine geologica
b b
a
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
AES FMA FAA
t
r
a
n
s
-
R
e
s
v
e
r
a
t
r
o
l
o
(
m
g
/
L
)
Figura 5: Contenuto di trans-resveratrolo nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna in funzione dellorigine geologica
I siti delle Argille Azzurre hanno presentato una concentrazione di trans-piceide di 2.86 mg/L,
significativamente superiore rispetto a quella del Margine appenninico (0.94 mg/L); la
Formazione Marnoso-arenacea si invece collocata su valori intermedi. I vini afferenti alle unit
geologiche FAA e FMA hanno mostrato un tenore di trans-resveratrolo significativamente
superiore (circa 1.6 mg/L) rispetto a quelli del margine appenninico (0.99 mg/L) (Fig. 5). Seppur
con riferimento alla sola vendemmia 2008, ragionevole osservare come i livelli pi scarsi di
trans-resveratrolo e di trans-piceide siano collegati a siti del margine appenninico ben distinti
dalle altre formazioni geologiche in particolare per il modesto contenuto in calcare degli strati
superficiali. Le dinamiche dellacqua nel suolo e in particolare le conoscenze degli equilibri del
potassio legati alla componente argillosa e alla capacit di scambio cationico potrebbero spiegare
ulteriormente tale evidenza (Bavaresco et al., 2006).
CONCLUSIONI
Il lavoro verifica lesistenza di una relazione positiva esistente tra laltitudine del sito di
coltivazione e la presenza di stilbeni nei vini Sangiovese di Romagna. Limportanza del calcare
attivo nellinduzione della sintesi degli stilbeni e in particolare del trans-resveratrolo stata
confermata. Sulla base di unesperienza di pieno campo condotta in 25 siti sperimentali, stato
individuato il 5% di calcare attivo come soglia minima necessaria per incrementare la
concentrazione di stilbeni nei vini. La formazione geologica ha presumibilmente influenzato la
sintesi degli stilbeni nella vite poich nei vini prodotti sulla Formazione delle Argille Azzurre
sono sempre state osservate concentrazioni superiori di trans-piceide e trans-resveratrolo rispetto
a quelli del Margine appenninico.
I risultati presentati necessitano comunque di ulteriori conferme e rappresentano un contributo
preliminare allo studio delle interazioni intercorrenti tra il terroir e la sintesi degli stilbeni.
BIBLIOGRAFIA
Adrian M., Jeandet P., Breuil A.C., Levite A. D., Debord S., Bessis, R., 2000. Assay of
resveratrol and derivative stilbenes in wines by direct injection High Performance Liquid
Chromatography. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 51: 37-41.
Bavaresco, L., Petegolli D., Cant E., Fregoni M., Chiusa G., Trevisan M.,1997. Elicitation and
accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine berries infected by B. cinerea. Vitis, 36: 77-
83.
Bavaresco L., Civardi S., Pezzutto S., Vezzulli S., Ferrari F., 2005. Grape production,
technological parameters, and stilbenic compounds as affected by lime-induced chlorosis. Vitis,
44: 63-65.
Bavaresco L., Civardi S., Pezzutto S., Ferrari F., 2006. Effetto della concimazione potassica sulla
nutrizione minerale, produzione, qualit e stilbeni del vitigno Cabernet Sauvignon. Italus
Hortus 13 (3): 85-89.
Bavaresco L., Pezzutto S., Gatti M., Mattivi F., 2007. Role of the variety and some
environmental factors on grape stilbenes. Vitis, 46: 57-61.
Bavaresco L., Vezzulli S., Civardi S., Gatti M., Battilani P., Pietri A., Ferrari F., 2008a. Effect of
lime-induced chlorosis on ochratoxin-A and stilbenic phytoalexins in grapevine (V. vinifera L.)
berries infected by Aspergillus carbonarius. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56: 2085-2089.
Bavaresco L., Gatti M., Pezzutto S., Fregoni M., Mattivi F., 2008b. Effect of leaf removal on
grape yield, quality, and stilbenes. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 59: 292-298.
Busconi M., Reggi S., Fogher C., Bavaresco L., 2009. Evidence of a sirtuin gene family in
grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant. Physiol. Biochem., 47: 650-652.
De Andrs-de Prado, R, Yuste-Rojas, M., Sort, X., Andrs-Lacueva, C., Torres, M., Lamuela-
Ravents, R.M., 2007. Effect of soil type on wine produced from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache
in commercial vineyards. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 779-786.
Jeandet P., Bessis R., Sbaghi M., Meunier P., Trollat P., 1995. Resveratrol content of wines of
different ages: relationships with fungal disease pressure in the vineyard. Am. J. Enol. Vitic.,
46: 1-3.
Langcake P., Pryce R.J., 1977. The production of resveratrol and the viniferins by grapevines in
response to ultraviolet irradiation. Phytochemistry, 16: 1193-1196.
Renaud S., De Lorgeril M., 1992. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the Franch paradox for coronary
hearth disease. The Lancet, 339: 1523-1526.
Rupprich N., Kindl H., 1978. Stilbene synthases and stilbene carboxylates synthases, I.
Enzymaticsynthesis of 3,5,4 trihydroxystilbene from p-coumaroil coenzyme A and malonyl
coenzyme A. Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem., 359: 165-172.
Sienmann E.H., Creasy L.L., 1992. Concentration of phytoalexin resveratrol in wine. Am. J.
Enol. Vitic., 43: 49-52.
4 - 107
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 107 03/06/10 15:53
UVE E VINI IN VULCANITI BASICHE ANOROGENICHE DEI
LESSINI MERIDIONALI, IMPRONTA PETROCHIMICA E
ASSIMILAZIONE DI METALLI PESANTI.

D. G. Ferioli
1
, P. Bartolomei
2
, M. Esposito
1
, E. Marrocchino
3
, L. Sansone
4
, M. Borgo
4
,
N. Belfiore
4
, D. Tomasi
4
, R. Tassinari
3
, C. Vaccaro
3
, M. Niero
4
, P. Biondini
5


1 U-SERIES, Via Ferrarese, 131, 40128 Bologna - E-mail info@u-series.com
2 ENEA, via dei Colli, 16; 40136 Bologna
3 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universit di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara.
4 CRA-Centro di Ricerca per la Viticoltura, Viale XXVIII Aprile, 26 31015 Conegliano (TV).
5 Delegazione Pontificia per il Santuario della Santa Casa di Loreto, Piazza della Madonna, 1 60025 Loreto
(AN)

RIASSUNTO
Nel 2009 sono stati prelevati e analizzati mediante XRF (X-ray fluorescence) campioni di
suolo, in vigneti sperimentali siti nelle province di Vicenza e di Ancona. Sono stati inoltre
determinati in 2 campioni di mosto e 2 di vino delle variet Verdicchio e Refosco dal
peduncolo rosso, ed in 2 di uva Refosco dal peduncolo rosso, gli elementi in traccia mediante
ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Lo studio ha consentito di definire
la qualit di uva e vini, i rapporti caratteristici per ogni tipologia di suolo, e caratterizzare
limpronta geochimica in un ampio areale in cui le modeste differenze climatiche non
influiscono sulle dinamiche di assimilazione. Sono state definite le relazioni fra matrice suolo
e vino attraverso il confronto fra le concentrazioni dei metalli analizzati nelle varie matrici e
variet di uva.

PAROLE CHIAVE
Uva vino suolo impronta geochimica

ABSTRACT
In 2009, 18 samples of soils, coming from experimental vineyards in Vicenza and Ancona,
were collected and analysed using XRF technique, to characterize major and minor element
concentration. Moreover, 2 samples of must, 2 samples of wine (one of each varieties
Verdicchio and Refosco dal peduncolo rosso) and 2 samples of grapes Refosco dal peduncolo
rosso, were investigated using ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry)
technique in order to define their trace elements concentrations. The aim of this study has
been not only to characterize the quality of the grapes and the wines, but also to define the
typical ratios between these two variable for each soils, and to outline geochemical
fingerprints in a wide area where climatic differences have limited influence on the
assimilation processes. The comparison of heavy metals concentrations between the several
matrix and the varieties of grapes allow to define the relationship between soil matrix and
wine.

KEYWORD
Grape wine soil geochemical fingerprints


INTRODUZIONE
La risposta delle differenti variet di uva allambiente geolitologico e microclimatico pu
fornire preziose informazioni per definire limpronta geochimica dei prodotti alimentari e
caratterizzare i contenuti dei macro e micronutrienti essenziali per lalimentazione umana nei
prodotti alimentari. Questi dati caratteristici dellambiente geolitologico e microclimatico
consentono di procedere allidentificazione delle aree di origine e quindi alla certificazione
dei prodotti. La conoscenza delle concentrazioni dei macro e micronutrienti inorganici nei
prodotti alimentari indispensabile per la tutela dei consumatori e per la valorizzazione dei
prodotti alimentari e risponde alla crescente richiesta di prodotti certificati sulla base
dellorigine geografica. Le attuali etichettature, importante passo avanti verso la tracciabilit
dei prodotti, informano i consumatori dellorigine e delle procedure agronomiche, rendendoli
consapevoli della storia degli alimenti. Una pi completa descrizione delle caratteristiche del
prodotto si potrebbe ottenere integrando letichetta con lindicazione del contenuto in macro e
micronutrienti inorganici. Questa strategia ridurrebbe i rischi di immissione nel mercato di
prodotti non locali ottenuti con pratiche agronomiche intensive e su suoli qualitativamente
non idonei (sia per processi di impoverimento dei nutrienti minerali sia per eccesso di metalli
inquinanti). Per attuare questo sistema di difesa e tutela dei prodotti autoctoni, occorre
conoscere le caratteristiche geochimiche dei siti produttivi, e quindi fornire limpronta digitale
del prodotto certificato e accertare mescolanze e/o sostituzioni con prodotti di altra
provenienza. La verifica della congruit della provenienza geografica dichiarata in etichetta,
potrebbe avvenire tramite il confronto con la distribuzione dei macro e micronutrienti
inorganici tipici dellarea di produzione. Lanalisi geochimica conoscitiva risulta quindi
indispensabile per una corretta valutazione della provenienza dei prodotti alimentari e la
verifica della qualit dichiarata in etichetta e dellassenza di manipolazioni. Si propone con
questo lavoro lo sviluppo di una metodologia analitica per la tracciabilit e la realizzazione di
una banca dati nazionale sulla qualit dei prodotti e sui range di composizione tipici e
caratteristici delle aree di provenienza. Il presente lavoro stato condotto in unarea
caratterizzata da vigneti che producono uve di elevata qualit, impiantati su suoli
particolarmente ricchi in metalli di transizione (Cr, Ni, Co, V, di elevato valore nutrizionale in
basse concentrazioni ma potenzialmente tossico-nocivi se in elevate concentrazioni) al fine di
mostrare la capacit delle cultivar nel selezionare gli elementi chimici e quindi fornire le
corrette dosi dei macro e micronutrienti essenziali anche in presenza di anomali arricchimenti
e disponibilit nei suoli. La definizione dellimportanza nutrizionale di questi elementi nelle
uve e nei vini ha stimolato il presente studio condotto in una delle aree vulcaniche basiche
famose per gli antichi e pregiati vitigni.

MATERIALI E METODI
Inquadramento geologico
I due campi sperimentali di Verdicchio e Refosco, oggetto della presente sperimentazione,
sono localizzati, rispettivamente, nei comuni di Gambellara e Mason in provincia di Vicenza.
Sono costituiti da suoli vulcanici basici riferibili al magmatismo anorogenico terziario, che ha
interessato la porzione meridionale del Sudalpino Veneto. Nei Lessini affiorano prodotti
vulcanici basici subaerei e vulcanoclastici sottomarini, questi ultimi nel settore pi
meridionale dellarea (ove insistono i campi sperimentali del CRA-VIT), caratterizzati dalle
tipiche strutture ialoclastiche di ambiente sottomarino di mare poco profondo. Le vulcaniti
affiorano nella zona centrale delle Prealpi Venete in corrispondenza ed allineati lungo il
prolungamento della cosiddetta Flessura pedemontana (Caputo e Bosellini 1994),
importante struttura tettonica che si estende dalla Linea Schio-Vicenza, a ovest, allaccidente
trasversale Fadalto-Vittorio Veneto, a est, per una distanza di circa 80 km. Si tratta a grande
4 - 108
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 108 03/06/10 15:53
UVE E VINI IN VULCANITI BASICHE ANOROGENICHE DEI
LESSINI MERIDIONALI, IMPRONTA PETROCHIMICA E
ASSIMILAZIONE DI METALLI PESANTI.

D. G. Ferioli
1
, P. Bartolomei
2
, M. Esposito
1
, E. Marrocchino
3
, L. Sansone
4
, M. Borgo
4
,
N. Belfiore
4
, D. Tomasi
4
, R. Tassinari
3
, C. Vaccaro
3
, M. Niero
4
, P. Biondini
5


1 U-SERIES, Via Ferrarese, 131, 40128 Bologna - E-mail info@u-series.com
2 ENEA, via dei Colli, 16; 40136 Bologna
3 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universit di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara.
4 CRA-Centro di Ricerca per la Viticoltura, Viale XXVIII Aprile, 26 31015 Conegliano (TV).
5 Delegazione Pontificia per il Santuario della Santa Casa di Loreto, Piazza della Madonna, 1 60025 Loreto
(AN)

RIASSUNTO
Nel 2009 sono stati prelevati e analizzati mediante XRF (X-ray fluorescence) campioni di
suolo, in vigneti sperimentali siti nelle province di Vicenza e di Ancona. Sono stati inoltre
determinati in 2 campioni di mosto e 2 di vino delle variet Verdicchio e Refosco dal
peduncolo rosso, ed in 2 di uva Refosco dal peduncolo rosso, gli elementi in traccia mediante
ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Lo studio ha consentito di definire
la qualit di uva e vini, i rapporti caratteristici per ogni tipologia di suolo, e caratterizzare
limpronta geochimica in un ampio areale in cui le modeste differenze climatiche non
influiscono sulle dinamiche di assimilazione. Sono state definite le relazioni fra matrice suolo
e vino attraverso il confronto fra le concentrazioni dei metalli analizzati nelle varie matrici e
variet di uva.

PAROLE CHIAVE
Uva vino suolo impronta geochimica

ABSTRACT
In 2009, 18 samples of soils, coming from experimental vineyards in Vicenza and Ancona,
were collected and analysed using XRF technique, to characterize major and minor element
concentration. Moreover, 2 samples of must, 2 samples of wine (one of each varieties
Verdicchio and Refosco dal peduncolo rosso) and 2 samples of grapes Refosco dal peduncolo
rosso, were investigated using ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry)
technique in order to define their trace elements concentrations. The aim of this study has
been not only to characterize the quality of the grapes and the wines, but also to define the
typical ratios between these two variable for each soils, and to outline geochemical
fingerprints in a wide area where climatic differences have limited influence on the
assimilation processes. The comparison of heavy metals concentrations between the several
matrix and the varieties of grapes allow to define the relationship between soil matrix and
wine.

KEYWORD
Grape wine soil geochemical fingerprints


INTRODUZIONE
La risposta delle differenti variet di uva allambiente geolitologico e microclimatico pu
fornire preziose informazioni per definire limpronta geochimica dei prodotti alimentari e
caratterizzare i contenuti dei macro e micronutrienti essenziali per lalimentazione umana nei
prodotti alimentari. Questi dati caratteristici dellambiente geolitologico e microclimatico
consentono di procedere allidentificazione delle aree di origine e quindi alla certificazione
dei prodotti. La conoscenza delle concentrazioni dei macro e micronutrienti inorganici nei
prodotti alimentari indispensabile per la tutela dei consumatori e per la valorizzazione dei
prodotti alimentari e risponde alla crescente richiesta di prodotti certificati sulla base
dellorigine geografica. Le attuali etichettature, importante passo avanti verso la tracciabilit
dei prodotti, informano i consumatori dellorigine e delle procedure agronomiche, rendendoli
consapevoli della storia degli alimenti. Una pi completa descrizione delle caratteristiche del
prodotto si potrebbe ottenere integrando letichetta con lindicazione del contenuto in macro e
micronutrienti inorganici. Questa strategia ridurrebbe i rischi di immissione nel mercato di
prodotti non locali ottenuti con pratiche agronomiche intensive e su suoli qualitativamente
non idonei (sia per processi di impoverimento dei nutrienti minerali sia per eccesso di metalli
inquinanti). Per attuare questo sistema di difesa e tutela dei prodotti autoctoni, occorre
conoscere le caratteristiche geochimiche dei siti produttivi, e quindi fornire limpronta digitale
del prodotto certificato e accertare mescolanze e/o sostituzioni con prodotti di altra
provenienza. La verifica della congruit della provenienza geografica dichiarata in etichetta,
potrebbe avvenire tramite il confronto con la distribuzione dei macro e micronutrienti
inorganici tipici dellarea di produzione. Lanalisi geochimica conoscitiva risulta quindi
indispensabile per una corretta valutazione della provenienza dei prodotti alimentari e la
verifica della qualit dichiarata in etichetta e dellassenza di manipolazioni. Si propone con
questo lavoro lo sviluppo di una metodologia analitica per la tracciabilit e la realizzazione di
una banca dati nazionale sulla qualit dei prodotti e sui range di composizione tipici e
caratteristici delle aree di provenienza. Il presente lavoro stato condotto in unarea
caratterizzata da vigneti che producono uve di elevata qualit, impiantati su suoli
particolarmente ricchi in metalli di transizione (Cr, Ni, Co, V, di elevato valore nutrizionale in
basse concentrazioni ma potenzialmente tossico-nocivi se in elevate concentrazioni) al fine di
mostrare la capacit delle cultivar nel selezionare gli elementi chimici e quindi fornire le
corrette dosi dei macro e micronutrienti essenziali anche in presenza di anomali arricchimenti
e disponibilit nei suoli. La definizione dellimportanza nutrizionale di questi elementi nelle
uve e nei vini ha stimolato il presente studio condotto in una delle aree vulcaniche basiche
famose per gli antichi e pregiati vitigni.

MATERIALI E METODI
Inquadramento geologico
I due campi sperimentali di Verdicchio e Refosco, oggetto della presente sperimentazione,
sono localizzati, rispettivamente, nei comuni di Gambellara e Mason in provincia di Vicenza.
Sono costituiti da suoli vulcanici basici riferibili al magmatismo anorogenico terziario, che ha
interessato la porzione meridionale del Sudalpino Veneto. Nei Lessini affiorano prodotti
vulcanici basici subaerei e vulcanoclastici sottomarini, questi ultimi nel settore pi
meridionale dellarea (ove insistono i campi sperimentali del CRA-VIT), caratterizzati dalle
tipiche strutture ialoclastiche di ambiente sottomarino di mare poco profondo. Le vulcaniti
affiorano nella zona centrale delle Prealpi Venete in corrispondenza ed allineati lungo il
prolungamento della cosiddetta Flessura pedemontana (Caputo e Bosellini 1994),
importante struttura tettonica che si estende dalla Linea Schio-Vicenza, a ovest, allaccidente
trasversale Fadalto-Vittorio Veneto, a est, per una distanza di circa 80 km. Si tratta a grande
4 - 109
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 109 03/06/10 15:53
scala di due pieghe parallele, una anticlinale, a nord, ed una sinclinale, a sud, con asse in
direzione ENE-WSW (Caputo e Bosellini 1994) che collega laltopiano di Asiago con la
pianura alluvionale della fossa tettonica di Schio, struttura lungo la quale si sono realizzate
importanti discontinuit tettoniche che hanno consentito la risalita di magmi basici poco
differenziati che rappresentano oggi i depositi ialoclastici che si appoggiano sulla struttura a
pieghe.
Levoluzione tettonica tardo Eocenica - Oligocenica, ha portato allo sviluppo di sistemi di
faglie regionali con andamento NNE che hanno consentito la risalita di basalti alcalini. Nelle
aree pi settentrionali le colate sono subaeree ed i magmi alcalini ad affinit sodica, mentre
nelle aree pi meridionali le colate sono di ambiente sottomarino ed affiorano rocce
appartenenti alle tre serie: magmi alcalini sodici, magmi transizionali e magmi alcalino
potassici. I suoli dei vigneti sono il prodotto delle trasformazioni pedogenetiche di depositi
ialoclastici e brecciole a pillows lava, derivate da eruzioni in ambiente sottomarino. La natura
ialoclastica ha favorito i processi pedogenetici e quindi lo sviluppo di suoli idonei alla
coltivazione della vite. I campi sperimentali, come mostrano i dati petrochimici sui suoli, non
derivano da ununica colata, ma da manifestazioni vulcaniche differenti, infatti i campi pi
settentrionali sono impostati su colate basaltiche alcalino-sodiche in cui la composizione dei
suoli omogenea, mentre il sito sperimentale pi meridionale, ubicato nel settore
geograficamente attribuibile alla transizione con larea Berica, impostato su una serie di
colate basaltiche sottomarine in cui si ha una significativa variazione del rapporto Na
2
O/ K
2
O.
Anche i suoli dei vigneti dellarea di Gambellara sono derivati da varie colate basaltiche di
composizione sia alcalina sodica che potassica, questo comporta una variazione del rapporto
Na
2
O/K
2
O nei suoli che si riflette anche sulle uve. Le significative differenze nei rapporti fra
gli alcali non possono essere dovute a weathering in quanto i terreni, che distano uno
dallaltro meno di 3 km, hanno stessa et, morfologia, condizioni climatiche, esposizione e
strutture vulcaniche (entrambi i siti sono impostati su colate sottomarine ialoclastiche).
Essendo gli elementi alcalini estremamente mobili, il mantenimento delle originarie
differenze composizionali consente di affermare che i processi alterativi non hanno potuto
differenziare in maniera significativa le caratteristiche geochimiche di questi suoli, che sono
stati interessati dalla stessa storia.
Misure in spettrometria hanno consentito di escludere concentrazioni significative di
elementi radioattivi e quindi il rispetto dei requisiti previsti dalla radioprotezione nonostante
nel 1986 lItalia settentrionale, ed in particolar modo le regioni Friuli Venezia Giulia e
Veneto, sia stata interessata dalla ricaduta radioattiva conseguente allincidente di Chernobyl.
Campionatura
Campioni di suolo, in numero variabile da tre a cinque, in funzione dellestensione del
vigneto, sono stati prelevati a tre profondit (0-10; 10-30; 30-60cm), nella zona del sottofila,
in entrambe le province di Vicenza e Ancona (vigneti sperimentali della Delegazione
Pontificia per il Santuario della Santa Casa di Loreto Ancona). Sono state considerate due
variet, il Verdicchio ed il Refosco p.r. e per ciascuna di esse stato analizzato un campione
di vino del 2007 vinificato dalla medesima azienda. Per meglio comprendere il processo di
trasferimento dei metalli dal suolo, alla pianta ed al vino, durante la vendemmia del 2009, per
la variet Refosco, sono stati indagati anche i prodotti delle varie fasi di vinificazione (uva,
mosto e vino). Per evidenziare i contributi dovuti al succo e alle bucce, si sono separati, per
centrifugazione, il residuo solido (buccia e semi) ed il succo (polpa) da sottoporre ad analisi
(Ferioli 2010) .
Metodologie analitiche
I metalli pesanti e le terre rare presenti in vini, succhi, bucce e mosti sono stati determinati
mediante analisi in ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) con lo
spettrometro Serie X della Thermo Electron Corporation, dotato di dispositivo a cella di
collisione/reazione CCT
ED
per la riduzione/eliminazione delle principali interferenze
poliatomiche ed isobariche, in dotazione al Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra
dellUniversit di Ferrara.
Ogni campione stato sottoposto a due cicli di analisi; un primo per la determinazione di Li,
Be, B, Na, Al, K, Rb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd,
Sb, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, U ed un secondo per la determinazione delle concentrazioni di Rb, Sr,
Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U.
La determinazione degli elementi maggiori e in traccia nei suoli stata eseguita mediante
XRF (X-ray fluorescence), (spettrometro a dispersione di lunghezza donda ARL AdvantXP
in dotazione ai laboratori del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dellUniversit di Ferrara).
La composizione chimica dei suoli espressa in percentuale in peso dei seguenti ossidi
(SiO
2
, TiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, Fe
2
O
3
, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na
2
O, K
2
O, P
2
O
5
) ed in ppm dei seguenti
elementi in traccia: Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V,Y, Zn, Zr, Cu, Ga, Nd, S,
Sc. Il contenuto totale in fasi volatili nei suoli stato determinato come perdita in peso dopo
calcinazione in muffola a 1000 Celsius (Loss On Ignition). Infine nei suoli, nelle uve, mosti e
vini sono stati misurati i radionuclidi naturali (Ra-226 e K-40) ed artificiali (Cs-137)
attraverso spettrometria gamma e condotte secondo la norma UNI 10797 - 1999. Le
concentrazioni di K-40 e Cs-137 sono misurabili direttamente, il Ra-226 stato calcolato
tramite i figli a vita breve (Pb-214 e Bi-214) mentre il Th-232 stato calcolato tramite il Ra-
228, a sua volta calcolato tramite Ac-228. Le misure sono state effettuate con rivelatori al
Germanio Iperpuro (HPGe), calibrati in energia e in efficienza con standards radioattivi forniti
da IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology) ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, lEnergia e lAmbiente). Le sorgenti
radioattive utilizzate sono IAEA-RGU-1, IAEA RGTh-1, IAEA RGK-1, IAEA 300, IAEA
375, IAEA 315 ed IAEA SOIL 6, NIST SRM 4350B ed ENEA MRS 1057.

RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
Dalla classificazione petrologica si deduce che i suoli di Gambellara derivano da ialoclastiti
ed hanno composizione alcali basaltica di serie sodica mentre quelli di Mason da colate di
serie transizionale debolmente ricche in Potassio. I suoli veneti sono stati confrontati coi suoli
derivati da rocce sedimentarie di omologhi vigneti sperimentali presenti nelle Marche.
Lelaborazione dei dati relativi a Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Cu normalizzati ai limiti di legge
(D.Lgs. 152/2006) ha evidenziato il superamento dei parametri per Co, Cr, Ni e V Fig. 1.

4 - 110
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 110 03/06/10 15:53
scala di due pieghe parallele, una anticlinale, a nord, ed una sinclinale, a sud, con asse in
direzione ENE-WSW (Caputo e Bosellini 1994) che collega laltopiano di Asiago con la
pianura alluvionale della fossa tettonica di Schio, struttura lungo la quale si sono realizzate
importanti discontinuit tettoniche che hanno consentito la risalita di magmi basici poco
differenziati che rappresentano oggi i depositi ialoclastici che si appoggiano sulla struttura a
pieghe.
Levoluzione tettonica tardo Eocenica - Oligocenica, ha portato allo sviluppo di sistemi di
faglie regionali con andamento NNE che hanno consentito la risalita di basalti alcalini. Nelle
aree pi settentrionali le colate sono subaeree ed i magmi alcalini ad affinit sodica, mentre
nelle aree pi meridionali le colate sono di ambiente sottomarino ed affiorano rocce
appartenenti alle tre serie: magmi alcalini sodici, magmi transizionali e magmi alcalino
potassici. I suoli dei vigneti sono il prodotto delle trasformazioni pedogenetiche di depositi
ialoclastici e brecciole a pillows lava, derivate da eruzioni in ambiente sottomarino. La natura
ialoclastica ha favorito i processi pedogenetici e quindi lo sviluppo di suoli idonei alla
coltivazione della vite. I campi sperimentali, come mostrano i dati petrochimici sui suoli, non
derivano da ununica colata, ma da manifestazioni vulcaniche differenti, infatti i campi pi
settentrionali sono impostati su colate basaltiche alcalino-sodiche in cui la composizione dei
suoli omogenea, mentre il sito sperimentale pi meridionale, ubicato nel settore
geograficamente attribuibile alla transizione con larea Berica, impostato su una serie di
colate basaltiche sottomarine in cui si ha una significativa variazione del rapporto Na
2
O/ K
2
O.
Anche i suoli dei vigneti dellarea di Gambellara sono derivati da varie colate basaltiche di
composizione sia alcalina sodica che potassica, questo comporta una variazione del rapporto
Na
2
O/K
2
O nei suoli che si riflette anche sulle uve. Le significative differenze nei rapporti fra
gli alcali non possono essere dovute a weathering in quanto i terreni, che distano uno
dallaltro meno di 3 km, hanno stessa et, morfologia, condizioni climatiche, esposizione e
strutture vulcaniche (entrambi i siti sono impostati su colate sottomarine ialoclastiche).
Essendo gli elementi alcalini estremamente mobili, il mantenimento delle originarie
differenze composizionali consente di affermare che i processi alterativi non hanno potuto
differenziare in maniera significativa le caratteristiche geochimiche di questi suoli, che sono
stati interessati dalla stessa storia.
Misure in spettrometria hanno consentito di escludere concentrazioni significative di
elementi radioattivi e quindi il rispetto dei requisiti previsti dalla radioprotezione nonostante
nel 1986 lItalia settentrionale, ed in particolar modo le regioni Friuli Venezia Giulia e
Veneto, sia stata interessata dalla ricaduta radioattiva conseguente allincidente di Chernobyl.
Campionatura
Campioni di suolo, in numero variabile da tre a cinque, in funzione dellestensione del
vigneto, sono stati prelevati a tre profondit (0-10; 10-30; 30-60cm), nella zona del sottofila,
in entrambe le province di Vicenza e Ancona (vigneti sperimentali della Delegazione
Pontificia per il Santuario della Santa Casa di Loreto Ancona). Sono state considerate due
variet, il Verdicchio ed il Refosco p.r. e per ciascuna di esse stato analizzato un campione
di vino del 2007 vinificato dalla medesima azienda. Per meglio comprendere il processo di
trasferimento dei metalli dal suolo, alla pianta ed al vino, durante la vendemmia del 2009, per
la variet Refosco, sono stati indagati anche i prodotti delle varie fasi di vinificazione (uva,
mosto e vino). Per evidenziare i contributi dovuti al succo e alle bucce, si sono separati, per
centrifugazione, il residuo solido (buccia e semi) ed il succo (polpa) da sottoporre ad analisi
(Ferioli 2010) .
Metodologie analitiche
I metalli pesanti e le terre rare presenti in vini, succhi, bucce e mosti sono stati determinati
mediante analisi in ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) con lo
spettrometro Serie X della Thermo Electron Corporation, dotato di dispositivo a cella di
collisione/reazione CCT
ED
per la riduzione/eliminazione delle principali interferenze
poliatomiche ed isobariche, in dotazione al Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra
dellUniversit di Ferrara.
Ogni campione stato sottoposto a due cicli di analisi; un primo per la determinazione di Li,
Be, B, Na, Al, K, Rb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd,
Sb, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, U ed un secondo per la determinazione delle concentrazioni di Rb, Sr,
Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U.
La determinazione degli elementi maggiori e in traccia nei suoli stata eseguita mediante
XRF (X-ray fluorescence), (spettrometro a dispersione di lunghezza donda ARL AdvantXP
in dotazione ai laboratori del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dellUniversit di Ferrara).
La composizione chimica dei suoli espressa in percentuale in peso dei seguenti ossidi
(SiO
2
, TiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, Fe
2
O
3
, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na
2
O, K
2
O, P
2
O
5
) ed in ppm dei seguenti
elementi in traccia: Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V,Y, Zn, Zr, Cu, Ga, Nd, S,
Sc. Il contenuto totale in fasi volatili nei suoli stato determinato come perdita in peso dopo
calcinazione in muffola a 1000 Celsius (Loss On Ignition). Infine nei suoli, nelle uve, mosti e
vini sono stati misurati i radionuclidi naturali (Ra-226 e K-40) ed artificiali (Cs-137)
attraverso spettrometria gamma e condotte secondo la norma UNI 10797 - 1999. Le
concentrazioni di K-40 e Cs-137 sono misurabili direttamente, il Ra-226 stato calcolato
tramite i figli a vita breve (Pb-214 e Bi-214) mentre il Th-232 stato calcolato tramite il Ra-
228, a sua volta calcolato tramite Ac-228. Le misure sono state effettuate con rivelatori al
Germanio Iperpuro (HPGe), calibrati in energia e in efficienza con standards radioattivi forniti
da IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology) ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, lEnergia e lAmbiente). Le sorgenti
radioattive utilizzate sono IAEA-RGU-1, IAEA RGTh-1, IAEA RGK-1, IAEA 300, IAEA
375, IAEA 315 ed IAEA SOIL 6, NIST SRM 4350B ed ENEA MRS 1057.

RISULTATI E DISCUSSIONE
Dalla classificazione petrologica si deduce che i suoli di Gambellara derivano da ialoclastiti
ed hanno composizione alcali basaltica di serie sodica mentre quelli di Mason da colate di
serie transizionale debolmente ricche in Potassio. I suoli veneti sono stati confrontati coi suoli
derivati da rocce sedimentarie di omologhi vigneti sperimentali presenti nelle Marche.
Lelaborazione dei dati relativi a Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Cu normalizzati ai limiti di legge
(D.Lgs. 152/2006) ha evidenziato il superamento dei parametri per Co, Cr, Ni e V Fig. 1.

4 - 111
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 111 03/06/10 15:53
Fig. 1 Concentrazioni in ppm dei metalli nei suoli normalizzati ai valori limiti D.Lgs.
152/2006 per uso verde pubblico, privato e residenziale.

Questi superamenti sono da imputare a cause naturali essendo le elevate concentrazioni in
elementi di transizione caratteristiche dei suoli di origine vulcanica basica. Tale anomalia non
viene trasferita alle uve e ai vini dei Lessini che hanno infatti concentrazioni
significativamente inferiori ai limiti previsti dal Decreto Ministeriale 29 dicembre 1986
Caratteristiche e limiti di alcune sostanze contenute nei vini, dal regolamento europeo
2006/1881 CE, che definisce i tenori massimi di alcuni contaminanti nei prodotti alimentari e
dalle linee guida dettate dal O.I.V. (Office International de la Vigne et du Vin). A parit di
concentrazione nei suoli veneti inoltre il Refosco assimila i metalli con un ordine di grandezza
superiore (scala logaritmica) rispetto al Verdicchio.
Le concentrazioni degli elementi di interesse ambientale nei suoli dei vigneti a Verdicchio e
a Refosco dei Lessini sono state inoltre confrontate con quelli di Loreto (AN - Marche)
coltivati anchessi a Verdicchio e Refosco p. r. Nelle Marche, uve e vini di Refosco e
Verdicchio mostrano basse concentrazioni di questi elementi essenziali Fig. 2.

(a)

(b)
Fig.2. Confronto dei trends di concentrazione dei metalli (a) e di quelli di interesse
ambientale (b) nel Refosco dei vigneti del Veneto e Marche.
Il rapporto fra i vari metalli nei suoli e nelle cultivars consente di discriminare i contributi
dovuti al suolo e i rapporti legati alle capacit di assimilazione delle piante. Ad esempio le
concentrazioni di Magnesio e Stronzio nelle uve e nei vini per la stessa cultivar ottenute nel
Veneto e nelle Marche sono confrontabili, nonostante le forti differenze riscontrate fra i suoli
vulcanici dei Lessini e sedimentari carbonatici delle Marche per cui essi sono caratteristici e
non sono significativi ai fini della tracciabilit geografica Figg. 2, 3.

(a)

(b)
Fig.3. Confronto dei trends di concentrazione dei metalli(a) e di quelli di interesse
ambientale (b) nel Verdicchio dei vigneti del Veneto e Marche.

Le due variet sono state caratterizzate mediante i coefficienti di assimilazione K espressi
come rapporto fra concentrazione dellelemento C
ipianta
nella pianta e la concentrazione
dellelemento C
isuolo
nel suolo (K= C
ipianta
/ C
isuolo
).
Il fattore di assimilazione influenzato dal potenziale ionico dei diversi elementi
considerati, dal pH, dalla temperatura e dalle caratteristiche della pianta.
Infine sono state eseguite analisi di bucce e vinaccioli che hanno mostrato un generale
arricchimento in metalli, ed in particolare in metalli alcalino-terrosi, per cui la permanenza dei
residui a contatto con i succhi pu influire sulla concentrazione in metalli.

CONCLUSIONI
Nellarea veneta indagata, i vigneti a DOC e DOCG devono lelevata qualit e le
caratteristiche organolettiche alla natura vulcanica dei suoli. Grazie allanalisi del rapporto fra
concentrazione dei macro e micronutrienti nei suoli e nei vini sono stati definiti i coefficienti
di assimilazione per le due variet Verdicchio e Refosco p.r. e limpronta geochimica del
suolo. La metodologia proposta non solo consente di verificare il rispetto dei contenuti in
metalli e tutelare la salute dei consumatori, ma anche di evitare la commercializzazione di
prodotti qualitativamente non idonei.
La qualit della produzione vitivinicola in suoli vulcanici ad elevate concentrazioni di
metalli di transizione richiede il controllo del rispetto dei limiti normativi e del corretto valore
nutrizionale in termini di macro e micronutrienti, caratteristiche riscontrate per Refosco p.r. e
Verdicchio dei Lessini che hanno basse ma corrette concentrazioni di Cromo, Nichel, Cobalto
e Vanadio. Va segnalato che il Refosco p.r. risultato pi sensibile rispetto al Verdicchio
allassimilazione di Cr, Ni e V per cui, in casi di forti anomalie del contenuto di questi
metalli, il Verdicchio fornisce maggiori garanzie del rispetto dei parametri nutrizionali.
Le misure di radioattivit naturale e antropica hanno messo in evidenza lassenza di rischio.
Eventuali futuri monitoraggi potranno aiutare a definire la stabilit composizionale e quindi
il mantenimento delle caratteristiche geochimiche riscontrate per uva e vino.

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Caputo R. & Bosellini A. 1994- La flessura pedemontana del Veneto centrale: anticlinale di
rampa a sviluppo bloccato da condotti vulcanici. The pedealpine flexure Zone of central
Venetian Alps:a ramp anticline halted by volcanic conduits. Atti Tic. Sc. Terra 1994 (Serie
speciale), 1: 255-268.
Ferioli D.G. 2010 Tesi di Dottorato in Scienze della Terra - Tracciabilit delle provenienze e
valorizzazione dei prodotti alimentari attraverso nuovi sistemi di caratterizzazione
geochimica.
D.M. 29 dicembre 1986 - Caratteristiche e limiti di alcune sostanze contenute nei vini.
D.M. 25 ottobre 1999, n.471
Regolamento recante criteri, procedure e modalita' per la messa in sicurezza, la bonifica e il
ripristino ambientale dei siti inquinati, ai sensi dell'articolo 17 del decreto legislativo 5
febbraio 1997, n. 22, e successive modificazioni e integrazioni.
Decreto Legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152 Norme in materia ambientale.
Regolamento (CEE) N. 1881/2006 della Commissione del 19 dicembre 2006 che definisce i
tenori massimi di alcuni contaminanti nei prodotti alimentari.

4 - 112
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 112 03/06/10 15:53
Fig. 1 Concentrazioni in ppm dei metalli nei suoli normalizzati ai valori limiti D.Lgs.
152/2006 per uso verde pubblico, privato e residenziale.

Questi superamenti sono da imputare a cause naturali essendo le elevate concentrazioni in
elementi di transizione caratteristiche dei suoli di origine vulcanica basica. Tale anomalia non
viene trasferita alle uve e ai vini dei Lessini che hanno infatti concentrazioni
significativamente inferiori ai limiti previsti dal Decreto Ministeriale 29 dicembre 1986
Caratteristiche e limiti di alcune sostanze contenute nei vini, dal regolamento europeo
2006/1881 CE, che definisce i tenori massimi di alcuni contaminanti nei prodotti alimentari e
dalle linee guida dettate dal O.I.V. (Office International de la Vigne et du Vin). A parit di
concentrazione nei suoli veneti inoltre il Refosco assimila i metalli con un ordine di grandezza
superiore (scala logaritmica) rispetto al Verdicchio.
Le concentrazioni degli elementi di interesse ambientale nei suoli dei vigneti a Verdicchio e
a Refosco dei Lessini sono state inoltre confrontate con quelli di Loreto (AN - Marche)
coltivati anchessi a Verdicchio e Refosco p. r. Nelle Marche, uve e vini di Refosco e
Verdicchio mostrano basse concentrazioni di questi elementi essenziali Fig. 2.

(a)

(b)
Fig.2. Confronto dei trends di concentrazione dei metalli (a) e di quelli di interesse
ambientale (b) nel Refosco dei vigneti del Veneto e Marche.
Il rapporto fra i vari metalli nei suoli e nelle cultivars consente di discriminare i contributi
dovuti al suolo e i rapporti legati alle capacit di assimilazione delle piante. Ad esempio le
concentrazioni di Magnesio e Stronzio nelle uve e nei vini per la stessa cultivar ottenute nel
Veneto e nelle Marche sono confrontabili, nonostante le forti differenze riscontrate fra i suoli
vulcanici dei Lessini e sedimentari carbonatici delle Marche per cui essi sono caratteristici e
non sono significativi ai fini della tracciabilit geografica Figg. 2, 3.

(a)

(b)
Fig.3. Confronto dei trends di concentrazione dei metalli(a) e di quelli di interesse
ambientale (b) nel Verdicchio dei vigneti del Veneto e Marche.

Le due variet sono state caratterizzate mediante i coefficienti di assimilazione K espressi
come rapporto fra concentrazione dellelemento C
ipianta
nella pianta e la concentrazione
dellelemento C
isuolo
nel suolo (K= C
ipianta
/ C
isuolo
).
Il fattore di assimilazione influenzato dal potenziale ionico dei diversi elementi
considerati, dal pH, dalla temperatura e dalle caratteristiche della pianta.
Infine sono state eseguite analisi di bucce e vinaccioli che hanno mostrato un generale
arricchimento in metalli, ed in particolare in metalli alcalino-terrosi, per cui la permanenza dei
residui a contatto con i succhi pu influire sulla concentrazione in metalli.

CONCLUSIONI
Nellarea veneta indagata, i vigneti a DOC e DOCG devono lelevata qualit e le
caratteristiche organolettiche alla natura vulcanica dei suoli. Grazie allanalisi del rapporto fra
concentrazione dei macro e micronutrienti nei suoli e nei vini sono stati definiti i coefficienti
di assimilazione per le due variet Verdicchio e Refosco p.r. e limpronta geochimica del
suolo. La metodologia proposta non solo consente di verificare il rispetto dei contenuti in
metalli e tutelare la salute dei consumatori, ma anche di evitare la commercializzazione di
prodotti qualitativamente non idonei.
La qualit della produzione vitivinicola in suoli vulcanici ad elevate concentrazioni di
metalli di transizione richiede il controllo del rispetto dei limiti normativi e del corretto valore
nutrizionale in termini di macro e micronutrienti, caratteristiche riscontrate per Refosco p.r. e
Verdicchio dei Lessini che hanno basse ma corrette concentrazioni di Cromo, Nichel, Cobalto
e Vanadio. Va segnalato che il Refosco p.r. risultato pi sensibile rispetto al Verdicchio
allassimilazione di Cr, Ni e V per cui, in casi di forti anomalie del contenuto di questi
metalli, il Verdicchio fornisce maggiori garanzie del rispetto dei parametri nutrizionali.
Le misure di radioattivit naturale e antropica hanno messo in evidenza lassenza di rischio.
Eventuali futuri monitoraggi potranno aiutare a definire la stabilit composizionale e quindi
il mantenimento delle caratteristiche geochimiche riscontrate per uva e vino.

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Caputo R. & Bosellini A. 1994- La flessura pedemontana del Veneto centrale: anticlinale di
rampa a sviluppo bloccato da condotti vulcanici. The pedealpine flexure Zone of central
Venetian Alps:a ramp anticline halted by volcanic conduits. Atti Tic. Sc. Terra 1994 (Serie
speciale), 1: 255-268.
Ferioli D.G. 2010 Tesi di Dottorato in Scienze della Terra - Tracciabilit delle provenienze e
valorizzazione dei prodotti alimentari attraverso nuovi sistemi di caratterizzazione
geochimica.
D.M. 29 dicembre 1986 - Caratteristiche e limiti di alcune sostanze contenute nei vini.
D.M. 25 ottobre 1999, n.471
Regolamento recante criteri, procedure e modalita' per la messa in sicurezza, la bonifica e il
ripristino ambientale dei siti inquinati, ai sensi dell'articolo 17 del decreto legislativo 5
febbraio 1997, n. 22, e successive modificazioni e integrazioni.
Decreto Legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152 Norme in materia ambientale.
Regolamento (CEE) N. 1881/2006 della Commissione del 19 dicembre 2006 che definisce i
tenori massimi di alcuni contaminanti nei prodotti alimentari.

4 - 113
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 113 03/06/10 15:53
APPLICATION OF ORGANIC CARBON STATUS INDICATORS ON
VINEYARD SOILS: THE CASE STUDY OF DOC PIAVE
(VENETO REGION, ITALY)
G. Manni
(1)
, G. Concheri
(1)
, A. Garlato
(2)
, I. Vinci
(2)
, P. Marcuzzo
(3)
(1)
Universit degli Studi di Padova - Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie
Viale dellUniversit 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italia
giulia.manni@unipd.it
(2)
ARPAV - Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione Ambientale del Veneto - Servizio Suoli
Via Santa Barbara 5/a, 31100 Treviso, Italia
agarlato@arpa.veneto.it
(3)
Centro di Ricerca per lAgricoltura-Viticoltura
Via XXVIII Aprile 26, Conegliano (TV), Italia
patrick.marcuzzo@entecra.it
ABSTRACT
According to the Kyoto Protocol objectives, its necessary to identify alternative carbon
dioxide sinks, and vineyard soils could be a significant opportunity.
A set of soil organic carbon status indicators, proposed by JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), was
tested on vineyard soils of DOC Piave area (Veneto region) to validate it.
Information available in the regional soil database for the study area (Soil Maps of Treviso
and Venice provinces at 1:50,000 scale with 614 soil profiles on about 150,000 ha, 5% of
which with vineyards) was analysed to point out significant relationships between soil organic
carbon content, soil type and land uses. An approach for functional soil groups was adopted:
the soil typological units were grouped on the basis of texture, coarse fragments, drainage and
physiography (Manni, 2007). The highest value, which differs statistically from the others,
was observed in fine texture and poorly drained soils. Furthermore, vineyard soils showed
higher content than crop soils, especially on the first 30 cm. But no significant differences
were observed. Then, for each functional group and separately for vineyard and crop topsoil
and subsoil, a set of soil organic carbon status indicators were defined. The results showed
higher capacity to sequestrate carbon on vineyard topsoil.
The present study allows an overview of the DOC Piave area carbon pool and highlights
priorities areas where policy interventions should be concentrated.
KEYWORD
Soil organic carbon sequestration vineyard indicator functional group.
INTRODUCTION
According to the Kyoto Protocol objectives to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, in the
last years the joined countries are been elaborating footprint wine carbon calculators. In 2007,
the Australian law imposed to the main wineries and winemakers to count emissions; they are
asked to communicate greenhouse gases emissions, productions and energy uses. Also Italy is
working on the first wine carbon calculator called Ita.Ca and, in the next program versions,
vineyard soilss role of CO
2
sequestering into organic matter will be introduced (Battaglene et
al., 2010). So viticulture represents a carbon sink.
In a previous study, conducted on the alluvial Veneto plain of Brenta and Piave rivers, soil
organic carbon (SOC) of different land uses was considered (Manni, 2007). The OC trend of
the topsoil (0-30 cm) was compared between orchard, meadow, vineyard, vegetable and corn.
Vineyard soils showed a significantly higher OC content (49 t/ha).
To study vineyards capacity to sequestrate OC, the DOC Piave area has been investigated
(Fig. 1). The study area is located in Treviso and Venice provinces
and is near 150,000 ha extended. The main land uses are crop and, for
about 5% of the area, vineyard.
In the present study a set of Soil Organic Carbon Status Indicators
(SOCSI), developed by the JRC-Ispra to support the EU policies
related to SOC, are been considered to investigate OC trends in
different soil types and land uses. The SOCSI are knowledge-based
and can be derived from available soil data at regional scale. SOC
content results from combination of Soil Typological Unit (STU) and
land use/management. Each combination has specific SOC margins
so SOC content change is limited. Moreover, potential for the change depends on the actual
OC content.
The present study aims to test the SOCSI in the DOC Piave area and validate them against
empirical observations. There is an urgency to make the SOCSI instrumental for supporting
authorities to setup policy decisions regarding carbon management (Stolbovoy, 2008).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To describe the different soil types of DOC Piave area, soil maps of Treviso and Venice
provinces at 1:50,000 scale were considered (Soil Service-ARPAV Treviso, 2008); also, to
distinguish between the different land uses, the covered soil map of Veneto Region at
1:10,000 scale (Regione Veneto, 2009) was used.
The study area includes 614 soil profiles, 153 of
which on vineyard (Fig. 2); each of them is
geographically referred with a GIS system (ArcView
3.3) and is been reconnected to the STUs defined for
the soil maps. Soil data are been collected in a regional
database managed with Access 2003. It includes soil
profiles and STUs description, soil chemical and
physical analysis for each horizon. In particular, the
OC value considered is been analyzed according to
14,235 ISO method. Bulk density, necessary to convert
OC % into t/ha, is been measured by a soil sample ring
of known dimension (100 cc) (ISO 11,272-core
method) or is been estimated by pedotransfer specific
for plain soils.
Through a set of query, topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil
(0-100 cm) OC values, are been calculated by weighting each horizons OC content. The OC
trend, between different soil types and land uses, has been represented by bar charts, then
significant differences are been investigated by STATISTICA 8 program (LSD test,
p=0.05).
Since data for each of 70 STUs were sometimes too little to work out statistical analysis, the
functional soil groups defined for the alluvial plain of Brenta and Piave rivers (Manni, 2007)
were adopted. STUs were grouped into functional groups (Tab.1) on the basis of texture,
coarse fragments content, drainage and physiography. But not all the groups differed
significantly.
Fig. 1. DOC Piave
area.
Fig. 2. Soil profiles on DOC Piave
area.
4 - 114
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 114 03/06/10 15:53
APPLICATION OF ORGANIC CARBON STATUS INDICATORS ON
VINEYARD SOILS: THE CASE STUDY OF DOC PIAVE
(VENETO REGION, ITALY)
G. Manni
(1)
, G. Concheri
(1)
, A. Garlato
(2)
, I. Vinci
(2)
, P. Marcuzzo
(3)
(1)
Universit degli Studi di Padova - Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie
Viale dellUniversit 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italia
giulia.manni@unipd.it
(2)
ARPAV - Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione Ambientale del Veneto - Servizio Suoli
Via Santa Barbara 5/a, 31100 Treviso, Italia
agarlato@arpa.veneto.it
(3)
Centro di Ricerca per lAgricoltura-Viticoltura
Via XXVIII Aprile 26, Conegliano (TV), Italia
patrick.marcuzzo@entecra.it
ABSTRACT
According to the Kyoto Protocol objectives, its necessary to identify alternative carbon
dioxide sinks, and vineyard soils could be a significant opportunity.
A set of soil organic carbon status indicators, proposed by JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), was
tested on vineyard soils of DOC Piave area (Veneto region) to validate it.
Information available in the regional soil database for the study area (Soil Maps of Treviso
and Venice provinces at 1:50,000 scale with 614 soil profiles on about 150,000 ha, 5% of
which with vineyards) was analysed to point out significant relationships between soil organic
carbon content, soil type and land uses. An approach for functional soil groups was adopted:
the soil typological units were grouped on the basis of texture, coarse fragments, drainage and
physiography (Manni, 2007). The highest value, which differs statistically from the others,
was observed in fine texture and poorly drained soils. Furthermore, vineyard soils showed
higher content than crop soils, especially on the first 30 cm. But no significant differences
were observed. Then, for each functional group and separately for vineyard and crop topsoil
and subsoil, a set of soil organic carbon status indicators were defined. The results showed
higher capacity to sequestrate carbon on vineyard topsoil.
The present study allows an overview of the DOC Piave area carbon pool and highlights
priorities areas where policy interventions should be concentrated.
KEYWORD
Soil organic carbon sequestration vineyard indicator functional group.
INTRODUCTION
According to the Kyoto Protocol objectives to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, in the
last years the joined countries are been elaborating footprint wine carbon calculators. In 2007,
the Australian law imposed to the main wineries and winemakers to count emissions; they are
asked to communicate greenhouse gases emissions, productions and energy uses. Also Italy is
working on the first wine carbon calculator called Ita.Ca and, in the next program versions,
vineyard soilss role of CO
2
sequestering into organic matter will be introduced (Battaglene et
al., 2010). So viticulture represents a carbon sink.
In a previous study, conducted on the alluvial Veneto plain of Brenta and Piave rivers, soil
organic carbon (SOC) of different land uses was considered (Manni, 2007). The OC trend of
the topsoil (0-30 cm) was compared between orchard, meadow, vineyard, vegetable and corn.
Vineyard soils showed a significantly higher OC content (49 t/ha).
To study vineyards capacity to sequestrate OC, the DOC Piave area has been investigated
(Fig. 1). The study area is located in Treviso and Venice provinces
and is near 150,000 ha extended. The main land uses are crop and, for
about 5% of the area, vineyard.
In the present study a set of Soil Organic Carbon Status Indicators
(SOCSI), developed by the JRC-Ispra to support the EU policies
related to SOC, are been considered to investigate OC trends in
different soil types and land uses. The SOCSI are knowledge-based
and can be derived from available soil data at regional scale. SOC
content results from combination of Soil Typological Unit (STU) and
land use/management. Each combination has specific SOC margins
so SOC content change is limited. Moreover, potential for the change depends on the actual
OC content.
The present study aims to test the SOCSI in the DOC Piave area and validate them against
empirical observations. There is an urgency to make the SOCSI instrumental for supporting
authorities to setup policy decisions regarding carbon management (Stolbovoy, 2008).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To describe the different soil types of DOC Piave area, soil maps of Treviso and Venice
provinces at 1:50,000 scale were considered (Soil Service-ARPAV Treviso, 2008); also, to
distinguish between the different land uses, the covered soil map of Veneto Region at
1:10,000 scale (Regione Veneto, 2009) was used.
The study area includes 614 soil profiles, 153 of
which on vineyard (Fig. 2); each of them is
geographically referred with a GIS system (ArcView
3.3) and is been reconnected to the STUs defined for
the soil maps. Soil data are been collected in a regional
database managed with Access 2003. It includes soil
profiles and STUs description, soil chemical and
physical analysis for each horizon. In particular, the
OC value considered is been analyzed according to
14,235 ISO method. Bulk density, necessary to convert
OC % into t/ha, is been measured by a soil sample ring
of known dimension (100 cc) (ISO 11,272-core
method) or is been estimated by pedotransfer specific
for plain soils.
Through a set of query, topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil
(0-100 cm) OC values, are been calculated by weighting each horizons OC content. The OC
trend, between different soil types and land uses, has been represented by bar charts, then
significant differences are been investigated by STATISTICA 8 program (LSD test,
p=0.05).
Since data for each of 70 STUs were sometimes too little to work out statistical analysis, the
functional soil groups defined for the alluvial plain of Brenta and Piave rivers (Manni, 2007)
were adopted. STUs were grouped into functional groups (Tab.1) on the basis of texture,
coarse fragments content, drainage and physiography. But not all the groups differed
significantly.
Fig. 1. DOC Piave
area.
Fig. 2. Soil profiles on DOC Piave
area.
4 - 115
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 115 03/06/10 15:53
Tab. 1. Functional groups description.
FUNCTIONAL
GROUP
LANDSCAPE COARSE
FRAGMENTS
DRAINAGE TEXTURE
A1 1-15%
A2
High plain
>15%
B2 <1% excessively drained, somewhat
excessively drained, well drained
Corse loamy, coarse silty
B3 <1% excessively drained, somewhat
excessively drained, well drained
Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
B4 <1% moderately well drained Sandy, coarse loamy,
coarse silty
B5 <1% moderately well drained Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
B6
Low plain
<1% somewhat poorly drained, poorly
drained, very poorly drained
Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
O2 Soils with
mollic horizon
<1% somewhat poorly drained, poorly
drained, very poorly drained
All textures
A set of SOCSI, proposed by JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), has been applied for each functional
group. The set includes:
data-derived parameters (mean, minimum and maximum values);
knowledge-derived parameters (CSP-Carbon Sequestration Potential, PCL-Potential
Carbon Loss, CSR-Carbon Sequestration Rate, CLR-Carbon Loss Rate and capability
classes for OC change).
The minimum and maximum values represent the margins of the OC range of change.
Potential for the change depends on the actual OC content (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. OC range of change (Stolbovoy, 2006).
Following the JRC procedure, the low/medium/high capability classes of CSP and PCL
were defined for each functional group:
Low (L): < [Min + (Max Min)/3]
Medium (M): between [Min + (Max Min)/3] and [Min + 2(Max Min)/3]
High (H): > [Min + 2(Max Min)/3
These SOCSI could be drawn on maps (one for CSP and one for PCL) to show areas in low,
medium or high PCL/CSP classes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bar charts of functional groups topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (0-100 cm) OC content (t/ha
and %) on vineyard and crop were drawn. The most significant results are on vineyards OC
(t/ha) graphics. Both the topsoil and the subsoil bar charts (Fig. 4 and 5) show a close
relationship between soil properties and SOC content:
in the high plain, soils with lower coarse fragments content (A1 than A2) have
higher fine earth volume and so higher OC content;
in the low plain (from B2 to B6), OC trend increases according to clay content and
in opposition to the soil drainage (except for B2 group on topsoil): sandy soils result
in more ready oxidation of organic matter compared with heavier soils because have
lower moisture content and are more aerated;
the O2 group has obviously the highest OC content, in fact soils are characterized by
mollic horizon and are very poorly drained.

Fig. 4. Vineyards topsoil OC content (t/ha) of the functional groups.
OC100_tha-Functional Groups
0
50
100
150
200
250
A1 A2 B2 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
1
0
0
_
t
h
a
Fig. 5. Vineyards subsoil OC content (t/ha) of the functional groups.
The only significant differences are between B4-B6 and between O2-all the other groups; if
subsoil OC is considered, also A2-B5 and A2-B6 differ significantly.
Then, vineyard and crop land uses were compared. Vineyard shows higher values than crop
on topsoil for all the functional groups (there are no observations for B3 group on vineyard),
except for O2 group (Fig. 6). But no significant differences are observed.
OC30_tha-Functional Groups
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
A1 A2 B2 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
3
0
_
t
h
a
4 - 116
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 116 03/06/10 15:53
Tab. 1. Functional groups description.
FUNCTIONAL
GROUP
LANDSCAPE COARSE
FRAGMENTS
DRAINAGE TEXTURE
A1 1-15%
A2
High plain
>15%
B2 <1% excessively drained, somewhat
excessively drained, well drained
Corse loamy, coarse silty
B3 <1% excessively drained, somewhat
excessively drained, well drained
Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
B4 <1% moderately well drained Sandy, coarse loamy,
coarse silty
B5 <1% moderately well drained Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
B6
Low plain
<1% somewhat poorly drained, poorly
drained, very poorly drained
Fine loamy, fine silty,
clayey
O2 Soils with
mollic horizon
<1% somewhat poorly drained, poorly
drained, very poorly drained
All textures
A set of SOCSI, proposed by JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), has been applied for each functional
group. The set includes:
data-derived parameters (mean, minimum and maximum values);
knowledge-derived parameters (CSP-Carbon Sequestration Potential, PCL-Potential
Carbon Loss, CSR-Carbon Sequestration Rate, CLR-Carbon Loss Rate and capability
classes for OC change).
The minimum and maximum values represent the margins of the OC range of change.
Potential for the change depends on the actual OC content (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. OC range of change (Stolbovoy, 2006).
Following the JRC procedure, the low/medium/high capability classes of CSP and PCL
were defined for each functional group:
Low (L): < [Min + (Max Min)/3]
Medium (M): between [Min + (Max Min)/3] and [Min + 2(Max Min)/3]
High (H): > [Min + 2(Max Min)/3
These SOCSI could be drawn on maps (one for CSP and one for PCL) to show areas in low,
medium or high PCL/CSP classes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bar charts of functional groups topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (0-100 cm) OC content (t/ha
and %) on vineyard and crop were drawn. The most significant results are on vineyards OC
(t/ha) graphics. Both the topsoil and the subsoil bar charts (Fig. 4 and 5) show a close
relationship between soil properties and SOC content:
in the high plain, soils with lower coarse fragments content (A1 than A2) have
higher fine earth volume and so higher OC content;
in the low plain (from B2 to B6), OC trend increases according to clay content and
in opposition to the soil drainage (except for B2 group on topsoil): sandy soils result
in more ready oxidation of organic matter compared with heavier soils because have
lower moisture content and are more aerated;
the O2 group has obviously the highest OC content, in fact soils are characterized by
mollic horizon and are very poorly drained.

Fig. 4. Vineyards topsoil OC content (t/ha) of the functional groups.
OC100_tha-Functional Groups
0
50
100
150
200
250
A1 A2 B2 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
1
0
0
_
t
h
a
Fig. 5. Vineyards subsoil OC content (t/ha) of the functional groups.
The only significant differences are between B4-B6 and between O2-all the other groups; if
subsoil OC is considered, also A2-B5 and A2-B6 differ significantly.
Then, vineyard and crop land uses were compared. Vineyard shows higher values than crop
on topsoil for all the functional groups (there are no observations for B3 group on vineyard),
except for O2 group (Fig. 6). But no significant differences are observed.
OC30_tha-Functional Groups
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
A1 A2 B2 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
3
0
_
t
h
a
4 - 117
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 117 03/06/10 15:53
OC30_tha-LAND USE
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
A1 A2 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
3
0
_
t
h
a
Vineyard
Crop
Fig. 6. Topsoil OC content (t/ha) of vineyard and crop land uses.
Topsoil OC content on vineyard is higher because of the conservative tillage adopted by the
wineries included in the DOC Piave zoning. Information about vineyards management are
been collected by interviews to the about 90 wineries involved in the present study. In
particular, they were asked to give information about soil manure (chemical or organic),
irrigation, soil tillage, presence of grass covered soil. Almost all the wineries apply also
organic manure on soil, have a reduced tillage and, at least, an inter-row grass covered soil.
These agricultural practices maintain or increase soil organic matter content, especially on the
first 30 cm.
The typical topsoil OC trend is, instead, lost in the subsoil OC content: only A1, A2 and B5
groups have higher content on vineyard.
Following a procedure proposed by the JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), the minimum, mean and
maximum OC functional groups values were found (for topsoil and subsoil, in t/ha and %),
separately for vineyard and crop land uses. Then, the capability classes of PCL and CSP were
calculated. The most significant results are shown by OC (%) on vineyard topsoil, where
some functional groups have low potential to loss and high potential to gain carbon (L/H);
subsoil, instead, has medium potentials (M/M) for all the groups. No H/L classes were found.
The groups showing major potentials of changing (with L/H classes) are A1, B2, B5 and B6
if OC(%) is considered. So, applying an appropriate vineyards management, its possible to
increase topsoil organic matter for these functional groups.
The crop capability classes show, in opposition to vineyard classes, more possibilities to
change in the subsoil than in the topsoil, so interventions to increase SOC on crops is more
complicated. A conversion from crop to vineyard, instead, could allow to increase SOC pool
acting on topsoil.
The capability classes founded could be drawn on maps to better highlight the priority areas
where interventions on soil protection should be concentrated.
CONCLUSIONS
Since topsoil OC (t/ha) was significantly higher on vineyard than on the other main land
uses of the Veneto plain (Manni, 2007), the DOC Piave area is been investigated.
Information available in the regional soil database was analysed to point out significant
relationships between SOC content on different soil types and land uses (vineyard-crop).
Functional soil groups were created and bar charts of topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (0-100
cm) OC content (% and t/ha) of the different functional groups were obtained, separately for
vineyard and crop land uses. In the high plain, vineyards soils with lower coarse fragments
content (A1 than A2) have higher OC (t/ha) values; in the low plain (from B2 to B6), OC
trend increases according to clay content and in opposition to the soil drainage (except for B2
group on topsoil); the mollic and very poorly drained soils (O2) have obviously the highest
OC content. Furthermore, vineyard shows higher values than crop on topsoil for all the
functional groups, except for O2 group. Topsoil OC content on vineyard is higher because of
the conservative tillage adopted by the wineries involved in the present study. However, the
functional groups will be created again on the basis of other factors to better highlight
differences between different soil types on different land uses.
Following a procedure proposed by the JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), a set of SOCSI were
calculated. Some functional groups, on topsoil vineyard, showed low potential to loss and
high potential to gain OC. So, applying an appropriate vineyards management, its possible
to increase topsoil organic matter for these soil groups. The capability classes founded could
be drawn on maps to highlight the regional areas where policy measures and interventions
should be concentrated to guarantee soil protection.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the Council for Agriculture Research and Experimentation-Research
Centre for Viticulture of Conegliano and the wineries involved in the DOC Piave zoning for
the furnished information about vineyards management.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARPAV, 2005. Carta dei suoli della Regione Veneto alla scala 1:250.000. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2008. Carta dei suoli della provincia di Treviso. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2004. Carta dei suoli del bacino scolante in laguna di Venezia. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2008. I suoli della provincia di Venezia. Padova.
Battaglene T., Savage C., 2010. Importante un metodo comune per valutare limpronta
carbonica. Vite&Vino (supplemento a LInformatore Agrario n.13), n:11-13.
Jones R.J.A., Hiederer R., Rusco E., Loveland P.J., Montanarella L., 2004. Function of
OC/OM in soils. In: The map of Topsoil Organic Carbon in Europe: Version 1.2-
september 2003. Ispra. European Communities. n. 6.
Manni G., 2007. Andamento del carbonio organico nei suoli di pianura del Veneto in
funzione del tipo di suoli e del loro uso. Universit degli Studi di Padova.
Manni G., 2008. Towards soil organic carbon status indicators in the Veneto Region. In:
EUROSOIL 2008 Book of Abstracts. Vienna. n. 83.
Manni G., Piccolo S., Concheri G., Vinci I., 2009. I suoli vitati e il Protocollo di Kyoto: il
caso della DOC Piave (Regione Veneto, Italia). In: 32nd World Congress of vine and
wine-Book of Abstracts. Zagabria. n. 249.
Regione del Veneto, 2009. Carta della Copertura del Suolo del Veneto. Edizione 2009.
Stolbovoy V., 2008. Application of soil organic carbon for policy-decision making in the
EU. In. EUROSOIL 2008 Book of Abstracts. Vienna. n. 83.
Zdruli P., Jones R.J.A., Montanarella L., 2004. Effect of soil properties. In: Organic matter in
the soils of southern Europe. Ispra. European Communities. n. 8.
http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esbn/Plenary_esbn_2007/ESBN_2007/ESBN_Stolbovoy_Ca
rbon.pdf
4 - 118
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 118 03/06/10 15:53
OC30_tha-LAND USE
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
A1 A2 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 O2
Functional Groups
O
C
3
0
_
t
h
a
Vineyard
Crop
Fig. 6. Topsoil OC content (t/ha) of vineyard and crop land uses.
Topsoil OC content on vineyard is higher because of the conservative tillage adopted by the
wineries included in the DOC Piave zoning. Information about vineyards management are
been collected by interviews to the about 90 wineries involved in the present study. In
particular, they were asked to give information about soil manure (chemical or organic),
irrigation, soil tillage, presence of grass covered soil. Almost all the wineries apply also
organic manure on soil, have a reduced tillage and, at least, an inter-row grass covered soil.
These agricultural practices maintain or increase soil organic matter content, especially on the
first 30 cm.
The typical topsoil OC trend is, instead, lost in the subsoil OC content: only A1, A2 and B5
groups have higher content on vineyard.
Following a procedure proposed by the JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), the minimum, mean and
maximum OC functional groups values were found (for topsoil and subsoil, in t/ha and %),
separately for vineyard and crop land uses. Then, the capability classes of PCL and CSP were
calculated. The most significant results are shown by OC (%) on vineyard topsoil, where
some functional groups have low potential to loss and high potential to gain carbon (L/H);
subsoil, instead, has medium potentials (M/M) for all the groups. No H/L classes were found.
The groups showing major potentials of changing (with L/H classes) are A1, B2, B5 and B6
if OC(%) is considered. So, applying an appropriate vineyards management, its possible to
increase topsoil organic matter for these functional groups.
The crop capability classes show, in opposition to vineyard classes, more possibilities to
change in the subsoil than in the topsoil, so interventions to increase SOC on crops is more
complicated. A conversion from crop to vineyard, instead, could allow to increase SOC pool
acting on topsoil.
The capability classes founded could be drawn on maps to better highlight the priority areas
where interventions on soil protection should be concentrated.
CONCLUSIONS
Since topsoil OC (t/ha) was significantly higher on vineyard than on the other main land
uses of the Veneto plain (Manni, 2007), the DOC Piave area is been investigated.
Information available in the regional soil database was analysed to point out significant
relationships between SOC content on different soil types and land uses (vineyard-crop).
Functional soil groups were created and bar charts of topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (0-100
cm) OC content (% and t/ha) of the different functional groups were obtained, separately for
vineyard and crop land uses. In the high plain, vineyards soils with lower coarse fragments
content (A1 than A2) have higher OC (t/ha) values; in the low plain (from B2 to B6), OC
trend increases according to clay content and in opposition to the soil drainage (except for B2
group on topsoil); the mollic and very poorly drained soils (O2) have obviously the highest
OC content. Furthermore, vineyard shows higher values than crop on topsoil for all the
functional groups, except for O2 group. Topsoil OC content on vineyard is higher because of
the conservative tillage adopted by the wineries involved in the present study. However, the
functional groups will be created again on the basis of other factors to better highlight
differences between different soil types on different land uses.
Following a procedure proposed by the JRC (Stolbovoy, 2006), a set of SOCSI were
calculated. Some functional groups, on topsoil vineyard, showed low potential to loss and
high potential to gain OC. So, applying an appropriate vineyards management, its possible
to increase topsoil organic matter for these soil groups. The capability classes founded could
be drawn on maps to highlight the regional areas where policy measures and interventions
should be concentrated to guarantee soil protection.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the Council for Agriculture Research and Experimentation-Research
Centre for Viticulture of Conegliano and the wineries involved in the DOC Piave zoning for
the furnished information about vineyards management.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARPAV, 2005. Carta dei suoli della Regione Veneto alla scala 1:250.000. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2008. Carta dei suoli della provincia di Treviso. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2004. Carta dei suoli del bacino scolante in laguna di Venezia. Treviso.
ARPAV, 2008. I suoli della provincia di Venezia. Padova.
Battaglene T., Savage C., 2010. Importante un metodo comune per valutare limpronta
carbonica. Vite&Vino (supplemento a LInformatore Agrario n.13), n:11-13.
Jones R.J.A., Hiederer R., Rusco E., Loveland P.J., Montanarella L., 2004. Function of
OC/OM in soils. In: The map of Topsoil Organic Carbon in Europe: Version 1.2-
september 2003. Ispra. European Communities. n. 6.
Manni G., 2007. Andamento del carbonio organico nei suoli di pianura del Veneto in
funzione del tipo di suoli e del loro uso. Universit degli Studi di Padova.
Manni G., 2008. Towards soil organic carbon status indicators in the Veneto Region. In:
EUROSOIL 2008 Book of Abstracts. Vienna. n. 83.
Manni G., Piccolo S., Concheri G., Vinci I., 2009. I suoli vitati e il Protocollo di Kyoto: il
caso della DOC Piave (Regione Veneto, Italia). In: 32nd World Congress of vine and
wine-Book of Abstracts. Zagabria. n. 249.
Regione del Veneto, 2009. Carta della Copertura del Suolo del Veneto. Edizione 2009.
Stolbovoy V., 2008. Application of soil organic carbon for policy-decision making in the
EU. In. EUROSOIL 2008 Book of Abstracts. Vienna. n. 83.
Zdruli P., Jones R.J.A., Montanarella L., 2004. Effect of soil properties. In: Organic matter in
the soils of southern Europe. Ispra. European Communities. n. 8.
http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esbn/Plenary_esbn_2007/ESBN_2007/ESBN_Stolbovoy_Ca
rbon.pdf
4 - 119
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 119 03/06/10 15:53
ON-THE-GO RESISTIVITY SENSORS EMPLOYMENT TO SUPPORT
SOIL SURVEY FOR PRECISION VITICULTURE
M.C. Andrenelli, E.A.C. Costantini, S. Pellegrini, R. Perria, and N. Vignozzi
CRA-ABP- Centro per l'Agrobiologia e la Pedologia,
Piazza M. DAzeglio, 30 50121, Firenze, Italy
andrenelli@issds.it

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing need in agriculture to adopt site-specific management (precision
farming) because of economic and environmental pressures. Geophysical on-the-go sensors, such
as the ARP (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) system, can effectively support soil survey by
optimizing sampling density according to the spatial variability of apparent electrical resistivity
(ER).
The aim of this work was to test the sensitivity of the ARP methodology in supporting soil
survey for precision viticulture. In particular, an optimization procedure for coupled geoelectrical
and soil surveys is illustrated.
The research was carried out in a vineyard located in Tuscany (central Italy) affected by low
yield due to soil salinity; the investigation was simultaneously conducted by soil survey and
resistivity measurements. The ARP method consists in the electric current injection into the
ground and in the continuous measure of the resulting potential, simultaneously providing three
georeferenced values of ER related to 50, 100 and 170 cm depths for each point.
Forty-nine soil samples were taken at 10-30 cm depth and analyzed for moisture, particle size
distribution and electrical conductivity. The best correlation (R
2
= 0.609; P <0.01) was obtained
between clay content and ER referred to the 0-50 cm depth (ER
50
).
The evaluation of the density reduction effect for both ARP and soil survey was expressed in
terms of ER
50
and clay predictability. Doubling the ARP swaths width (12 m) the ER
50
accuracy
was substantially in agreement with that obtained for the highest ARP survey density (22 swaths
6 m spaced); the further width doubling (24 m) provided a moderate accuracy. With regard to
clay content prediction k accuracy values ranged between 0.87 and 0.49 for the 22 swaths/25 soil
samples and 10 swaths/12 soil samples combination, respectively.

KEYWORD
ARP ER accuracy precision viticulture GIS clay

INTRODUCTION
Viticultural precision farming needs detailed soil information, which can be obtained by means
of remote as well as proximal sensors, besides traditional invasive soil survey. The understanding
of the nature, extent and causes of vineyard variability may help grape-growers and winemakers
to use precision viticulture tools to better target their management (irrigation, rate of fertilizers,
pruning and harvesting). Nevertheless, the use of the new technologies is still in its infancy,
because of their costs and the lack of knowledge about the detail actually needed for the
viticultural husbandry.
Several authors (Bramley and Proffitt, 1999) demonstrated that traditional soil surveys can not
succeed in exhaustively explaining the reasons of variability in vineyard performance. The
authors find more efficient the evaluation of soil properties by sampling at points selected

according to, for instance, electromagnetic measurements (EM38). Actually, soil electrical
properties can be considered as an alternative but also complex source of information for
assessing the spatial and temporal variability of many soil physical and chemical properties (i.e.
structure, texture, water content and salinity). EMI represents the most widespread geophysical
technique employed in agriculture, anyway, it is noteworthy that electrical surveys performed by
means of this instrumentation require a calibration every time it is used (Taylor, 2004). With this
regard, Dabas et al. (2001) prefer electrical current (i.e., device that injects electrical current into
the soil) as the calibration is more constant and less sensitive to error from soil heterogeneity,
though the limitation regarding the main drawback to the DC sensors (direct current) are
problems when the soil exhibits a high contact resistance, that is when it is either very dry or
frozen (Dabas and Tabbagh, 2003; Luck and Eisenreich, 2001).
With the aim to reduce the mobile sensor surveys costs Farahan and Flynn (2007) studied the
different quality of maps provided by widening the swath width for the Veris 3100 sensor (Veris
Technologies, Salina, KS). These authors assess the density effect on the possibility of providing
acceptable prediction of the conductivity (ECa) map compared to the densest survey.
Since the density effect of the geoelectrical survey on its reliability to support traditional soil
survey in vineyard was not fully investigated, the aim of the work was to statistically test the
possibility of combining an optimized strategy for both geoelectrical and soil sampling, able to
provide significant information accuracy of the soil spatial variability.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study vineyard, sized 3.5 ha, is located in central coast of Tuscany (Central Italy),
cultivated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc in the past. Actually, soil salinity
problems strongly reduced the wine production and induced the wine growers to remove the
vineyard.
The survey identified three main soil typologies, according to the WRB classification system
(FAO, IUSS, ISRIC, 2006): Endostagnic Cambisols (Calcaric, Sodic) on marine clays; Haplic
Cambisols (Eutric) and (Calcaric) on conglomerates.
Soil sampling at 10-30 cm was carried out on a regular grid sampling scheme (35-40 m per 20
m), simultaneously to the measurement of soil resistivity executed by the ARP equipment. (a
direct current sensor). Laboratory analyses for moisture determination was carried out with the
gravimetric method while the texture analysis was performed with hydrometer, identifying five
fractions (coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt, clay percentages); a 1:5 soil water suspension
was then employed for the electrical conductivity determination, expressed as mScm
-1
.
The ARP survey was carried on 22 passages, 6 m spaced from each other. In each sampling
point, the device simultaneously provides 3 georeferenced values of electrical resistivity values
(Ohm.m) related to different soil depths of investigation (0-50; 0-100 and 0-170 cm). Actually,
only the surface ER data (ER
50
) have been considered compared to the deeper ones provided by
the ARP machinery because such value was expected to be more linked to soil properties of 10-
30 cm depth.
In order to find a relationship between ARP information and soil properties, resistivity data
were spatialized over the whole study area in ARC/VIEW GIS environment (ESRI ArcView
3.2(R)) by means of inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW2-3) algorithm. Such an
algorithm employees 2 neighbours and a 3 power function to interpolate the data. Successively, a
buffer of 3 m radius around each soil sample was created and by means of the ArcView tool

4 - 120
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 120 03/06/10 15:53
ON-THE-GO RESISTIVITY SENSORS EMPLOYMENT TO SUPPORT
SOIL SURVEY FOR PRECISION VITICULTURE
M.C. Andrenelli, E.A.C. Costantini, S. Pellegrini, R. Perria, and N. Vignozzi
CRA-ABP- Centro per l'Agrobiologia e la Pedologia,
Piazza M. DAzeglio, 30 50121, Firenze, Italy
andrenelli@issds.it

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing need in agriculture to adopt site-specific management (precision
farming) because of economic and environmental pressures. Geophysical on-the-go sensors, such
as the ARP (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) system, can effectively support soil survey by
optimizing sampling density according to the spatial variability of apparent electrical resistivity
(ER).
The aim of this work was to test the sensitivity of the ARP methodology in supporting soil
survey for precision viticulture. In particular, an optimization procedure for coupled geoelectrical
and soil surveys is illustrated.
The research was carried out in a vineyard located in Tuscany (central Italy) affected by low
yield due to soil salinity; the investigation was simultaneously conducted by soil survey and
resistivity measurements. The ARP method consists in the electric current injection into the
ground and in the continuous measure of the resulting potential, simultaneously providing three
georeferenced values of ER related to 50, 100 and 170 cm depths for each point.
Forty-nine soil samples were taken at 10-30 cm depth and analyzed for moisture, particle size
distribution and electrical conductivity. The best correlation (R
2
= 0.609; P <0.01) was obtained
between clay content and ER referred to the 0-50 cm depth (ER
50
).
The evaluation of the density reduction effect for both ARP and soil survey was expressed in
terms of ER
50
and clay predictability. Doubling the ARP swaths width (12 m) the ER
50
accuracy
was substantially in agreement with that obtained for the highest ARP survey density (22 swaths
6 m spaced); the further width doubling (24 m) provided a moderate accuracy. With regard to
clay content prediction k accuracy values ranged between 0.87 and 0.49 for the 22 swaths/25 soil
samples and 10 swaths/12 soil samples combination, respectively.

KEYWORD
ARP ER accuracy precision viticulture GIS clay

INTRODUCTION
Viticultural precision farming needs detailed soil information, which can be obtained by means
of remote as well as proximal sensors, besides traditional invasive soil survey. The understanding
of the nature, extent and causes of vineyard variability may help grape-growers and winemakers
to use precision viticulture tools to better target their management (irrigation, rate of fertilizers,
pruning and harvesting). Nevertheless, the use of the new technologies is still in its infancy,
because of their costs and the lack of knowledge about the detail actually needed for the
viticultural husbandry.
Several authors (Bramley and Proffitt, 1999) demonstrated that traditional soil surveys can not
succeed in exhaustively explaining the reasons of variability in vineyard performance. The
authors find more efficient the evaluation of soil properties by sampling at points selected

according to, for instance, electromagnetic measurements (EM38). Actually, soil electrical
properties can be considered as an alternative but also complex source of information for
assessing the spatial and temporal variability of many soil physical and chemical properties (i.e.
structure, texture, water content and salinity). EMI represents the most widespread geophysical
technique employed in agriculture, anyway, it is noteworthy that electrical surveys performed by
means of this instrumentation require a calibration every time it is used (Taylor, 2004). With this
regard, Dabas et al. (2001) prefer electrical current (i.e., device that injects electrical current into
the soil) as the calibration is more constant and less sensitive to error from soil heterogeneity,
though the limitation regarding the main drawback to the DC sensors (direct current) are
problems when the soil exhibits a high contact resistance, that is when it is either very dry or
frozen (Dabas and Tabbagh, 2003; Luck and Eisenreich, 2001).
With the aim to reduce the mobile sensor surveys costs Farahan and Flynn (2007) studied the
different quality of maps provided by widening the swath width for the Veris 3100 sensor (Veris
Technologies, Salina, KS). These authors assess the density effect on the possibility of providing
acceptable prediction of the conductivity (ECa) map compared to the densest survey.
Since the density effect of the geoelectrical survey on its reliability to support traditional soil
survey in vineyard was not fully investigated, the aim of the work was to statistically test the
possibility of combining an optimized strategy for both geoelectrical and soil sampling, able to
provide significant information accuracy of the soil spatial variability.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study vineyard, sized 3.5 ha, is located in central coast of Tuscany (Central Italy),
cultivated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc in the past. Actually, soil salinity
problems strongly reduced the wine production and induced the wine growers to remove the
vineyard.
The survey identified three main soil typologies, according to the WRB classification system
(FAO, IUSS, ISRIC, 2006): Endostagnic Cambisols (Calcaric, Sodic) on marine clays; Haplic
Cambisols (Eutric) and (Calcaric) on conglomerates.
Soil sampling at 10-30 cm was carried out on a regular grid sampling scheme (35-40 m per 20
m), simultaneously to the measurement of soil resistivity executed by the ARP equipment. (a
direct current sensor). Laboratory analyses for moisture determination was carried out with the
gravimetric method while the texture analysis was performed with hydrometer, identifying five
fractions (coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt, clay percentages); a 1:5 soil water suspension
was then employed for the electrical conductivity determination, expressed as mScm
-1
.
The ARP survey was carried on 22 passages, 6 m spaced from each other. In each sampling
point, the device simultaneously provides 3 georeferenced values of electrical resistivity values
(Ohm.m) related to different soil depths of investigation (0-50; 0-100 and 0-170 cm). Actually,
only the surface ER data (ER
50
) have been considered compared to the deeper ones provided by
the ARP machinery because such value was expected to be more linked to soil properties of 10-
30 cm depth.
In order to find a relationship between ARP information and soil properties, resistivity data
were spatialized over the whole study area in ARC/VIEW GIS environment (ESRI ArcView
3.2(R)) by means of inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW2-3) algorithm. Such an
algorithm employees 2 neighbours and a 3 power function to interpolate the data. Successively, a
buffer of 3 m radius around each soil sample was created and by means of the ArcView tool

4 - 121
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 121 03/06/10 15:53
Zonal Statistics, the mean value of ER
50
grids within each buffer was associated to the relative
soil sample information. The resolution of the raster layer was 3 meter. Regression analysis was
employed to correlate ER
50
information to soil physical and chemical data.
In addition, to evaluate the possibility of reducing the ARP survey cost, the accuracy of
predicting ER
50
values for the swath widths of 6, 12 and 24 m was assessed. Similar approach
was employed to evaluate the opportunity of reducing soil samplings by assessing soil properties
predictability for decreasing sampling closeness. Those localizations were in turn selected
according to the observed ER
50
variability for the diverse densities of the ARP survey.
Such accuracy analysis was carried out in ARC/VIEW GIS environment by means of the
ArcView tool Kappa analysis which elaborates a confusion matrix containing categorical
similarities between the observed values and the predicted ones All the previous statistical
elaborations were then implemented in a excel spreadsheet to elaborate graphs and tables.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Before investigating the probable relation between resistivity signal and soil properties it was
evaluated the possibility of reducing the costs of the ARP survey. With that aim the spatialization
of ER
50
values for different densities of the geoelectrical survey was compared. In particular,
three different swaths width were investigated: actual 6 m, 12 m and 24 m, relative to 22, 10 and
5 passages, respectively (Fig. 1).


22 swaths 10 swaths 5 swaths
ER
50
(Ohm.m)
0 - 13.56
13.56 - 16.22
16.22 - 19.62
19.62 - 60
No Data














Figure 1. IDW 2-3 interpolation of ER
50
values

for 22, 10 and 5 swaths. (Scale 1:5,000).

The truthfulness of the ER
50
values calculated for different ER survey densities was evaluated
comparing the predicted values with those interpolated starting from the more dense survey (22
rows). In particular, for the K analysis a pixel by pixel comparison was applied; in such a way the
evaluation was extended over the whole area starting from the ER
50
values transformed into four
equal dimensional classes. Tab. 1 illustrates for each density survey, expressed in terms of both
number of measurements per ha and of swaths width, the statistics of ER
50
values calculated over
the whole area, the accuracy parameters (Landis and Koch ,1977) for ER
50
prediction.


Table 1. Summary of ER
50
statistics for different resistivity survey densities.
Swaths number

22 10 5
Width swath (m)
6 12 24
ER sample points per ha
667 417 276
ER
50
sampling points statistics:
Mean (Ohm.m) 17.34 17.5 17.78
Standard deviation (Ohm.m) 6.74 7.01 7.72
Overall accuracy of ER
50
prediction over the whole area 74% 63%
Theta value
0.25 0.25
K value
0.65 0.51
Agreement classification
Substantial Moderate

It is noteworthy, that only 10 rows,
corresponding to a reduction of almost
40% of the sampling points (from 667
to 417 per ha), may provide a reliable
accuracy in ER
50
prediction equivalent
to a substantial agreement, compared to
5 rows. Actually, the further swath
width enlarging to 24 m reduces
significantly the ER
50
predictability
becoming characterized by a moderate
agreement.
As rule, the resistivity maps are
employed as surrogate information of
soil variability to selecting the soil
sampling localization. With the aim to
obtain a unique ER
50
map representing
the resistivity variability of the study
area, the mean value of ER
50
grids
among 22 and 10 swaths ER
50(22-10 swaths)

was calculated to identify three
different densities of soil survey (25, 12
and 6 points), which in turn had to be
compared with the denser scheme (49
samples) (Fig. 2).
Actually, ER
50
grids provided by only
5 swaths were excluded from the
successively elaboration because of its
moderate agreement respect to 22
swaths results. For all the soil survey
intensities, the procedure of sample
localization/identification consisted in
selecting points uniformly distributed over the area and able to explain the whole ER variability.
Summary statistics of ER
50(22-10swaths)
values for different soil
survey densities.
Sampling points (n)
(Ohm.m) 49 25 12 X 6
Minimum 8.82 8.82 8.82 8.82
Maximum 31.59 31.59 31.59 26.93
Mean 17.17 17.99 16.95 16.1
Standard deviation 4.97 6.28 5.60 6.24
3
Figure 2. ER
50(22-10swaths)
grid values, localization of
the sampling points (Scale 1:3,500) and ER
50(22-
10swaths)
statistics for different soil survey density.
Endostagnic Cambisols
(Calcaric, Sodic)
Haplic Cambisols
(Calcaric)
Haplic Cambisols (Eutric)

4 - 122
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 122 03/06/10 15:53
Zonal Statistics, the mean value of ER
50
grids within each buffer was associated to the relative
soil sample information. The resolution of the raster layer was 3 meter. Regression analysis was
employed to correlate ER
50
information to soil physical and chemical data.
In addition, to evaluate the possibility of reducing the ARP survey cost, the accuracy of
predicting ER
50
values for the swath widths of 6, 12 and 24 m was assessed. Similar approach
was employed to evaluate the opportunity of reducing soil samplings by assessing soil properties
predictability for decreasing sampling closeness. Those localizations were in turn selected
according to the observed ER
50
variability for the diverse densities of the ARP survey.
Such accuracy analysis was carried out in ARC/VIEW GIS environment by means of the
ArcView tool Kappa analysis which elaborates a confusion matrix containing categorical
similarities between the observed values and the predicted ones All the previous statistical
elaborations were then implemented in a excel spreadsheet to elaborate graphs and tables.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Before investigating the probable relation between resistivity signal and soil properties it was
evaluated the possibility of reducing the costs of the ARP survey. With that aim the spatialization
of ER
50
values for different densities of the geoelectrical survey was compared. In particular,
three different swaths width were investigated: actual 6 m, 12 m and 24 m, relative to 22, 10 and
5 passages, respectively (Fig. 1).


22 swaths 10 swaths 5 swaths
ER
50
(Ohm.m)
0 - 13.56
13.56 - 16.22
16.22 - 19.62
19.62 - 60
No Data














Figure 1. IDW 2-3 interpolation of ER
50
values

for 22, 10 and 5 swaths. (Scale 1:5,000).

The truthfulness of the ER
50
values calculated for different ER survey densities was evaluated
comparing the predicted values with those interpolated starting from the more dense survey (22
rows). In particular, for the K analysis a pixel by pixel comparison was applied; in such a way the
evaluation was extended over the whole area starting from the ER
50
values transformed into four
equal dimensional classes. Tab. 1 illustrates for each density survey, expressed in terms of both
number of measurements per ha and of swaths width, the statistics of ER
50
values calculated over
the whole area, the accuracy parameters (Landis and Koch ,1977) for ER
50
prediction.


Table 1. Summary of ER
50
statistics for different resistivity survey densities.
Swaths number

22 10 5
Width swath (m)
6 12 24
ER sample points per ha
667 417 276
ER
50
sampling points statistics:
Mean (Ohm.m) 17.34 17.5 17.78
Standard deviation (Ohm.m) 6.74 7.01 7.72
Overall accuracy of ER
50
prediction over the whole area 74% 63%
Theta value
0.25 0.25
K value
0.65 0.51
Agreement classification
Substantial Moderate

It is noteworthy, that only 10 rows,
corresponding to a reduction of almost
40% of the sampling points (from 667
to 417 per ha), may provide a reliable
accuracy in ER
50
prediction equivalent
to a substantial agreement, compared to
5 rows. Actually, the further swath
width enlarging to 24 m reduces
significantly the ER
50
predictability
becoming characterized by a moderate
agreement.
As rule, the resistivity maps are
employed as surrogate information of
soil variability to selecting the soil
sampling localization. With the aim to
obtain a unique ER
50
map representing
the resistivity variability of the study
area, the mean value of ER
50
grids
among 22 and 10 swaths ER
50(22-10 swaths)

was calculated to identify three
different densities of soil survey (25, 12
and 6 points), which in turn had to be
compared with the denser scheme (49
samples) (Fig. 2).
Actually, ER
50
grids provided by only
5 swaths were excluded from the
successively elaboration because of its
moderate agreement respect to 22
swaths results. For all the soil survey
intensities, the procedure of sample
localization/identification consisted in
selecting points uniformly distributed over the area and able to explain the whole ER variability.
Summary statistics of ER
50(22-10swaths)
values for different soil
survey densities.
Sampling points (n)
(Ohm.m) 49 25 12 X 6
Minimum 8.82 8.82 8.82 8.82
Maximum 31.59 31.59 31.59 26.93
Mean 17.17 17.99 16.95 16.1
Standard deviation 4.97 6.28 5.60 6.24
3
Figure 2. ER
50(22-10swaths)
grid values, localization of
the sampling points (Scale 1:3,500) and ER
50(22-
10swaths)
statistics for different soil survey density.
Endostagnic Cambisols
(Calcaric, Sodic)
Haplic Cambisols
(Calcaric)
Haplic Cambisols (Eutric)

4 - 123
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 123 03/06/10 15:53
For that purpose, a buffer of 3 m radius was created around all the soil sampling points and the
mean value of ER
50(22-10 swaths)
grids was calculated within each buffer. In such a way the
interpolation effect was averaged and the resistivity attribution to each sampling point became
more reliable respect to soil properties distribution.
The results illustrated in Fig. 2 outline that each selection guarantees the whole ER variability
along with the uniformly spatial distribution of the diverse soil selections.
In order to assess the reliability provided by the different soil survey densities in terms of
characterization of soil properties variability over the study area, the possibility of discovering a
relation between ER
50
values and some of soil properties was investigated. For that purpose, once
again, the mean values of ER
50
grids provided by the different ARP survey densities was
averaged within each soil sampling buffer and related to the soil properties.
Among all the analyzed soil parameters only the clay content was always linked to the ER
50

values (i.e., separately provided by 22 and 10 swaths) with an high level of significance(p<0.001)
(Tab. 2); therefore the clay content was employed to test/compare the performances provided by
different soil survey densities.
All the relations between ER
50
and clay
for the diverse densities of soil and ARP
surveys assumed the exponential form.
Here after, Tab. 3 illustrates the
parameters of the regressions employed
to assess the clay content starting from
the resistivity signal, for different soil
and ARP survey densities.
Table 2. Correlation coefficient among soil
parameters versus the mean values of ER
50
for two
ARP survey densities and for all the soil samples
(49).
ER
50
(22ARPswaths) ER
50
(10ARPswaths)
W -0.270 N.S. -0.205 N.S.
E.C.(1:5) -0.408 ** -0.498 ***
Clay -0.750 *** -0.818 ***
Total Sand
The cells depicted in grey colour
represent the comparison term respect to
all the other combinations between soil
survey points and ARP swaths. Despite
the high value of the determination
coefficient, all the regressions involving
solely 6 samples are less significant
because of the few degrees of freedom
(df).
0.446 ** 0.565 ***
Fine Sand 0.370 ** 0.487 ***
Coarse Sand 0.154 N.S. 0.124 N.S.
Total Silt 0.059 N.S. -0.038 N.S.
Fine Silt -0.04 N.S. -0.149 N.S.
Coarse Silt 0.244 N.S. 0.283 *
*** Significant at 0.001 probability level; ** Significant at
0.01;* Significant at 0.05 probability level; N.S. Non
significant.

Table 3. Parameters of the regressions.
22 ARP swaths 10 ARP swaths
Soil sample
number
R
2
df Significance level R
2
df Significance level
49 0.610 47 ***
25 0.670 23 *** 0.755 23 ***
12 0.799 10 *** 0.902 10 ***
6 0.828 4 * 0.906 4 **

In order to evaluate the consistency of the clay content assessment over the whole study area
only the more significant regressions (***) were implemented in ARC View GIS environment,
starting from ER
50
values for different ARP survey densities. In such a way it was possible to

compare the results provided by 49 samples-22 ARP swaths on the one hand, with all the other
combinations of soil samples number and ARP swaths and therefore evaluate the corresponding
clay predictability. Once again clay values were transformed into categorical classes being
employed into the confusion matrix for accuracy analysis (Tab. 4).

Table 4. Results of the confusion matrix for the clay accuracy determination.
22 ARP swaths 10 ARP swaths
soil
samples (n)
Overall
accuracy
theta
value
K value
Agreement
class
overall
accuracy
theta
value
K value
Agreement
class
25
0.92 0.37 0.87 Almost perfect 0.76 0.37 0.62 Substantial
12
0.80 0.33 0.70 Substantial 0.65 0.32 0.49 moderate

The predictability of clay content ranged between 0.87 and 0.49, 22 ARP swaths provided
always excellent accuracy for both the analyzed soil sample sizes. Conversely, the more spaced
ARP survey guaranteed a substantial accuracy only with 25 soil samples.

CONCLUSIONS
For optimizing the use of ARP technology to support soil survey for precision viticulture two
possible strategies were indicated. With the highest geoelectrical survey density the soil samples
number may be reduced to twelve, at the most, for assuring at least a substantial accuracy in clay
prediction. Conversely a combined reduction of both costs (ARP and soil survey), able to assure
the same clay accuracy, may be provided by 10 ARP swaths with 25 soil samples for 3.5 ha,
equivalent to less than 3 swaths and 7.5 samples by ha, respectively.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bramley R.G.V. and Proffitt A.P., 1999. Managing variability in viticultural production.
Grapegrower and Winemaker. July 1999, 427:11-16.
Dabas M., Tabbagh J. and Boisgontier D., 2001. Multi-depth continuous electrical profiling
(MuCep) for characterization of in-field variability. In: G. Grenier and S. Blackmore (eds.).
Proc. Third European Conference on Precision Agriculture. Montpellier, France, 361-366.
Dabas M. and Tabbagh J., 2003. Comparison of EMI and DC methods for soil mapping in
Precision Agriculture. In: J.V. Stafford and A. Werner (eds.). Proc. Fourth European
Conference on Precision Agriculture. Berlin, Germany.
FAO, IUSS, ISRIC, 2006. World Reference Base for soil resource. World Soil Resource Report
n.103, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Farahani H.J. and Flynn R.L., 2007. Map Quality and Zone Delineation as affected by Width of
Parallel Swaths of Mobile Agricultural Sensors. Biosystems Engineering, 96 (2):151-159.
Landis J.R. and Koch G.G., 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
Biometrics, 33: 159-174.
Luck E. and Eisenreich M., 2001. Electrical Conductivity Mapping For Precision Agriculture. In:
G. Grenier and S. Blackmore (eds.). Proc. Third European Conference on Precision
Agriculture. Montpellier, France, 425-429.
Taylor J.A., 2004. Precision Viticulture and Digital Terroir. PhD Thesis. The University of
Sydney.

4 - 124
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 124 03/06/10 15:53
For that purpose, a buffer of 3 m radius was created around all the soil sampling points and the
mean value of ER
50(22-10 swaths)
grids was calculated within each buffer. In such a way the
interpolation effect was averaged and the resistivity attribution to each sampling point became
more reliable respect to soil properties distribution.
The results illustrated in Fig. 2 outline that each selection guarantees the whole ER variability
along with the uniformly spatial distribution of the diverse soil selections.
In order to assess the reliability provided by the different soil survey densities in terms of
characterization of soil properties variability over the study area, the possibility of discovering a
relation between ER
50
values and some of soil properties was investigated. For that purpose, once
again, the mean values of ER
50
grids provided by the different ARP survey densities was
averaged within each soil sampling buffer and related to the soil properties.
Among all the analyzed soil parameters only the clay content was always linked to the ER
50

values (i.e., separately provided by 22 and 10 swaths) with an high level of significance(p<0.001)
(Tab. 2); therefore the clay content was employed to test/compare the performances provided by
different soil survey densities.
All the relations between ER
50
and clay
for the diverse densities of soil and ARP
surveys assumed the exponential form.
Here after, Tab. 3 illustrates the
parameters of the regressions employed
to assess the clay content starting from
the resistivity signal, for different soil
and ARP survey densities.
Table 2. Correlation coefficient among soil
parameters versus the mean values of ER
50
for two
ARP survey densities and for all the soil samples
(49).
ER
50
(22ARPswaths) ER
50
(10ARPswaths)
W -0.270 N.S. -0.205 N.S.
E.C.(1:5) -0.408 ** -0.498 ***
Clay -0.750 *** -0.818 ***
Total Sand
The cells depicted in grey colour
represent the comparison term respect to
all the other combinations between soil
survey points and ARP swaths. Despite
the high value of the determination
coefficient, all the regressions involving
solely 6 samples are less significant
because of the few degrees of freedom
(df).
0.446 ** 0.565 ***
Fine Sand 0.370 ** 0.487 ***
Coarse Sand 0.154 N.S. 0.124 N.S.
Total Silt 0.059 N.S. -0.038 N.S.
Fine Silt -0.04 N.S. -0.149 N.S.
Coarse Silt 0.244 N.S. 0.283 *
*** Significant at 0.001 probability level; ** Significant at
0.01;* Significant at 0.05 probability level; N.S. Non
significant.

Table 3. Parameters of the regressions.
22 ARP swaths 10 ARP swaths
Soil sample
number
R
2
df Significance level R
2
df Significance level
49 0.610 47 ***
25 0.670 23 *** 0.755 23 ***
12 0.799 10 *** 0.902 10 ***
6 0.828 4 * 0.906 4 **

In order to evaluate the consistency of the clay content assessment over the whole study area
only the more significant regressions (***) were implemented in ARC View GIS environment,
starting from ER
50
values for different ARP survey densities. In such a way it was possible to

compare the results provided by 49 samples-22 ARP swaths on the one hand, with all the other
combinations of soil samples number and ARP swaths and therefore evaluate the corresponding
clay predictability. Once again clay values were transformed into categorical classes being
employed into the confusion matrix for accuracy analysis (Tab. 4).

Table 4. Results of the confusion matrix for the clay accuracy determination.
22 ARP swaths 10 ARP swaths
soil
samples (n)
Overall
accuracy
theta
value
K value
Agreement
class
overall
accuracy
theta
value
K value
Agreement
class
25
0.92 0.37 0.87 Almost perfect 0.76 0.37 0.62 Substantial
12
0.80 0.33 0.70 Substantial 0.65 0.32 0.49 moderate

The predictability of clay content ranged between 0.87 and 0.49, 22 ARP swaths provided
always excellent accuracy for both the analyzed soil sample sizes. Conversely, the more spaced
ARP survey guaranteed a substantial accuracy only with 25 soil samples.

CONCLUSIONS
For optimizing the use of ARP technology to support soil survey for precision viticulture two
possible strategies were indicated. With the highest geoelectrical survey density the soil samples
number may be reduced to twelve, at the most, for assuring at least a substantial accuracy in clay
prediction. Conversely a combined reduction of both costs (ARP and soil survey), able to assure
the same clay accuracy, may be provided by 10 ARP swaths with 25 soil samples for 3.5 ha,
equivalent to less than 3 swaths and 7.5 samples by ha, respectively.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bramley R.G.V. and Proffitt A.P., 1999. Managing variability in viticultural production.
Grapegrower and Winemaker. July 1999, 427:11-16.
Dabas M., Tabbagh J. and Boisgontier D., 2001. Multi-depth continuous electrical profiling
(MuCep) for characterization of in-field variability. In: G. Grenier and S. Blackmore (eds.).
Proc. Third European Conference on Precision Agriculture. Montpellier, France, 361-366.
Dabas M. and Tabbagh J., 2003. Comparison of EMI and DC methods for soil mapping in
Precision Agriculture. In: J.V. Stafford and A. Werner (eds.). Proc. Fourth European
Conference on Precision Agriculture. Berlin, Germany.
FAO, IUSS, ISRIC, 2006. World Reference Base for soil resource. World Soil Resource Report
n.103, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Farahani H.J. and Flynn R.L., 2007. Map Quality and Zone Delineation as affected by Width of
Parallel Swaths of Mobile Agricultural Sensors. Biosystems Engineering, 96 (2):151-159.
Landis J.R. and Koch G.G., 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
Biometrics, 33: 159-174.
Luck E. and Eisenreich M., 2001. Electrical Conductivity Mapping For Precision Agriculture. In:
G. Grenier and S. Blackmore (eds.). Proc. Third European Conference on Precision
Agriculture. Montpellier, France, 425-429.
Taylor J.A., 2004. Precision Viticulture and Digital Terroir. PhD Thesis. The University of
Sydney.

4 - 125
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 125 03/06/10 15:53
INFLUENCE OF SOIL TYPE ON JUICE QUALITY IN A VINEYARD FROM DO CA
RIOJA
Unamunzaga, O.
1
; Castelln, A.
1
; G. Besga
1
, Gallejones, P.
2
; , Usn, A.
3
and
Aizpurua, A.
1
1
Neiker-Tecnalia. Basque Institute for Agrarian Research and Development; 48.160 Derio, Spain
2
BC3 Basque Research Centre for the Climate Change. C/ GranVa, Bilbao, Spain
3
Agricultural and Chemical Engineering School; University of Zaragoza
Huesca, Spain
aaizpurua@neiker.net
ABSTRACT
Soil plays an important role in wine quality, especially its water holding capacity because it
affects the balance between vigour and grape yield. The aim of this work was to study the
influence of different soil types on the must quality in a vineyard at DO Ca Rioja. The study
was carried out during 2006 and 2007 in a vineyard of eight hectares, located in Oyn in
Northern Spain. Four soil types were established according to topography and parent material:
deposition (deeper than 110 cm and irregular distribution of organic matter in depth),
calcareous red argillite (depth of 85-100 cm, with a heavy clay layer with reddish colour at
85-100 cm), calcareous lutite (depth of 50-100 cm) and finally sandstone (depth of 25-80 cm,
and high sand content in depth). Grape samples were collected at 190 grapevines distributed
through the whole vineyard for analysing , potential alcohol, total tartaric acid, pH, and K,
and anthocyanins concentrations and polyphenols and colour indexes. The influence of soil
type on juice quality varied according to the year. In 2006, in the soils with the lower water
content (Sandstones) the potential alcohol was the highest (12.92 ), while in 2007, the Red
argillite soil (greater water availability) got the greatest potential alcohol (13.72 ). The
highest acidity was obtained in Depression soil (5.51 g L
-1
) and was higher in 2007 (5.48 g L
-
1
) than in 2006 (5.07 g L
-1
). Potassium juice concentration (3068 mg L-1) was higher in the
Red argillite soil type due to its higher soil K content, and this caused also the higher pH
(3.48) shown in this soil. The anthocyanins content, and polyphenols and colour indexes
reached higher values in the Sandstone soil (803 mg L
-1
, 64 and 24 respectively).
KEY-WORDS
Terroir, Potential alcohol, poliphenols, colour index, anthocyanins, acidity
INTRODUCTION
The aim of modern winemaking is to produce wines of high quality and tipicity that can
compete in an increasingly broad and competitive market (Ubalde et al., 2007). This quality is
closely related to the specific soil, climate, agronomical practices and training system
conditions, which in turn are related to the cultivar. The concept of "terroir" is often used to
describe this relationship (Deloire et al., 2004) and is usually defined as the ecosystem
interaction taking place in a given area, including climate, soil, variety and vineyard
management (Seguin, 1988). Thus, soil plays an important role in wine quality, especially its
physical properties such as drainage, depth and texture which derive in a good soil water
holding capacity. Soil water content is a main factor for the development of vineyards and
wine composition. Increased water availability can increase yield (Williams and Matthews,
1990), while it is considered that a moderate stress as a result of reduced water availability
improves quality. The reduced vegetation caused by the hydric stress results in a better bunch
exposure to light and also in a smaller fruit size which end in an improvement of the grape
quality (McCarthy et al., 2000).
The objective of this work was to study the influence of the soil type on the juice quality in a
vineyard from DO Ca Rioja.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 on an eight hectare vineyard called
"Costanillas", owned by Zuazo Gastn Winery. The vineyard was located in Oyn (Northern
Spain) in the Denominacin de Origen Calificada (DO Ca) Rioja, and the vines were
Tempranillo (Vitis Vinifera L.) trained in a double cordon system. The soil surface is
periodically cultivated to limit weed growth. The soil of the vineyard is calcareous (average
carbonate content of 155 g kg
-1
from 0 to 30 cm), with a high pH (8.6). Four soil types were
identified thanks to a soil survey based on the description and analysis of 12 soil pits and 27
soil observations made by a hand auger. The soils were classified according to their depth,
texture, organic matter vertical distribution and parent material: 1 - Depression: Soil depth
greater than 110 cm, with a clay content of 250-310 g kg
-1
at 70-100 cm. The main feature of
this soil is the irregular distribution of organic matter in depth, the content drops at 62-100
cm, and increases again from this depth. This change in the downward trend is due to the
erosion processes occurring in the vineyard, since this land is located in a low area where two
slopes converge and the eroded soil from both of them accumulates there.
2 Calcareous red argillite: Soil with a depth of 85-100 cm and a layer of calcareous argillites
at 60-74 cm depth. This layer is characterized by a high clay content (450-500 g kg
-1
) and soil
K (72-76 mg kg
-1
) and Mg (2,7-4,1 mg kg
-1
) contents higher than in the other soil types at the
same depth.
3 Calcareous lutite. Soil depth of 50-100 cm, and clay content in depth of 270-380 g kg
-1
.
4 - Sandstone. Soil depth is between 25 and 80 cm. It is characterized by a high sand content
in depth (about 300 g kg-
1
) and the lower clay content of the vineyard (230 g kg
-1
).
Climatology. The average annual rainfall was 399 mm and average temperature 13.5 C
according to the meteorological station Agoncillo, close to the plot. The climatic conditions of
the years 2006 and 2007 are shown in Table 1. The plot has a drip irrigation system with
emitters with a flow of 2.5 L h
-1
and a distance between emitters of 0.7 m. In the year 2006
the vineyard was watered and in 2007, irrigation was applied at 29 and 30 July with a total
dose of 57 mm. A sampling mesh of 24x14.4 m was designed, marking 190 vines. Grape
samples were taken from these vines to measure the following quality parameters:
- Quality parameters related to the pulp. The yield of each vine was squeezed and afterwards
analyzed. Potential alcohol (PA) was measured with a refractometer, total tartaric acidity and
pH by automatic potentiometry.
- Juice properties related to the skin. The yield of each vine was weighted and small
fragments of every harvested bunch were taken. These fragments were cut at the top, middle
and bottom of the bunch. Then all the berries were separated and 100 of them were weighted,
and another 200 were separated and blended in a Mixer for two minutes obtaining a slurry.
Potassium and anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenols and colour indexes were
measured in this slurry. Potassium was measured by flame atomic absorption, the colour
index by spectrophotometry (420 +520 +620 nm), the total polyphenol index by
spectrophotometry at 280 nm and anthocyanins using the method of bleaching with sodium
bisulfite (quote).
4 - 126
VIII INTERNATIONAL TERROIR CONGRESS
Cra viticoltura_libro 1_capitolo 4.indd 126 03/06/10 15:53
INFLUENCE OF SOIL TYPE ON JUICE QUALITY IN A VINEYARD FROM DO CA
RIOJA
Unamunzaga, O.
1
; Castelln, A.
1
; G. Besga
1
, Gallejones, P.
2
; , Usn, A.
3
and
Aizpurua, A.
1
1
Neiker-Tecnalia. Basque Institute for Agrarian Research and Development; 48.160 Derio, Spain
2
BC3 Basque Research Centre for the Climate Change. C/ GranVa, Bilbao, Spain
3
Agricultural and Chemical Engineering School; University of Zaragoza
Huesca, Spain
aaizpurua@neiker.net
ABSTRACT
Soil plays an important role in wine quality, especially its water holding capacity because it
affects the balance between vigour and grape yield. The aim of this work was to study the
influence of different soil types on the must quality in a vineyard at DO Ca Rioja. The study
was carried out during 2006 and 2007 in a vineyard of eight hectares, located in Oyn in
Northern Spain. Four soil types were established according to topography and parent material:
deposition (deeper than 110 cm and irregular distribution of organic matter in depth),
calcareous red argillite (depth of 85-100 cm, with a heavy clay layer with reddish colour at
85-100 cm), calcareous lutite (depth of 50-100 cm) and finally sandstone (depth of 25-80 cm,
and high sand content in depth). Grape samples were collected at 190 grapevines distributed
through the whole vineyard for analysing , potential alcohol, total tartaric acid, pH, and K,
and anthocyanins concentrations and polyphenols and colour indexes. The influence of soil
type on juice quality varied according to the year. In 2006, in the soils with the lower water
content (Sandstones) the potential alcohol was the highest (12.92 ), while in 2007, the Red
argillite soil (greater water availability) got the greatest potential alcohol (13.72 ). The
highest acidity was obtained in Depression soil (5.51 g L
-1
) and was higher in 2007 (5.48 g L
-
1
) than in 2006 (5.07 g L
-1
). Potassium juice concentration (3068 mg L-1) was higher in the
Red argillite soil type due to its higher soil K content, and this caused also the higher pH
(3.48) shown in this soil. The anthocyanins content, and polyphenols and colour indexes
reached higher values in the Sandstone soil (803 mg L
-1
, 64 and 24 respectively).
KEY-WORDS
Terroir, Potential alcohol, poliphenols, colour index, anthocyanins, acidity
INTRODUCTION
The aim of modern winemaking is to produce wines of high quality and tipicity that can
compete in an increasingly broad and competitive market (Ubalde et al., 2007). This quality is
closely related to the specific soil, climate, agronomical practices and training system
conditions, which in turn are related to the cultivar. The concept of "terroir" is often used to
describe this relationship (Deloire et al., 2004) and is usually defined as the ecosystem
interaction taking place in a given area, including climate, soil, variety and vineyard
management (Seguin, 1988). Thus, soil plays an important role in wine quality, especially its
physical p