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Unit V
Gear Trains
Table of Contents

5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 2
5.2 Types of Gear Trains ............................................................................................................................... 2
5.2.1 Simple Gear Train ............................................................................................................................. 3
5.2.2 Torque and Efficiency ...................................................................................................................... 5
5.2.3 Compound Gear Train ...................................................................................................................... 7
5.3 Speed Ratio of the Compound Gear Train .............................................................................................. 8
5.4 Design of Spur Gears ............................................................................................................................... 9
5.4.1 Reverted Gear Train ......................................................................................................................... 9
5.4.2 Planetary Gear Train (Epicyclic Gear Train) ................................................................................... 12
5.4.3 Analysis of Epicyclic Gear Trains ................................................................................................... 14
5.4.4 Compound Epicyclic Gear TrainSun and Planet Gear ................................................................. 19
5.4.5 Epicyclic Gear Train with Bevel Gears ............................................................................................ 23
5.5 Differential Gear of an Automobile ...................................................................................................... 24
5.5.1 Application of Gear Trains in Automobiles .................................................................................... 27
5.6 Questions .............................................................................................................................................. 31
5.6.1 Short Questions ............................................................................................................................. 32
5.6.2 Essay type questions ...................................................................................................................... 32







2

5.1 Introduction
A gear train consists of two or more gears working together by meshing their teeth and turning
each other in a system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and increases torque. To
create large gear ratio, gears are connected together to form gear trains. They often consist of
multiple gears in the train.








Fig. 5.1 Gear Train
The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this
type can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth
ratio.
Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one shaft to the other is
called a gear train. The meshing of two gears may be idealized as two smooth discs with their
edges touching and no slip between them. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle
Diameter (PCD) of the gear.
Electric motors are used with the gear systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque.
5.2 Types of Gear Trains
- Simple Gear Train
- Compound Gear Train
- Reverted Gear Train
- Planetary Gear Train
3

5.2.1 Simple Gear Train
- The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth
of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone.
- Only one gear may rotate about a single axis


Fig. 5.2 Simple Gear Train
Speed ratio (or velocity ratio) of gear train, is the ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of
the driven or follower. The ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their
number of teeth.
Speed ratio =
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
=
4

Train value =
2
1
1
2
T
T
N
N
=
It has no effect on the gear ratio. The teeth on the gears must all be the same size; so if gear A
advances one tooth, so does B and C.

Fig.5.3 Simple Gear Train
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
=
2
3
3
2
T
T
N
N
=
1
3
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
or
T
T
T
T
N
N
N
N
= =
Speed ratio =
driver on teeth No.of
driven on teeth No.of
driven of speed
driver of speed
=
Train Value =
driven on teeth No.of
driver on teeth No.of
driver of speed
driven of speed
=

Application
a) To connect gears where a large center distance is required.
b) To obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear (CW or CCW).
5

c) To obtain high speed ratio.
5.2.2 Torque and Efficiency
The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by:
60
2 NT
P
t
=
In an ideal gear box, the input and output powers are the same so;
60
2
60
2
2 2 1 1
T N T N
P
t t
= =
GR
N
N
T
T
T N T N = = =
2
1
1
2
2 2 1 1

It follows that if the speed is reduced, the torque is increased and vice versa. In a real gear box,
power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. The
efficiency is defined as:
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
60 2
60 2
T N
T N
T N
T N
Powerin
Powerout
=


= =
t
t
q
Since the torque in and out is different, a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case
or body rotating. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps.

The total torque must add up to zero.
T
1
+ T
2
+ T
3
= 0
6

If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative, we can
determine the holding torque. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the
design of the gear box.

Fig.5.4 Gear Box
Problem 5.1:
A gear box has an input speed of 1500 rpm clockwise and an output speed of 300 rpm
anticlockwise. The input power is 20 kW and the efficiency is 70%. Determine the following:
i. The gear ratio, ii. The input torque, iii. The output power, iv. The output torque,
v. The holding torque.
Solution:
5
300
1500
.
2
1
= = = =
N
N
speed Output
speed Input
VR or R G
1
1
1 1
2
60
60
2
N
Power Input
T
T N
Power Input

=
t
t

m N T torque Input 3 . 127
1500 2
20000 60
1
=

= =
t


(Negative Clockwise)
7

power Inpu
power Output
= = 7 . 0 q
kW Output Power 14 20 7 . 0 = =
m N T torque Output 6 . 445
300 2
14000 60
2
=

= =
t

(Positive anticlockwise)
0
3 2 1
= + + T T T
0 6 . 445 3 . 127
3
= + + T
m N T 3 . 318 6 . 445 3 . 127
3
= = Clockwise
5.2.3 Compound Gear Train
For large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred.
Two or more gears may rotate about a single axis.




Fig.5.5 Compound Gear Train
8

Let,
N
1
= Speed of driving gear 1,
T
1
= Number of teeth on driving gear 1,
N
2
, N
3
, N
6
= Speed of respective gears in r.p.m., and
T
2
, T
3
, . T
6
= Number of teeth on respective gears,
Since gear 1 is in mesh with gear 2, therefore, its speed ratio is
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
=
Similarly, for gears 3 and 4, speed ratio is
3
4
4
3
T
T
N
N
=
And for gears 5 and 6 speed ratio is
5
6
6
5
T
T
N
N
=
5.3 Speed Ratio of the Compound Gear Train
5
6
3
4
1
2
6
5
4
3
2
1
T
T
T
T
T
T
N
N
N
N
N
N
= or
5 3 1
6 4 2
6
1
T T T
T T T
N
N


=

Speed Ratio =
follower or driven last the of Speed
driver first the of Speed

=
drivers on the teeth of number the of Product
drivens on the teeth of number the of Product

Train Value =
driver first the of Speed
follower or driven last the of Speed

=
drivers on the teeth of number the of Product
drivens on the teeth of number the of Product

9

5.4 Design of Spur Gears
x = Distance between the centres of two shafts,
N
1
= Speed of the driver,
T
1
= Number of teeth on the driver,
d
1
= Pitch circle diameter of the driver,
N
2
, T
2
and d
2
= Corresponding values for the driven or follower,
p
c
= Circular pitch.
2
2 1
d d
x
+
=
1
2
1
2
2
1
T
T
d
d
N
N
= =
5.4.1 Reverted Gear Train
When the axes of the first gear (i.e. first driver) and the last gear (i.e. last driven or follower) are
co-axial, then the gear train is known as Reverted Gear Train.

Fig.5.6 Reverted Gear Train
10

The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks and
machine tools.
C A
D B
D
A
t t
t t
N
N
GR

= =
If R and T=Pitch circle radius and number of teeth of the gear respectively,
R
A
+ R
B
= R
C
+ R
D

t
A
+ t
B
= t
C
+ t
D

drivers on teeth of number of Product
drivens on teeth of nuber of Product

Problem 5.2:
The speed ratio of the reverted gear train, as shown in Fig.5.7 is to be 12. The module pitch of
gears A and B is 3.125 mm and of gears C and D is 2.5 mm. Calculate the suitable numbers of
teeth for the gears. No gear is to have less than 24 teeth.
Let N
A
= Speed of gear A,
T
A
= Number of teeth on gear A,
r
A
= Pitch circle radius of gear A,
N
B
, N
C
, N
D
= Speed of respective gears,
T
B
, T
C
, T
D
= Number of teeth on respective gears, and
r
B
, r
C
, r
D
= Pitch circle radii of respective gears.

11


Fig.5.7 Reverted Gear Train
Since the speed ratio between the gears A and B and between the gears C and D are to be
same, therefore,
464 . 3 12 = = =
D
C
B
A
N
N
N
N

Also the speed ratio of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth,
therefore,
464 . 3 = =
C
D
A
B
T
T
T
T
------ (i)
We know that the distance between the shafts,
X = r
A
+ r
B
= r
C
+ r
D
= 200mm
Or
200
2
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
= + = +
D D C C B B A A
T M T m T m T m
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
.T m
r
3.125(T
A
+ T
B
) = 2.5(T
C
+T
D
) = 400 (m
A
= m
B
, and m
C
= m
D
)
T
A
+ T
B
= 400 / 3.125 = 128 ------- (ii)
12

And, T
C
+ T
D
= 400 / 2.5 = 160 ------- (iii)
From equation (i), T
B
= 3.464 T
A
. Substituting this value of T
B
in equation (ii),
T
A
+ 3.464 T
A
= 128 or T
A
= 128 / 4.464 = 28.67
And, T
B
= 128 28 = 100
Again from equation (i), T
D
= 3.464 T
C
. Substituting this value of T
D
in equation (iii),
T
C
+ 3.464 T
C
= 160 or T
C
= 160 / 4.464 = 35.84 say 36
And, T
D
= 160 36 = 124
Note: The speed ratio of the reverted gear train with the calculated values of number of teeth
on each gear is,
3 . 12
36 28
124 100
=

=
C A
D B
D
A
T T
T T
N
N

5.4.2 Planetary Gear Train (Epicyclic Gear Train)
Epicyclic would mean that one gear revolves upon and around another. The design involves
planet and sun gears; as one orbits the other like a planet orbiting around the sun.

Fig. 5.8 Planetary Gear Train
13

This design can produce large gear ratios in a small space and are used on a wide range of
applications from marine gear boxes to electric screw drivers.


Fig.5.9 Epicyclic Gear Train
It consists of a small gear at the center called the sun, several medium sized gears called the
planets, and a large external gear called the ring gear.

Fig.5.10 Epicyclic Gear Train
Advantages
They have higher gear ratios.
They are popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles.
They are also used in bicycles for controlling power of pedaling automatically or manually.
They are also used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
14

5.4.3 Analysis of Epicyclic Gear Trains

Fig.5.11 Analysis of Epicyclic Gear Trains
The analysis of epicyclic gear trains can be done by Tabular and Analytical methods.
1 Tabular method
Observe point p, and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. Any object
orbiting around a center must rotate once. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and
meshes with C.
Arm 'A'
B
C
Planet wheel
Sun wheel
Arm
B
C

Fig.5.12 Tabular Method
Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. B spins about its own center and
the number of revolutions it makes is the ratio:
B
C
t
t

B will rotate by this number for every complete revolution of C.
15

Now consider that the sun gear C is restricted to rotate, and the arm A is revolved once. Gear B
will revolve
B
C
t
t
+ 1 because of the orbit. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. One way
to get round this is to imagine that the whole system is revolved once.
Then, identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back for one revolution. Work out the
revolutions of the other gears and add them up.
Consider the following example.
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions
the planet gear B makes.
Step 1: Revolve all elements once about the center.
Step 2: Identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm
fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. Work out the revolutions of B.
Step 3: Add them up and we find the total revolutions of C is zero and for the arm is1.
Step Action A B C
1 Revolve all once 1 1 1
2
Revolve C by 1 revolution,
keeping the arm fixed
0
B
C
t
t
+
-1
3 Add 1
B
C
t
t
+ 1
0
A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50 teeth. If
the arm is revolved once, how many times does the planet gear revolve?
Step Action A B C
1 Revolve all once 1 1 1
16

2
Revolve C by 1 revolution,
keeping the arm fixed
0
50
100
+
-1
3 Add 1 3 0
This can be generalized by the following table. Prepare the following table for any such problem
and solve for the given conditions.
Sl. No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions
Arm C Gear A Gear B
1.
Arm fixed-gear A rotates through
+1 revolution i.e., 1 rev.
anticlockwise
0 +1
B
A
T
T

2.
Arm fixed-gear A rotates through
+x revolutions
0 +x
B
A
T
T
x
3.
Add +y revolutions to all
elements
+y +y +y
4. Total motion +y x+y
B
A
T
T
x y
2. Algebraic Method
In this method, the motion of each element of the epicyclic train relative to the arm is set down
in the form of equations.
The number of equations depends upon the number of elements in the gear train. But the two
conditions are, usually, supplied in any epicyclic train viz. some element is fixed and the other
has specified motion.
These two conditions are sufficient to solve all the equations, and hence, to determine the
motion of any element in the epicyclic gear train.
Speed of the gear A relative to the arm C
17

= N
A
- N
C
The speed of the gear B relative to the arm C, = N
B
- N
C

Since the gears A and B are meshing directly, therefore, they will revolve in opposite directions.
B
A
C A
C B
T
T
N N
N N
=


Since the arm C is fixed, therefore, its speed, N
C
= 0.
B
A
A
B
T
T
N
N
=
If the gear A is fixed, then N
A
= 0.
B
A
C
C B
T
T
N
N N
=

0
or
B
A
C
B
T
T
N
N
+ =1

Problem 5.3:
In a reverted epicyclic gear train, the arm A carries two gears B and C, and a compound gear D
and E. The gear B meshes with gear E and the gear C meshes with gear D. The number of teeth
on gears B, C and D are 75, 30 and 90 respectively. Find the speed and direction of gear C, when
gear B is fixed and the arm A makes 100 r.p.m. clockwise.
T
B
= 75 ; T
C
= 30 ; T
D
= 90 ;N
A
= 100 r.p.m. (clockwise)
Let, d
B
,d
C
, d
D
and d
E
be the pitch circle diameters of gears B,C, D and E
d
B
+ d
E
= d
C
+ d
D

Since the number of teeth on each gear, for the same module, are proportional to their pitch
circle diameters, therefore, T
B
+ T
E
= T
C
+ T
D

18

T
E
= T
C
+ T
D
T
B
= 30 + 90 75 = 45

Fig.5.13 Reverted Epicyclic Gear Train
Sl. No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions
Arm A
Compound
Gear D - E
Gear B Gear C
1.
Arm fixed compound gear D
E rotated thorough +1
revolution (i.e., 1 rev.
anticlockwise)
0 +1
B
E
T
T

C
D
T
T

2.
Arm fixed-gear D-E rotates
through +x revolutions
0 +x
B
E
T
T
x
C
D
T
T
x

3.
Add +y revolutions to all
elements
+y +y +y +y
4. Total motion +y x+y
B
E
T
T
x y

C
D
T
T
x y

Since the gear B is fixed, therefore, from the fourth row of the table,
B
E
T
T
x y = 0 or 0
75
45
= x y
Y 0.6 x = 0
Also, the arm A makes 100 r.p.m. clockwise, therefore, y = - 100
19

Substituting, y = -100 in equation
We get,
-100 0.6x = 0 or x = -100 / 0.6 = 166.67
From the fourth row of the table, speed of gear C,
N
C
= y x 400
30
90
67 . 166 100 + = + =
C
D
T
T
x y r.p.m
= 400r.p.m (anticlockwise)
5.4.4 Compound Epicyclic Gear TrainSun and Planet Gear

Fig.5.14 Sun and Planet Gear
Let T
A
, T
B
, T
C
, and T
D
be the teeth, and N
A
, N
B
, N
C
and N
D
be the speeds for the gears A, B,C and
D respectively. When the arm is fixed and the sun gear D is turned anticlockwise, then the
compound gear B-C and the annulus gear A will rotate in the clockwise direction.
Sl. No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions of elements
Arm Gear D
Compound
gear B-C
Gear A
1.
Arm fixed-gear D rotates
through +1 revolution
0 +1
C
D
T
T

A
B
C
D
T
T
T
T

20

2.
Arm fixed-gear D rotates
thorough +x revolutions
0 +x
C
D
T
T
x
A
B
C
D
T
T
T
T
x

3.
Add +y revolutions to all
elements
+y +y +y +y
4. Total motion +y x+y
C
D
T
T
x y
A
B
C
D
T
T
T
T
x y



Problem 5.4:
An epicyclic train of gears is arranged as shown in figure. How many revolutions does the arm,
to which the pinions B and C are attached, make:1. When A makes one revolution clockwise
and D makes half a revolution anticlockwise, and 2. When A makes one revolution clockwise
and D is stationary?
The number of teeth on the gears A and D are 40 and 90 respectively.


Fig.5.15 Epicyclic Train of Gears
T
A
= 40; T
D
= 90
d
A
+ d
B
= d
C
= d
D
or d
A
+ 2d
B
= d
D
------- (d
B
= d
C
)
Since the number of teeth are proportional to their pitch circle diameters, therefore,
T
A
= 2T
B
= T
D
or 40 + 2T
B
= 90
21

T
B
= 25, and T
C
= 25 -------- (T
B
= T
C
)
Sl. No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions of elements
Arm
Gear
A
Compound
gear B-C
Gear D
1.
Arm fixed-gear A rotates
through -1 revolution
0 -1
B
A
T
T
+ D
A
D
B
B
A
T
T
T
T
T
T
+ = +

2.
Arm fixed-gear A rotates
thorough -x revolutions
0 -x
B
A
T
T
x +
D
A
T
T
x +
3.
Add -y revolutions to all
elements
-y -y -y -y
4. Total motion -y -x-y
y
T
T
x
B
A
y
T
T
x
D
A

Speed of arm when A makes 1 revolution clockwise and D makes half revolution anticlockwise.
Since the gear A makes 1 revolution clockwise, therefore, from the fourth row of the table,
x y = 1 or x + y = 1 ------ (i)
Also, the gear D makes half revolution anticlockwise, therefore,

2
1
= y
T
T
x
D
A
or
2
1
90
40
= y x
40 x 90 y = 45 or x 2.25 y = 1.125 ------- (ii)
From equations (i) and (ii), x = 1.04 and y = -0.04.
Speed of arm = -y = -(-0.04) = + 0.04
= 0.04 revolution anticlockwise
Speed of arm when A makes 1 revolution clockwise and D is stationary.
22

Since the gear A makes 1 revolution clockwise, therefore from the fourth row of the table,
- x y = - 1 or x + y = 1 ------- (iii)
Also the gear D is stationary, therefore,
0 = y
T
T
x
D
A
or 0
90
40
= y x
40 x 90 y = 0 and x 2.25 y = 0 -------- (iv)
From equations (iii) and (iv)
X = 0.692 and y = 0.308
Speed of arm = -y = -0.308 = 0.308 revolution clockwise
Problem 5.5:
In an epicyclic gear train shown in Fig.5.16, the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. The wheel B is
having 100 teeth and rotates freely on the shaft S. The wheel F having 150 teeth is driven
separately. If the arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction; find
(a) number of teeth on the gear C and (b) speed of wheel B.
Arm A
C
S
B100 B
F150
C
200 rpm
100 rpm

Fig.5.16 Epicyclic Gear Train
23

Given:
T
B
=100; T
F
=150; N
A
=200rpm; N
F
=100rpm:

C gears on teeth of Number T
T
T T T
r r r
gears all f or same is ule the Since
C
C
C B F
C B F
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
25
2 100 150
2
2
: cirlce pitch the to al proportion is gears on the teeth of number the
: mod

The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions:

350
200
200 100
150
100
) exp ( ,
=

=
=
E
B
A B
A F
F
B
A B
A F
Arm F
Arm L
F
B
N
N
N N
N N
T
T
train gear epicyclic f or ression general
N N
N N
N N
N N
TV Also
T
T
value Train

The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.
5.4.5 Epicyclic Gear Train with Bevel Gears
The bevel gears are used to make a more compact epicyclic system and they permit a very high
speed reduction with few gears.
The useful application of the epicyclic gear train with bevel gears is found in Humpages speed
reduction gear and differential gear of an automobile.
24


Fig 5.17 Epicyclic Gear Train with Bevel Gears
5.5 Differential Gear of an Automobile
The differential gear used in the rear drive of an automobile,
(a) to transmit motion from the engine shaft to the rear driving wheels, and
(b) to rotate the rear wheels at different speeds while the automobile is taking a turn.
Sl. No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions of elements
Gear
B
Gear D Gear E Gear D
1.
Gear B fixed Gear C
rotated through +1
revolution (i.e., 1 revolution
anticlockwise)
0 +1
B
A
T
T
+
) (
1
D C
D
E
E
C
T T
T
T
T
T
=
=

2.
Gear B fixed-Gear C rotated
through + x revolutions
0 +x
B
A
T
T
x +
-x
3.
Add + y revolutions to all
elements
+y +y +y +y
4. Total motion +y x+y
y
T
T
x
B
A


y - x

25

Problem 5.6:
In a gear train, as shown in following Fig.5.18, gear B is connected to the input shaft and gear
F is connected to the output shaft. The arm A carrying the compound wheels D and E, turns
freely on the output shaft. If the input speed is 1000 rpm counter- clockwise when seen from
the right, determine the speed of the output shaft under the following conditions:
1. When gear C is fixed, and 2. When gear C is rotated at 10 rpm counter clockwise.


Fig.5.18 Gear Train
T
B
= 20 T
C
= 80 T
D
= 60
T
E
= 30 T
F
= 32 N
B
= 1000 rpm.
(counter-clockwise)
Step No. Conditions of motion
Revolutions of elements
Arm
A
Gear B
(or input
shaft)
Compound
wheel D-E
Gear C
Gear F (or
output
shaft)
1 Arm fixed, gear B
rotated through +1
revolution (i.e., 1
revolution
anticlockwise)
0 + 1
D
B
T
T
+
C
B
C
D
D
B
T
T
T
T
T
T
=


F
E
C
B
T
T
T
T

2 Arm fixed, gear B
rotated through +x
0 + x
D
B
T
T
x +
C
B
T
T
x
F
E
C
B
T
T
T
T
x
26

revolutions
3 Add +y revolutions to
all elements
+y + y +y +y +y
4 Total motion +y x + y
D
B
T
T
x y +

C
B
T
T
x y

F
E
C
B
T
T
T
T
x y

Speed of the output shaft when gear C is fixed
Since, the gear C is fixed, therefore, from the fourth row of the table,
0 =
C
B
T
T
x y or 0
80
20
= x y
Y 0.25 x = 0 ---- (i)
We know that the input speed (or the speed of gear B) is 1000 r.p.m. counter clockwise,
therefore, form the fourth row of the table, x + y = +1000.
From equation (i) and (ii), x = + 800, and y = + 200 ----- (ii)
Speed of output shaft = Speed of gear
F
E
D
B
T
T
T
T
x y
= 5 . 12 5 . 187 200
32
30
80
20
800 200 = = r.p.m.
= 12.5 r.p.m (counter clockwise)

Speed of the output shaft when gear C is rotated at 10 r.p.m. counter clockwise
Since the gear C is rotated at 10 r.p.m. counter clockwise, therefore, from the fourth row of the
table,
10 + =
C
B
T
T
x y or 10
80
20
= x y
Y 0.25 x = 10 ------- (iii)
From equations (ii) and (iii),
27

X = 792 and y = 208
Speed of output shaft
= Speed of gear F =
32
30
80
20
792 208 =
F
E
D
B
T
T
T
T
x y
= 208 185.6 = 22.4 r.p.m = 22.4 r.p.m (counter clockwise)
5.5.1 Application of Gear Trains in Automobiles
Fig. 5.19 gives a clear picture of the way gears are connected in the gear train in different gear
modes in automobile.


Fig. 5.19 (a) Automobile - Neutral

Fig. 5.19 (b) Automobile First Gear

28


Fig. 5.19 (c) Automobile Second Gear


Fig. 5.19 (d) Automobile Third Gear


29

Fig. 5.19 (e) Automobile Fourth Gear


Fig. 5.19 (f) Automobile Reverse Gear

Fig. 5.19 (g) Automobile Gear Mechanism

Below detailed, is a very simple example to understand the gear train.

30






A. Compute the gear ratio of a single pair of gears.

Fig.5.20 Single Pair of Gears
Gear ratio = 40 to 8 or, simplifying, 5 to 1.
B. Compute the gear ratio of a compound pair of gears

31

Fig.5.21 Compound Pair of Gears
5.6 Questions
1. What is the gear ratio of this pair of gears?
Ans: 3:1

2. If axle 1 were to make90 rotations, how many rotations would 2 axles make?
Ans: 30
3. If axle 2 were to make 30 rotations, how many rotations would axle 3 make?
Ans: 10
4. What does that imply about what the overall gear ratio is?
To compute the compound gear ratio, we multiply the gear ratios of each pair of gears in the
gear box. (3 to 1) x (3 to 1) = 9 to 1
Answer: 9 to 1
5. What is the compound gear ratio of this gear box going from bottom to top?
32


Fig.5.22 Compound Gear Ratio
Ans: 45 to 1
5.6.1 Short Questions
What is power transmission?
Why gear drives are called positively driven?
What is backlash in gears?
What are the types of gears available?
What is gear train? Why gear trains are used?
Why intermediate gear in simple gear train is called idler?
What is the advantage of using helical gear over spur gear?
List out the applications of gears.
Define the term module in gear tooth.
What is herringbone gear?
5.6.2 Essay type questions
With sketch, explain various types of gears.
With sketch, explain three types of gear trains.
With neat sketch, explain the nomenclature of spur gear.
33

Write the applications, advantages and disadvantages of gear drives.