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# Continuity Equation

Overview
!! 1 !! 2 !! 3 !! 4 !! 5 !! 6
Overview Introduction to Continuity and Bernoulli Equations. Continuity Equation Continuity Equation Applied to a Venturi Tube Continuity Equation Applied to a Wing in Flight

## Incorrect Explanation The Longer Path or Equal Transit Theory

WNTBDPC
!! Read the ANA text pages 4 through 9, Bernoullis
principle and subsonic airflow, and Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (PHAK) p. 2-4 Airfoil Design through p. 2-6 High Pressure Below. The PHAK is posted on Angel in the Course Materials section.

!! Watch this lecture !! Create your own notes in word, save it as a .pdf
version of notes

and post it in Dropbox as homework. !! This should be no more than a page of YOUR OWN

Overview

! A wing in flight produces airflow velocity and pressure changes to create lift. ! Airflow velocity on top of the wing is faster than the airflow velocity on bottom of the wing ! The pressure on top of the wing is less than the pressure on bottom of the wing.

## !! The continuity equation is easily visualized by

studying the airflow through a Venturi tube. A wing in flight produces airflow characteristics similar to a Venturi tube.

The longer path or equal transit time theory is often used to answer the question, Why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the bottom? However, that theory/answer is totally incorrect.

## 2. Introduction to Continuity and Bernoulli Equations

!! Why are we looking at these two equations?
!! To be able to answer:
!! 1. Why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the
bottom?

## !! 2. Why is the pressure lower on top of a wing than the

bottom?

3. Continuity Equation
!! Venturi tube
!! Visualize and explain continuity equation !! Concept of mass flow rate

Continuity Equation
!! The conservation of mass principle is the basis for
the continuity equation. In simple, non- technical terms, the conservation of mass principle says that mass cannot be created or destroyed in airflow. mass flow rate.

Q=AV

## !! English units for mass flow rate:

Continuity Equation
!! Conservation of mass flow rate at any point in
venturi must be constant.

!! Mathematically:

## 4. Continuity Equation Applied to a Venturi Tube

!! Starting Conditions A1 and V1
!! As airflow encounters a chocked or reduced area A2,
velocity V2 will INCREASE

## !! With streamlines, the Venturi tube would look like

the figure below. Note the streamlines are closer together in the Venturi throat or choke section indicating increased velocity.

## 5. Continuity Equation Applied to a wing in flight

!! A wing in flight produces airflow patterns similar to
the flow patterns in a Venturi tube.

## So, why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the bottom?

!! The continuity equation explains why airflow
speeds up over the top of a wing or more precisely why air is faster on top of the wing than underneath.

!! Subsonic air:
!! If flows into choked or smaller area velocity must
increase. !! Airflow on top of a wing is more restricted than the airflow under the wing !! Due to camber of the upper wing surface and angle of
attack. !! Therefore, the airflow is faster on top than on bottom.