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# BA201 ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS 2012

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CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION
3.1 MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND INFLECTION POINT & SKETCHING THE GRAPH
Introduction to Applications of Differentiation

In Isaac Newton's day, one of the biggest problems was poor navigation at sea.

Before calculus was developed, the stars were
Shipwrecks occured because the ship was not
where the captain thought it should be. There
was not a good enough understanding of how the
Earth, stars and planets moved with respect to
each other.
Calculus (differentiation and integration) was
developed to improve this understanding.
Differentiation and integration can help us solve
many types of real-world problems.
We use the derivative to determine the maximum and minimum values of particular
functions (e.g. cost, strength, amount of material used in a building, profit, loss, etc.).
Derivatives are met in many engineering and science problems, especially when
modelling the behaviour of moving objects.
Our discussion begins with some general applications which we can then apply to
specific problems.
NOTES:
a. There are now many tools for sketching functions (Mathcad, LiveMath, Scientific
Notebook, graphics calculators, etc). It is important in this section to learn the
basic shapes of each curve that you meet. An understanding of the nature of
each function is important for your future learning. Most mathematical
modelling starts with a sketch.
b. You need to be able to sketch the curve, showing important features. Avoid
drawing x-y boxes and just joining the dots.
c. We will be using calculus to help find important points on the curve.
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3 types of turning points:

a. Maximum
point

Use
2
2
d y
dx
<0 sign: ve

b. Minimum
point

Use
2
2
d y
dx
>0 sign: +ve

c. Inflection point
Use
2
2
d y
dx
= 0

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The kinds of things we will be searching for in this section are:
x-intercepts Use y = 0
NOTE: In many cases, finding x-intercepts is not so easy.
If so, delete this step.
y-intercepts

Use x = 0

Guide to solve the problem:
a. Determine stationary point, 0
dy
dx
=
Find the value of x .
b. Find the value of y , when ? x =
c. Determine the nature of stationary point,
2
2
?
d y
dx
=

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Example 1:
Find the stationary point of the curve
2
6 y x x = and sketch the graph.
Solution:
Determine stationary point,
dy
dx
=
0
dy
dx
=

Find the value of x ,

Find the value of y , when
1
2
x =
2
6 y x x =

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So, stationary point is (

)

Determine the nature of the point,

So, the point (

) is a minimum point.

y - intercept, when 0 x =

()

()

x-intercept, when 0 y =

6
2
= x x y

0 6
2
= x x

0 ) 3 )( 2 ( = + x x

and

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(1/2,-25/4)
0 -2
-6
3
y
x

Example 2:
Find stationary point for the curve

## and determine the nature of the point.

Solution:
Determine stationary point,

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(

and
When when

()

() ()

()

The stationary points are ( ) and ()

Nature :

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At point ( ) when x=3 At point () when x=

() ()
() ()
Stationary point ( ) stationary point ()
is a minimum point is a maximum point
Sketch graph
x-intercept when y=0

)
and

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-5.2
(3,54)
5.2
(-3,54)
0
y-intercept when x=0

()

()

x
y
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Example 3:
Find stationary point for the curve
3
2 4 y x = and determine the nature of the point.

Solution:
Determine stationary point, 0
dy
dx
=
dy
dx
=
Find the value of x ,

Find the value of y , when 0 x =
3
2 4 y x =

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So, stationary point is ( , ).

Determine the nature of the point,
2
2
d y
dx
=

So, the point ( , ) is a

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Example 4:
Find the stationary point on the curve
2
2 4 3 y x x = + and determine their nature.

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Example 5:
Determine whether the equation ( )
2
4 5 6 f x x x = is a maximum, minimum or
inflection and sketch the graph of()
.

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Exercise 3.1
a. Find the coordinates of stationary points of the curve
3 2
3 9 y x x = and determine
their nature.
b. Find the coordinates of stationary points of the curve ( )
2
4 y x = and determine
their nature.
c. Find the coordinates of stationary points of the curve
3 4
8 2 y x x = determine their
nature and sketch the graph.
d. Find turning point for the curve
3 2
6 9 5 y x x x = + + and determine maximum point
and minimum point for the curve.

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3.2 RECTILINEAR MOTION
ONE OF THE most important applications of calculus is to motion in a straight
line, which is called rectilinear motion.

In this matter, we must assume that the object is moving along a
coordinate line. The object that moves along a straight line with position s = f(t),
has corresponding velocity
ds
v
dt
= , and its acceleration
2
2
dv d s
a
dt dt
= = .

If t is measured in seconds and s in meters, then the units of velocity are
meters per second, which we abbreviate as m/sec. The units of acceleration are
then meters per second per second, which we abbreviate as m/sec.

s=0 -The particle at the beginning
- The particle returns back to O again
v=0 -the particle is instantaneously at rest
-maximum displacement
a=0 -constant velocity
-the particle is begin
t=0 -initial velocity
-initial acceleration
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Example 1:
An object P moving on a straight line has position
2 3
8 s t t = in meter and the
interval time of t seconds. Find
a. The velocity of P at the time t.
b. The acceleration of P at the time t.
c. The velocity of P when 3 t s = .
d. The displacement of P during the 6
th
seconds of moving.

Solution
a. Given that
2 3
8 s t t = ,
So
ds
v
dt
=
v =
2
3 16 t t

b. We know that
2
2
dv d s
a
dt dt
= = ,
a = t 6 16

c. When 3 t s = ,
v =
2
3 16 t t

2
) 3 ( 3 ) 3 ( 16 =
27 48 =

1
21

= ms

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d. During 6s means 6 t s = ,
m s
s t
72 216 288 ) 6 ( ) 6 ( 8
3 2
6
= = =
=

m s
s t
75 125 200 ) 5 ( ) 5 ( 8
3 2
5
= = =
=

5 6 = =
=
t t
s s s
75 72 =
m 3 =

Example 2:
A car moves along a straight line so that the displacement, s in meter and t in
seconds passes through O is given by
3 2
6 5 s t t t = + . Find
a. The displacement of the car when 3 t s = .
b. The velocity of the car when its acceleration is
2
12ms

.
c. The time when the car returns back to O.

Solution:
a. When 3 t s = .

3 2
6 5 s t t t = +

) 3 ( 5 ) 3 ( 6 3
2 3
+ =

15 54 27 + =

m 12 =

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b. Value of t when its acceleration is
2
12ms

.
Given,

2
12 a ms

=
6 12 a t =
So, 6 12 12 t =

12 12 6 + = t

24 6 = t

s t
t
4
6
24
=
=

c. The time when the car returns back to O, 0 s m = ,

3 2
3 2
6 5
6 5 0
s t t t
t t t
= +
+ =

0 ) 5 6 (
2
= + t t t

, 0 = t

0 ) 5 )( 1 (
0 5 6
2
=
= +
t t
t t

s t
t
1
0 1
=
=

s t
t
5
0 5
=
=

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Example 3:
A car is moving at a straight line with position
3
1
9
3
s t t = , where its displacement,
s in meter and the time, t in seconds. Find the:
a. Displacement, s of the car after 3 seconds.
b. Displacement, s of the car in fourth second.
c. Velocity, v of the car when the acceleration,
2
10 / a m s =
d. Acceleration of the car at the time t = 2 seconds.

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Exercise:
1. A car moves from a static condition in a straight line. Its displacement s meter
from a fixed point after t second is given by ( )
2
2 s t t = + , find
a. Acceleration of the car when 4 t s = .
b. The time when the velocity is
1
39ms

.
c. Displacement in the 4
th
second.

2. A ball is rolling along a straight ground from the fixed point O and its
displacement, s meter and time t second is given by
3 2
2 20 s t t t = + .
a. Calculate the acceleration of the ball when it begins to move.
b. Calculate the acceleration when 3 t s = .
c. Find the displacement when the ball is instantaneously at rest.
d. Find displacement of the ball during 4th seconds.

3. A particle move in linear and the distance, S from fixed point 0, t seconds after
passing point 0, is given by
3 2
9 24 1 s t t t = + . Calculate
a. Distance in the 5
th
second.
b. Values of t when the particles stop for a while.
c. Velocity when acceleration is zero.
d. Acceleration when 4 t s = .

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3.3 RATE OF CHANGE
If 2 variables both vary with respect to time and have a relation between them, we can
express the rate of change of one in terms of the other. We need to differentiate both
sides w.r.t. (with respect to) time
d
dt
.
If ( ) y f x = , then
dy dy dx
dt dx dt
= where
dy
dt
and
dx
dt
are the rates of change of y and x
respectively.

Example 1:
If the radius of a circle increase at the rate of
1
1
5
cms

## , find the rate of area at the instant

Solution:
Given, Find,
dr
dt
=
5
1
?
dA
dt
=
r =
10cm

We know that the area of a circle is,
2
A r t =
Differentiate A with respect to r,
r
dr
dA
t 2 =

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Using the formula,
dA dA dr
dt dr dt
=

,
5
1
2 = r t

when

cm r 10 =

) 10 (
5
2
t =

1 2
4

= s cm t

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Example 2:
An open cylinder has a radius of 20cm. Water is poured into the cylinder at the rate of
3 1
40cm s

## . Find the rate of increase of the height of the water level. | | h r v

2
t =
r= 20cm
1 3
40

= s cm
dt
dv

Find, ? =
dt
dh

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Example 3:
The radius of a circle is increasing at a rate of 5 / cm m. Find the rate of increase of the
area of the circle at the instant when its radius is12cm. (Ans:
2
120 /
dA
cm m
dt
t = )

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Example 4:
The volume of a spherical balloon is decreasing at a rate of
3 1
4 cm s t

. Find the rate of
decrease of its radius when its radius is 5cm. (Ans: 0.04 /
dj
cm s
dt
= )

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Exercise:
1. The formulae for the volume and surface area of a sphere of radius r are
3
4
3
V r t =
and
2
4 A r t = respectively. When 5 r cm = , V is increasing at the rate of
3 1
10cm s

.
Find the rate of increase of A at that instant. (Ans: 0.032 /
dj
cm s
dt
= ,
2
1.28 /
dA
cm s
dt
t = )
2. Given that the height of a cylinder is 3cm and the radius increase at the rate of
0.2cm/s. Find the rate of change of its volume when the volume is

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3.4 OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Important!
The process of finding maximum or minimum values is called optimisation. We are trying to do
things like maximise the profit in a company, or minimise the costs, or find the least amount of
material to make a particular object.
These are very important in the world of industry.
Example 1:
If the sum of height, h cm and radius, r cm of a cone is 15cm. What is the maximum volume of
the cone?
Solution:

( 1)

(2)
Substitute (1) into (2)

( )

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Example 2:
A wire with length 2 meters is bent to form a rectangular with a maximum area. Find the
measurement of its sides.
Solution:

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Example 3:

The rectangular above has perimeter of 40 meters. Given the perimeter equation is
2 2 40 x y + = . Find
a. Find the equation of the area in term x.
b. Find the maximum area of the rectangle.

y
x
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POLITEKNIK KOTA BHARU
JABATAN MATEMATIK, SAINS DAN KOMPUTER
BA 201 ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS 2

PAST YEAR FINAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
1. A particle is moving along a straight line where s is the distance travelled by the
particle in t seconds. Find the velocity and acceleration of the particle by using
the following equations.
a.
2 3
6 2 s t t =
b.
3 2
8 48 72 s t t t = +
c.
2 4
64 16 s t t =

2. For the curve of
3 2
6 2 y x x = + , find
a. The coordinates of all the turning points.
b. The maximum and minimum points.
c. Sketch the graph for the above curve.

3. A particles moves along a straight line such that its distance, s meter from a fixed
point O is given by
2 3
9 6 s t t = + .
a. Find the velocity of the particles after 2 seconds and the acceleration
after 4 seconds.
b. Find the acceleration when the velocity is 9 / m s .

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4. The curve is given as
3 2
3 9 y x x = . Find
a. The coordinates of the stationary points.
b. The nature of the points.

5. A particle moves in a straight line. Its displacement, s meter, from the fixed point
O after t second is given by
3 2
3 8 s t t t = + .
a. Find the velocity when time is 3 and 5 seconds.
b. Find the time when the velocity is
1
8ms

.

6. A balloon is filled with air at the rate of
3
20cm per minute until a sphere is
formed. Find the rate of change of the radius when the radius is 4cm (
3
4
3
v r t = )
7. A car moves from a static condition from point O with displacement s meter on a
straight road in time t seconds is given by
3
75 s t t = .
a. Find the total displacement when the car is instantaneously at rest.
b. Find the velocity when the acceleration is
2
3ms .
c. Find the initial acceleration.
d. Find the acceleration when it goes back to point O.

8. i. Find the stationary points for
3 2
y x x = + and determine the maximum points.
ii. Given
3 2
( ) 6 9 f x x x x = + . Determine the nature of the stationary point and
hence sketch the graph of ( ) f x
.

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9. i. Find the stationary point and sketch the graph, if any of the function

3 2
6 9 5 y x x x = + + .
ii. The curve
3 2
6 11 6 y x x x = + has 2 stationary points. Find the
points and state the condition of the points.

10. i) A cone shape container that placed upside down having a base radius

12cm and height 20cm. Then one boy pouring some water to the
cone which is xcmheight, the volume of that cone is
3
V cm , prove
that
3
3
25
V x t = . (Given volume of cone,
2
1
3
V r h t = )
ii) The water is flow out of the cone through the hole at the cone peak. Find
the nearest alteration for V when x decrease from 5cm to 4.98cm.