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UNIT 13 EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD Objectives: Students will understand how important the natural world

was for the Ancestral Tewa people. Students will learn why it is important to respect the plants and the animals that live in their communities. Students will understand the importance of domestication of plants and animals for the Ancestral Tewa people. Students will become skilled at observation and inference. Subjects: Science, Social Studies, Math, Language Arts. Time: Two - four class periods. Mate ia!s: opy for students! Feather Anatomy student information sheet "#$ %&, Maize: Sacred Grain of the Americas student information sheet "#$ - '&, Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods- Drawings student activity sheet "#$ ##&, Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods- a!tions student activity sheet "#$ - #(&, Pueblo Foods: An "nduring #radition student information sheet "#$ #$&, Grandmother$s Story student information sheet "#$ - #)&. *rom the trunk! %ld Father Storyteller by +ablita ,elarde, oyote #ales by -velyn .ahl /eed, &n My Mother$s 'ouse by Ann 0olan lark, +etroglyph (ational Monument #eacher)s Guide, turkey feathers, pinto and Anasa1i beans, dried corn kernels, dried corn on the cob, paper plates or +etri dishes, photographs of the petroglyphs, other curriculum guides. Magnifying loupes may be checked out from Mesa +rieta +etroglyph +ro2ect office. *rom the teacher! writing, construction and copy paper, pencils. *or the teacher! /esource materials! orn teacher resource sheet "#$ 3&, A orny 4ame teacher resource sheet "#$ - #5-#%&. Also Ancestral Pueblo Peo!le of *andelier, A Guide for +th Grade #eachers, is available from ,ecinos library and online at http!66www.nps.gov6band6forteachers6fourth-grade-lesson-plans.htm. 7nteractive poster Adobe and Maize: At 'ome with (ature at 'u!obi
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Pueblo, available online at http!66www.blm.gov6education699:resources6articles6hupobi6inde;.html. "#cabu!a $: A% icu!tu e & *arming. The process of cultivating the soil, raising crops and animals. A'asa(i & The 0ava2o name for the Ancestral +ueblo people. A i) & .ry. An arid land gets very little rain. D#mesticati#' & The process of developing of plants and animals that can be cared for by people and become dependent on people. * ai' & .ried seeds of a cereal grasses. * i) %a )e' & A farming techni<ue used by the Ancestral +ueblo people to grow corn and beans. 7t was a s<uare plot that was lined with large stones. +e 'e!s & The seeds of the corn plant or other grain. Mai(e & The early name for corn. 7t is based on the Spanish word, ma=1. Ma'# & The small, hand-held stone that was rubbed against the corn kernels and the metate. Metate & The flat, smoothed stone that was used for grinding corn. M#!t & To shed feathers. Sac e) & Something that is considered holy and worthy of respect. Te#si'te & The ancient grass from Me;ico that evolved into our modern corn through selective breeding. T,e T, ee Siste s & The three sacred domestic plants of 0ative American people- corn, beans, s<uash. The term that refers to the practice of planting corn, beans and s<uash together. Activit$ 1: #. /ead the story >Turkey 4irl? in %ld Father Storyteller to your students. @r, make copies from the book for them to read. .iscuss what it means to domesticate animals and plants. .iscuss why they chose the turkey to domesticate. "#hey breed well in ca!ti,ity, it is easy to feed them corn, they become accustomed to !eo!le.& .iscuss why turkeys were important to the Tewa people and how they might have used different parts of the turkeys. "Feather blan-ets, feathers used in ceremonies, meat, eating grassho!!ers in the gardens& (. .iscuss what the students know about feathers and why birds have them. "For flight, warmth, !rotection, for attracting a mate.&
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$. -;plain that the students will be observing real turkey feathers. 7f they havenAt used magnifying loupes before, demonstrate how to use them. *or information on how to care for loupes, see 8nit (-#, Geology of Mesa Prieta. ). +ass out a loupe or hand lens and feather to each pair of students. As one student observes the feather, the other student writes down the observations. Then they switch. Bith the feather between them, the students draw the feather "like a scientist&. C. .iscuss the parts of a feather and the different types of feathers. +ass out student handout with parts of feather labeled and ask students to label their drawing. 5. .emonstrate how feather veins are like 1ippers by separating two veins and then 1ipping them back together. Bhy is this feature an important adaptationD "*irds only molt once a year. /sing its bill, a bird is able to re!air damaged feathers with this feature.& %. /ead other stories that involve animals from %ld Father Storyteller and oyote #ales from the &ndian Pueblos. Activit$ -: #. Erainstorm or webbing! Ask the students to share all that they know about corn. "0e,iew #eacher &nformation Sheet "#$-3&. (. 4ive each student a kernel of corn to look at with a magnifying loupe or hand lens. Fave the students write down their observations and draw the kernel. Bhile they are engaged, pass around an ear of dried corn for the students to look at. $. +ass out the student information sheet Maize: Sacred Grain of the Americas "#$-' G #9& and read it as a class. ). /eview the reading by asking <uestions such as! Fow do we know that the Ancestral +ueblo people grew and harvested cornD 1Grid gardens can be found near ancient sites, corn cobs and -ernels ha,e been found.& Bhy were The Three Sisters important to the early +ueblo peopleD "2hen these three foods were eaten together,
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the !eo!le were eating a healthy diet.& Bhat did the +ueblo women use to grind the cornD 1A metate and mano.& Fow is corn used in a sacred way by the +ueblo peopleD "#hey use corn meal and corn !ollen when they are !raying and they use the whole corn ear in corn dances.3 Fow can we show respect for the cornD "*y than-ing the corn in our hearts for all of the good food that it gi,es us.& C. Ancestral +ueblo *arming Methods! -;plain to the students that the Ancestral +ueblo farmers developed different ways to capture and retain moisture. This was very important in an arid environment. Show the students the poster Adobe and Maize and discuss. +ass out the student activity sheets! Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods- Drawings and a!tions, 145-44 - 463. As a class, look at each drawing and read the caption. Fave the students make booklets by cutting out the drawings and the captions and gluing them onto the pages of a book that they make out of construction paper. olor the pictures. 5. Assessment! Ask the students to write a short essay describing how they would grow corn if they were an Ancestral +ueblo farmer. %. -;tension activities may be found in Petrogly!h (ational Monument 7 #eachers Guide, Lessons #( and #$ pp. C9-59H 8ee!ers of the "arth, hapter #5, pp. #$%-#)C, or see photocopies at the end of this unit. Activit$ 3: #. Ask the students if they or their family eat pinto beans. Tell them that the Ancestral +ueblo people raised corn, beans and s<uash and that they are called the IThree SistersI. Ask the students if these plants were domesticated. "9es, because they !lanted the seeds and too- care of the !lants.& -;plain that the Ancestral +ueblo people "Anasa1i& grew a smaller bean that we call the Anasa1i bean. Archaeologists have found these beans in ancient +ueblo sites and farmers have grown them. 0ow we can orn !lant !etrogly!h buy them in some grocery stores. Bhen the :Three SistersI are eaten together, these plants provide
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the body with more nutrition than if eaten separately. Eetter nutrition leads to healthier bodies, population growth and larger communities. +ass out paper plates or +etri dishes, pinto and Anasa1i beans and magnifying loupes to pairs of students. Ask them to observe and record the same way they did with the turkey feather. Ask them to compare and contrast the beans using a chart or ,enn diagram. Then draw and label the two types of beans. Teacher reads Pueblo Foods: An "nduring #radition student information sheet, "#$-#$& to the class. Then have the students read Grandmother)s Story, 145-4+3. .iscuss the similarities and differences between +ueblo and Fispanic traditions. -;tension #! A orny Game teacher resource sheet, "#$-#5 G #%&. -;tension (! Fave the students sprout and grow corn, beans and s<uash seeds to compare them. .raw the seeds and the sprouts.

Activit$ .: "Suggested by Jimmy Lara, )th grade at ,elarde -lementary& #. /ead to the class the story >Thanking the Eirds? on page %$ in Petrogly!h (ational Monument #eacher)s Guide. .iscuss what it means to respect something. Fow did the ancient +ueblo people show respectD "*y than-ing the !lants and animals they used, by using e,ery !art of a !lant or animal that was -illed, returning to the "arth what they couldn)t use, treating the elders with honor, etc.& Fow can we show respect in our lives and why should weD "Answers will ,ary.& (. +ass out several photographs of the petroglyphs on Mesa +rieta to each group of three or four students. Fave the students count the number of bird images and bird tracks. "About 66 trac-s and about ; birds.& "7t is not important to get an e;act count because we are inferring that the images are birds, tracks or other animals. This is very sub2ective.& $. Then have students count the number of other animals. "About 46.& Total the number of birds6tracks and other animals. "About +5.& Set up a ratio of the number of birds6tracks to number of total animals. "$4:+5.& >Are the birds6tracks half of all the animal petroglyphs, less than half or more than halfD "More than half.& .o you think that you would find this same ratio in other +etroglyph areasD BhyD? ). >Bhy do you think they made bird petroglyphsD? "Maybe to honor the bird, to as- for its !rotection or !ower, etc. #hese answers are
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all inferences.& <7n what ways were birds important to the ancient +ueblo peopleD? "Food, clothing, feathers for ceremonies, teaching ,alues, etc.& Many birds remain culturally important to todayKs +ueblo people. /u!tu a! Im0# ta'ce #1 2i )s: Sun birds! hummingbirds, parrot, macaw Sky birds! eagle, hawk, IknifewingI Bar birds! eagle, roadrunner, flicker, woodpecker, 2ays, nuthatch, canyon wren Funter birds! eagle, hawk, falcon -arth bird! turkey Bater birds! ducks, snipes, killdeer, crane Summer birds! warbler, meadowlark, orioles Binter birds! horned larks, 2unco, bluebirds 0ight birds! nighthawk, owls Messenger birds! shrikes, mocking bird, eagles .eath birds! vulture, catbird, owl Assessme't: Fave students write a paragraph responding to the <uestion, >Bhy was it important for Swift -agle to talk to the boys about life being a very sacred thingD? Fave students relate their answer to an e;ample from their own lives. "8se the A - format G Answer the <uestion, ite reasons from the te;t for your answer, -;pand by relating it back to an e;ample from your own life.& Ot,e E3te'si#' Activities! There are some wonderful e;tension activities about agriculture, foods, pottery, etc. in the three curriculum guides. These will help the students understand what life was like in early +ueblo times. They are listed under -;tension Activities, p. ;;ii.

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U'it 134 Ea !$ Li1e i' t,e Te5a W# !)


MAI6E: SA/RED *RAIN OF THE AMERI/AS

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Fow many of you en2oy eating popcorn, corn on the cob, posole or cornbreadD Be can thank the native people of Me;ico and the Ancestral +ueblo people of the Southwest for the development of corn. orn was originally called mai1e "ma=1 in Spanish& but today we call it corn, and its scientific name is =ia mays. About 5,(C9 years ago the early people who lived in the mountains of southern Me;ico discovered that the seeds of a special grass called Te#si'te could be roasted and popped like our popcorn. They began to take care of these plants and gradually developed larger ears and many varieties of mai(e. The seeds were dried and stored for planting in the spring and for times of drought. This was the beginning of the )#mesticati#' of corn. As early as $C99 years ago, mai1e reached the southwest as the native people traded with each other. @ver hundreds of years these early farmers developed mai1e seeds that grew on even larger cobs and were many different colors. A% icu!tu e developed as more families came together in large s and needed more food to eat. The Ancestral +ueblo farmers also domesticated beans and s<uash. Along with corn, they were considered sacred plants because they fed the people and together they were known as T,e T, ee Siste s. Lack of water in the deserts of the southwest made farming very challenging. The corn, as well as beans and s<uash, needed water to grow. The Ancestral +ueblo farmers developed many ways to capture the water from winter snows and summer rains. * i) %a )e's were made by lining up large rocks, sometimes the si1e of a football, in
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#he two oldest maize cobs in the (ew 2orld from Guil> (a?uitz a,e, Me@ico. #he bottom cob is about 4 in. long. 1From Pi!erno and Flannery, 6AA43

s<uare patterns. 7nside the s<uares they placed a layer of small river rocks or gravel. The corn, beans and s<uash seeds were planted among these rocks. The rocks kept the ground moist and warm in spring and moist and cool in the summer. @n Mesa +rieta some of these ancient grid gardens can still be seen. The Ancestral +ueblo people knew how to live well in a dry, desert landscape. 7n order to make food for their families, the +ueblo women would rub two corn cobs together. That would make the 7e 'e!s come off. 8sing a large, flat rock called a metate and a smaller rock, called a

The Three Sisters kept the +ueblo people very healthy. Bhen we eat the Three Sisters today it helps us to stay healthy. The most important thing about corn is its sacredness. 0ative people in all parts of the Americas grow corn for food and also for use in ceremonies and for prayers. The corn plants are treated with great respect. Sacred corn meal and corn pollen are sometimes carried in a

ma'#, the women would grind the hard kernels into corn meal. They used corn meal to thicken stews and to make corn cakes. Just like mai1e, beans and s<uash were dried for storage. The beans that the +ueblo people ate were smaller than our pinto beans but they were cooked the same way by boiling in water. Bhen they ate the corn and beans together, they ate a complete protein. The s<uash gave them many vitamins.

orn Dance eremony Myth, 4;5B, by &gnacio Mo?uino 12a-a3, =ia Pueblo. (M De!artment of ultural Affairs

pouch and sprinkled on the ground as a prayer. -ars of corn are often carried during corn dances. As you watch the corn dance at a local +ueblo, you too can thank the corn for all the good food that it gives you. And before you leave the +ueblo, be sure to thank the spirits of the ancient +ueblo farmers who domesticated the corn.
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U'it 134 Ea !$ Li1e i' t,e Te5a W# !) AN/ESTRAL 8UE2LO FARMIN* METHODS& /A8TIONS Stu)e't Activit$ S,eet

/,ec7 Dams: heck dams were built across arroyos. They were used to catch the soil and slow down the water which reduces erosion. Many different crops were planted behind the dams.

Li'ea 2# )e s: Linear borders were low lines of stones built across hills. Soil that was washed down the hillside was caught behind the borders and became a good place to plant.

* i) *a )e's: 4rid gardens were similar to waffle gardens but had walls made of stones rather than mud. They were much larger than waffle gardens and were probably used to grow corn and beans.

* ave! Mu!c,e) Fie!)s! Mulch is any material that is placed on top of soil to hold the moisture in. The Ancestral +ueblo farmers often mulched their grid gardens with gravel and small stones. This reduced the wind and water erosion as well as holding in the moisture.

I i%ati#': 7rrigation was used to bring water from a stream or river to the fields. They did this by digging ditches from the stream or river to the fields. They blocked the ditch when they wanted the water to stop.

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U'it 134 Ea !$ Li1e i' t,e Te5a W# !) AN/ESTRAL 8UE2LO FARMIN* METHODS& DRAWIN*S Stu)e't Activit$ S,eet
.rawings by /o;anne Swent1ell, from IBater Farvesting Traditions in the .esert Southwest,I by Joel 4lan1berg, +ermaculture .esign Journal, 0o. (9,
August #''), pp. 3-#(.

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U'it 134 Ea !$ Li1e i' t,e Te5a W# !) 8UE2LO FOODS: AN ENDURIN* TRADITION Stu)e't I'1# mati#' S,eet
by .r. 4regory a2eteL

Traditional foods have been very important to +ueblo people for a long time. Traditional foods connect the +ueblo people to their land, to their community and to their traditional way of life. +ueblo people have lived in the Southwest for ten thousand years. .uring this time they have gotten their foods by hunting, gathering and gardening. *or the +ueblo people, food was not 2ust a way to survive. *ood was special and sacred. *oods like corn are sacred in +ueblo traditions. I orn is who we are,I is a phrase used by some +ueblo elders. 7t captures the way +ueblo people feel about the importance of corn. 7n +ueblo tradition, corn is a symbol of how the people have survived in the Southwest environment. orn, along with deer, elk, buffalo and other wild game, represents the plants and animals that have given life to the +ueblo people. This special life-giving relationship is celebrated in +ueblo planting, harvesting and rain dances. These ceremonies are done in a yearly cycle that represents how the earth gives life. Easket weaving and making pots are also part of the traditional IwayI to show respect for the lifegiving force of food.

7n the last few generations, the traditional +ueblo way of life has changed. Some of these changes have taken place because +ueblo people have had to adapt to the stresses of Imodern life.I ... These changes in the traditional way of life have brought about diseases like diabetes and heart disease. 0ow that some +ueblo people have seen what these changes have done to the health and well being of their communities, they are going back to traditional ways. They are going back to traditional foods and becoming more active. They are looking back to +ueblo traditions so they can make wise choices and become stronger.
This reading was adapted from I7ndigenous *oods, 7ndigenous Fealth! A +ueblo +erspectiveI from! Fealth, 0utrition and Traditional *oods, a2ete, et al., Fealth /esource enter of 0ew Me;ico - M#''3. "Adapted from Cife on the 0io Grande: A Diabetes "ducation urriculum, Grades 5- D. Ana onsuelo and Associates, Santa *e, 0M, n.d., p. C& L.r. 4regory a2ete is from Santa lara +ueblo and is a professor at the 8niversity of 0ew Me;ico.

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U'it 134 Ea !$ Li1e i' t,e Te5a W# !) *RANDMOTHER9S STORY Stu)e't I'1# mati#' S,eet This is my 0ow, modern life has changed the way 0ative people live. They donKt work with their hands and bodies as much as they did before. They donKt chase the children because the children are watching T,. They donKt walk everywhere because they drive their cars. Another thing that has changed is the way 0ative people eat. 7nstead of eating fresh food that they have grown or traded for, they might eat too much food that comes in cans or bags. Some people call it 2unk food. They might eat stuff with too much fat, sugar and salt. 4randmother says things have changed. 7tKs not the Igood old daysI anymore. Bhen 4randmother found out she had diabetes, she went to a doctor and a wise medicine man. They both said the same thing. ITry to go back to the way it was in the Kgood old days.K 4o back to the way your ancestors used to live. Take the new but donKt leave the old ways behind.I So my 4randmother started changing back to the way it was. She doesnKt eat 2unk food anymore, only once in a while.
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4randmother, Lucy ata. Be live in San Juan +ueblo.L She has diabetes. .iabetes runs in our family. My 4randpa had it too. My 4randmother got diabetes when she was fifty years old. She is seventy years old now and sheKs still going strong. She learned to take care of her diabetes. My 4randmother says she doesnKt want us to get diabetes. She wants us to be healthy and strong. My 4randmother tells us stories about how things used to be. She says that a long time ago, 0ative people didnKt have diabetes. They lived a healthy life. They worked in the fields, hunted and gathered their foodH they took care of their animals, chased after children and walked everywhere. The foods they ate were healthy and fresh.

She eats healthy meals that include meat, vegetables, grains and fruit. She walks to her neighborKs house instead of taking the car. She goes to the doctor and gets medicine and checks her diabetes. The grandchildren can help too. Bhen we come home from school, we tell her, ILetKs go for a

walk, 4randmaNI Be walk in the fields sometimes. Sometimes we go by the river and she tells us stories about how things used to be... Iin the good old days.I
"Adapted from Cife on the 0io Grande: A Diabetes "ducation urriculum, Grades 5-D. Ana onsuelo and Associates, Santa *e, 0M, n.d., p. #5.& LThe people of San Juan +ueblo now use its Tewa name, @hkay @wingeh.

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