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"? Bm darE Renewable energy

another 2.8Vo and are growing very rapidly. . The share ofrenewables in electricity generation is around lg%o, with '16% ofglobal electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3yo f:rom new renewables. 'Wind power is growing at the rate of 30olo annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 198 gigawatts (GW) in 2010, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United stares. 'At the end of2010, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) instaliatio". ."rpurft +o GW and pv powe-r stations are popular in^Germany and Spain. Solar thermal po*", .trtion. operate in the USA and spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (Mw) sEG's po*", pru"t i" trre Mojave Desert.

such as sunlight, wind, rain,tides, and geothermal heat, :ir,:111C] l-H"h,comes wnlcn are renewable. .About l6V" ofglobal final enerry consumption comes from renewables, 'with f 0% coming from traditionar biomass, which is mainly used for heating, . arfi, 3.4Vo from hydroelectricity. 'New renewables (small hydro, modem biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for

from naturar resources

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y-gldt largest geothermal power installation is the Geysers in califomia, with a rated capacity of ilt- Mw.

'Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethaaol now proviJes-t 8% ofthe country's i".r. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA. ""i"t""t-irE
Renewable enerry replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas 'power generation, hot water/space heating, transport fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. Power generafion
'Renewable energy provides 18 percent of total etectricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of elechicity in some areas: in the U.S. Germany and Denmark. Some. countries get most of their power from renewables, including Icerand and paraguay ( 100 percent), Norway (98 percent), Brazil (g6 percent), Austria (62 peicent),Nero i"uiuoa (65 percent), and Sweden (54 percent).

'

Heating oSolar hot water makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70 percent of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family aparhnent buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50-60 million households in China. 'Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of bioinass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. Transport fuels 'Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion liters ofbiofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent ofan estimated 68 billion liters ofgasoline, equal to about 5 percent of world gasoline production.

Potential 'Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. 'Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy: .Hydroelectric energy - large-scale hydroelectric dams. 'Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power.
'Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans. 'With the amount bf sun that hits the world in one hour there is enough energy to power the world for
one ye{u.

.Biofuels provided 2.7%o of the world's transport fuel in 2010. 'Geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts ofthe world such as Chile, Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northem Califomia. 'Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% ofall houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. oAccording to a 2011 projection by the Intemational Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years. Wind power market 'Global wind power installations increased by 35,800 MW in 2010, bringing total installed capacity up to 194,400 MW, a22.5Vo at the end of 2009. 'For the first time more than half of all new wind power was added outside of the traditional markets of Europe and North Americ4 mainly driven, by the continuing boom in China which accounted for nearly half of all of the installations at 16,500 MW. china now has 42,300 MW of wind power installed. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 18Yo in portug al,160/o in spain, 14% in Ireland and 97o in Germany in 2010. ' In 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power oir a commercial basis

Solar thernal plants .Large solar thermal power stations are located in the USA and Spain. ' In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermaUcombined-cycle gasturbine power plants in Erypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved. 'Photovoltaic production has been increasing by an average of more thart 20 %o each year since 2002, making it a fasfgrowing energy technology. At the end of2010, cumulative global photovoltaic (pV) installations surpassed 40 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

. Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita. More than 30,000 very small solar panels, each producing 12 to 30 watts, are sold in Kenya annually.
4.3 EU energr security

'The EU cunently imports 827o of its oil and 57Yo of its gas, making it the world's leading importer ofthese fuels.

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used in European nucleax reactors was mined in Europe.

'Russi4 Canad4 Australi4 Niger and Kazakhstan were the five.largest suppliers of nuclear materials to the EU, supplying more than 757o of the total needs in 2009. EU Uranium sources A European Strategt for Sastainable, Competitive and Secare Energt
'Principles of Energy Policy for Europe were elaborated at the Commission's green paper on 8 March 2006. ' Energt for a Changing llorld - were published by the European Commission, on 10 January 2007. Key proposals include: .A cut ofat least 20% in greenhouse gas emissions fiom all primary energy sources by 2020. .A cut ofup to 500% in carbon emissions from primary energy sources by 2050, compared to 1990
levels. .A minimum target of 10% for the use of biofuels by 2020. .To further increase market competition. .Improving energy relations with the EU's neighbours, including Russia. .The development ofa European Strategic Energy Technology Plan to develop technologies in areas including renewable energy, energy conservation, low-energy buildings, 4th generation nuclear power, clean coal and carbon capture. 'Developing an Africa-Europe Energy parbrership, to help Africa use low-carbon technologies and to help develop the continent as a sustainable energy supplier. The Strategic Energy Technologies PIan (SET Plan) 26 June 2008

'Sets the agenda for an EU energy technology policy. It enhances the coordination of national and European research and innovation efforts to position the EU in the forefront of the lowcarbon technologies markets. The SET plan initiatives: 'European Wind Initiative focus on large turbines and large systems validation and demonstration. 'Solar Europe Initiative focus on large-scale demonstration for photovoltaics and concenhated solar power. 'Bioenerry Europe Initiative - focus on 'next generation' biofuels within the context ofan pverall bio-energy use strategy. . European CO2 capture, transport and storage initiative -focus on the whole system requirements, including efficiency, safety and public acceptance, to prove the viability ofzero emission fossil fuel power plants at industrial scale. 'European electricity grid initiative - focus on the development of the smart electricity system, including storage, and on the creation ofa European cenhe to implement a research programme for the European transmission network, .Sustainable nuclear lission initiative - focus on tle develoDment of Generation [V reactors technologies.