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FOOD Chemistry

Minor Nutrients
Jan 16, 2012

CHE 462 Food Engineering

FOODS Major Constituents

Water 3 major groups of constituents : CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS FATS

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FOODS Minor Constituents

Vitamins Enzymes Emulsifiers Acids Antioxidants Colours Flavours Sweeteners Gums (hydrocolloids)

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Mainly from natural plants and animal pigments:

Chlorophyll Green to lettuce, peas,. CaroteneOrange to carrots, corn. Lycopene Red to tomatoes, watermelon.. Anthocyanins Purple to grapes, blueberries.. Oxymyoglobin Red to meats

Natural pigments are highly susceptible to chemical changes, e.g. fruit ripening & meat ageing; sensitive to excessive heat; Chopping & grinding ruptures tissue cells pigments leach out get destroyed on contact with air.
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Food colour may be controlled :

Sugars caramelize and change colour when heated. Examples of caramelization: Darkening of maple syrup, Colour on toasted bread, Brown colour on caramel candy

Maillard reaction or Browning reaction occurs when dark colours result from interactions between proteins (amino acid group) and Reducing Sugars
e.g. darkening of dried milk on long storage.

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FLAVOURS & AROMA Very complex subject in food processing e.g. In Coffee Over 800 constituents identified for flavour and aroma. Organics sensitive to air, heat are interacting with one another. Best coffee within first 15 mins. Cured meat Flavour (U of T Research)

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Prevention of oxidation in cured meat

U of T Research

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Occur naturally in fruits, e.g. Citric acid in oranges & lemon, Malic acid in apples, Tartaric acid in grapes; They provide tartness & slow down spoilage; Fermentation to produce acid to impart flavour & quality:

sauerkraut from cabbage vinegar from apple juice bacterial starter culture added to milk, in cheese making, to produce lactic acid for curd formation & preservation of the curd against bacterial spoilage.

They also have textural effect in food systems due to reaction with proteins, starches, pectins, gums & other food consttuents

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Food Safety aspect

Clostridium Botulinum under anaerobic conditions & pH > 4.6 can produce lethal toxin. C. Botulinum does not grow in food with organic acids and a pH < 4.6;

Listeria categorization of food based on pH

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Many food constituents are adversely affected by oxygen in air fats & oils become rancid, carotenes which yields vitamin A & ascorbic acid (vitamin C) diminish in their vitamin activity; Cu, Fe & some metals are strong catalysts of oxidation stainless steel processing equipment are preferred; Natural anti-oxidants present in food include

Lecithin also an emulsifier, Vitamins C & E, Certain sulphur containing amino acids;

Most effective anti-oxidants are synthetic approved by the Food & Drug Admin. (FDA).
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Biological catalysts that promote a variety of biochemical reactions, e.g.
Enzymes Found in Amylase Saliva Action digestion of starch in the mouth

Pepsin Lipase

Gastric Juice Liver

digestion of protein digestion of fat

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Aspartame Sucralose Ace-K

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Pectin Guar gum Carob bean gum Carrageenan Xanthan gum
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Foods areFuel for chemical energy to the body. Major sources of Energy Carbohydrates,Fats,Proteins Energy value of Foods [=] Calories Total Potential Energy (TPE) determined by bomb calorimetry Calorific Energy (CE) derivable by animals or humans Usually CE < TPE

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calories and kilocalories

The scientific definition of a kilocalorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water one degree Celsius from 15 to 16. The true calorie, sometimes referred to as a "small calorie," is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius from 15 to 16. A kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories. While the term "calorie" technically applies to the "small calorie," in common usage, such as in reference to food energy, the term "calorie" is actually a kilocalorie. Internationally, most countries express food energy in kilojoules (kJ). One kcal equals 4.184 kJ. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference contains values for both kilocalories and kilojoules.
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Energy from a light Lunch

What is the calorie content of your light lunch which consists of salad and a custard filled pastry? Salad: 250g : 2% Carb + 0% fat + 1% Protein Pastry: 200g: 30% Carb + 20% fat + 10% protein

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Energy from a light Lunch

Solution: Use the 4-9-4 method for calorie contents

Salad wt. (g) Energy (Cal) Pastry wt. (g) Energy (Cal)

C 5 20
60 240

F 0 0
40 360

P 2.5 10
20 80

Total Cal


(CE) for light lunch = 680 + 30 = 710 Cal

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Calories for Body Energy Requirements (BER):

Production of Body Heat

Synthesis of Body Tissue Performance of Work.

Case 1: Body performs little work---Most of BER stored as FAT Case 2: Body Energy demands is high. Body fat & tissues are oxidized to supply energy. (body loses weight).
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Daily Energy Requirement: Avg. Daily Demand for Adult: 2000 - 2500 - 3000 to 5000 Cal/day When Daily Intake is < 2000 Cal/day, there is Dietary Insufficiency which results in Malnutrition with chronic Insufficiency. Example of Weight Gain: An excess intake of 9 g of butter or margarine daily can result in the gaining of 3.2 kg of fat (wt.) in a year!!! But fortunately this can be counteracted by walking 2.4 km daily.
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Other Roles of C, P and F in Nutrition

C, P, F are interrelated and interconvertible in metabolism.

Human Body without C can survive with P & F to fulfill its body energy requirements and to synthesize blood glucose, liver glycogen, ribose sugar components of nucleic acids and other important carbohydrates. BUT consumption of Carb assist in using Fat efficiently. Inefficient oxidation of Fat leads to accumulation of ketone bodies, a disease known as ketosis. Without Carb, Protein is used up for energy at the expense of body requirements for protein & amino acids. Celluloses and Hemicelluloses provide fibre and bulk essential to healthy intestine.

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Other Roles of C, P and F in Nutrition

Carb such as Starch and Lactose

are slow to dissolve, and stay in the intestine longer than soluble Carb sugars

they serve as nutrients for microorganisms that synthesize several Vitamins of the B-complex

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Other Roles of C, P & F in Nutrition

Fats beside supplying energy provide polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e.g. Linoleic Acid an essential FA; Most animals need linoleic acid but cannot synthesize it : must be supplied as diet; Lack of linoleic acid interferes with growth of human infants, and also causes skin disorder; Good sources of linoleic acid grain and seed oil, fats from nuts & poultry;
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Other Roles of C, P & F in Nutrition

Linoleic Acid & other PUFA can lower blood cholesterol levels. Fat insulates the body against rapid changes in temperature; Fat helps cushion body organs from sudden injury; Excess Fat is stored in the adipose (fatty) tissue an used as a reserve source of energy In excessive amount - OBESITY.
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Nutritional Value of Proteins

Depends on their different Amino acid composition. A Complete Protein (CP) - one with all the amino acids in the amounts and proportions to maintain life and support growth when used as sole source of protein. Incomplete Protein can be supplemented with the missing essential amino acids as synthetic compounds.
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Nutritional Value of Proteins (contd)

A CP has High Biological Value (HBV) e.g. meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs An exception GELATIN contain small amounts of isoleucine, threonine and methionine; but NO tryptophan Animal HBV >> Plant HBV e.g. wheat, rice and corn lack Lysine but corn also lacks tryptophan. Legumes have high protein quality but have low level of Methionine.
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Nutritional Value of Proteins (contd)

Daily Requirements: 40 to 60 g (after early childhood) Depends on body demand greatest during growth; pregnancy; lactation. Protein Malnutrition can cause irreversible damage such as mental retardation.
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1. 2.

4. 5.

Growth Replacement of metabolic losses or damaged tissue Reproduction Lactation and General well-being

Accuracy & Reliability of Amino acids analysis Availability & Digestabilitiy Palatability of the protein foods

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PROTEINS (contd)

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A nutrient is bioavailable if it is utilizable in metabolism. Influencing factors for bioavailability :

Food Digestability Nutrients absorbability from the intestinal tract. Processing and cooking Age, Gender, physiological health, consumption of drugs, general nutritional status, combinations of foods eaten together, etc.
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Organic chemicals (not essential amino acids & fatty acids). Must be supplied to animals in small amounts to maintain health. Vitamin D is the only major vitamin synthesized by the human body. Vitamins function in enzyme systems that facilitates metabolism of C, P & F.

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VITAMINS (contd)

FAT SOLUBLE Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamins E & K

WATER SOLUBLE Vitamin C Vitamins - B complex

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Biological Activity, based on Vitamin A, (BA) is measured in IU (International Unit) In case of Vitamin A (Retinol), Carotene and other caroteniods, BA is measured in RE = Retinol Equivalent where 1 RE = 1 g Retinol = 6 g Carotene 3.33 IU of vitamin activity from Retinol 10 IU of vitamin activity from Carotene
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Food Sources: (1) Animals meat, liver milk, fish oils, dairy products, egg. (2) Plants - Carotene (Vit. A precursor) in orange, yellow & green veges, e.g. carrots, squash sweet potatos, kale, spinach, etc. (3) Synthetically made.

Deficiency: (1) Blindness; (2) Failure of normal bone & tooth development in the young; (3) Diseases of epithelial cells (lining under skin) and membranes of the nose, throat & eyes, decrease in bodys resistance to infection.
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Food Sources:- Most foods are LOW in Vit. D; Liver, fish oils, dairy products, eggs. Other sources:- Formed in human and animal skin by activation of sterols (cholesterol under animal skin or ergesterol in yeast) by UV light from the sun or artificially. Deficiency:- Bone defects principally rickets, brittle bones and scaly skin.

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VITAMIN E (a.k.a. -tocopherol)

An anti-sterility factor in rats. Essential for normal muscle tone in dogs and other animals Its significance for humans is still uncertain. Functions: (1) Strong anti-oxidant in human metabolism; (2) Facilitates absorption of Fe; maintance of biological membranes. Sources: Vegetable oils.

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VITAMIN E (contd)
Deficiency: * Rare under practical conditions of human nutrition * In large doses has been promoted as (1) a remedy for numerous diseases an (2) an agent for prolonging youth and increase sexual potency (no scientific evidence!!).

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Function:- Essential for Blood Clotting. Food Sources:- (1) Green veges e.g. Spinnach & cabbage; (2) Synthesized by bacteria in human intestine any antibiotic therapy that destroys intestinal organisms can lead to deficiencies in Vit. K and certain other Vits synthesized by bacteria. Deficiency:- Its deficiency generally parallels liver disease where fat absorption is abnormal
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VITAMIN C (a.k.a. Ascorbic Acid)

It is the Anti-Scurvy vitamin. Functions:- (1) Necessary for normal formation of protein collagen, which is an important constituent of skin and connective tissue; (2) Facilitates absorption of Fe. Sources:- Citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage, green peppers, potatoes; (milk.cereals and meats are poor sources of Vit. C).

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VITAMIN C (contd)

Deficiency:- (1) Fragile capillary walls; (2) Easy bleeding of gums; (3) Loosening of teeth; (4) Bone joint diseases. Notes for Food Processing:- Vit. C is easily destroyed by oxidation, especially at hi T easily lost during food processing, storage and cooking. Medical Claims:- (1) Removes high level of Cholesterol in rats blood; (2) Prevents COLD in humans???
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VITAMINS- of the B Complex Group

B1 - (Thiamin) B2 (Riboflavin) Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) B6 Panthothenic Acid (B5) B12 Folacin Biotin & Choline

All generally found in Liver, Yeast, Bran of Cereal grains, egg yolk, broccoli, lean beef, skim milk, sweet potatoes, molasses . Required for essential metabolic activities. Deficiencies = specific diseases.

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Calcium: needed for healthy bones and teeth, normal blood clotting, and nervous system functioning sources: dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, kale, tofu, sardines and salmon Iron: needed for the formation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body cells sources: meats, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains and enriched food products Phosphorus: needed for healthy bones and teeth, energy metabolism, and acid base balance in the body sources: milk, grains, lean meats, food additives
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Magnesium: needed for healthy bones and teeth, proper nervous system functioning, and energy metabolism sources: dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, green vegetables, legumes Zinc: needed for cell reproduction, tissue growth and repair sources: meat, seafood, and liver, eggs, milk, wholegrain products

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Copper: needed for synthesis of haemoglobin, proper iron metabolism, and maintenance of blood vessels; sources: seafood, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables; Manganese: needed for enzyme structure sources: whole grain products, fruits and vegetables, tea. Iodine: needed to combat goitre sources: as supplement.
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Additional Reference

Check the following site of U.S. Drug Admin. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/etext/000105.html - on vitamins, minerals and nutrients for: Sources Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) Deficiency Symptoms

CHE 462 Food Engineering