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Converting Saltwater into Drinkwater as a Solution for Global Crisis in a Fresh Water Needs: an Approach Using Green Technology

Frisca Marina Renandia#1, Ryando Perdana#2, Nurrahmah Azizah#3


Geological Engineering, #3Biology, DiponegoroUniversity Semarang, Indonesia


friscamarina@live.com ryandoperdana@yahoo.com


Abstract Environmental conditions of the world are experiencing a global crisis that threatened the availability of fresh water on earth. In fact, 96.07% of the water on Earth is salt water, and only 2.53% or 2/3 parts of fresh water are in the form of ice in glaciers and polar ice, this statement is in line with the World Water Development Report (WWDR).If the availability of clean water is not treated immediately it will impact on various aspects of life, ranging from public health impaired, threatening environmental conditions and the cessation of the chain of living beings equally.The cause the contamination of fresh water in the world can be reviewed based on several aspects such as the lack of public awareness in the importance of maintaining clean water to keep flowing from upstream to downstream, increasing human population, pollution from organic waste and nonorganic, industrial and agricultural sectors. Can be estimated from the data wastewater produced approximately 1500 km2, so the presence of clean water will be scarce to be found. According to the Bogor Agricultural University, which alone have the sea water salinity of about 33,000 mg / l, whereas in brackish water salinity ranged between 1000-3000 mg / l. fresh water is good to drink salt should not contain more than 400 mg / l. For it to sea water or brackish water can be consumed as drinking water for the required processing beforehand. For the processing itself basically have a method that is basically done to reduce levels of salt up to a concentration of less than 400 mg / l. Methods of making sea water into fresh water include distillation using solar distillation apparatus glass roof as applied technology for desalination (Center for Development The investigations and settlements). Moreover, it can also be done in other ways such as using the reserve osmosis membranes that can selectively water penetrated from low salinity to higher salinity using artificial pressure (Migliorini, 2004), and in other ways such as electrodialysis unisex by using a tool called (Wagner, 1971).Then another way to turn seawater into fresh water is disinfected water by using the addition of chemicals such as Halogens, Phenoel, Cl, Ozone, and so on (Purnawijayanti, 2001).Well as how the latter can make use of the bacteria that can decompose harmful chemical compounds are useful as water cyanobacteria that can treat the waste oil spilled in sea, or similar bacteria.So, from these methods are expected to have an impact both on improving the quality and quantity of fresh water on earth which would be good for human life later of course .

Keywords Fresh Water, Distillation, Electrodilysis, Disinfected, Global Crisis



I. INTRODUCTION The world is a place where humans live and thrive, it may assume will never be separated from the factors that affect the human life. The factors themselves can be clothing, food, and shelter. But behind all of that there is one factor that is certainly no less important but often escape the attention of the world community, and these factors are water, especially fresh water for public consumption. Today the world is facing a global crisis which is called the drought. Where is itself caused by the drought of summer and an ongoing drought, so the amount of water in the world is limited.Drought water itself occurs in nearly all regions of the world, especially in Africa and Asia, as well as the drought has claimed many lives.That requires a real solution to resolve this problem. One form of the solution to these problems can be done by means of the processing of sea water to fresh water used by converting salt water into drinking water (desalination) with a variety of processes that can be engraved such as distillation, reserve osmosis, electrodilysis, and disinfectant which would later be able to be applied by all countries in the world, and can also be used for the population in the country. Thus the problem of drought and water shortages certainly will not cover the world again. II. BASIC THEORY A. Seawater Seawater contains high amounts of ions causing high salinity (Pichard and Emery 1990 in Yufdy 2006). The distribution of nutrients in the ocean is determined by ocean circulation, biological processes of uptake and mineralisation, and subsequent regeneration of nutrients by migration of animals and by supply from the land (Postma 1971 in Yufdy 2006). The average concentration of dissolved salts (salinity)

in the ocean is about 3.5% by weight, depending on the location and evaporation rate (Brown et al 1989, Millero 1996 in Yufdy 2006). The concentration of the major dissolved ions varies, but the relative proportions remain virtually constant (Brown et al 1989, Pichard and Emery 1990 in Yufdy 2006). Seawater alone has been used to irrigate salt-tolerant crops (halophytes) in areas close to the sea (Pasternak et al 1985 in Yufdy 2006). Since it contains high amount of cations, seawater can be used as an alternative source of nutrients for plants including glycophyte (salt-sensitive) plants. Sodium may also be used as a beneficial nutrient and a partial substitute for potassium in certain crops. Table 1 shows the main ions contained in seawater. Among those, chloride and sodium ions are abundant in seawater, while sulfate, magnesium, calcium and potassium are in appreciable amounts. This indicates that seawater can be a useful source of nutrients for plants. The challenge is to harness the nutrients as well as decrease salinity to tolerable levels that are not detrimental to plant growth and development (Yufdy, 2006). B. Mangrove Halophyte plants, such as mangroves, it is important to enhance the best growth under saline conditions (Shannon et al., 1994). Mangrove vegetation has anatomical adaptations in response to the growth of a variety of extreme conditions, such as (1) the presence of salt glands in classes secreter, and peeling skin on the non-secreter groups in response to saline environments, (2) typical root system, and lenticels in response the water-saturated soil, (3) the structure and position of the typical leaf in response to solar radiation and high temperatures (Onrizal, 2005). The most distinctive trichome developed in certain mangrove leaves is the structure that secretes solutions of certain ions, mainly Na+ and Cl-. These form a general class of secretory structures called salt glands, by Fahn (1979) in Tomlinson (1986). Trichomes are salt glands on leaves, controls the salinity balance in the body tissues of mangrove. It does this by issuing back high salinity water in the form of ions and ClO NaO (Keeley, 2007). Salt glands occur in Achantus, Aegiceras, Aegialitis, and, Avicennia. All of which are mangroves that control their salt balance by secreting sodium chloride. The salt evaporates and crystallize in a conspicuous manner. Salt glands are abundant on leaves of these plants but are not necessarily equally frequent on upper and lower surfaces. Other mangrove may have epidermal structures that somewhat resemble salt glands, where a secretory has not been presciesly demonstrated, like Laguncularia and Conocarpus (Tomlinson , 1986). Scholander et al. (1962) in Tomlinson (1986) and Walter (1971) in Kristijono (1977) in Onrizal (2005) stated that in general transpiration mangrove species is low, while the roots are continuously absorb the salt water. This leads to the

accumulation of salt on the leaves. To overcome this some mangrove species have salt glands (exceretion gland) on the leaves, while the mangrove species that does not have salt glands spending is done by draining the salt to the young leaves. Basically mangrove roots, like the roots of other higher plants, selective role in selecting the ions are absorbed and transported to the xylem. Based on measurements of xylem fluid composition of mangrove appears that mangrove can remove 80-90% of the NaCl salt solution around the roots (Atkinson et al, 1967). C. Filtration Filtration through a sand and pebble filter removes most of the impurities remaining in the water. The layer of fine sand acts as a physical barrier to trap suspended particles, protozoa and helminthes. These contaminants become trapped between the grains of sand and fill in the spaces allowing the filter to trap smaller particles over time. For best results use fine sand (particle size of 0.0059- 0.0138in; 0.15-0.35mm) to form a layer that is at least 16in (40cm) deep. As sand particle size increases, the depth of the sand layer should also be increased. The pebble and stone layers help to further filter the water and to keep the fine sand from washing out or plugging the outlet (Doerr, 2008). III. METHODS This method does not use the high-tech tools that we provide the latest resolution by the concept of converting saltwater to fresh water by using a medium that is more easily accessible to all people. So we combine the science of biochemistry and geology. There are two stages: (1) the process of converting saltwater to fresh water by using mangroves medium in which the phase of a process of ongoing biochemical and (2) by using a process in which the rock media filtration takes place. The details are as follows:

The image above is a visualization design in which the program can be disseminated to the public such as coastal areas. Here the concept of manufacture: Desalination: 1. Making seawater pool as a desalination. 2. Planting mangroves in seawater pool.

3. Drainage of sea water through a pipeline to the seawater pool. Filtration: 1. Fresh water pool created to accommodate the water from desalination. Created also a pipeline connecting the seawater pool and a fresh water pool. 2. Then, created the tool filtration with composition: a. Very fine sand (1/6 - 1/8 mm) b. Alum c. Charcoal d. Gravel (2-4 mm) e. Gravel (4-64mm). 3. Fresh water is pumped to the filtration that is connected to the valve opening and can be directly used by the public. 4. For the consumption of drinking water, the water should be boiled first to kill germs. IV. DISCUSSION The workings of this idea is to create a pool as coastal ponds to accommodate sea water to be converted into fresh water. There are channels such as sea water pipes that drain into the pond pond slowly. Comprehensive farm pond is tailored to the needs of the villagers in the coastal area. Swimming ponds seedlings planted mangrove trees as a natural desalinator. Desalination process that occurred originated from sea water absorption (ion transfer) by the mangrove roots. Through the xylem tissue, substances needed by plants is distributed to all parts of the body, including the salt ions. Because the transport and distribution of nutrient substances by the xylem of plants through tissue is continuously then, occur the accumulation of salt in the leaves. In secreter mangrove (have trichomes on its leaves) will secreting sodium chloride evaporates and the salt will crystallize in a conspicuous manner. In accordance with the statement of Keeley (2007 ), trichomes are the salt glands in the leaves that controls the salinity balance in the body tissues of mangrove. It does this by issuing back high salinity water in the form of ions and ClO NaO. In non - secreter groups of mangroves (do not have trichomes), they're peeling skin in response to saline environments. The cells of the epidermis (skin cells) are also thick mangrove and waxed to prevent excessive evaporation due to the limited supply of fresh water. Basically mangrove roots, like the roots of other higher plants, selective role in selecting the ions are absorbed and transported to the xylem. Based on measurements of xylem fluid composition of mangrove appears that mangrove can remove 80-90% of the NaCl salt solution around the roots (Atkinson et al, 1967) Desalination by mangrove vegetation is optimal when young, when old trees can be used as a community fiber timber forest products. Old mangrove trees that have been taken can be replaced by planting new mangrove (rejuvenation) so that desalination keep it running optimally.

After going through a phase conversion from saltwater to fresh water then the second stage to stage filtration for clean water suitable for consumption have seen water quality standards based on three aspects: physical aspects such as murky color, taste and odor, chemical aspects, namely in the present study saw the number levels of salt ions such as chemical composition of high NaCl, and biological aspects, namely the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. Coli so that it remains necessary to boiling stage to kill the bacteria. This method is called with the filtration media with the help of rock that is around us is able to absorb and filter out impurities in the water. Materials that need to be considered and prepared by washing thoroughly before using the rock. In this process is alum, charcoal, very fine sand (1/6-1/ 8 mm), gravel (2-4 mm) and gravel (4 64 mm). Every material has uses in the filtration stage. Alum and charcoal works to eliminate odor, purify the water murky color. Serves to filter out sand but rather the very fine sand that has the role of water-borne silt content is intended to last for a tether mud impurities left in the soft sand. Meanwhile, pebbles and gravel as the final filter before the water shed. So we get the sequence of rocks position as follows:


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