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A. IsychoanaIylicaI Theoiy (Signund Iieud)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 Iieuds viev of hunan naluie is consideied lo le dynanic, neaning
lhal lheie is an exchange of eneigy and liansfoinalion. Iieud used lhe
lein !"#$"%&'& lo desciile lhis ieIease of lhis eneigy .

1. Iieud sav lhe peisonaIily as conposed of a conscious nind, a
pieconscious nind and an unconscious nind. The conscious nind has
knovIedge of vhal is happening in lhe piesenl. The pieconscious nind
conlains infoinalion fion lolh lhe unconscious and lhe conscious nind.
The unconscious nind conlains hidden oi foigollen nenoiies oi
expeiiences .

2. Sliucluie of IeisonaIily

a. The peisonaIily has lhiee pails: lhe id, lhe ego, and lhe supeiego

l. The id is piesenl al liilh and is pail of lhe unconscious. The id is lhe
sile of lhe pIeasuie piincipIe, lhe lendency of an individuaI lo nove
lovaid pIeasuie and avay fion pain. The id does nol have a sense of
iighl oi viong, is inpuIsive, and is nol ialionaI. Il conlains lhe nosl lasic
of hunan inslincls, diives, and genelic endovnenls. .

c. The ego is lhe second syslen lo deveIop and il funclions piinaiiIy in
lhe conscious nind and in lhe pieconscious nind. Il seives as a nodeialoi
lelveen lhe id and lhe supeiego, conlioIIing vishes and desiies. The ego
is lhe sile of lhe ieaIily piincipIe, lhe aliIily lo inleiacl vilh lhe oulside
voiId vilh appiopiiale goaIs and aclivilies .

d. The supeiego sels lhe ideaI slandaids and noiaIs foi lhe individuaI.
The supeiego opeiales on lhe noiaI piincipIe vhich ievaids lhe
individuaI foi foIIoving paienlaI and socielaI diclales. CuiIl is pioduced
vhen a peison vioIales lhe ideaI ego denying oi ignoiing lhe iuIes of lhe
supeiego .

3. DeveIopnenlaI Slages .

/. (%") &#"+, is cenleied on lhe noulh as a souice of pIeasuie.

1. -.") &#"+, is cenleied on lhe anus and eIininalion as a souice of

2. /$"))'! &#"+, is cenleied on lhe genilaIs and sexuaI idenlificalion as a
souice of pIeasuie.
&. Oedipus ConpIex is desciiled as lhe piocess vheiely a loy
desiies his nolhei and feais caslialion fion lhe falhei, in oidei lo
cieale an aIIy of lhe falhei, lhe naIe Ieains liadilionaI naIe ioIes.
&&0 LIeclia ConpIex is desciiled a siniIai lul Iess cIeaiIy iesoIved
in lhe fenaIe chiId vilh hei desiie foi lhe falhei, conpelilion vilh
lhe nolhei, and lhus, Ieains lhe liadilionaI fenaIe ioIes.

3. 0"#,.!1 &#"+, is a line of IillIe sexuaI inleiesl in Iieuds deveIopnenlaI
viev. This slage is chaiacleiized vilh peei aclivilies, acadenic and sociaI
Ieaining, and deveIopnenl of physicaI skiIIs.

#. 2,.'#") &#"+, legins vilh lhe onsel of puleily. If lhe olhei slages have
leen successfuIIy negolialed, lhe young peison viII lake an inleiesl in and
eslalIish sexuaI ieIalionships.

4. Lgo Defense Mechanisns

/. veie leIieved ly Iieud lo piolecl lhe individuaI fion leing
oveivheIned ly anxiely. He consideied lhen noinaI and opeialing on
lhe unconscious IeveI. Sone of lhe ones nosl oflen iefeiied lo aie:
i. 4#5%#''&$, is lhe defense nechanisn vheiely lhe ego excIudes
any painfuI oi undesiialIe lhoughls, nenoiies, feeIings oi
inpuIses fion lhe conscious
ii. 6%$7#28&$, is lhe defense nechanisn vheiely lhe individuaI
assigns lheii ovn undesiialIe enolions and chaiacleiislics lo
anolhei individuaI
iii. 4#/28&$, 9$%:/8&$, is lhe defense nechanisn vheiely lhe
individuaI expiesses lhe opposile enolion, feeIing oi inpuIse lhan
lhal vhich causes anxiely
iv. ;&'5-/2#:#,8 a defense nechanisn vheiely lhe eneigy lhal is
geneialed lovaid a polenliaIIy dangeious oi inappiopiiale laigel is
iefocused lo a safe laigel.

v <+1-&:/8&$, is a posilive dispIacenenl is caIIed vheiely lhe
fiuslialing laigel is iepIaced vilh a posilive laigel
vi. 4#.%#''&$, is lhe defense nechanisn vheiely ieluins lo an
eaiIiei slage of deveIopnenl.
vii 4/8&$,/-&=/8&$, is lhe defense nechanisn in vhich an
individuaI cieales a sensilIe expIanalion foi an iIIogicaI oi
unacceplalIe lehavioi naking il appeai sensilIe oi acceplalIe.
viii. ;#,&/- is a nechanisn vheiely an individuaI does nol
acknovIedge an evenl oi silualion lhal nay le unpIeasanl oi
ix. >3#,8&)&2/8&$, is a defense nechanisn vheiely a peison lakes
on lhe quaIilies of anolhei peison lo ieduce lhe feai and anxiely
lovaid lhal peison

5. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

/0 To encouiage lhe deveIopnenl of liansfeience, giving lhe cIienl a
sense of safely and acceplance. The cIienl fieeIy expIoies difficuIl
naleiiaI and expeiiences fion lheii pasl, gaining insighl and voiking
lhiough uniesoIved issues. The counseIoi is an expeil, vho inleipiels
foi lhe cIienl .

6. CoaIs of lheiapy incIude .:

/. HeIping lhe cIienl liing inlo lhe conscious lhe unconscious

10 HeIping lhe cIienl voik lhiough a deveIopnenlaI slage lhal vas nol
iesoIved oi vheie lhe cIienl lecane fixaled

2. HeIp lhe cIienl adjuslnenl lo lhe denands of voik, inlinacy, and

7. Techniques

/0 3%,, -&&4!'"#'4. is a piocess vheie lhe cIienl veilaIizes any lhoughls
lhal nay vilhoul censoiship, no nallei hov liiviaI lhe lhoughls oi feeIing
nay le lo lhe cIienl .
10 5%,"6 -.")1&'& is a piocess vheie lhe cIienl ieIales lheii dieans lo lhe
counseIoi. The counseIoi inleipiels lhe olvious oi nanifesl conlenl and
lhe hidden neanings oi Ialenl conlenl .

20 -.")1&'& 47 #%".&7,%,.!, is a piocess vheie lhe cIienl is encouiaged lo
alliilule lo counseIoi lhose issues lhal have caused difficuIlies vilh
significanl aulhoiily figuies in lheii Iives. The counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl lo
gain insighl ly lhe confIicls and feeIings expiessed .

3. -.")1&'& 47 %,&'&#".!, is a piocess vheie lhe counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl
lo gain insighl inlo vhal causes foin lhe lasis foi a hesilalion oi haIling
of lheiapy .

#. 8.#,%9%,#"#'4. is a piocess vheie lhe counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl lo gain
insighl inlo pasl and piesenl evenls .

. IndividuaI IsychoIogy (AIfied AdIei)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 The AdIeiian concepl of sociaI inleiesl is lhe individuaIs feeIing of
leing pail of a vhoIe, spanning lolh lhe pasl, piesenl, and lhe fuluie.
AdIei leIieved lhal peopIe veie nainIy nolivaled lovaid lhis feeIing of
leIonging. He did nol leIieve lhal sociaI inleiesl vas innale lul ialhei a
iesuIl of sociaI liaining .

10 AdIei expiessed lhal peopIe sliove lo lecone successfuI and oveicone
lhe aieas lhal lhey peiceived as infeiioi. He iefeiied lo lhis piocess of
peisonaI giovlh as sliiving foi peifeclion. Those vho did nol oveicone
feeIings of infeiioiily deveIoped an infeiioiily conpIex. Those vho
oveiconpensaled foi feeIings of infeiioiily deveIoped a supeiioiily

20 AdIei leIieved lhal a peisons conscious lehavioi, nol lheii
unconscious, vas lhe nainslay of peisonaIily deveIopnenl. ecause of
lhis concepl, AdIeiian lheoiy enphasizes peisonaI iesponsiliIily foi hov
lhe individuaI chooses lo inleipiel and adjusl lo Iifes evenls oi silualions .

30 MaIadjuslnenl is defined in AdIeiian lheoiy as choosing lehavioi
iesuIling in a Iack of sociaI inleiesl oi peisonaI giovlh. AdIei leIieved
lhal nislehavioi vouId lake pIace vhen lhe peison had lecone
discouiaged oi vhen posilive allenpls al good lehavioi had faiIed lo gel
lhe needed iesuIls. Lncouiagenenl lo good lehavioi vas oflen lhe
ieconnended anlidole lo nislehavioi .

#0 Anolhei concepl is lhal of leIeoIogy, vhich sinpIy pul neans lhal a
peison is as infIuenced ly fuluie goaIs as ly pasl expeiiences .

)0 AdIeiian espoused lhe leIief lhal lhe liilh of each chiId changed lhe
faniIy sulslanliaIIy. He lhoughl lhal lhe liilh oidei of lhe chiIdien in lhe
faniIy infIuenced nany aspecls of lheii peisonaIily deveIopnenl. iiefIy,
chaiacleiislics of lhese liilh posilions aie:
&0 ():,&# !$'):%,. aie usuaIIy high achieveis, paienl pIeaseis,
confoining, and aie veII lehaved.
&&0 ;,!4.: <4%. chiIdien aie noie oulgoing, Iess anxious, and Iess
consliained ly iuIes lhan fiisl loins. They usuaIIy exceI as vhal
lhe fiisl loin does nol.
&&&0 ='::), !$'):%,. have a feeIing of leing squeezed in and aie
conceined vilh peiceived unfaii liealnenl. These chiIdien Ieain lo
exceI in faniIy poIilics and negolialion. Hovevei, lhey can lecone
veiy nanipuIalive. This posilion aIso lends lo deveIop aieas of
success lhal aie nol enjoyed ly lheii silIings.
&?0 The 14>.+,&# !$'): is lhe nosl apl al pIeasing oi enleilaining
lhe faniIy. WhiIe lhey iun lhe iisk of leing spoiIed, lhey aie aIso
lhe nosl apl al gelling vhal lhey vanl lhiough lheii sociaI skiIIs
and aliIily lo pIease. They aie oflen high achieveis, lecause of lhe
ioIe nodeIs of lheii oIdei silIings.

.. OnIy chiIdien oi chiIdien loin seven oi noie yeais apail fion silIings
aie noie Iike fiisl loin chiIdien. ChiIdien vilh no silIings oflen lake on
lhe chaiacleiislics of lheii paienls liilh oidei, as lhe paienls aie lhe onIy
ioIe nodeIs. WhiIe lhese chiIdien nay naluie eaiIy and le high
achieveis, lhey nay Iack sociaIizalion skiIIs, expecl panpeiing, and le

". AdIei sav lhe faniIy as lhe lasic sociaIizalion unil foi lhe chiId. He
leIieved lhal chiIdiens inleipielalion of lhe evenls in lheii Iife vas
deleinined ly lhe inleiaclion vilh faniIy nenleis lefoie lhe age of five.
The faniIy inleiaclions laughl lhe chiIdien lo peiceive evenls and
silualions lhiough ceilain suljeclive evaIualions of lhenseIves and lhe
enviionnenl. These peiceplions lhal guided lhe chiIdiens lehavioi veie
caIIed ficlions. asic nislakes couId le nade lased on lhese ficlions.
AdIeiians leIieve lhal sone of lhose nislakes aie (Mozak, 1984):
&0 Ovei-geneiaIizing in vhich lhe individuaI leIieves lhal
eveiylhing is lhe sane oi aIike.
&&0 IaIse oi inpossilIe goaIs of secuiily vhich Ieads lhe individuaI
lo liy lo pIease eveiyone in seeking secuiily and avoiding dangei.
&&&. Mispeiceplions of Iife and Iifes denands vhich Ieads lhe
individuaI lo expecl noie acconnodalion lhan is ieasonalIe and
lo inleipiel lheii faiIuie lo gel acconnodalion as nevei gelling any
&?0 Mininizalion oi deniaI of ones voilh iesuIls in lhe individuaI
leIieving lhal lhey cannol le successfuI in Iife.
?0 IauIly vaIues iesuIls in a "ne fiisl" nenlaIily vilh IillIe oi no
iegaid foi olheis.
?&. AdIei leIieved lhal Iife look couiage oi a viIIingness lo lake
iisks vilhoul knoving lhe oulcone. He leIieved lhal a peison vilh
a heaIlhy Iife slyIe conliiluled lo sociely, had neaningfuI voik,
and had inlinale ieIalionships. He espoused coopeialion lelveen
lhe gendeis as opposed lo conpelilion. He leIieved lhal veII
adjusled peopIe Iived in an inleidependenl ieIalionship vilh olheis
in a coopeialive spiiil .

2. RoIe of lhe counseIoi

/0 The counseIoi is as a diagnoslician, leachei and nodeI. The counseIoi
heIps lhe cIienl lo expIoie conscious lhoughls, leIiefs and Iogic foi
lehaviois lhal aie nol in lhe cIienls lesl inleiesl oi sociaI inleiesl. The
cIienl-counseIoi ieIalionship is an equaI one vilh lhe counseIoi
shaiing insighls, inpiessions, opinions, and feeIings vilh lhe cIienl lo
pionole lhe lheiapeulic ieIalionship. Theiapy is veiy cognilive vilh
an enphasis on lhe exaninalion of fauIly Iogic and enpoveiing lhe
cIienl lo lake iesponsiliIily lo change lhiough a ie-educalionaI piocess.
The counseIoi encouiages lhe cIienl lo lehave "as if" lhe cIienl veie
vho lhey vised lo le and oflen piovides lhe cIienl vilh "honevoik"
assignnenls oulside lhe sessions. AdIeiians aie ecIeclic in lechnique
vilh an enphasis on encouiagenenl and iesponsiliIily .

3. CoaIs of AdIeiian counseIing

/0 CoaIs focus on heIping lhe cIienl deveIop a heaIlhy IifeslyIe and sociaI
inleiesl. The counseIoi assisls lhe cIienl lhiough foui goaIs of lhe
lheiapeulic piocess, eslalIishing a lheiapeulic ieIalionship, exanining
lhe slyIe of Iife, deveIoping cIienl insighl, and changing lehavioi. The
lehavioi change is lhe iesuIl of lhe individuaI laking peisonaI
iesponsiliIily foi lehavioi .

4. Techniques

/0 Mosl connonIy used aie eslalIishing %"994%#, :,7'.'.+ &#1), 47 )'7, and
$,)9'.+ #$, !)',.# #4 +"'. '.&'+$#. WhiIe AdIeiians nay loiiov nany
lechniques fion olhei lheoiies, specific lheoiies used lo encouiage change
aie .

10 ?4.7%4.#"#'4. consisls of chaIIenging lhe cIienls piivale Iogic and

c. Asking "#$, @>,&#'4." consisls of asking lhe cIienl hov lheii Iife vouId
le diffeienl if lhey veie veII` The queslion oflen asked lo paienls is vhal
vouId le lhe piolIen if lhis chiId veie nol lhe piolIen`

d. A.!4>%"+,6,.# consisls of lhe counseIoi suppoiling lhe cIienl ly
slaling lhe leIief in lhe cIienls aliIily lo lake iesponsiliIily and change

e. -!#'.+ B"& '7B consisls of insliucling lhe cIienl lo lehave "as if" lheie
veie no piolIen oi as lhe peison lhal lhe cIienl vouId Iike lo le.

f. Sltlng ln the c|lents sou neans lhal lhe counseIoi poinls oul lhe
puipose of lhe cIienls lehavioi. Afleivaid, lhe cIienl nay conlinue lhe
lehavioi, lul cannol do so vilhoul leing avaie of lheii nolivalion foi
engaging in lhe lehavioi.

g. ?"#!$'.+ 4.,&,)7 consisl of heIping lhe cIienl Ieain lo liing desliuclive
lehavioi inlo avaieness and slop il.

h. C"&D &,##'.+ consisls of heIping lhe cIienl sel shoil-lein goaIs Ieading
lovaid lhe allainnenl of Iong-lein goaIs.

C. Ieison- Cenleied (CaiI Rogeis)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/. Rogeis vieved hunan naluie as lasicaIIy good
10 He leIieved lhal if given lhe appiopiiale enviionnenl of acceplance,
vainlh and enpalhy, lhe individuaI vouId nove lovaid seIf-

20 SeIf-acluaIizalion is lhe nolivalion lhal nakes lhe individuaI nove
lovaid giovlh, neaning, and puipose

30 Ieison-cenleied is consideied a phenonenoIogicaI psychoIogy
vheiely lhe individuaIs peiceplion of ieaIily is accepled as ieaIily foi lhe
individuaI .

#0 Ieison-cenleied is oflen iefeiied lo as a seIf lheoiy, lecause of Rogeiss
enphasis on lhe seIf leing an iesuIl of lhe peisons Iife expeiiences and
lhe peisons avaieness of conpaiisons lo olheis as lhe sane oi diffeienl

)0 Rogeis leIieved lhal nosl peopIe veie piovided condilionaI acceplance
as chiIdien, vhich Iead lhen lo lehave in vays lhal vouId assuie lheii
acceplance. Hovevei, in lheii need foi acceplance, lhe individuaI oflen
lehaved in vays lhal veie incongiuenl vilh lhe ieaI seIf. Thus, lhe
giealei lhis incongiuence lelveen lhe ieaI seIf and lhe ideaI seIf, lhe
giealei isoIaled and naIadjusled lhe peison lecane.

2. RoIe of lhe counseIoi

/0 The counseIoi sels up a enviionnenl vheie lhe cIienl is safe lo expIoie
any aspecl of lhe seIf. The counseIois jol is lo faciIilale lhe expIoialion
lhiough a speciaI I-Thou ieIalionship of uncondilionaI posilive iegaid,
enpalhy and vainlh .

10 The peison-cenleied counseIoi uses psychoIogicaI lesling on a Iiniled
lasis. The Q-soil is sonelines used in assessnenl ly lhe peison-cenleied
counseIoi. A seiies of 1OO slalenenls aie viillen on caids. The slalenenls
aie seIf-desciiplions, i.e. I an capalIe, I an dependenl, I an voilhIess.
The cIienl is asked lo iead and soil each of lhese slalenenls inlo nine piIes
fion nosl Iike ne lo Ieasl Iike ne. Then lhe slacks aie iecoided. The cIienl
ie-soils lhe caids inlo vhal lhey vouId Iike lo le Iike. The Q soil gives an
indicalion of lhe incongiuence lelveen lhe peiceived ieaI seIf and ideaI

20 The use of diagnoslic calegoiies is discouiaged as inconpalilIe vilh lhe
phiIosophicaI viev of lhe individuaI as unique. Diagnosis pIaces lhe
counseIoi in a posilion of aulhoiily and inposes a liealnenl pIan

3. CoaIs

a. In peison-cenleied lheoiy aie diieclIy conceined vilh lhe individuaI.
The counseIoi faciIilales lhe cIienl lovaid .:
i. ReaIislic seIf-peiceplion
ii. Ciealei confidence and seIf-diieclion
iii. Sense of posilive voilh
iv. Ciealei naluiily, sociaI skiII, and adaplive lehavioi
v. ellei sliess coping
vi. Moie fuIIy funclioning in aII aspecls of lheii Iives.

4. Techniques

a. The lechniques used in peison-cenleied lheiapy have changed ovei

l. Thiee peiiods of line in vhich diffeienl lechniques veie sliessed.:
i. E4.:'%,!#'F, /,%'4: GHIJKLHIMKN. In lhis peiiod of lheoiy
deveIopnenl, lhe counseIoi focused on Iislening and ciealing a
peinissive alnospheie. The counseIoi did nol piovide
inleivenlions, lul connunicaled acceplance and cIaiificalion
ii. O,7),!#'F, /,%'4: GHIMKLHIMPNQ Duiing lhis peiiod of line,
counseIois enphasized leing non judgnenlaI of lhe cIienl, vhiIe
iesponding lo lhe cIienls feeIings and iefIecling lhe affecl
iii. AR9,%',.#'") /,%'4: GHIMPLHISK) This is lhe peiiod of lhe LWC:
Lnpalhy, Wainlh and Cenuineness. Lnpalhy is lhe aliIily of lhe
counseIoi lo undeisland lhe enolions of lhe cIienl and coiieclIy
connunicale lhis undeislanding. Wainlh is aIso iefeiied lo as
acceplance and posilive iegaid in peison-cenleied Iileialuie.
Wainlh is lhe aliIily of lhe counseIoi lo convey a uncondilionaI
acceplance of lhe cIienls peisonhood. Cenuineness oi congiuence
is lhe aliIily lo le vho one ieaIIy is vilhoul assuning ioIes oi

c. The counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl lhiough accuiale iefIeclions of feeIings,
keeping lhe cIienl focused on lhe concein, and cIaiificalion of feeIings and
infoinalion. The counseIoi uses open-ended queslions oi phiases lo heIp
lhe cIienls gain insighl inlo expeiiences and necessaiy changes in lheii

D. LxislenliaI CounseIing (RoIIo May and Vikloi IiankI)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/. LxislenliaIisls leIieve lhal lhe individuaI viiles lheii ovn Iife sloiy ly
lhe choices lhal lhey nake.

1. IsychopalhoIogy is defined ly exislenliaIisls as negIecling lo nake
neaningfuI choices and accenlualing ones polenliaI

20 Anxiely is seen as lhe nolivalionaI foice lhal heIps lhe cIienls lo ieach
lheii polenliaI. ConveiseIy, anxiely is aIso seen as lhe paiaIyzing foice lhal
pievenls cIienls fion ieaching lheii fuII polenliaI. Theiefoie, lhiough
avaieness, lhis anxiely can le heIpfuI in Iiving noie fuIIy

3. IiankI shaies lhal each peison seaiches foi neaning in Iife, and lhal
vhiIe lhis neaning nay change, lhe neaning nevei ceases lo le.

#. Accoiding lo IiankI, Iifes neaning can le discoveied in lhiee vays:
i.ly doing a deed (acconpIishnenls oi achievenenls),
ii. ly expeiiencing a vaIue (leauly, Iove, naluie, and ails)
iii. ly suffeiing (ieconciIing ouiseIves lo fale.

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

/0 Lach cIienl is consideied a unique ieIalionship vilh lhe counseIoi
focusing on leing aulhenlic vilh lhe cIienl and enleiing inlo a deep
peisonaI shaiing ieIalionship

1. The counseIoi nodeIs hov lo le aulhenlic, lo ieaIize peisonaI polenliaI,
and lo nake decisions vilh enphasis on nuluaIily, vhoIeness and

20 LxislenliaI counseIois do nol diagnosis, noi do lhey use assessnenl
nodeIs Iike lhe DSM-IV.

3. CoaIs

/. A goaI of exislenliaI counseIing is lo have lhe cIienls lake iesponsiliIily
foi lheii Iife and Iife decisions.

1. A goaI of exislenliaI lheiapy is lo deveIop seIf-avaieness lo pionole
polenliaI, fieedon, and connilnenl lo lellei Iife choices

20 A najoi goaI is lo heIp lhe cIienl deveIop an inleinaI fiane of iefeience,
as opposed lo lhe oulvaid one .

4. Techniques

/0 The nosl connon lechnique used in exislenliaI counseIing is lhe
ieIalionship vilh lhe cIienl .

10 Confionlalion is aIso used ly exislenliaI counseIois, vhen lhey
chaIIenge lhe cIienls vilh lheii ovn iesponsiliIily foi lheii Iives

L. CeslaIl (Iiilz IeiIs)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 A CeslaIl neans a vhoIe, and CeslaIl lheiapy is lased on lhe peison
feeIing vhoIe oi conpIele in lheii Iife

10 CeslaIl lheiapy is consideied lo le a heie-and-nov lheiapy focusing on
avaieness vilh lhe leIief lhal vhen one focuses on vhal lhey aie and nol
vhal lhey vish lo lecone, lhey lecone seIf-acluaIized. The idea leing
lhal lhiough seIf acceplance one lecones seIf-acluaIized

20 The CeslaIlisls leIieve lhal lhe individuaI naluiaIIy seeks lo lecone an
inlegialed vhoIe, Iiving pioducliveIy

30 CeslaIlisls aie anlideleininislic lecause lhey leIieve lhal peopIe have
lhe aliIily lo change and lecone iesponsilIe

#. CeslaIl loiiovs heaviIy fion lhe vievpoinls of exislenilaIisl,
expeiienliaIisl, and phenonenoIogicaIisl vilh lhe enphasis on lhe piesenl
and avaieness. CeslaIl focuses on lhe cIienls ovn innei voiId of
inleipielalion and assessnenl of lhe piesenl Iife silualion

)0 CeslaIlisls leIieve lhal individuaIs enphasize inleIIecluaI expeiience,
dininishing lhe inpoilance of enolions and senses, iesuIling in an
inaliIily lo iespond lo lhe silualions oi evenls in lheii Iife

.0 CeslaIlisls leIieve lhal lhoughls, feeIings, and ieaclions lo pasl evenls
oi silualions can inpede peisonaI funclioning and pievenl heie-and-nov
avaieness. The nosl connon unfinished lusiness is lhal of nol foigiving
ones paienls foi peiceived nislakes in ones paienling

"0 Avaieness is consideied on a conlinuun vilh lhe heaIlhiesl peison
leing nosl avaie. These peopIe aie avaie of lheii needs and deaI vilh
lhen one al a line. The enphasis in on ieaIily and nol on enleIIished oi
inagined needs. The individuaI iecognizes lheii inleinaI need and neels
lhal need lhiough nanipuIalion of lhe need and lhe enviionnenl

&0 DifficuIly nay aiise in seveiaI vays .:
&0 Loss of conlacl vilh lhe enviionnenl and ils iesouices.
&&0. Loss of conlacl vilh seIf lhiough ovei invoIvenenl vilh
&&&0 IaiI lo pul aside unfinished lusiness.
&?0 Loss lhe CeslaIl iesuIling in fiagnenlalion oi scalleiing.
?0 Lxpeiience confIicl lelveen vhal one shouId do and vhal one
vanls lo do.
?& Lxpeiience difficuIly vilh Iifes dicholonies, i.e. Iove/hale,
pIeasuie pain, nascuIinily/fenininily.

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

/. The counseIoi cieales an enviionnenl foi lhe cIienl lo expIoie lheii
needs in oidei lo giov.

10 The counseIoi is fuIIy vilh lhe cIienl in lhe heie-and-nov vilh inlense
peisonaI invoIvenenl and honesly.

20 The counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl lo focus on lIocking eneigy and lo
posiliveIy and adapliveIy use lhal eneigy.

30 The counseIoi aIso heIps lhe cIienls lo discein Iife palleins.

#0 Anong lhe iuIes lhal counseIois use lo heIp cIienl:
&0 The piincipIe of lhe nov iequiies lhe counseIoi lo use piesenl
&&0 I and Thou neans lhal lhe cIienl nusl addiess lhe peison
diieclIy ialhei lhan laIk aloul lhen oi lo lhe counseIoi aloul lhen.
&&&0 Making lhe cIienl use lhe I inslead of iefeiiing lo ovn
expeiiences in lhe second (you) oi lhiid (il) peison.
&?0 The use of an avaieness conlinuun lhal focuses on hov and
vhal ialhei lhan on vhy.
?0 The counseIoi has lhe cIienl conveil queslions inlo slalenenls.
?&0 DSM-IV calegoiies and slandaidized assessnenl is nol
consideied necessaiy vilhin lhis lheoiy (CIadding, 1996O.

3. CoaIs

a. The enphasis is on lhe heie-and-nov of lhe cIienls expeiience

l. The cIienl is encouiaged lo nake choices lased on lhe nov as opposed
lo pasl

c. HeIp lhe cIienl iesoIve lhe pasl

d. Assisl lhe cIienl lo lecone congiuenl.

e. HeIp lhe cIienl lo ieach naluiily inleIIecluaIIy.

f. HeIp lhe cIienl shed neuioses.

4. Techniques

/0 Techniques in CeslaIl lheiapy one of lvo foins, eilhei an exeicise oi an
&. Lxeicises incIude aclivilies such as:
i. fiuslialion aclions
ii. fanlasy ioIe pIaying
iii. fanlasy
iv. psychodiana
&&0 Lxpeiinenls aie unpIanned ciealive inleivenlions lhal giov oul
of lhe heie-and-nov inleiaclion lelveen lhe cIienl and lhe

10 Diean voik in CeslaIl lheiapy consisl of lhe cIienl leIIing lhe diean
and lhen focusing lheii avaieness on lhe diean fion lhe peispeclive of
each chaiaclei oi eIenenl in lhe diean

#. Lnply chaii is a piocess vheie lhe cIienl addiesses pails of lhe
peisonaIily , as if il veie an enlily silling an enply chaii. The cIienl nay
svilch peispeclives ly svilching chaiis oi nay sinpIy addiess lhe chaii.
The lechnique is conliaindicaled foi seveieIy disluiled cIienls
). Confionlalion is anolhei of lhe CeslaIl exeicises lhal is veiy poveifuI.
asicaIIy, lhe counseIoi caIIs allenlion lo lhe incongiuence lelveen lhe
cIienls veilaIizalions and olseived enolions oi lehaviois

.0 Making lhe iounds is a gioup exeicise in vhich lhe cIienl is insliucled
lo say lhe sane senlence lo each nenlei of lhe gioup and lhen adding
sonelhing peisonaI lo each peison

"0 I lake iesponsiliIily is lhe phiase lhal foIIovs each slalenenl
expiessing slalenenls oi peiceplions lhal lhe cIienl slales. The piocess is
lo heIp lhe cIienl lo inlegiale lheii inleinaI peiceplions and lheii lehaviois

&0 Lxaggeialion is ovei-dianalizing lhe cIienls gesluies and novenenls
lo heIp gain insighl inlo lheii neaning.

70 May I feed you a senlence is lhe queslion lhal lhe counseIoi asks lefoie
giving lhe cIienl a noie specific expiession of vhal lhe counseIoi leIieves
is lhe undeiIying nessage of lhe cIienl

I. RalionaI-Lnolive Theiapy (AIleil LIIis)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 RLT assunes lhal lhe individuaI has lhe capacily lo le conpIeleIy
ialionaI, iiialionaI, sensilIe oi ciazy, vhich LIIis leIieves is lioIogicaIIy
inheienl .

10 LIIis is nosl conceined vilh iiialionaI lhinking especiaIIy lhal vhich
cieales upselling oi iiialionaI lhoughls.

20 LIIis Iisls lhe nosl connon iiialionaI leIiefs lhal cIienls find disluiling
(LIIis, 1984, p.266)
&0 Il is alsoIuleIy essenliaI lo le Ioved oi appioved of ly eveiy
significanl peison in ones Iife.
&&0 To le voilhvhiIe, a peison nusl le conpelenl , adequale, and
achieving in eveiylhing allenpled.
&&&0 Sone peopIe aie vicked, lad, and viIIainous and lheiefoie
shouId le lIaned oi punished.
&?0 Il is leiiilIe and a calasliophe vhenevei evenls do nol occui as
one hopes.
?0 Unhappiness is lhe iesuIl of oulside evenls, and lheiefoie a
peison has no conlioI ovei such despaii.
?&0 Sonelhing polenliaIIy dangeious oi hainfuI shouId le cause lo
gieal concein and shouId aIvays le kepl in nind.
?&&0 Running avay fion difficuIlies and iesponsiliIilies is easiei
lhan facing lhen.
?&&&0 A peison nusl depend on olheis and nusl have soneone
sliongei on vhon lo ieIy.
&@0 The pasl deleinines ones piesenl lehavioi and lhus cannol le
@. A peison shouId le upsel ly lhe piolIens and difficuIlies of
@&0 Theie is aIvays a iighl ansvei lo eveiy piolIen, and a faiIuie lo
find lhis ansvei is a calasliophe.

30 LIIis sees lhe individuaI as leing easiIy disluiled lecause of guIIiliIily and

#0 LIIis is a pioponenl of lhe individuaI lhinking of lheii lehavioi as sepaiale
fion lheii peisonhood, i.e. "I did a lad lhing" ialhei lhan "I an a lad peison."

)0 LIIis leIieves lhal each individuaI has lhe aliIily lo conlioI lheii lhoughls,
feeIings and lheii aclions. In oidei lo gain lhis conlioI, a peison nusl fiisl
undeisland vhal lhey aie leIIing lhenseIves (seIf-laIk) aloul lhe evenl oi
silualion .

.. LIIis leIieves lhal cognilions aloul evenls oi silualions can le of foui lypes:
posilive, negalive, neuliaI, oi nixed. These cognilions iesuIl in Iike lhoughls
vilh posilive Ieading lo posilive lhoughls, negalive Ieading lo negalive lhoughls,

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

/. CounseIois aie diiecl and aclive in lheii leaching and coiiecling lhe
cIienls cognilions
10 LIIis leIieves lhal a good RLT counseIoi nusl le liighl,
knovIedgealIe, enpalhelic, peisislenl, scienlific, inleiesled in heIping
olheis and use RLT in lheii peisonaI Iives (LIIis, 198O).
20 The counseIoi does nol ieIy heaviIy on lhe DSM-IV calegoiies .

3. CoaIs
/0 The piinaiy goaI is lo heIp peopIe Iive ialionaI and pioduclive Iives

10 RLT heIps peopIe see lhal il is lheii lhoughls and leIiefs aloul evenls
lhal cieales difficuIlies, nol lhe evenls oi silualions lhenseIves

20 RLT heIps lhe cIienl lo undeisland lhal vishes and vanls aie nol
enlilIenenls lo le denanded. Thinking lhal invoIves lhe voids nusl,
shouId, oughl, have lo, and need aie denands, nol an expiession of vanls
oi desiies.

30 RLT heIps cIienls slop calasliophizing vhen vanls and desiies aie nol

#. RLT sliesses lhe appiopiialeness of lhe enolionaI iesponse lo lhe
silualion oi evenl. An silualion oi evenl need nol eIicil noie of a iesponse
lhan is appiopiiale

)0 RLT assisls peopIe in changing seIf-defealing lehaviois oi cognilions

.. RLT espouses acceplance and loIeiance of seIf and of olheis in oidei lo
achieve Iife goaIs

4. Techniques

/0 The fiisl fev sessions aie devoled lo Ieaining lhe AC piincipIe:
&0 Aclivaling evenl
&&0 eIief oi lhoughl piocess
&&&0 LnolionaI Consequences

1. Cognilive dispulalion is ained al asking lhe cIienl queslions
chaIIenging lhe Iogic of lhe cIienls iesponse

20 InaginaI dispulalion has lhe cIienl use inageiy lo exanine a silualion
vheie lhe lecone upsel. The lechnique is used in one of lvo vays:
&0The cIienl inagines lhe silualion, exanines lhe seIf-laIk, and lhen
changes lhe seIf-laIk Ieading lo a noie nodeiale iesponse.
&&0The cIienl inagines a silualion in vhich lhey iespond diffeienlIy
lhan is haliluaI, and aie asked lo exanine lhe seIf-laIk in lhis

30 The LnolionaI ConlioI Caid is an acluaI caid inlended foi lhe cIienl lo
caiiy in lheii vaIIel vhich has a Iisl of inappiopiiale oi seIf-desliuclive
feeIings counleied vilh appiopiiale nondefealing feeIings. In a difficuIl
silualion, lhe cIienl has lhis iefeience caid on lheii peison lo heIp lhen
inleivene in lheii ovn seIf-laIk

#0 ehavioiaI dispulalion invoIves having lhe cIienl lehave in a vay lhal
is opposile lo lhe vay lhey vouId Iike lo iespond lo lhe evenl oi silualion

)0 Confionlalion occuis vhen lhe counseIoi chaIIenges an iIIogicaI oi
iiialionaI leIief lhal lhe cIienl is expiessing

.. Lncouiagenenl invoIves expIicilIy uiging lhe cIienl lo use RLT ialhei
lhan lo conlinue seIf-defealing iesponses

C. TiansaclionaI AnaIysis (Liic eine)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 T.A. has a oplinislic viev of hunan naluie lhal leIieves lhal peopIe can
change despile Iifes evenls and lhal il is nevei loo Iale lo change ones
Iife. AII decisions lhal aie nade in Iife can le ie-decided
10 TA uses foui najoi nelhods lo anaIyze and piedicl lehavioi:
&0 SliucluiaI anaIysis Iooks al vhal is happening vilhin lhe
&&0 TiansaclionaI anaIysis Iooks al vhal is happening lelveen lvo
oi noie peopIe.
&&&. Cane anaIysis Iooks al liansaclions lelveen individuaIs
Ieading lo negalive feeIings.
&?0 Sciipl anaIysis Iooks al lhe Iife pIan lhe individuaI has chosen lo
2. SliucluiaI AnaIysis desciiles each peison in leins of lhiee ego slales:
&0 /"%,.# ,+4 &#"#, conlains lhe paienlaI adnonishnenls and vaIues
vilh dos, shouIds, and oughls
&&0 -:>)# ,+4 &#"#, conlains lhe oljeclive, lhinking, ialionaI and
IogicaI aliIily lo deaI vilh ieaIily
&&&0 ?$'): ,+4 &#"#, is lhe souice of chiIdIike lehaviois and feeIings

3. TiansaclionaI anaIysis
&! ConpIenenlaiy liansaclion aie chaiacleiized ly lolh peopIe
connunicaling fion lhe sane ego slale
&&. Ciossed liansaclions aie chaiacleiized ly lolh peopIe coning
fion diffeienl ego slales and iesuIling in an unexpecled huilfuI
&&&0 UIleiioi liansaclions aie chaiacleiized ly peopIe coning fion
diffeienl ego slales, lul lhe iesponses appeai lo le fion lhe sane
ego slale .
&?0 Cane anaIysis invoIves lhiee IeveIs of ganes oi uIleiioi
liansaclions lhal appeai lo le conpIenenlaiy. These lhiee IeveI of
ganes aie:
/. Iiisl degiee vhich aie ganes pIayed in sociaI silualions
Ieading lo niId upsels.
1. Second degiee ganes aie pIayed in noie inlinale ciicIes
and Iead lo ieaIIy lad feeIing.
2. Thiid degiee ganes aie vioIenl usuaIIy ending in jaiI,
hospilaI oi lhe noigue.

#0 Sciipl AnaIysis invoIves lhe pIans lhal a peison nakes foi lheii Iife.
Sone of lhe connon ones aie:
&0 Nevei sciipls iesuIl in a peison vho leIieves he/she is a nevei do
&&0 UnliI sciipls iesuIl in lhe peison vho conlinues lo vail unliI lhey
can deseive lhe ievaid.
&&&0 AIvays sciipls iesuIls in a peison conlinuing vilhoul change.
&?0 Aflei sciipls iesuIls in anlicipalion of difficuIly aflei a ceilain
?0 Open-ended sciipls iesuIl in Iack of diieclion aflei a given line
oi evenl.
?&0 The ideaI Iife sciipl is one lhal is chaiacleiized ly lhe I an ok
and you aie ok . Less desiialIe sciipls aie chaiacleiized ly lhe
slalenenls: In Ok, you aie nol OK, I 'n nol Ok , Youie OK, and
In nol OK, You aie nol OK.

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

a. The counseIoi is a leachei of liansaclionaI anaIysis and ils unique

l. The counseIoi conliacls vilh lhe cIienl foi lhe changes lhal lhey desiie

3. CoaIs

/. The goaI is lo nol onIy Ieain lo adjusl lo Iife lul lo allain heaIlh and

10 Thiough lhe gaining of aulonony lhe cIienl can le noie avaie,
inlinale and sponlaneous Iiving a Iife fiee of ganes and seIf-defealing Iife
sciipls .

4. Techniques

/0 In addilion lo sliucluiaI, liansaclionaI, gane and sciipl anaIysis, TA
counseIois olhei lechniques. Sone of lhese lechniques aie:
&0 C%,"#6,.# !4.#%"!# vhich is a agieenenl lelveen lhe counseIoi
and lhe cIienl aloul vhal is lo le acconpIished and vhal
iesponsiliIilies aie agieed upon.
&&0 8.#,%%4+"#'4. invoIves foicing lhe cIienl lo ansvei fion lhe
aduIl ego slale lhiough a succession of confionlive queslions
&&&0 ;9,!'7'!"#'4. is idenlifying lhe ego slale lhal is lhe souice of lhe
&?0 ?4.7%4.#"#'4. is lhe piocess of poinling oul inconsislencies
?0 A@5-/,/8&$, is a piocess vheie lhe counseIoi leaches lhe AduIl
ego slale of lhe cIienl a lenel of TA
?&0 8))>&#%"#'4. is a sloiy oi exanpIe lhal is used lo poiliay a poinl
?&&0 ?4.7'%6"#'4. is a lechnique vheie lhe counseIoi diiecls lhe
cIienls allenlion lo a pieviousIy nodified lehavioi lhal is
?&&&. 8.#,%9%,#"#'4. invoIves lhe counseIoi expIaining lol he chiId
ego slale lhe ieasons lehind lhe cIienls lehavioi
&@0 ?%1&#"))'T"#'4. occuis vhen lhe cIienl ieaIizes lhal gane
pIaying can le given up and lhe cIienl can enjoy lhe fieedon of
choice in lehavioi

H. ehavioiaI Theoiies (. I. Skinnei)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie

/0 ehavioiisls, vilh lhe exceplion of cognilive lehavioiisls, concenliale
on le olseived .

1. ehavioiisn has a heie-and-nov focus

20 A lasic lenel of ehavioiisn is lhal aII lehavioi is Ieained vhelhei lhe
lehavioi is naIadaplive oi adaplive

30 ehavioiisls leIieve lhal adaplive lehavioi can le Ieained lo iepIace
naIadaplive lehavioi

#0 ehavioiisls leIieve in selling up veII-defined, neasuialIe and
olseivalIe goaIs in lheiapy

). ehavioiisls iejecl lhe idea lhal hunan peisonaIily is conposed of liails

.0 ehavioiisls sliive foi enpiiicaI evidence lo suppoil lheii use of specific
lechniques and lo suppoil lhe usage of lehavioiaI lheiapy lechniques

"0 Respondenl Ieaining is oflen iefeiied lo as slinuIus-iesponse Ieaining
in vhich lhe Ieainei does nol need lo le an aclive pailicipanl. The
oulcone is lhe condilioning of invoIunlaiy iesponses. The unIeaining of
lhese condilioned iesponses is caIIed counleicondilioning

&. Opeianl condilioning iequiies lhal lhe pailicipanl le acliveIy invoIved.
This lype of Ieaining invoIves ievaiding lhe desiied lehavioi oi
punishing lhe undesiied lehavioi unliI lhe peison Ieains lo disciininale
lhe desiied lehavioi lhal eIicils lhe ievaid. Opeianl condilioning diffeis
fion iespondenl condilioning in lhal opeianl condilioning is lhe
condilioning of voIunlaiy iesponses lhiough ievaids oi ieinfoices

70 SociaI nodeIing is lhe piocess vheie nev lehavioi is Ieained fion
valching olhei peopIe and evenls vilhoul expeiiencing lhe consequences
fion lhe lehavioi oi engaging in lhe lehavioi

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi

/. RoIes of lhe lehavioiaI counseIoi aie vaiies and incIude leing a
consuIlanl, a ieinfoicei, and a faciIilaloi

1. The counseIoi is aclive and nay supeivise olhei peopIe in lhe cIienls
enviionnenl lo achieve lhe goaIs of lheiapy

20 CounseIois using sociaI Ieaining nay nodeI lhe desiied lehavioi, vhiIe
iespondenl and opeianl condilioning counseIois aie noie diieclive and
piesciiplive in lheii appioach lo lhe lheiapy goaIs

30 Use of lesls and diagnosis vaiied giealIy anong lehavioiaI counseIois

3. CoaIs
a. The goaI of lehavioiisls counseIois Iike olhei lheoiies is lo inpiove lhe
Iife of lhe cIienl lhiough lellei adjuslnenls lo Iife and lo achieve peisonaI
goaIs piofessionaIIy and peisonaIIy .
l.Ioui sleps in deveIoping lheiapeulic goaIs aie .:
i.Define lhe piolIen concieleIy specifying vhen, vheie, hov and
vilh vhon lhe piolIen exisls.
ii. Take a deveIopnenlaI hisloiy of lhe piolIen eIiciling condilions
suiiounding lhe leginning of lhe piolIen and vhal soIulions lhe
cIienl has liied in lhe pasl.
iii. LslalIish specific sulgoaIs in snaII incienenlaI sleps lovaid lhe
finaI goaI.
iv.Deleinine lhe lesl lehavioiaI nelhod lo le used heIp lhe cIienl

4. Techniques
a. Reinfoiceis inciease lhe desiied lehaviois, vhen lhey foIIov lhe
lehavioi. l.Reinfoiceis can le negalive oi posilive. Iosilive ieinfoiceis aie
lhose lhal aie desiied ly lhe cIienl, vhiIe negalive ieinfoiceis aie
conlingencies lo le avoided. Iiinaiy ieinfoiceis aie lhose lhal aie
inliinsicaIIy, vhiIe secondaiy ieinfoiceis aie lokens lhal aquiie lheii vaIue
ly leing associaled vilh a piinaiy ieinfoicei .
c. ScheduIes of Reinfoicenenl
i. Iixed-ialio neans lhal lhe ieinfoicei is deIiveied aflei a sel
nunlei of iesponses .
ii. Iixed-inleivaI neans lhal lhe ieinfoicei is deIiveied aflei a sel
line Iapses .
iii. VaiialIe-ialion neans lhal lhe ieinfoicei is deIiveied aflei
vaiying nunleis of iesponses .
iv. A vaiialIe-inleivaI neans lhal lhe ieinfoicei is deIiveied al vaiying
line inleivaIs .
l. Shaping is Ieaining lehavioi in snaII sleps lhal aie successive appioxinalions
lovaid lhe finaI desiied lehavioi. Chaining is lhe oidei of lhe desiied sequence
of skiIIs Ieading lo lhe desiied lehavioi .
c. CeneiaIizalion is lhe liansfei of lhe Ieainings fion lhe lehavioiaI lheiapy
ioon lo lhe oulside voiId .
d. Mainlenance is lhe consislenl conlinualion of Ieained lehaviois vilhoul
suppoil fion exleinaI souices lo lhe cIienls seIf-conlioI and seIf-nanagenenl .
e. Lxlinclion is lhe eIininalion of a lehavioi lhiough vilhhoIding a ieinfoicei
f. Iunishnenl is lhe deIiveiy of aveisive slinuIi iesuIling in suppiessing io
eIininaling a lehavioi .
g.ehavioiaI ieheaisaI is lhe of iepealing and inpioving a lehavioi unliI lhe
cIienl acconpIishes lhe lehavioi lhal is desiied .
h. LnviionnenlaI pIanning is a piocess vheie lhe cIienl aiianges lhe
ciicunslances lo pionole oi inhilil pailicuIai lehaviois .
i. Syslenalic desensilizalion a piocess acconpIished lhiough successive
appioxinalions lo ieduce anxiely lovaid an anxiely piovoking evenl oi
silualion. The sleps needed lo acconpIish lhe lehavioi aie Iisled and piioiilized
fion no anxiely lo nosl anxiely. The hieiaichy is ievieved vilh lhe counseIoi
heIping lhe cIienl lo Ieain ieIaxalion lechniques lo ieduce oi oveicone anxiely.
As a cIienl cannol feeI anxious and ieIaxed al lhe sane line, lhe phenonenon is
leined iecipiocaI inhililion. Thiough lhis piocess, lhe cIienl can uIlinaleIy
peifoin lhe desiied lehavioi .
j. Asseiliveness liaining is a lechnique vheie lhe cIienl is laughl lo expiess lheii
appiopiiale feeIings vilhoul hosliIily, anxiely, oi passivily. The acluaI liaining
nay incIude aII of lhe olhei lehavioiaI lechniques lo achieve lhe desiied
lehaviois .
k. Conlingency conliacls aie viillen agieenenls in vhich lhe desiied lehaviois
aie specificaIIy desciiled, vhal ieinfoiceis aie lo le given and undei vhal
ciicunslances lhe ieinfoiceis viII le adninisleied lo lhe cIienl. Conlingency
conliacls aie nosl oflen used in voiking vilh chiIdien .
I. InpIosion is having lhe cIienl desensilized ly inagining a anxiely piovoking
silualion lhal nay have a diie consequences. IIooding is siniIai excepl lhe
anlicipaled oulcone of lhe anxiely piovoking silualion is nol diie. This
lechnique is conliaindicaled foi use ly leginning counseIois .
n. Tine oul is an aveisive lechnique vheie lhe cIienl is pievenled, usuaIIy
lhiough sone foin of isoIalion, fion ieceiving a posilive ieinfoicei.
n. Oveicoiieclion is an aveisive lechnique vheie lhe cIienl is iequiied lo iesloie
lhe enviionnenl and lo inpiove il sulslanliaIIy .
o. Coveil sensilizalion is an aveisive lechnique vheie a lehavioi is eIininaled ly
paiiing ils associalion vilh an unpIeasanl lhoughl .
p. Cognilive iesliucluiing is heIping lhe cIienls change hov lhey lhink aloul an
evenl oi silualion ly exanining lheii lhoughls and chaIIenging lhe iiialionaI oi
seIf-defealing lhoughls .
q. Sliess inocuIalion is a lhiee slep pievenlive lechnique .:
i. Define lhe naluie of sliess and coping foi lhe cIienl.
s. Teach specific sliess ieduclion and coping skiIIs lo expand lhose sliess and
coping skiIIs lhe cIienl aIieady uses.
l. The cIienl piaclices lhese nev skiIIs oulside of lhe lheiapy ioon in ieaI Iife
u. Thoughl slopping is a seiies of pioceduies vhich heIp lhe cIienl lo iepIace
seIf-defealing lhoughls vilh asseilive, posilive oi neuliaI lhoughls. The iniliaI
pioceduie is one in vhich lhe counseIoi asks lhe cIienl lo lhink olsessiveIy in a
seIf defealing nannei, lhen suddenIy and unexpecledIy yeIIs, "slop." The cIienl
cannol conlinue lhe seIf-defealing lhoughls aflei lhis disiuplion .

I. ReaIily lheiapy (WiIIian CIassei)

1. Viev of Hunan Naluie
a.CIassei nainlains lhal peopIe acl on a conscious IeveI and lhal lhey aie
nol diiven ly inslincls and lhe unconscious .
l. CIassei leIieves lhal lheie is a heaIlh/giovlh foices in eveiy peison
lhal seeks lolh physicaI and psychoIogicaI heaIlh/giovlh. He sepaiales
lhese inlo lhe oId liain oi piinilive physicaI needs and inlo lhe nev liain
oi psychoIogicaI needs. WhiIe lhe oId liain conlenls ilseIf vilh
nainlaining Iife, lhe nev liain seeks leIonging, povei, fieedon and fun .
c. CIassei leIieves lhal idenlily oi a heaIlhy sense of seIf is necessaiy. A
success idenlily cones fion leing Ioved and accepled. A faiIuie idenlily
cones fion nol having needs foi acceplance, Iove and voilh nel. A
peison nusl expeiience idenlily lefoie lhey can peifoin a lask .
d. CIassei espouses lvo ciilicaI peiiods of deveIopnenl in chiIdien
i. ChiIdien ages 2 lo 5 fiisl Ieain sociaIizalion and Ieain lo deaI vilh
fiuslialions and disappoinlnenls. ChiIdien nol gelling suppoil
and Iove fion lheii paienls duiing lhis ciilicaI line legin lo
eslalIish a faiIuie idenlily.
ii. The second ciilicaI peiiod is lelveen 5 and 1O yeais oi lhe eaiIy
schooI yeais. ChiIdien vho have sociaIizalion oi acadenic
piolIens nay eslalIish a faiIuie idenlily.
e. CIassei suggesls lhal hunan Ieaining is a Iife Iong piocess, lheiefoie,
one can change ones idenlily al any line in ones peisonaI hisloiy ly
Ieaining vhal needs lo le Ieained .
f. CIassei leIieves lhal hunans aie seIf-deleinined. He leIieves lhal each
peison has vilhin lhenseIves a picluie oi peiceplion of lhenseIves. Lach
peison lhen lehaves in a vay lhal is deleinined oi conlioIIed ly lhis
inage of seIf so lhal lhe seIf inage can le nainlained. This conlioI lheoiy
has lhiee pails (CIadding:
i. is lhe lehavioi
ii. C is lhe conlioI, vheie a conpaiison is nade lelveen lhe
desiied inage and lhe inage lhe lehavioi is pioducing.
iii. I is lhe peiceplion oi lhe deveIopnenl of lhe inage.

2. RoIe of lhe CounseIoi
a. The counseIoi is a leachei and a nodeI lo lhe cIienl .
l. The counseIoi cieales an alnospheie of acceplance and vainlh heIping
lhe cIienl focus on lhe conlioI of dispIayed lhoughls and aclions .
c. The ieaIily counseIoi used "ing veils lo heIp lhe cIienl desciile lheii
lhoughls and aclions, i.e. angeiing, luIIying, inlinidaling, excusing .
d. The focus of lheiapy is on lhe lehavioi lhal lhe cIienl needs oi vanls lo
change and hov lo change lhal lehavioi in a posilive nannei .
e. ReaIily lheiapy does nol geneiaIIy use foinaI assessnenl lechniques oi
diagnoslic calegoiies .

3. CoaIs
a. The fiisl goaI of ieaIily lheiapy is lo heIp lhe cIienl lo lecone
psychoIogicaIIy sliong and ialionaI. A sliong and ialionaI peison is one
lhal is aulononous and lehaves iesponsilIy lovaid seIf and olheis .
l. ReaIily lheiapys second goaI is lo heIp lhe cIienls lo deleinine vhal
lhey vanl in Iife .
c. An inpoilanl goaI is lo heIp lhe cIienl lo deveIop a piaclicaI pIan lo
acconpIish lheii peisonaI needs and desiies .
d. LslalIishing an invoIved and neaningfuI ieIalionship vilh lhe cIienl is
anolhei goaI of lheiapy .
e. The counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl pul lhe pasl lehind and focus on lhe
piesenl and lhe oulcone of piesenl lehaviois .
f. Anolhei goaI is lo accepl no excuses and lo eIininale punishnenl fion
lhe cIienls Iife .

4. Techniques
a. The nain lechnique has lhiee lasic sleps .:
l. Thiough invoIvenenl vilh lhe cIienl, lhe counseIoi heIps lhe cIienl lo
see lhe ieaIily and undeisland hov a lehavioi is unieaIislic.
c. The counseIoi sepaiales lhe cIienl fion lhe lehavioi and iejecls lhe
lehavioi vilhoul iejecling lhe cIienl.
d. The finaI slep is lo leach lhe cIienl hov lo fuIfiI lheii needs ieaIislicaIIy
and posiliveIy.
e. CIassei uses hunoi lo poinl oul alsuidily vilhoul leing saicaslic
f. CIassei uses confionlalion lo heIp lhe cIienl accepl iesponsiliIily foi
g. ReaIily lheiapy uses a syslen leined WDLI. The syslen consisls of
eslalIishing vhal lhe cIienls vanl, vhal lhey have doing, evaIuale hov
heIpfuI lheii aclions have leen, and lo pIan foi hov lhey vanl lo lehave
in lhe fuluie
h. The eighl sleps lhal ieaIily lheiapy uses lo acconpIish ils goaIs and
i. LslalIishing a ieIalionship.
ii. Iocusing on piesenl lehavioi.
iii. CIienl evaIualion of his oi hei lehavioi.
iv, DeveIoping a conliacl oi pIan of aclion.
v. Celling a connilnenl fion lhe cIienl.
vi. Nol accepling excuses.
vii. AIIoving ieasonalIe consequences lul iefusing lo use
viii. Refusing lo give up on lhe cIienl.
ix. CIasseis finaI lechnique is NLVLR CIVL UI .
The preceding material was outlined from the following text:
Gladding, S.T. (1996).
A. ConsuIlalion

1. The Slages of ConsuIlalion (Daugheily, 1995)
a. The fiisl slage is caIIed lhe enliy lecause il is lhe poinl al vhich lhe
consuIlanl enleis lhe oiganizalion and/oi ieIalionship. Duiing lhis slage
lhe ieIalionship is luiIl, lhe piolIen and ils paianeleis aie defined, a
conliacl is agieed upon, and conlacl vilh lhe consuIlees aie nade. This
slage eslalIishes lhe foundalion foi lhe ienaindei slages.
1. The consuIlanl expIoies lhe oiganizalions needs
2. ShouId consuIlalion lake pIace`
3. Why an I heie`
4. Who aie you`
5. Whal is IikeIy lo happen`
6. Whal viII le lhe iesuIl`
7. Whal can go viong`
i. Ihase 2: A conliacl is deveIoped lo agiee upon consuIlalion, fees,
expeclalions of pailicipanls, and deadIines. The eIenenls of a
conliacl incIude (CaIIessich 1982
1. geneiaI goaIs of consuIlalion,
2. lenlalive line fiane,
3. consuIlanls iesponsiliIilies:
4. seivices lo le piovided
5. nelhods lo le used
6. line lo le connilled lo lhe agency
7. evaIualion of lhe degiee lo vhich goaIs aie achieved
8. agencys iesponsiliIilies:
9. naluie and exlenl of slaff conliilulions lo consuIlalion,
1O. fees lo le paid lo consuIlanl, incIuding expenses,
11. consuIlanls loundaiies
12. lhe conlacl peison lo vhon lhe consuIlanl is lo le
13. peopIe lo vhon lhe consuIlanl is lo have access (and
lhose vho aie oul of lounds)
14. consuIlanls access lo depailnenls, neelings, and
15. condilions foi liinging in olhei consuIlanls oi liainees,
16. confidenliaIily iuIes iegaiding aII infoinalion,
17. aiiangenenls foi peiiodic ieviev and evaIualion of lhe
consuIlanls voik, expIicalion of fieedon of eilhei paily lo
leininale lhe conliacl if consuIlalion piogiess is
ii. .Ihase 3: The consuIlanl physicaIIy enleis lhe oiganizalion and
legins conlacl vilh consuIlees
iii Ihase 4: The consuIlanl psychoIogicaIIy enleis inlo lhe syslen ly
eslalIishing iappoil and lhe ieIalionship and nininizes iesislance.
l. Slage lvo is lhe diagnosis slage. The piolIen is exanined noie in
deplh lhan in lhe enliy slage. The consuIlanl and lhe consuIlee eslalIish
goaIs and geneiale nelhod lo neel lhese goaIs (Dougheily, 1995).
i. Ihase 1: Calheis infoinalion.
1. Decide lo pioceed.
2.SeIecl dinensions.
3. Decide lhe peisonneI lo le invoIved in dala coIIeclion.
4. SeIecl dala coIIeclion nelhods. IossilIe lypes of dala lo le
coIIecled aie:
5. genelic dala oi connon infoinalion.
6. desciiplive dala
7. piocess dala
8. inleipielalive dala
9. consuIlee-cIienl syslen ieIalionship dala
1O. cIienl syslen lehavioi dala
ii. Ihase 2: Defines lhe piolIen.
iii. Ihase 3: Sels goaIs.
iv. Ihase 4: Ceneiale inleivenlions.
c. Slage lhiee is caIIed lhe inpIenenlalion. The enphasis in on laking
aclion and pIanning (Dougheily, 1995).
i. Ihase 1: Choose an inleivenlion.
1. IndividuaI Inleivenlions
2. ConsuIlee-cenleied case consuIlalion
3. IiolIen-soIving/decision naking educalion/liaining
4. Sliess nanagenenl
5. Cognilive iesliucluiing
6. Sliess inocuIalion liaining
7. TiansaclionaI anaIysis
8. Coaching and counseIing
9. Life- and caieei-pIanning aclivilies
1O. Sensilivily liaining
11. Dyadic and liiadic inleivenlions
12. Aclivilies lo inciease effecliveness
13. Thiid-paily peacenaking
14. Cioups and Tean Inleivenlions
15. Tean luiIding invoIves inpioving lhe leans funclioning
ly exanining and evaIualing lhe inleiaclions anong lhe
lean nenleis.
16. NoninaI gioup lechnique invoIves gioup piolIen
soIving lhiough lhe gioups invoIvenenl and ciealivily.
17. QuaIily ciicIes invoIves snaII gioup lhal usuaIIy voik
logelhei lhal focus on voik quaIily, pioduclivily and
18. Woik leans piovide advice and invoIvenenl, pioduclion
and seivice, piojecls and deveIopnenl, and aclion and
19. Advenluie aclivilies and sociaI diana vilh inlacl gioups
aie usuaIIy used foi lean luiIding, i.e. iopes couises,
ielieals, elc.
2O. Inleivenlions lo use lelveen Cioup
a. inleigioup lean luiIding invoIves inpioving
connunicalion and coopeialion, ieducing
inappiopiiale conpelilion, and deveIoping
l. oiganizalonaI niiioiing invoIves one gioup, caIIed
lhe hosl gioup, inviles olhei gioups lo shaie lheii
peiceplions of lhen.
21. dispule syslens design (confIicl nanagenenl)
22..Inleivenlions foi lhe enliie oiganizalion
23. Iiocess consuIlalion Iooks al lhe connunicalion
palleins, piolIens soIving and decision naking.
24. Suivey feedlack/aclion ieseaich is lased on dala
coIIecled aloul lhe oiganizalion.
25. CoIIaleiaI oiganizalion is voiking vilh a snaII unil
vilhin lhe oiganizalion.
26. Slialegic pIanning is pIanning foi fuluie oulcones and
polenliaI piolIens.
ii. Ihase 2: IoinuIale a pIan.
iii. Ihase 3: InpIenenl lhe pIan
iv. Ihase 4: LvaIuale lhe pIan.
d. Slage foui is caIIed disengagenenl. The consuIlalion goes lhiough a
piocess vheiely lheie is a giaduaI ieduclion in lhe aclivily and
dependency on lhe consuIlanl (Dougheily, 1995).
i. Ihase 1 LvaIuale lhe consuIling piocess.
ii. Ihase 2: IIan foi poslconsuIlalion conceins.
iii. Ihase 3: Reduce invoIvenenl and foIIov up.
iv. Ihase 4 Teininale

. OiganizalionaI ConsuIlalion
a. Oiganizalion consuIlalion invoIves a piofessionaI voiking eilhei inside
oi oulside of lhe oiganizalion lo piovide lechnicaI,
diagnoslic/piesciiplive, oi faciIilalive assislance lo individuaI oi gioup
fion lhe oiganizalion lo change, nainlain, oi enhance lhe oiganizalions
effecliveness (Dougheily, 1995).

1. Key Concepls
a. The oiganizalion oi sone pail of il is lhe cIienl. Syneigy is lhe idea lhal
lhe pioducls aie giealei lhan lhe sun of ils pails and is used lo expIain
lhe conpIexily of oiganizalions.
l. Iiocess is an inpoilanl as conlenl.in olhei voids, lhe vay lhal
infoinalion and connunicalion occuis vilhin lhe oiganizalion is as
inpoilanl as lhe sliucluie of lhe oiganizalion.

2. OiganizalionaI consuIlalion Iiocess
a. ConsuIcule (Iake & Moulon, 1976,1983) is a cule vilh one hundied
ceIIs each depicling a ieIalionship lelveen lhe unils of change (cIienls),
lhe kinds of inleivenlions and lhe focaI issues (piolIens). The consuIcule
is used lo iIIusliale lhe inleiieIalededness and fundanenlaI piincipIes in
oiganizalionaI slialegies.

3. Inleivenlions
a. Acceplanl lased on lhe feeIings of acceplance fion lhe consuIlanl lhal
aIIovs oljeclive viev of lhe piolIen.
l. CalaIylic aIIovs lhe consuIlee lo undeisland voik-ieIaled silualions
lhiough exisling oi nev infoinalion.
c. Confionlalion inleivenlions Ieads lo lhe consuIlees lo exanine vaIues
aloul piolIens.
d. Iiesciiplive inleivenlions ieIies on diagnosis of lhe piolIens and
pioviding polenliaI soIulions.
e. Theoiies and piincipIe inleivenlion piovides lhe consuIlee vilh
syslenalic and enpiiicaIIy lesled nelhods lo viev piolIens.noie of a
psychoeducalionaI appioach.
f. Unils of change can le a gioup, an individuaI, seIecled gioups,
oiganizalions, oi olhei sociaI syslens.
g. IocaI Issues
i. povei/aulhoiily issues
ii. noiaIe/cohesion
iii. noins/slandaids (iuIes)
iv. goaIs/oljeclives
v. Scheins ModeIs of Oiganizalion ConsuIlalion (Dougheily, 1995)
h. Iuichase of Lxpeilise ModeI essenliaIIy foi lhis nodeI lo le successfuI
lhe consuIlee knovs vhal lhe piolIen is, hov lo soIve il, and vho can le
of heIp. The nosl fiequenlIy used appioach in lhis nodeI is lhe
educalion/liaining consuIlalion, vheie lhe consuIlees aie given
infoinalion and laughl skiIIs.
i. Docloi-Ialienl ModeI in lhis nodeI lhe consuIlee knovs lhal sonelhing
is viong, lul cannol idenlify il. The consuIlanl diagnoses lhe piolIen and
lhen piesciiles a soIulion.
j. Iiocess ModeI invoIves lhe consuIlanl and consuIlee foining a lean lo
define lhe piolIen and expIoie soIulions lo lhe piolIen.

C. MenlaI HeaIlh ConsuIlalion
a. MenlaI heaIlh consuIlalion is piocess consuIling lelveen piofessionaIs
lo assisl in lhe nenlaI heaIlh aspecls of voik-ieIaled piolIens lhal
conceins lhe cIienl oi lhe oiganizalion (Dougheily, 1995).

1. Key concepls (Dougheily, 1995)
a. .asic chaiacleiislics of nenlaI heaIlh consuIlalion fion CapIans viev:
l. ConsuIlalion lelveen lvo piofessionaIs in iespecl lo a cIienl oi
c. The consuIlee defines lhe piolIen as leing nenlaI heaIlh ieIaled
piolIen of lhe cIienl and lhe consuIlanl has lhe expeil knovIedge lo heIp.
d. The consuIlanl has no adninislialive iesponsiliIily oi piofessionaI
iesponsiliIily foi lhe oulcone of lhe cIienls case. The consuIlanl is nol
iesponsilIe foi lhe consuIlees conducl in lhe case.
e. The consuIlee does nol have lo accepl lhe consuIlanls ideas and
f. The consuIlanl and lhe consuIlee aie equaI in lhe ieIalionship.
g. The ieIalionship is inpioved ly consuIlanl and consuIlee having
diffeienl piofessionaI idenlilies oi leing exleinaI lo lhe consuIlees
h. The consuIlanl usuaIIy neels onIy a fev lines vilh lhe consuIlee
individuaIIy and does nol encouiage a dependenl ieIalionship vilh
conlinuing conlacl leyond lhe cuiienl concein. In gioup consuIlalion, lhe
independence of ils nenleis is encouiaged ly lhe peei suppoil.
i. ConsuIlalion is expecled lo conlinue lhioughoul lhe piofessionaI Iife of
lhe consuIlee as lhe consuIlee lecones noie sophislicaled and conpelenl.
j. The consuIlanl does nol have an agenda of infoinalion lo le given lo
lhe consuIlee, lul sinpIy assisls in lhe aieas lhal lhe consuIlee iequesls.
k. The lvo goaIs of lhe consuIlalion is lo heIp lhe consuIlee vilh lhe
cuiienl piolIen and hov lo appioach fuluie siniIai conceins.
I. The ain of lhe consuIlalion is lo heIp lhe consuIlee lo inpiove lheii jol
n. ConsuIlalion is nol inlended lo le lheiapy foi lhe consuIlee, lul if a
peisonaI issue effecl lhe consuIlees aliIily lo voik vilh lhe cIienl, lhen
peisonaI issues aie discussed.
n. ConsuIlalion is piovided ly a peison vilh a liaining speciaIly.
o. This foin of consuIlalion is a lype of connunicalion lelveen lhe
nenlaI heaIlh speciaIisl and olhei piofessionaIs.
p. Isychodynanic Oiienlalion used ly lhe CapIan nodeI is lased on lhe
concepl lhal lehavioi is a pioducl of unconscious nolivalion. The
chiIdhood expeiiences of lhe consuIlee nay cieale issues lhal iesuIl in
innei confIicls lhal govein lehavioi. The consuIlanl does nol deaI vilh
lhese issues diieclIy, lul ialhei lhiough indiiecl nelhods (Daugheily,
q. Tiansfei effecl is lhe concepl lhal sonelhing lhal is Ieained in one
silualion viII le liansfeiied oi used in olhei siniIai silualions. Tiansfei of
Lffecl is a najoi focus of CapIans nodeI (Daugheily, 1995).
i. "One-Dovnnanship" is lhe desciiplions of lhe ieIalionship in vhich lhe
consuIlanl slays in an equaI oi peei ieIalionship vilh lhe consuIlee.

2. Types of ConsuIlalion (Daugheily, 1995)
a. Iocuses on a case
l. cIienl-cenleied case consuIlalion
c. consuIlee-cenleied case consuIlalion
d. Iocuses on adninislialive piolIens.
e. piogian-cenleied adninislialive consuIlalion
f. consuIlee-cenleied adninislialive consuIlalion

3. The ConsuIlalion Iiocess (Daugheily, 1995).
a. CIienl-Cenleied Case ConsuIlalion Iiocess
i. CoaIs incIude heIping lhe consuIlee lo deveIop a inleivenlions
pIan and lo gain infoinalion and/oi skiIIs lo heIp in fuluie siniIai
ii. The consuIlanl seivices as an expeil in assessnenl, diagnosis,
and ieconnendalions foi lhe consuIlees cIienl.
iii. The consuIlees expeiience in lhe consuIlalion is a peei
ieIalionship in vhich lhe consuIlanl piovides infoinalion,
opinions, coIIaloialion, and ieconnendalions lo lhe consuIlee
aloul lhe case. The consuIlee is fiee lo accepl and/oi adapl lhe
consuIlanls ieconnendalions.
iv. AppIicalion usuaIIy iequiies a viillen Iellei oi iepoil.
l. ConsuIlee-Cenleied Case ConsuIlalion Iiocess (Daugheily, 1995)
i. The piinaiy goaI is lo heIp lhe consuIlee lo oveicone
shoilconings in voiking vilh a pailicuIai lype oi cIass of cIienls.
ii. The funclion of lhe consuIlanl is lo le noie diieclive in
anaIyizing lhe consuIlees Iack of skiIIs, knovIedge, and lo piovide
lhe liaining oi seIf-expIoialion needed lo heIp lhe consuIlee heIp
lhe cIienl.
iii. The consuIlees expeiience is lhal of one vho is iesponsilIe foi
lhe case, lul vho seeks lo lioaden and eniich lheii undeislanding
and enolionaI nasleiy of lhe case.
iv. In appIicalion, foui lypes of inleivenlion aie used:
1. Lducalion lo heIp vilh Iack of knovIedge.
2. Tiaining lo heIp vilh Iack of skiIIs
3. Suppoil and encouiagenenl lo piovide seIf-confidence.
4. Iiovides an oljeclive peispeclive of lhe case. Aieas lhal
nay cause lhe consuIlee lo Iose lhe oljeclivily aie:
vi.SinpIe idenlificalion vilh lhe cIienl.
1. Tiansfeience vheie lhe consuIlee alliilules enolions and
alliludes lo lhe cIienl.
2. ChaiacleioIogicaI disloilions vheie ninoi disluilances in
lhe consuIlee pievenl lhen fion seeing lhe cIienls case
3. Thene inleifeience is lesl expIained ly lhe consuIlee
expeiiencing lIocking vilh lhe cIienl.
c. The Iiogian-Cenleied Adninislialive ConsuIlalion Iiocess
(Daugheily, 1995)
i. The consuIlanl enleis lhe oiganizalion and consuIls vilh lhe
adninislialoi conceining lhe funclioning of lhe oiganizalion and
nakes ieconnendalions in viiling.
ii. The consuIlanl funclions in lhe ioIe of dala-coIIecloi, aclion-
pIannnei, and connunicaloi lo accuialeIy and cIeaiIy piesenl lhe
findings and ieconnendalions lo lhe adninislialion and ils
iii. The consuIlee usuaIIy iniliales lhe piocess and is lhe peison lhal
lhe consuIlanl piovides vilh lhe ieconnendalions and lhe viillen
iepoil. asicaIIy, lhe consuIlee is lhe piinaiy iesouice foi
infoinalion and lhe ieceivei of vhal lhe consuIlanl disseninales.
iv. The consuIlanl piovides seivices in a viillen foin as
deleinined ly lhe conliacl vilh lhe piincipaI consuIlee.
d. The ConsuIlee-Cenleied Adninislialive ConsuIlalion Iiocess
(Daugheily 1995)
i. The consuIlanl voiks vilh lhe oiganizalions adninislialive-IeveI
peisonneI lo piolIen soIve in peisonnneI nanagenenl oi
inpIenenlalion of oiganizalionaI poIicy.
ii. "The consuIlanl enleis lhe oiganizalion, peifoins ieIalionship-
luiIding aclivilies, sludies lhe sociaI syslen of lhe inslilulion, pIans
an inleivenlions, and inleivenes al lhe individuaI, gioup, oi
oiganialionaI IeveI, and lhen evaIuales and foIIovs up"
(Doughleiy, 1995, p. 261).
iii. asicaIIy, lhe consuIlees lakes lhe infoinalion and
ieconnendalions lhal lhe consuIlanl piovides and appIies, aIleis
oi inpIenenls lhen as lhey see fil.
iv. In lhe appIicalion lvo unique piolIens exisl: 1) vho viII le
incIuded in lhe disseninalion of infoinalion and 2) is lhe fiee
novenenl of lhe consuIlanl in a nonlhiealening nannei.

4. Recenl nodificalions in lhe CapIanian ModeI (Doughleiy, 1995).
a. CoIIaloialion has leen consideied lo conpIenenl consuIlalion goes
leyond consuIlalion in lhal lhe consuIlanl nay inleivene in a hands on
l. Medialion and conciIialoi aie aIso expanded lypes of consuIlalion in
vhich lhe lhiid paily heIps piolIen soIve.
c. LcoIogicaI Ieispeclive is an eneiging lheoiy of nenlaI heaIlh
consuIlalion lhal espouses lhal lhe consuIlanl needs lo le pail of lhe
connunily syslen and iniliale changes lhal viII pioduce an enviionnenl
lhal pionoles nenlaI heaIlh. The focus is on pievenlion (Doughleiy,

5. ehavioiaI ConsuIlalion (Dougheily, 1995)
a. ehavioiaI consuIlalion is nuch Iike olhei foins of consuIlalion vilh
lhe exceplion lhal lhe consuIlanl uses lechniques laken fion lehavioi
lheiapy vilh focus on piolIen soIving using lehavioiaI inleivenlions,
Iike nodeIing, sociaI Ieaining, loken econonies, elc (Dougheily, 1995).
l. Key concepls of lehavioiaI consuIlalion focus on lhe scienlific viev of
lehavioi, lhe infIuences on lehavioi, and lhe piincipIes of lehavioiaI
change (Dougheily, 1995).
c. ehavioiaI consuIlanls use lhe scienlific viev in lhal lhey define a
piolIen, piesciile an inleivenlion and lhen lesl lhe inleivenlion lo see if
oi lo vhal degiee lhe inleivenlion vas successfuI as defined ly lhe iniliaI
piolIen definilion. This scienlific viev oflen Ieads lhe consuIlanl lo use
enpiiicaI lesling of conlioIIed expeiinenls. An exanpIe nighl le lvo
possilIe piolIen soIulions piovided lo lvo diffeienl lul siniIai gioups
conpaied lo a conlioI gioup, lefoie inpIenenling a piogian lhioughoul
a conpany.
d. ehavioiaI consuIlalion Iooks al lhe cuiienl lehaviois and focuses on
vhal changes aie needed in lhose lo aIIeviale lhe piolIen.
e. ehavioiisls considei lehavioi lo foIIov ceilain iuIes and lhal ly
changing lhe consequences of lehaviois, lhe piolIenalic lehaviois can le
changed. The lehavioiisl consuIlanl nay enpIoy ieinfoicenenl,
punishnenl, exlinclion, shaping, oi nodeIing lo change a piolIen
f. ehavioiaI lechnoIogy liaining, lehavioiaI syslen consuIlalion, and
lehavioiaI case consuIlalion aie lhe lhiee foins of lehavioiaI consuIlalion
g. In lehavioiaI lechnoIogy liaining, lhe consuIlanl piovides liaining in
hov lo use lehavioi nodificalion pioceduies oi cognilive-lehavioiaI
appioaches vilhin lhe conlexl of lhe consuIlees enviionnenl.
h. In lehavioiaI syslen consuIlalion lhe lehavioiaI piincipIes aie appIied
lo lhe syslen. The consuIlanl voiks an expeil in appIying lehavioiaI
piincipIes lo lhe syslen lhiough lhe foIIoving lechniques (Daugheily,
i. Syslen definilion vhich Iooks al lolh lhe piocess and lhe
sliucluie of lhe syslen.
ii. Syslen assessnenl vhich incIudes galheiing dala and
deleinining lhe slienglhs and veaknesses of lhe syslen.
iii. Syslen inleivenlion vhich incIudes piioiilizing lhe syslens
needs, specifying lhe lehavioiaI oulcone goaIs, and designing and
inpIenenling inleivenlion piogians.
iv. Syslen evaIualion vhich conceins Iooking al hov nuch of
change can le alliiluled lo lhe inleivenlions and vhal IeveI of
change is expeiienced.
i. In lehavioiaI case consuIlalion lhe consuIlanl piovides diiecl seivices lo
lhe consuIlee in lhe diieclion of inleivenlions and nanagenenl of a cIienl.
The consuIlanl ieIies on veilaI inleiaclion lechniques in vhich lhe
consuIlanl encouiages specific veilaI iesponses oi specific lypes of veilaI
iesponses. These veilaI inleichanges can le cIassified as nessage souice,
nessage conlenl, nessage piocess, and nessage conlioI (Daugheily,
j. ehavioiaI consuIlalion can le chaiacleiized ly lhe foIIoving slages
i. IiolIen idenlificalion slage
ii. IiolIen anaIysis slage
iii. IIan (liealnenl) inpIenenlalion slage
iv. IiolIen (liealnenl) evaIualion

6. SchooI-ased ConsuIlalion (Daugheily, 1995)
a. ConsuIling vilh SchooI Adninislialois nay incIude case consuIlalion,
piogian consuIlalion, oi oiganizalionaI deveIopnenl consuIlalion.
OiganizalionaI deveIopnenl is used lo heIp lhe schooI lo nake changes oi
adaplalions using a syslens appioach. The appioach geneiaIIy foIIovs lhe
geneiic nodeI fiisl piesenled in lhis ieviev (Daugheily, 1995).
l. ConsuIling vilh Teacheis nay incIude enhancing piofessionaI skiIIs
and lo assisl in lhe psychoeducalionaI inleivenlions (Daugheily, 1995).
i. AdIeiian ConsuIlalion is lased on foui assunplions:
1. Sludenls nusl lake iesponsiliIily foi lheii lehavioi.
2. Lncouiagenenl is noie poveifuI lhan piaise.
3. IaiIuie is nol aIvays lhe leacheis fauIl.
4. Affeclive needs of sludenls is an inpoilanl as lhe
cognilive needs of sludenls.
c. InsliuclionaI consuIlalion is used lo inpiove oi liain leacheis in nev
nodeIs foi insliuclion.
d. ConsuIling vilh Iaienls incIude consuIling vilh paienls aloul lheii
chiIdien on an individuaI lasis oi consuIling vilh paienls lhiough
pioviding paienl educalion/liaining (Daugheily, 1995).
e. Iiagnalic issues in SchooI-ased ConsuIlalion incIude (Daugheily,
i. LlhicaI issues, especiaIIy infoined consenl and confidenliaIily.
ii. Tiaining issues especiaIIy lhe Iack of foinaI liaining foi
consuIlalion foi schooI supeivisois.
iii. Woiking vilh olhei schooI-lased consuIlanls incIude lolh lhe
oppoilunily foi coIIaloialion and foi confIicl anong lhe
iv. Unique schooI-lased inleivenlions can incIude such lhings as
leachei suppoil gioups, nedia piogians, and focused piolIen
pievenlion lhenes oi unils.
v. Syslens viev of lhe schooI is a difficuIl one foi lhe schooI lo
inpIenenl as il enlaiIs changes in connunicalion lelveen lhe
hone and lhe schooI.
f. DeveIoping a fianevoik foi pievenlion and inleivenlion.
i. The enpoveinenl nodeI is noie oflen used lo encouiage lhe
leachei lo seek and ansvei piolIens as opposed lo lhe piolIen
soIving nodeI used in olhei lypes of consuIlalion.
ii. Tine consliainls lend lo piovide difficuIlies as lheie is IillIe fiee
line foi paienls and leacheis lo ieceive consuIlalion.
iii. CuIluiaI change invoIves changing lhe cuIluie oi enviionnenl
vilhin and vilhoul lhe schooI selling. This concepl is nol so nuch
a diveisily issue as an enviionnenlaI and oiganizalionaI change.

A. HeIping ModeIs

1. The SkiIIed HeIpei (Ceiaid Lgan)
a. asic Connunicalion SkiIIs (Lgan, 1994)
i. Allending (SOLLR)
1. Iace lhe cIienl SquaieIy.
2. Adopl an Open posluie.
3. Renenlei lo Lean lovaid lhe olhei.
4. Mainlain Lye conlacl.
5. Appeai ReIaxed.
ii. Aclive Iislening
iii. NonveilaI lehavioi as connunicalion
iv. odiIy lehavioi i.e. posluie, lody shifls and gesluies.
v. Voice-ieIaled lehavioi, i.e. lone, pilch, voIune, inlensily.
vii. OlseivalIe aulonalic physioIogicaI iesponses, i.e. liealhing,
fIushing, lIushing, paIeness, pupiI diIalion.
l. IhysicaI chaiacleiislics, i.e. IeveI of filness, heighl, veighl, conpIexion,
i. CeneiaI appeaiance, i.e. giooning, cIolhing choice
c. NonveilaI lehavioi as punclualion
i. Confiining oi iepealing vhal is veilaIIy said.
ii. Denying oi confusing vhal is said veilaIIy.
iii. Slienglhening oi enphasizing vhal is veilaIIy leing said.
iv. ConlioIIing oi ieguIalion veilaI iesponses.
v. VeilaIIy Iislen lo lhe expiessed
1. expeiiences
2. lehaviois
3. affecl
d. Lislen foi and lo lhe conlexl of lhe cIienls Iife.
e. Lislen foi lhe disloilions oi nispeiceplions of seIf lhe cIienl nay have.
f. OlslacIes and disliaclions lo aclive Iislening aie:
i. Inadequale Iislening.
ii. LvaIualive Iislening
iii. IiIleied Iislening
iv. LaleIing used as a fiIlei foi Iislening.
v. Iacl-cenleied ialhei lhan cIienl cenleied Iislening
vi. Reheaising..lhinking aloul vhal you lhe counseIoi viII say
nexl as opposed lo jusl heaiing lhe cIienl.
vii. Synpalhelic Iislening (invoIves feeIing soiiy foi lhe cIienl and
aIIoving lhose feeIings lo pievenl lhe counseIoi fion leing
g. Inleiiupling is a olslacIe vhen il is used lo neel lhe counseIois need,
lul can le usefuI vhen used lo iefocus lhe cIienl oi assuie lhe cIienl of
h. Lnpalhy is lhe aliIily lo diav fion youi ovn expeiiences, enolions
and lehaviois and naking a iesponse lo lhe cIienl lhal indicales an shaied
undeislanding of lhe cIienls expeiiences, enolions, and lehaviois.
i. Seaich foi Coie Messages
j. IeeIings as expiessed in lhe foinuIa slalenenl You feeI..(foIIoved ly
lhe appiopiiale IeveI of inlensily and enolions).
k. Lxpeiiences and lehaviois aie expiessed ly lhe addilion of "lecause" lo
lhe foinuIa slalenenl...You feeI..lecause.
I. Lnpalhy has lo le accuiale as confiined lhoiough lhe cIienls veilaI
and/oi nonveilaI lehaviois.
n. Uses of Lnpalhy
i. uiId lhe ieIalionship.
ii. SlinuIale seIf-expIoialion
iii. Check undeislandings.
iv. Iiovide suppoil.
v. Luliicale connunicalion.
vi. Iocus allenlion.
vii. Resliain lhe heIpei.
viii. Iave lhe vay.
n. Responses lhal Indicale a Iack of Lnpalhy aie:
i. IaiIuie lo iespond al aII.
ii. A queslion
iii. A CIiche
iv. An inleipielalion
v. Advice
vi. Iaiioling
vii. Synpalhy and agieenenl
viii. Iioling
1. Iioles do nol have lo le queslions lhey can le slalenenls
lhal encouiage lhe cIienl lo laIk oi lo cIaiify.
2. Iioles can le inleijeclions lhal heIp lhe cIienl lo focus.
o. Queslions can heIp lhe cIienls lo laIk noie fieeIy and concieleIy.
Queslions shouId foIIov lhese guideIines:
i. Do nol ask lvo nany queslions.
ii. Ask queslions lhal seive lhal seive a puipose.
iii. Ask open-ended queslions lhal heIp cIienls laIk aloul specific
expeiiences, lehaviois and feeIings.
iv. Queslions shouId keep lhe focus on lhe cIienls and lheii
v. Ask queslions lhal heIp cIienls gel inlo lhe slages and sleps of lhe
heIping nodeI.

2. Slages of CounseIing (Lgan, 1994)
a. Slage I: Revieving lhe IiolIen: The goaI is lo heIp lhe cIienls lo
idenlify, expIoie and cIaiify lheii piolIen issues and unused
i. Slep I-A: TeIIing and CIaiifying lhe Sloiy
ii. Slep I-: Idenlifying and ChaIIenging Iind Spols
iii. Slep I-C: Seaiching foi Leveiage (Lgan uses lhe void Ieveiage
nuch Iike olhei lheoiies use lhe void enpoveinenl oi peisonaI
l. Slage II. DeveIoping lhe Iiefeiied Scenaiio: The goaI is lo heIp lhe
cIienls idenlify vhal lhey vanl as oulcones lased on lhe piolIens
silualion and lhe oppoilunilies.
i. Slep II-A: DeveIoping Iiefeiied-Scenaiio possiliIilies
ii. Slep II-: TiansIaling IossiliIilies inlo VialIe CoaIs
iii. Slep II-C: Connilnenl lo a Iiogian of Consliuclive Change
c. Slage III: Deleinining Hov lo Cel Theie: HeIp lhe cIienls lake aclion
lased on vhal lhey have Ieained in counseIing and liansIale lhese
Ieaining inlo slialegies foi acconpIishing goaIs.
i. Slep III-A: iainsloining Slialegies foi Aclion
ii. Slep III-: Choosing lhe esl Slialegies
iii. Slep III-C: Tuining Slialegies inlo a IIan

3. NaluiaI IiolIen Managenenl Iiocess fion lhe CIienls Ioinl of Viev (Lgan,
a. Avaie of concein, issue, oi sel of issues.
l. Sense of Uigency as lhe silualion lecones incieasingIy unconfoilalIe.
c. Look foi ienedies lo silualion.
d. Lxanine lhe Cosls of puisuing diffeienl soIulions. The cosls can le
enolionaI, physicaI, ieIalionship, and nonelaiy.
e. Weighing of choices lo evaIuale lhe cosl of lhe laking aclion againsl
f. InleIIecluaI decision is nade in favoi of one of lhe choices and lhe aclion
g. The heail joins lhe head oi lhe enolions cone inlo Iine vilh lhe
cognilive decision.

4. HeIping Iiocess VaIues (Lgan, 1994)
a. Iiagnalisn oi using vhal viII voik in lhe counseIing piocess.
l. Mainlain a ieaI Iife focus.
c. Slay fIexilIe
d. DeveIop a lias lovaid aclion.
e. Do OnIy vhal is necessaiy
f. e ieaIislic.
g. Conpelence is lhe heIpeis aliIily lo add lhe cIienls piogian of change
and Iife.
h. econe good al heIping.
i. Conlinue lo Ieain.
j. Iiaclice vhal you pieach.
k. e asseilive
I. Iind conpelence, nol in lehavioi, lul in oulcones.
n. Respecl
n. Undeislanding and vaIuing diveisily.
o. Undeislanding and vaIuing lhe individuaI
p. Do no hain.
q. Appieciale hov peopIe aie diffeienl.
i. Tieal cIienls as individuaIs.
s. Suspend judgnenl.
l. Make il cIeai lhal you aie on lhe cIienls side.
u. e avaiIalIe.
v. Assune lhe cIienls goodviII.
v. e vain vilhin ieason.
x. Keep lhe cIienls agenda in focus.
y. HeIp cIienl lhiough lhe pain.
z. Cenuineness
aa. Do nol oveienphasize lhe heIping ioIe.
ll. e sponlaneous
cc. Avoid defensiveness.
dd. e open

5. CIienl SeIf-ResponsiliIily
a. Slail vilh lhe pienise lhal cIienls can change if lhey choose.
l. HeIp cIienls see counseIing sessions as voik sessions.
c. HeIp cIienls discovei and use lheii ovn iesouices.
d. Do nol oveiiale lhe psychoIogicaI fiagiIily of cIienls.
e. HeIp cIienls luin seIf-dissalisfaclion inlo a Ievei foi change.
f. ReconciIing SeIf-ResponsiliIily and sociaI infIuence
g. Use a pailicipalive ialhei lhan a diieclive nodeI foi heIping.
h. HeIp cIienls discovei and use lhe povei lhal lhey have.
i. heIping as a naluiaI, lvo-vay infIuence piocess.
j. econe a consuIlanl lo cIienls
k. Denocialize lhe heIping piocess.

6. MicioskiIIs Hieiaichy (AIIen Ivey)
a. Allending lehavioi neans lhal lhe counseIoi is using cuIluiaIIy and
individuaIIy appiopiiale (Ivey, 1994):
i. eye conlacl (Iook al lhe cIienl)
ii. lody Ianguage (face squaieIy, Iean foivaid sIighlIy, have a
pIeasnal expiession, use faciIilalive gesluies)
iii. vocaI quaIilies (lone and speech iale indicaling a posilive
allilude lovaid cIienl)
iv. veilaI liacking skiIIs (keeping lo lhe lopic lhal lhe cIienl
l. Open and cIosed queslions (Ivey, 1994)
i. Queslions heIp legin lhe inleiviev
ii. Open queslions heIp eIaloiale and eniich lhe inleiviev
iii. Queslions heIp liing oul conciele specifics of lhe cIienls voiId
iv. Queslions aie ciilicaI in lhe diagnosis and assessnenl of a
v. Iiisl void of open queslions nany lines vilh iesuIl in
piediclalIe oulcones.
vi. Whal Ieads lo facls
vii. Hov Ieads lo discussion of piocesses and sequences.
viii. Why Ieads lo discussion of ieasons.
ix. CouId Ieads lo oflen Ieads lo a shoil ansvei."no".
x. Queslions have ceilain polenliaI piolIens
1. onlaidnenl/giiIIing
2. MuIlipIe queslions oi a seiies of queslions al once.
3. Queslions lhal aie slalenenls of opinion of lhe counseIoi.
4. CuIluiaI diffeiences sonelines nakes queslions
xi. Why queslions nake peopIe defensive
1. Queslions used lo conlioI
xii. Queslions can le used lo noniloi lhe confoil and pace of lhe
c. CIienl olseivalion skiIIs (Ivey, 1994)
i. NonveilaI lehavioi
ii. VeilaI lehavioi
iii. Disciepancies
d. Lncouiaging, Iaiaphasing and sunnaiizalion (Ivey, 1994)
i. Lncouiageis aie lhose gesluies, connenls, oi nonveilaI gesluies
lhal pionpl lhe cIienl lo conlinue laIking.
ii. Iaiaphiases is using lhe cIienls void and youi ovn lo soilen oi
cIaiify lhe cIienls connenls.
iii. Sunnaiizalions aie used lo heIp lhe cIienl oiganize lheii
e. RefIeclions of feeIing (Ivey, 1994)

7. Iive-slage inleiviev sliucluie (Ivey, 1994)
a. Rappoil/sliucluiing
l. Defining lhe piolIen
c. Defining a goaI
d. LxpIoialion of aIleinalives and confionling incongiuily
e. CeneiaIizalion lo daiIy Iife.

8. Confionlalion (Ivey, 1994)
a. Idenlify incgiuilies and nixed nessages.
l. Woik lovaid lhe iesoIulion of incongiuily and nixed nessages
c. LvaIualing lhe change piocess

9. Iocusing (Ivey, 1994)
a. Iocus on lhe cIienl
l. Iocus on lhe nain lhene oi piolIen.
c. Iocus on olheis.
d. Iocus on nuluaI issues oi gioup.
e. Iocus on inleivievei.
f. Iocus on cuIluiaI/enviionnenlaI/conlexluaI issues.
1O. RefIeclion of Meaning (Ivey, 1994)
a. InfIuencing skiIIs and slialegies (Ivey, 1994)
l. DeveIopnenlaI queslioning skiIIs (heIps lhe cIienl discuss lheii issues
fion diffeienl cognilive/enolionaI oiienlalions)
c. Diieclives (lhe inleivievei cIeaiIy indicales vhal lhey vanl lhe cIienl lo
d. LogicaI consequences (aie lhe piolalIy iesuIls of a cIienls aclions.)
e. Inleipielalion/iefiane (gives lhe cIienl anolhei poinl of viev lo a Iife
f. SeIf-discIosuie (shaiing of lhoughls and feeIing lelveen cIienl and
g. Advice/infoinalion/expIanalion/insliuclion (gives infoinalion lo lhe
h. Ieedlack (gives lhe cIienl accuiale dala on hov lhe counseIoi oi olheis
nay viev lhe cIienl)

. The IaciIilalive ModeI (Willnei & Myiick)

1. CuideIines foi effeclive Iislening (Willnei & Myiick, 198O):
a. Look diieclIy al lhe peison vho is speaking.
l. Avoid leing pieoccupied vilh youi von lhoughls.
c. Lislen lo noie lhal jusl vhal is leing spoken.
d. Indicaled lhal you aie Iislening and foIIoving lhe conveisalion and liy
lo keep lhe peison laIking.
e. Do nol evaIuale oi judge a peison.

2. IaciIilalive Responses (Willnei & Myiick, 198O) fion lhe Iovesl ianked
iesponses lo lhe highesl ianked iesponses:
a. Advising oi LvaIualing
i. Advising iesponses leII a peison vhal lhey shouId do in lhe vay
of feeIing oi lehaving.
ii. LvaIualing slalenenls convey lhe coiieclness oi Iack of
coiieclness of a lehavioi oi feeIing.
l. AnaIyzing and Inleipieling
i. These iesponses have lhe inlenlion of expIaining lehaviois oi
feeIings. They nay aIso liy lo connecl one evenl vilh anolhei so as
lo give insighls, lo leach, oi lo liing speciaI neanings inlo focus.
The iesponses inpIy vhal lhe cIienl shouId lhink oi do.
c. Reassuiing and Suppoiling
i. WhiIe lhe inlenlion is lo indicale lo lhe cIienl a leIief in his/hei
aliIily lo soIve lhe piolIen, lhe iesponse can aIso inpIy lhal lhe
cIienl shouId nol feeI as he/she does feeI. These iesponses lend lo
disniss lhe cIienl's feeIings and indicale a Iack of concein on lhe
pail of lhe counseIoi.
d. Queslioning
i. A queslion seeks noie infoinalion, piovokes fuilhei discussion,
oi queiies an individuaI aloul a specific nallei. SeveiaI lypes of
queslions aie consideied in lhis iesponse calegoiy.
1. Leasl Ieison-Cenleied Queslions aie lhose lhal can le
painfuI oi lhiealening naking lhe individuaI feeI
inadequale. These queslions can puII lhe focus avay fion
lhe concein al hand.
2. inding Queslion is one lhal is asked in such a vay lhal
lheie is no aIleinalive lo ansveis.
3. SoIiciling Agieenenl Queslion suggesls lhal one ansvei
vouId nol piovoke an aigunenl oi disagieenenl.
4. Ioiced Choice Queslion is one lhal usuaIIy conlains an
"eilhei-oi" slalenenl and foices lhe iespondenl lo choose.
5. DoulIe ind Queslion piovides vilhin ilseIf a judgnenl of
lhe cIienl no nallei hov lhe cIienl iesponds lo lhe queslion.
6. "Why" queslion Iacks sensilivily and inlinidales lhe cIienl.
7. Mosl peison-cenleied queslion keeps lhe focus on lhe
cIienl and soIicils connunicalion in iesponse lo lhe
counseIoi's inleiesl.
8. Open queslions encouiages lhe cIienl lo laIk fieeIy.
9. The cIosed queslion usuaIIy iequiies a yes oi no ansvei.
e. CIaiifying and Sunnaiizing
i. A cIaiifying iesponse indicales a desiie lo le accuiale in lhe
ii.. A sunnaiizing iesponse heIps focus lhe cIienl and indicales
lhal lhe counseIoi is accuialeIy heaiing vhal lhe cIienl has said.
f. RefIecling and Undeislanding of IeeIing
i. This iesponse conveys an accuiale peiceplion on lhe counseIoi's
pail of lhe cIienl's enolionaI expeiience.

3. Six IaciIilalive Condilions (Myiick, 1987)
a. Caiing
l. Undeislanding
c. Acceplance
d. Respecl
e. IiiendIiness
f. Tiuslvoilhiness

4. Slages of CounseIing (Myiick, 1987)
a. Slage One: eginning and Oiienlalion vhich is chaiacleiized ly gelling
acquainled, coIIecling lackgiound dala, eslalIishing iappoil, defining
ioIes and expeclalions, iniliaI assessnenls, and selling counseIing goaIs.
l. Slage Tvo: uiIding lhe ReIalionship and Assessnenl
i. IoinaI assessnenls usuaIIy aie slandaidized evaIualion
ii. InfoinaI assessnenl aie lhe counseIoi's olseivalions and lhe
counseIoi's inpiessions of lhe cIienl. InfoinaI assessnenl incIudes
olseivalions in lhe foIIoving aieas:
1. IhysicaI
2. SociaI
3. Cognilive
4. CuIluiaI
5. Hisloiy
6 Iuluie Ieispeclive
7. Iiesenling IiolIen
c. Slage Thiee: LxpIoiing and Discoveiy is lhe slage vhich is consideied
lhe voiking slage.
d. Slage Ioui: Cenleiing and Selling CoaIs is a line lo deleinine and
eslalIish lhe a cIeai picluie of vhal lhe cIienl vishes.
e. Slage Iive: IIanning and Taking Aclion is defining lhe sleps and skiIIs
needed lo acconpIish lhe goaI/desiie of lhe cIienl.
f. Slage Six: CoIIecling Dala and lhe Inleiin lhe aclion pIan is
inpIenenled and piogiess is noniloied vilh adjuslnenls as needed.
g. Slage Seven: IoIIov-up and LvaIualion is a ieviev of acconpIishnenls,
assessnenl of piogiess, and vhelhei lheie aie nev goaIs.
h. Slage Lighl: CIosing and Sepaialion is lasicaIIy a line lo say good lye
and ieviev vhal has leen Ieained.

5. Syslenalic IiolIen-SoIving ModeI (Myiick, 1987)
a. Whal is lhe piolIen oi silualion`
l. Whal have you liied`
c. Whal eIse couId you do`
d. Whal is you i nexl slep`

6. Conlingency Conliacl (Myiick, 1987)
a. IiolIen defined and slaled in lehavioiaI leins.
l. The conliacl shouId le cIeai, expIicilIy slaled, faii, and honesl.
c. SnaII sleps vilh fiequenl ievaids lovaid finaI desiialIe lehavioi.
d. Revaids nusl le agieed upon and given innedialeIy foIIoving lhe
conpIelion of lhe lehavioi. lhe ievaids nusl le seen as ievaiding ly lhe
e. Syslenalic noniloiing and foIIov lhiough aie inpoilanl.
f. Iocus is on lhe acconpIishnenl nol on lhe faiIuies.

A. HeIping SpeciaI IopuIalions

1. Sulslance Aluseis aie consideied lo le aluseis vhen lhey use any sulslance
lo lhe exlenl lhal il causes oi lhiealens danage lo lhe individuaI oi sociely oi
lolh. AIcohoIics aie individuaIs vho can no Iongei conlioI lhe inlake of aIcohoI
oi slop diinking foi any appiecialIe peiiod of line. The counseIois ioIe incIudes
(Cilson & MilcheII, 1995):
a. Iievenlion, inleivenlion and ciisis liealnenl.
i. SpeciaIized liaining in phainacoIogicaI, physioIogicaI,
psychoIogicaI and sociocuIluiaI aspecls of addiclion.
ii. Uses lolh gioup and individuaI counseIing lechniques.
iii. Woiking vilh lolh foinaI and infoinaI liealnenl leans.

2. Wonen (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. WhiIe vonen have nade piogiess lovaid IegaI equaIily, evidence sliII
indicales a Iack of appIicalion and enfoicenenl of such IegisIalion.
l. Mosl connon sex ioIe sleieolypes incIude:
c. Wonen aie noie easiIy duped lhan nen.
d. Wonen have Iovei seIf-esleen.
e. Wonen aie lellei al iole Ieaining and iepelilive lasks, vhiIe nen aie
lellei al highei Ieaining cognilive piocessing and lhe inhililion of
pieviousIy Ieained iesponses.
f. Men aie noie anaIylic.
g. Wonen aie affecled ly heiedily, vhiIe nen aie affecled ly
h. Wonen Iack achievenenl nolivalion.
i. Wonen aie noie feaifuI, linid, and anxious.
j. Wonen aie passive and nen aie aclive.
k. Wonen aie Iess conpelilive.
I. Wonen aie noie conpIianl.
n. Wonen aie noie nuiluiing.
n. Wonen aie noie enolionaI.
o. Wonen aie Iess aggiessive lhan nen.
p. Wonen aie lellei al veilaI aliIily. Men aie lellei al nalhenalicaI
q. CuideIines foi nonsexisl counseIing incIude:
i. e avaie of ones ovn vaIues.
s. ReaIize lhal lheie aie no piesciiled sex-ioIe lehaviois.
l. ReveisaIs of liadilionaI sex-ioIes is nol palhoIogicaI.
u. Maiiiage is nol a lellei oulcone of lheiapy foi a fenaIe lhan foi a naIe.
v. Wonen can le as aulononous and asseilive as nen, and nen, can le
expiessive and lendei as vonen.
v. AnalonicaI diffeiences aie nol a lasis foi lheoiies of lehavioi.
x. IaiIuie lo achieve cuIluiaIIy piesciiled sex-ioIe lehaviois is nol a lasis
foi diagnosis.
y. Tesling insliunenls lhal aie sexuaIIy liased aie nol used.

3. Llhnic Cioups and Cioss-CuIluiaI CounseIing (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. Many cuIluiaIIy diffeienl popuIalions do nol vish lo le accuIluialed
and Iose lheii cuIluiaI idenlily.
l. Nondiieclive counseIing lechniques and ioIe of lhe counseIoi is
inconsislenl vilh lhe expeclalions and vaIues of sone ninoiily gioups.
c. IaiIuie and ineffecliveness in lhe Iileialuie have leen found lo exisl in
lhe foIIoving aieas foi ninoiily cIienls:
d. ecause nosl assessnenl insliunenls aie cuIluiaIIy liased and
diagnoslicians aie nol geneiaIIy fion a ninoiily gioup, ninoiily cIienls
aie diagnosed as having noie seveie nenlaI iIInesses and lhan aie vhile
e. As opposed lo lhe vhile popuIalion, lhe ninoiily popuIalion lends lo
use nenlaI heaIlh seivices onIy in lhe nosl exliene ciicunslances, vhich
giealIy skevs lhe slalislics aloul peisons using nenlaI heaIlh seivices.
f. Minoiily cIienls lend lo diop oul of liealnenl vilhin lhe fiisl six session,
lhe ieason foi lhis is unknovn lul specuIalion is lhal lhey nay eilhei le
Iess nolivaled oi lhey nay nol peiceived lhe seivices as heIping.
g. Definile diffeiences have leen noled vlelveen Iack and While cIienls
vilh lhe Iack cIienls ieceiving noie punilive lheiapies, i.e. sliongei
nedicalions, iesliainls, secIusion.
h. Minoiily gioup alliludes conceining souices of nenlaI iIIness is
naikedIy diffeienl .i.e. oiganic, inheiiled iIInesses.
i. Iev liained lheiapisls in vhon lhe ninoiily cIienl can feeI confoilalIe
and shaie cuIluiaI idenlily.
j. Minoiily cIienls aie oflen nispeiceived ly lhe counseIoi as lecause of
diffeiences in cuIluiaIIy defined nonveilaI connunicalion.
k. CounseIing nay le vieved ly lhe ninoiily cIienl as a conlioI device
foicing lhen avay fion lheii cuIluiaI lehavioi and lovaid a While
I. In oidei lo heIp lhe ninoiily cIienl, Iedeisen (1988) ieconnends
avaieness in lhe foIIoving aieas.
n. aliIily lo iecognize diiecl and indiiecl connunicalion slyIes,
n. sensilivily lo nonveilaI cues,
o. avaieness of cuIluiaI and Iinguislic diffeiences,
p. inleiesl in lhe cuIluie,
q. sensilivily lo lhe nylhs and sleieolypes of lhe cuIluie,
i. concein foi lhe veIfaie of peisons fion anolhei cuIluie,
s. aliIily lo ailicuIale eIenenls of his oi hei ovn cuIluie,
l. appiecialion of lhe inpoilance of nuIlicuIluiaI leaching,
u. avaieness of lhe ieIalionships lelveen cuIluiaI gioups, and
v. accuiale ciileiia foi oljecliveIy judging "goodness" and "ladness" in lhe
olhei cuIluie. (p. 9)
v. ased on Sues voik, Cilson and MilcheII (1995) suggesls lhal lhe
cuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIoi has lhese chaiacleiislics:
i. CuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIois undeisland lheii ovn vaIues and
assunplions of hunan lehavioi and iecognize lhal lhose heId ly
olheis nay diffei.
ii. CuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIois ieaIize lhal "no lheoiy of
counseIing is poIilicaIIy oi noiaIIy neuliaI."
iii. CuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIois undeisland lhal exleinaI
sociopoIilicaI foices nay have infIuenced and shaped cuIluiaIIy
diffeienl gioups.
iv. CuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIois aie alIe lo shaie lhe voiId-viev
of lheii cIienls ialhei lhan leing cuIluiaIIy encapsuIaled.
v. CuIluiaIIy effeclive counseIois aie liuIy ecIeclic in lheii
counseIing, using counseIing skiIIs lecause of lheii appiopiialeness
lo lhe expeiiences and IifeslyIes of lhe cuIluiaIIy diffeienl (p. 165-

4. OIdei AduIls (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. IhysicaI needs seen lo le nosl olvious, lul noie pulIic educalion
needs lo le piovided aloul lhe counseIing needs of lhe oIdei aduIl.
l. Lach connunily has an oIdei aduIl popuIalion vilh oIdei aduIls
lending lo le giouped in specific aieas, vhich suggesl lhal each
connunily needs lo idenlify lhe geogiaphicaI aiea iepiesenling lhe
concenlialion of oIdei aduIls.
c. ecause lheie aie noie oIdei fenaIes lhan naIes, counseIois need lo le
liained lo handIe piolIens unique lo lhe oIdei fenaIe, lul enphasis
needs lo le pIaced aIso on lhe oIdei naIe as he nay lecone a ninoiily
vilhin ninoiily.
d. Of speciaI inleiesls aie seivices foi lhe oIdei aduIls Iiving aIone lhal
piovides oppoilunilies lo neel olheis and foi conpanionship.
e. Iixed incones neans lhal oIdei aduIls viII need noie pulIic lhan
piivale fee seivices.
f. Lxisling counseIing seivices in enpIoynenl seivice and vocalionaI
iehaliIilalion nay need lo le expanded lo incIude seivices foi aging
g. WhiIe nosl of lhe oIdei aduIls viII le alIe lo liaveI lo ieceived seivices,
lianspoilalion, hone deIiveiies, honelound and hunan oi nechanicaI
aid needs lo le consideied in pioviding seivices.
h. The age lo vhich oIdei peisons can expecl lo Iive is giealei lhan lhal of
lhose jusl loin oi lhe geneiaI popuIalion, lheiefoie, counseIois need lo
heIp lhen pIan foi lhe fuluie vilh lellei dala oi nosl iecenl dala on Iife
i. Denogiaphics foi sludy need lo lake in consideialion lhe gendei and
lhe iace of lhe peison, as condilions nay vaiy giealIy in lhese lvo aieas.
j. IndividuaI uniqueness is nuch noie a consideialion in lhe oIdei aduIls.
As an exanpIe no vheie eIse in lhe popuIalion does lhe counseIoi find
lhal naiilaI counseIing nay need lo le foi lhe coupIe naiiied ovei 6O
yeais as veII as foi nevIyveds.
k. CounseIois need lo le sociaI aclivisls againsl ageisn lhal pievenls lhe
oIdei aduIl fion ieceiving adequale nenlaI heaIlh caie.
I. Specific deveIopnenlaI poinls of ciisis aie:
i. Reliienenl
ii. Loss of spouse
iii. IhysicaI and nenlaI decIine
iv. IinanciaI secuiily decIine
v. DecIine in noliIily
n. CounseIoi need lo le avaie of lhe foIIoving in voiking vilh lhe oIdei
i. The Iiving enviionnenl of lhe oIdei aduIl
ii. IsychoIogicaI faclois of anxiely, Ioss, and inleipeisonaI sliuggIes
iii. Need lo luiId a liusling ieIalionship
iv.cAdapl counseIing lechniques lo conceins of oIdei aduIls.
n. The counseIois goaI is lo heIp lhe oIdei aduIl lo find nev neaning and
ioIes in Iife.

5. usiness and Indusliy (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. LnpIoyee Assislance Iiogians (LAIs) usuaIIy aie eilhei in house oi
conliacled piogians lo piovide nenlaI heaIlh caie lo enpIoyees. LAIs
usuaIIy focus nainIy on addiclions, hovevei, lhey nay aIso piovide
psychoIogicaI, faniIy , IegaI and financiaI assislance.
l. The essenliaI conponenls foi an LAI incIudes lhese:
i. Ciisis and eaiIy inleivenlion
ii. RefeiiaI syslen lhal incIudes seIf, peei and supeivisoiy iefeiiaIs
iii. LasiIy accessilIe seivices lhal aie confidenliaI
iv. Suppoil fion nanagenenl, Ieadeiship and union.
v. Infoined consenl lo aII pailicipanls
vi. Insuiance invoIvenenl
vii. Woik evaIualion is nol effecled ly liealnenl evaIualion
viii. The slaff is nade up of liained heIping piofessionaIs
ix. The seivices offeied aie a vide vaiiely
x. Seivices aie foIIoved up and evaIualed.

6. AIDS Ialienls (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. CounseIois need lo le avaie of:
i. IsoIalion and aIienalion of cIienl
ii. Diop in seIf-esleen
iii. DeniaI as a coping slialegy
iv. The counseIoi iisks ovei idenlificalion and peisonaIizalion of
lhe cIienl.
l. Seivices lo high-iisk gioups incIudes:
i. Assessnenl of iisk
ii. Lducalion aloul disease, iisk lehaviois, and safe sex.
iii. Leaining and conlinuing nev lehaviois
iv. The oljeclives of lhe psychoIogicaI inleivenlions incIude:
v. HeIp lhe individuaI lo ieconciIe lhe diagnosis and ils neaning
vi. Lncouiage lhe inpiovenenl in quaIily of Iife.
vii. Lncouiage lhe peison lo lake noie conlioI of lheii Iife and lheii
viii. Iiovide enolionaI and piaclicaI suppoil as needed ly lhe

7. Aluse Viclins (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. SpousaI aluse has leen associaled vilh poveily, sulslance aluse and
caieei disappoinlnenls. The nosl used inleivenlion is ciisis holIines and
sheIleis, vhich Iess lhan haIf have enpIoyed liained heIping
l. SexuaI aluse slalislics indicale:
c. 8 lo 38 of vonen and 5 lo 9 nen in lhe U.S. have leen sexuaIIy
d. SexuaI aluse is iepoiled as an inleinalionaI concein, aIlhough exacl
slalislics aie nol avaiIalIe.
e. MaIe peipelialois aie nosl connon vilh 95 of lhe vonen and 8O of
lhe nen leing alused ly naIes.
f. SexuaI aluse is consideied lo le hainfuI.
g. The nosl connon age foi aluse is 8 lo 12 yeais of age.
h. Slep falheis aie noie IikeIy lo incesl daughleis lhan aie lioIogicaI
falheis, aIlhough olhei faniIy nenleis nay le offendeis
i. Wonen aie noie IikeIy lo le viclinized ly peisons vilhin lhe faniIy.
j. Men aie noie IikeIy lo le alused ly peisons oulside lhe faniIy.
k. CounseIois vho voik vilh aluse viclins need lo have speciaI skiIIs in
individuaI, gioup, ciisis, shoil-lein, and faniIy lheiapy. SpeciaI
knovIedge of hov lo voik vilh lhe guiIl, sligna, feai, and ITSD is
I. The enolionaI effecls of chiId sexuaI aluse nay iesuIl in lhe foIIoving:
i. Loss of chiIdhood
ii. CuiIl
iii. Lov seIf-esleen
iv. Ieai
v. Confusion
vi. Depiession
vii. Angei
viii. Lov liusl IeveI
ix. HeIpIess
x. AIleied alliludes lovaid sexuaIily
8. Cays and Leslians (Cilson & MilcheII, 1995)
a. ecause of lhe conlioveisy lhal exisls in lhe ieseaich, ieconnended
guideIines foi counseIing lhis speciaI popuIalion ienains confusing.
l. Majoi conceins lhal aie faced ly gay and Ieslian cIienls , vhiIe nol
unique lo lhen, incIude:
i. SociaI piejudice
ii. IaniIy confIicls
iii. RidicuIe and iejeclion fion peeis
iv. HeaIlh conceins, especiaIIy AIDS
c. Suggesled lechniques lo enpIoy lo heIp lhe gay and Ieslian cIienl deaI
IifeslyIe conceins aie:
i. Cognilive appioaches nay le used lo oveicone negalive
lhinking and seIf-laIk.
ii. Lnply chaii nay le used lo expiess anlivaIence and confusion.
iii. Ieninisl appioaches nay heIp vilh enpoveinenl and
exaninalion of ioIes.
iv. ilIiolheiapy nay le used lo heIp define a heaIlhy gay oi
Ieslian IifeslyIe and piovide ioIe nodeIs.
v. IaniIy/syslens lheiapy used lo voik on ieIalionship issues.
vi. Cioup lheiapy nay le used lo heIp vilh aIienalion.
vii. Cioss-cuIluiaI appioaches nay le inpoilanl lo cuIluiaIIy
diveisily in lhe gay and Ieslian connunily.