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TA: Zara Tabi (ztabi@ucsd.edu) BICD 120: Dr.

Schmidt
AIM: ztabi06 Week 3
OH: By email Appt.
Plant Diversity & Life Cycles
You won’t be asked to draw the detailed life cycles of the plants described in
lecture, but do study the diagrams and try to understand what is happening,
familiarize yourselves with important vocabulary, and more importantly the key
concepts. Chlamydomonas p. 331, Uvula p. 335, Moss p. 362-363, Fern
396-397, Angiosperm p. 448-449

Alteration of generations:

• Describes how the life cycles between ___________________________________ of a


plant (NOT an individual organism!) alternate between a ______________________(n)
phase and a _____________________ (2n) phase  The haploid generation gives rise
to the diploid stage, and the diploid stage gives rise to the haploid stage.

• KEY WORDS:
- ___________________________________- The diploid (2n) form of a plant. They
produce
haploid _______________________ through _____________________________.
• _________________________________- Structure that produces spores
- ___________________________________- The haploid (n) form of a plant. They
produce
haploid ________________________ through MITOSIS.
• ____________________________ - Structure where gametes are produced.
Can form female/+ (Archegonia) or male/- (Antheridium)
gametes
• Depending on the type of organism, Alternation of generations can be:
- __________________________________- Sporophyte and gametophyte have
_____________ forms, with one form dominant:
1) Chlamydomonas  3) Pterophytes (Ferns) 
__________________________ ______________________
2) Bryophytes (Mosses) 4) Angiosperms? 
__________________________ _________________________
* Sometimes one stage is dependent on the other!

- _____________________________- Sporophyte and Gametophyte are


______________ in appearance
• Ex. Uvula/Sea Lettuce
• Why? 1) Get rid of _____________________________ mutations
2) Increase _______________________________________

The Move from Water to Land & Success of the Angiosperms


• Plant ancestors (Chlamydomonas, uvula) and early non-vascular plants
(_________________________________) relied on H2O source for metabolic needs
(Photosynthesis, etc.) and fertilization (used ________________ _________________) 
Limited their size and where they can live.

• Early Vascular plants (____________________________________) later evolved systems
of water transport
 can grow bigger, taller structures and grow in drier soil, but still had
__________________________, so still relied on H2O for fertilization

• Vascular plants evolved further (_____________________ and
_______________________) with the use of wind/animal dispersed
________________________ and ________________________
 NO need for H2O in fertilization, can live in a greater variety of places

• Angiosperms developed extra features that gave them an advantage over other
plants
________________________________: Sperm fertilizes BOTH egg (n) and polar
nuclei (2n) to produce:
- 2n ____________________________  Plant embryo
- 3n ______________________________  source of nutrients for plant

Plant Genetics and Inheritance


• Classic Mendelian Inheritance
- Result of cross does NOT change, regardless of sex
• Usually occurs with ______________________ traits  derived from DNA
found in nucleus
- Ex. Mendel’s work with pea traits (round, wrinkled, etc.)

GENETICS ISN’T ALWAYS THIS SIMPLE!

Plasmid Inheritance— Involves genes/components present in plastids


• Usually _____________________________  Traits passed down from ONE parent only
- In Angiosperms, female passes on it’s _______________________ (chloroplast)
to the next generation  WHY?
• _________________________________ (egg cell) responsible for providing a
majority of the embryo’s __________________________________
content.
_______________________________________ (sperm) simply provides its DNA.
• As a result, ____________________________ progeny will inherit mother’s
plastid traits (proteins, pigments, DNA, etc.)
• _____________________________  BOTH parents contribute to traits of progeny

- Ex. Varigated leaves, white/albino plants:


Male x Female Progeny
Green x White White
White x Green
Green x Varigated
White x Varigated
Varigated x Green
Varigated x White

• In ___________________________, can still observe maternal (+ type) inheritance


- Only (+) type chloroplast DNA able to be___________________________ 
protects from being degraded, while (–) type DNA is destroyed
• Some important chloroplast proteins are encoded by DNA in BOTH the
________________ and __________________
- Ex. RUBISCO, ATP Synthase, Ribosomes
- ____________________________ of plastid genome and nuclear genome
complicate breeding of different species
• Leads to __________________________ or defective proteins  sickly,
unhealthy hybrids

Quantitative traits- Traits that are controlled by


______________________________________________
- Don’t see __________________ phenotypes
• Distribution of phenotypes can be described with a
___________________
 continuous distribution
- Ex. Yield, Flowing time, Height, etc.