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TA:ZaraTabi(ztabi@uesdedu) BICD Schmidt

120;Dr.
OH:Byemail
AIM:ztabi06 ApPt. Week
3
CropDomesticationandPolvploidv
of
- Domestication crops
today's of
a consequence
mainly

traitsgaveusdifferent
fordifferent
oleracea-selecting
Ex.Brassica varieties
ofveggies!

- Polyploidy-
Containing set
ofchromosome
. Results
inincrease
of
(flowerc,
seeds, etc.)
stems,
. Plants
with ploidyaresterile
.Chromosomesunableto-duringmeiosis)non-viab|egametes
- Carbon I sincedon'tproduce
allocation seeds, inotherpartsoftheplant
canuseresources
. ex.Sugarbeets
(3n)
Triploids
- Obtaining
1) ) VeryRARE!
of
2)Combination (4n)gametes [n+ 2n= 3n]

(an)-TWO
Tetraploids
- Obtaining WAYS;
1) - Tetraploid fromchromosomes
created of
means
byartificial
- Canoccur
- Poisonthatinterferes formation
withmicrotubule
2rr duringmeiosis

l
mei0sis fFr yneiosis
I =4 L
\r)
\i/
----+

\_rl_/
- Tetraploid formchromosomes
created of
et(.tdtrcale(r^,ntat
* {c) Chr}mosone*
X rn 6ornecodrcs,
(n)
urheat x nAeun) MAUyvlotcyl
, but becnase6Pc{esart-
" 2 n = l4 infrons +
Jy1= ),8 ffne placewerlt,
dtg7ar1911r,
exbns n4a{ dip( -> cawtot (n$c*I
N ?rupertg!
It{ + + + cor4.vlot
, Chrormosovuei
Ftgpvia
SteviJe
^ Cntfi ; Poir PwPerr[
Co\ c h i c i nIC
J
LB i lt'l + \rr, all,olcraPtoid;
fanrc-
PlantTransposableElements (akaTransposons)-The"JumpingGenes!"
- Pieces
of DNAcapableof (transposing) inthegenome
around
- Makesuplargepartofplantgenome(50-80%)
andis responsible
for

Twodifferent
tvoes:
1) .-"Copy
andPaste"
- Usesenzyme andRNAintermediate
to
dupIicate
itself
to*n.j,,t1f',|lfj,0.}:
2)
- Usesenzyme tocutitselfoutandmovetootherpartsofgenome

[Youdon'tneedtomemorize families
of transposon
allofthedifferenttypes orhowbigtheyare- Understand,
though,
thatthereAREdifferenttransposon withdifferenf
varieties s2esandactivities.l

Mechanism
Basic
oftengiveriseto
elements
-Transposable phenotypes
) Alternate
between
a
and phenotype

M tgurplt)
aed;nomat6erreltncltont.

,a aft(r
fene
ddre;torcd

.
tr46965on
ercfsioYl-
I
|
:+
,,-.
(
\g
C)
-

bi6gerAveaa{ Co(nt
w
= eulte/L l,(dtAqcso4
ruiloval'.
Transposon
Common features
haveboth
1)Allfamilies and elements
- Autonomous- ableto {an codeforitsowntransposase
- Non-Autonomous- cannotmoveonitsown-dependant on
fortransposing
. Cannot properly
codeforitsown
) dueto (deletion
derivative)
. lf noautonomous element willremain
available,
& willbe from
indistinguishable othermutants
- Willbeableto moveagainif crossedwithplantthatcontained
anautonomous
elementinsamefamily
2) Have (TlRs)
atends

ri B) tronsPosase ( rl P

J C A (16 cccrc- a'


6 rccc --66G^C S,

family
ontransposon
- Sizedepends
recognizes
these
sitestocuttransposon
out
. Stabilizes whenhansposon
structure iscutout

3)Cause (TSD)wherever
theygetinserted!
+rAnsposase
cutshere
/48Crfl,n I
) se^r(
t-->#

!" o :
I
... AI T C A 6 T 6 A L .-.- Ac T -
- . - T A e ' f tIc A C t 6 - . - .
...4 fca
u TCA 6 ....
-_

--.r A 6T )sen( A 6T c A C - T..

A T CA T CA ( ) r 6 ,4 _ ._
T 46TA 6T cA c r---
-G
- Amount specific
ofduplication families
fordifferent
- WhenTransposoniscutout,TSDis
. Provides
geneticdiversity
thatmaybebeneficial
orharmful
tohost

Howareplanbabletosurvive thatcanpotentially
withtransposons disruptvitalgenefunction?
- Plants
canhaveactivities
that transposonmovement
- Often
times, endupin
transposons 'Junk"
DNA(introns)thatdonotcodeforanything!

PlantDevelopment & Structure


Regions
-Meristems- of cells) actively dividing!
. capableofdifferentiating
intospecific (leaves,
structures flowers)
. 2 Types:
1)Apical-Found attipsof_ and
- Responsiblefor growth (up anddown)foundinALLtypesof plants
2)Lateral-Foundinthe
- Responsiblefor growth (girth,thickness)
usually
foundin
(woody)plants
- PlantVascular Connecting
System- rootsandshoots
2 Primarv
tissues:
: Water& Mineral
Transport : Sugar
transport
withhighly -+ellwallsNOThighly
cellwallsallowwaterto lignified
travelviacohesion
andadhesion Include
- lnclude
celltypes

- BothTypesoftissuecreated
by

(^;