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1. What are the three major divisions of the brain. Describe the structures of each major division.

(5 points) The three major divisions of the brain are the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. The forebrain is also called the proencephalon and consists of the diencephalon and telencephalon. The midbrain is also called the mesencephalon and the hindbrain consists of the myencephalon and metencephalon. The diencephalon includes the thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus and subthalamus. The epithalamus is primarily responsible for mediating cyclic functions such as sleep and secreting melatonin. The role of the subthalamus includes regulation of movement of skeletal muscles and is a basal ganglion center for such movements. The thalamus is a control center for nerve impulses going to the cerebral cortex and a relay center for motor impulses. The hypothalamus relays impulses to the cerebral cortex for sensory and motor control and for the pituitary gland as well as controls much of our endocrine system to maintain homeostasis and implement behavioral patterns. In general, the diencephalon is a relay center for many impulses going to the cerebral cortex. The largest portion of the brain and the forebrain is the telencephalon that includes the two cerebral hemispheres, the cerebral cortex, the limbic system and part of the basal ganglia. The cerebral cortex is divided into the occipital, parietal frontal and temporal lobes by the central suclus, parieto-occipital sulcus, sylvian fissure and a longitudinal fissure into two hemispheres. The telencephalon primarily serves to control goal oriented behaviors, voluntary motor movements, process memory, thinking and analysis as well as speech, smell and visual processing. The basal ganglia contribute to control of motor movements and the limbic system exerts much of its control over emotion and primitive behavioral responses. The brainstem is made up of the midbrain and hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, is made up of the tectum (which mediates visual motor movements), the tegmentum (which receives motor input from the cerebellum and produces dopamine) and the cerebral peduncles (bundles of fibers for transmitting motor signals to the body). The metencephalon portion of the hindbrain includes the cerebellum and the pons. The myencephalon is also called the medulla oblongata, or, medulla. The grey and white matter of the cerebellum helps to maintain equilibrium and coordination of movement and balance. The pons transmits information to the brain stem. The medulla is primarily responsible for autonomic reflex functions such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure, sneezing, coughing and swallowing. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology, Fifth Edition. St. Louis: Elsemier Mosby. Nachum Dafny, P. (2014). Section 2: Sensory Systems; Chapter 1: Overview of the Nervous System. (The UT Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Ed.) Houston, TX, USA. Retrieved February 7, 2014, from http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s2/chapter01.html