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COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

COMBINED BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED COGENERATION


Increasing demand for energy and long transmission distances from power plant to end user affect the reliability of the electricity supply, and also put pressure on the price of electrical and thermal energy. The power and energy market has been deregulated and liberalized, pushing power generation towards a decentralized model. More and more power and heat is being produced close to the point of consumption. At the same time, the world is calling for more efcient use of fuels to protect the environment for future generations.

Wrtsil addresses these demands with its Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions for utilities, IPPs, industry and municipalities. Typical plant sizes range from 4 to100 MWe, in single or multi-engine congurations. The combination of high efciency and low emissions offered by Wrtsil CHP plants is unequalled in the market. Wrtsil engines as such comply with various national and local environmental requirements and with World Bank guidelines for power plants. Cogeneration is a closed process that requires no auxiliary cooling of the engines since the heat from the process is taken into protable use. CHP plants, with their unbeatable electrical efciency and high total efciency throughout the load range, have very low CO2 emissions, so they easily comply with the most stringent environmental and CHP regulations. Wrtsil CHP plants can run on various grades of natural gas and liquid fuel, while still maintaining low emissions and high efciency. The plants include thermal heat recovery for hot water, steam, direct-re hot air, or chilled water raising an already efcient power plant, 43-45% in terms of net electricity, to a total efciency of 90% or above. More efcient use of fuel also translates into lower emissions per unit of fuel.

Typical specific CO2 emissions by different power plant types


CO2 emissions in g/kWh 800 750 600

WRTSIL CHP WIN-WIN CONCEPT


+ Extremely efcient utilization of primary fuels + Decentralized energy production (DE) enables individual CHP solutions that are economical and efcient + Optimized plant size with step-by-step investment thanks to multi-unit design. Gives lower investment risk in a changing market + Maximized plant availability in all operating situations + Flexible operation for changes in power and heat demands + Electrical output and efciency are unaffected by the rate of heat production + Lower power transmission costs + On-site maintenance without production down-time == Low capital and operational costs per output unit. High protability!
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670

600 450 340


1)

240
2)

Coal fired steam boiler

Gas turbine natural gas single cycle

Diesel engine fuel oil single cycle

Gas engine natural gas CHP

Gas turbine fuel oil single cycle

Diesel engine Gas engine emulsified fuel natural gas single cycle single cycle

1) 7 bar (g) saturated steam production. 2) Hot water production (45C in/85C out). Single cycle: g/kWhe. CHP-mode: g/kWhtot (heat + electricity).

PISTICCI, ITALY Type of customer ..........................Industry - IPP Engine type............. 4 x Wrtsil 18V34SG (Gas) 3 x Wrtsil 18V32 (LBF) Total electrical output............... 22 MW + 24MW Total heat output ................. 17.3 MW + 2.1 MW Total efciency........................................... 59% Fuel .......................................Gas/Liquid biofuel

PLANT CONCEPT
Wrtsil CHP plants powered by reciprocating engines offer exibility and uncompromising performance wherever power and heat are required. Wrtsils gas and diesel engines have by far the highest electrical efciency for prime movers in the market. The exhaust gases and cooling water from the engine can exibly be utilized for numerous applications as low-pressure steam for industrial entities, as district heating and/or chilled water for cities, ofce complexes and municipalities; or the exhaust gases can be used directly for drying, etc. Depending on customer needs, the CHP plants total efciency can even exceed 90 %. Typical heat recovery systems, between the prime mover and the customers equipment, are of hang-on type and ensure both optimized heat production and effective engine cooling and operation. Wrtsils heat recovery design takes into account all the customers seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily variations in running and operational heat production conditions. Heat production does not affect the electrical output or the electrical efciency of the prime mover. The modular design of Wrtsil CHP plants enables rapid delivery anywhere in the world. Prefabricated, functionally pre-tested modules guarantee consistent quality and performance
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and make on-site installation a matter of assembling and connecting the modules. Wrtsil has the resources and capabilities to carry out deliveries ranging from the supply of equipment and engineering to complete turnkey projects including engineering, procurement and construction. A globally experienced project organization guarantees successfully executed deliveries around the world. One of the benets of Wrtsils modular plant concept is the unique exibility of

operation enabled by the cascading multiengine structure of the plants. Multi-unit installations provide load exibility: extra generating sets can be turned off, while the plant continues to run at peak efciency with as many units as required. As needs change, the design of the plants makes it possible to increase the plant size in stages by adding new engines. This also allows for a smaller initial investment with the option to expand later as required.

CHP module

Wrtsil 20V34SG

Engine auxiliary module (EAM)

Pre-engineered and pretested modules minimizes construction time and maximize reliability.

MONOPOLI, ITALY Engines ............................... 6 x Wrtsil 18V46 + Steam turbine Output ................................ 100 MWe (engines) + 11 MWe (turbine) Fuel ..............................................Liquid biofuel Emission control ................ SCR NOX abatement

Exhaust gas silencer +10,950

FIELD CONCEPT EXAMPLE


Where the building site is ample and not situated in the midst of a densely populated area, the single oor plant layout with an overall lower plant prole is used. The main heat recovery system is situated outside the main engine hall, either under a separate roof or as weatherproof equipment.

Exhaust gas boiler

CHPmodule

Enginegenerator set 21,250

Radiator +15,500

TOWN CONCEPT EXAMPLE


When the plant is situated in the middle of a city or an industrial plant site, the layout is more compact and the protective shielding is stronger. The two oor plant lay-out allows a small and compact footprint. The exterior of the plant and possible architectural design of the power house has also to be suited to its surroundings. The emission levels have to be kept very low with effective emission reduction systems and heavyduty silencers have to be installed to eliminate any noice problems.

Combined SCR/OXI-CAT (option)

CHP-module 22,500

Engine-generator set

capacity or temperature in the industrial process or the district heating network. Such a plant is very suitable when all the heat and power it produces can be used for either heat or processing purposes. To optimize the balance between thermal and electrical energy production, each plant is customized to suit the needs of the end user. Whether it is hot water for district heating,

industrial process steam or even chilled water, Wrtsil provides a design that ensures maximum efciency and the best possible overall solution. The automation system not only controls all the internal processes in the Wrtsil CHP plant but is also carefully integrated with all necessary signals and connections to existing systems to guarantee a fully compatible plant.

LOW-PRESSURE STEAM GENERATION FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

POWERFUL CHOICES
The high efciency of Wrtsils CHP plants translates into considerable savings in fuel costs compared to other technologies. For optimized balance and protability, the plants are customized to the customers specic needs. A decentralized combined heat and power plant increases the reliability of energy supply in the neighbourhood. Total energy production is local and close to the point of consumption. Local heat generation ensures a quick response to changes in
Steam consumer Electricity Steam generator

Lube oil cooler

Hot water consumer (optional)

CAC 1 and 2

COGEN FOR MAXIMUM STEAM GENERATION


Steam consumer

Electricity

Burner

CAC 1 and 2

UJPALOTA, HUNGARY Type of customer...........................................IPP Engine type. ...................... 3 x Wrtsil 20V34SG Total electrical output............................ 20 MWe Total heat output................................ 19.2 MWth Total efciency. ........................................ 84.6% Fuel..............................................................Gas

7 C

TRIGENERATION
Typical trigeneration solution for airports
95-105 C 1-stage absorption chiller Chilled water or district cooling 12 C

Electricity Boiler 80-90 C

70-105 C CAC1/ jacket water Hot water or district heating Lube oil cooler 45-55 C Circulation pump

HOT WATER GENERATION FOR DISTRICT HEATING APPLICATIONS

RINGKBING, DENMARK: Type of customer ......................................Utility Engine type...................... 1 x Wrtsil 20V34SG Total electrical output............................ 7.9 MW Total heat output ................................... 9.7 MW Total efciency........................................... 96% Fuel .............................................................Gas

Liquid fuel Gas Gas Gas fuel Gas fuel Liquid fuel Liquid fuel

SG operation

Dual-fuel operation

GD operation

Diesel operation

ENGINE WORKING PRINCIPLES

1.05
Derating due to cooling water temperature. (Derating due to inlet air temperature starts at 45C)

Wrtsil 20V34SG (radiator cooling)

Derating factor

0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8


Source: GE Ger-3567 Ger-3695; Wrtsil perf

Aeroderivate gas turbine Industrial gas turbine

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Ambient temperature (C)


Wrtsil reciprocating gas engines offer stable output and high performance in hot and dry conditions. No water consumed for plant cooling = remote area suitability!

ENGINE TECHNOLOGY
A reciprocating engine is the most efcient means of converting liquid or gaseous fuels into energy. The Wrtsil CHP plant can run on most natural gas types, heavy and light fuel oils, and emulsied fuels. Dual-fuel engines give added reliability to the CHP plant, since they can use whichever fuel is available at the lowest cost. The heart of Wrtsils generating sets is Wrtsils reliable engine technology, the result of long experience of demanding marine and power plant applications. All Wrtsil engines have a simple and straightforward modern design with facilities for easy and rapid on-site maintenance.

The Wrtsil 20V34SG engine features the latest design in gas technology. 9

Typical interior and design of a control room in Wrtsil power plants.

CUSTOMER CARE
Wrtsils aim is to ensure that customers obtain the best possible performance from their power plant investment throughout its lifecycle. After all, who could be better at this than the people who designed and built the plant? Wrtsil provides a comprehensive range of services built on the concept of enhancing the customers protability by optimizing all aspects of the power plant operation. The services range from rapid spare parts delivery to a complete operation and maintenance partnership, allowing the customer to focus on their core business.
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Wrtsil Operations & Maintenance currently runs more than 130 plants around the world, making it the worlds leading power plant O&M contractor. If customers choose to operate the plant themselves, they can still rest assured that they have the best possible support available as and when needed from training and on-line support to service packages or plant modernization and upgrading. Wrtsils global network is always ready to make sure the power plant performs awlessly, free of breakdowns and unwanted downtime throughout its lifetime.

COMBINED CYCLE SOLUTIONS


Wrtsils combined cycle solutions with reciprocating engines reach plant efciencies far above 50%. This is achieved by recovering energy from the otherwise wasted heat produced in thermal power plants, either by using a conventional steam bottoming cycle recovering hot exhaust gases or an organic rankine cycle recovering heat from sources with lower temperatures.

Photo courtesy of Jung Bu City Gas and JB Enertek Co., Ltd CHEONG SOO, KOREA

The purpose of Cheong Soo plant is to provide District heating and electricity (CHP) to a newly established and build town with about 6400 house holds including public buildings. The CHP plant generates electricity in parallell with the electrical grid and supplies the district heating to the network for the town. During summer the plant provides also district cooling. Type of customer ............................................................................ IPP Engine type..........................................................2 x Wrtsil 20V34SG Total electricity output............................................................. 16.9 MW Total heat output..................................................................... 14.2 MW Total efciency............................................................................ 85.1% Fuel.................................................................................... Natural gas
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THE SINGLE-SOURCE SUPPLIER THAT STAYS WITH YOU


Wrtsil has the resources and capabilities to carry out deliveries ranging from the supply of equipment and basic engineering to complete turnkey projects including nancing, engineering, procurement, construction, operation and maintenance.

BARAJAS AIRPORT, SPAIN


In 2003, AENA, the Spanish Airport Authority, called for bids to supply thermal and electrical energy to the major Barajas airport in Madrid under a twenty-year power purchase agreement. The trigeneration plant, generating a net electric power of 33 MW, is connected to the airports internal grid and to the public grid. The plant provides electricity continuously, as well as heating during the winter and cooling during the summer. Engines................................................................6 x Wrtsil 18V32DF Total electrical output............................................................. 33.6 MWe Total heat output...................................................................... 24 MWth Total absorption cooling output.................................................. 18 MWc Total efciency............................................................................... 74% Fuel............................................................................. Natural gas/LFO

LINATE AIRPORT, MILAN, ITALY


Type:........................................... Industrial self generation, Trigeneration Engines................................................................3 x Wrtsil 20V34SG Total electrical output................................................................ 24 MWe Total heat output................................................................... 17.5 MWth Total efciency........................................................................... 80.2 % Fuel.................................................................................... Natural gas

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THIS IS NOT THE FUTURE. THIS IS TODAY.


THE WRTSIL TOWN CONCEPT is a Combined Heat and Power plant designed for decentralized energy production in built-up areas close to consumers. These facilities have a high level of performance, comply with all environmental regulations particularly noise emissions and are designed to blend smoothly into the surrounding urban architecture. As the heat recovery system and other auxiliaries are built into functional modules surrounding the engine, Town Concept plants have a small footprint. Town Concept CHP plants can also easily be expanded as the demand for power and heat grows.

Exhaust stacks

Cooling radiators

Exhaust gas boiler Transformer

Control room Lubrication oil tank Engine air intake lters

Engine generator set Module for hot water generation Engine exhaust outlet District heating pump Feed and return for district 13

POWER PLANT OUTPUT RANGE


Gas engines Wrtsil 34SG Dual-fuel engines (gaseous fuel/liquid fuel) Wrtsil 32GD Wrtsil 34DF Wrtsil 50DF Liquid fuel (LFO, HFO, CRO, emulsified, LBF) Wrtsil 20 Wrtsil 32 Wrtsil 46 MW 1 5 10 50 100 300 500

LFO = light fuel oil HFO = heavy fuel oil

CRO = crude oil LBF = liquid biofuel

Boiler and absorption chillers at Madrids Barajas airport, Spain.

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Performance data as guidelines for CHP calculations Wrtsil gas fuelled generating sets at 50 and 60 Hz
Performance data Engine Wrtsil gas engines at frequency 50 Hz 9L34SG 16V34SG 20V34SG Gas mode 20V34DF 18V50DF Wrtsil gas engines at frequency 60 Hz 9L34SG 16V34SG 20V34SG 20V34DF 18V50DF Liquid fuel mode 2000*

Engine optimization: NOX (dry @ 15 vol-% O2) Electric power Heat rate 1) Efciency 1) Cooling circuit inlet/outlet 2) HTCAC temperature inlet/outlet Cylinder temperature inlet/outlet Lubrication oil circuit inlet/outlet LTCAC temperature inlet/outlet Charge air ow Exhaust gas ow Exhaust gas temp. Exhaust gas energy Cooling circuit-energy HTCAC energy Lubrication oil energy LTCAC energy Heat losses by radiation 5% 5% 15

Liquid Liquid Liquid Gas Gas Gas fuel fuel fuel mode mode mode mode mode mode 14602000* (LFO) 14602000* (LFO) mg/Nm3 95190* 95190* 95190* 190380* 190380* 2000* 95190* 95190* 95190* 190380* 190380* 16002000 (HFO) 16002000 (HFO) kW kJ/kWh % C C C C C kg/s kg/s C 3888 7817 46.1 36/59 42/52 84/91 63/74 36/37 6.2 6.4 400 2657 1929 840 560 424 105 130 6970 7753 46.4 36/66 45/57 82/91 63/76 36/38 11.1 11.4 400 4733 3436 1405 1005 761 265 230 8730 7737 46.5 36/67 46/58 82/91 63/77 36/39 13.8 14.2 400 5924 4294 1723 1254 961 357 290 8730 8036 44.8 36/69 47/59 81/91 63/78 36/39 14.1 14.5 380 5714 4595 1710 1404 1065 416 350 8730 8127 44.3 36/77 49/65 83/91 63/80 36/41 17.5 17.9 335 5975 5631 2238 1587 1149 662 350 16621 7616 47.3 36/68 45/59 80/85 63/74 36/38 26.2 27.0 400 11016 7403 3237 2101 1528 542 630 16621 8185 44.0 42/83 54/72 79/85 63/78 42/46 32.5 33.5 377 12705 9504 4129 2514 1967 884 670 3758 7817 46.1 36/58 42/52 84/91 63/74 36/37 6.0 6.2 400 2567 1868 817 540 414 97 120 6737 7753 46.4 36/65 45/56 83/91 63/76 36/38 10.7 11.0 400 4572 3322 1369 965 741 247 220 8439 7737 46.5 36/66 45/57 82/91 63/76 36/38 13.4 13.8 400 5722 4147 1680 1214 920 333 280 8439 8036 44.8 36/68 46/58 81/91 63/78 36/39 13.5 13.9 380 5486 4432 1659 1354 1035 384 340 8439 8127 44.3 36/75 48/64 83/91 63/79 36/40 16.7 17.2 335 5718 5404 2168 1517 1108 611 340 17076 7616 47.3 36/68 45/59 80/85 63/74 36/38 26.1 26.6 401 11379 7409 3219 2238 1538 539 640

17076 8186 44.0 42/85 55/73 78/85 63/78 42/46 32.5 33.5 369 12415 9991 4117 2925 2048 901 670

10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 20% kW

Cylinder cooling energy 10% kW

Note: Heat and mass balances are dependent on ambient conditions and plant application, above given gures are for guidance only and calculated at ISO 3046 reference conditions; 25C ambient temperature, 100m above sea level and 30% relative humidity. 1) Heat rate and electrical efciency at generator terminals, including engine-driven pumps, ISO 3046 conditions and LHV. Tolerance 5%. Power factor 0.8. Gas Methane Number >80

2) Single-circuit cooling system. * Adjustable NOX range according to local requirements. Heat rates given at the marked NOX optimization level. Heat rates at other NOX optimization levels to be checked case by case. Note! 1 ppm-v dry @ 15% O2 2.054 mg/Nm3 dry @ 15% O2, NOX calculated as NO2, Nm3 dened at NTP (273.15K and 101.3 kPa).

Performance data as guidelines for CHP calculations Wrtsil liquid fuelled generating sets at 50 and 60 Hz
Performance data Engine Engine optimization: NOX (dry @ 15 vol-% O2) Electric power Heat rate 1) Efciency 1) High temperature circuit inlet/outlet HTCAC temperature inlet/outlet Cylinder temperature inlet/outlet Low temperature circuit inlet/outlet Lubrication oil circuit inlet/outlet LTCAC temperature inlet/outlet Charge air ow Exhaust gas ow Exhaust gas temperature Exhaust gas heat High temperature circuit-energy HTCAC energy Cylinder cooling energy Low temperature circuit-energy Lubrication oil energy LTCAC energy Heat losses by radiation 5% 5% 15 ppmvol kW kJ/kWh % C C C C C C kg/s kg/s C 84/91 34/47 63/78 34/44 3.5 3.6 303 1052 371 371 832 246 586 68 Wrtsil diesel engines at frequency 50 Hz 9L20 12V32 16V32 18V32 20V32 18V46 Wrtsil diesel engines at frequency 60 Hz 9L20 12V32 16V32 18V32 20V32 18V46

710*-780

710*-970

710*-970

710*-970

710*-970

900*-970

710*-780

710*-970

710*-970

710*-970

710*-970

900*-970

1539 8604 41.8 84/91

5327 7880 45.7 79/96 87/96 79/87 38/49 63/77 38/43 10.2 10.5 347 3629 1891 1044 847 1246 657 589 185

7124 7856 45.8 80/96 87/96 80/87 38/49 63/78 38/43 13.6 14.0 348 4849 2453 1319 1134 1668 877 791 247

8032 7840 45.9 80/96 88/96 80/88 38/49 63/78 38/43 15.3 15.7 349 5472 2726 1443 1283 1885 988 897 278

8924 7840 45.9 80/96 87/96 80/87 38/49 63/79 38/43 17.0 17.5 349 6082 3030 1604 1426 2093 1097 996 308

17076 7698 46.8 80/91 83/91 80/83 42/55 63/80 42/47 31.6 32.5 346 11212 5135 3484 1651 3750 2249 1501 451

1454 8561 42.0 84/91 84/91 34/48 63/77 34/44 3.3 3.4 302 991 345 345 776 221 556 68

5211 7880 45.7 80/96 87/96 80/87 38/49 63/77 38/43 9.7 10.0 352 3515 1805 971 834 1205 646 559 180

6970 7856 45.8 80/96 87/96 80/87 38/49 63/78 38/43 13.0 13.3 352 4698 2427 1309 1118 1623 862 761 240

7841 7861 45.8 80/96 88/96 80/88 38/49 63/78 38/43 14.6 15.0 354 5306 2654 1388 1266 1829 972 857 270

8730 7840 45.9 80/96 88/96 80/88 38/49 63/79 38/43 16.2 16.7 354 5897 2949 1543 1407 2032 1080 951 300

17076 7698 46.8 80/91 83/91 80/83 42/55 63/80 42/47 31.6 32.7 344 11222 5141 3490 1651 3753 2249 1504 451

10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 10% kW 20% kW

Note: Heat and mass balances are dependent on ambient conditions and plant application, above given gures are for guidance only and calculated at ISO 3046 reference conditions; 25C ambient temperature, 100m above sea level and 30% relative humidity. 1) Electrical output at generator terminals, including engine-driven pumps at 100% load. ISO conditions and LHV (42700 kJ/kg). Tolerance 5 %. Power factor 0.8.

* Adjustable NOX range according to local requirements. Heat rates given at the marked NOX optimization level. Heat rates at other NOX optimization levels to be checked case by case. Note! 1 ppm-v dry @ 15% O2 2.054 mg/Nm3 dry @ 15% O2, NOX calculated as NO2, Nm3 dened at NTP (273.15K and 101.3 kPa).

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Wrtsil is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation and total efciency, Wrtsil maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. In 2008, Wrtsils net sales totalled EUR 4.6 billion with 19,000 employees. The company has operations in 160 locations in 70 countries around the world. Wrtsil is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.
WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2005 Wrtsil Corporation.

WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2010 Wrtsil Corporation.

01.2010 / Bocks Ofce / Litoset