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TECHNICAL/SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES - views curriculum development as similar to engineering - basis: scientific method - top-down, line-staff (vis--vis grassroots approach) - more authoritarian 1. Behavioral-rational Approach - oldest and still more preferred - means-end approach - behavioral objectives 2. Systems-managerial Approach - considers interconnected elements of inputs, throughputs and outputs - basic model: technical framework used in engineering - dominant in the US in the 50s and 60s - emphasizes managerial and supervisory aspects - dynamic: views curriculum development as never-ending process - is a cyclic approach 3. Academic-Intellectual Approach - emphasizes theories and principles - popular in 30s and 50s - curriculum boundaries expand to include guidance, study of education and admin istration processes - disadvantage: frequently overwhelms many beginning students B. NON-TECHNICAL/NON-SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES - flexible and less structured - without predetermined objectives - based on progressive philosophy: learner s needs and interests are prioritized - artistic and imaginative efforts are considered important - emphasis on relevance 1. Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach - rooted in progressive philosophy o liberation from authoritarian teachers o focus on learner o curriculum is organized inductively o activities promote cooperation - Examples: preschools, Montessori schools 2. Reconceptualist Approach - reflects existentialist orientation - aim of education is to emancipate society from traditional and outmoded orders - curriculum basis is determined subjectively 3. Reconstructionism - emphasized cultural pluralism and internationalism - social-centered curriculum - views school as agent of change ECLECTIC MODELS - combination of several approaches - however, one approach is emphasized over others

CURRICULUM DESIGN Curriculum - The sum of learning stated as educational ends, educational activit ies, school subjects and/or topics decided upon and provided within the framewor k of an educational institution or in a less formal setup (Garcia, 2007). Design - something's form and structure Curriculum Design - refers to the structure or the arrangement of the components

or elements of a curriculum TYPES OF CURRICULUM DESIGN 1. Traditional Designs - Are subject-centered - The emphasis is on making the learners absorb as much knowledge as possible co ncerning a particular course or broad field - Are easy to develop and to implement because highly-structured 2. Learner-centered Designs - May be based on the anticipated needs and interest of the learners - Usually built upon normal activities children engage in (i.e. playing, storyte lling, drawing) - Content is not organized into subjects (Math, Science, etc.) but into coursew orks (playing, storytelling) 3. Society-Centered Designs - Heavily loaded with societal concerns, problems and issues - May be aimed at making the school, the teachers and the students agents of soc ial change ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM DESIGN 1. 1. Aims and objectives 2. Content and learning experiences 3. Method and organization 4. Evaluation SELECTION OF OBJECTIVES Objectives are selected based on desired outcomes of teaching-learning p rocess: development of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and habits provides basis for general theory of education and suggests its goals Philosophy Aims are considered as orientations Goals are specific statements used as guidelines for achieving purposes Objectives may describe school-wide outcomes or specific behaviors Major Educational Philosophies 1. Perennialism - Education is viewed as the transmission of the unchanging knowledge of the uni verse - Focus is on permanent studies which are timeless (e.g. philosophy, logic, etc. ) 2. Humanism/Progressivism - Education is viewed as human development that starts from the needs and intere st of learners. - Focuses more on the child than the subject matter 3. Reconceptualism - Learner-centered, relevant and humanistic education - More emphasis on holistic, transcendental, linguistic and artistic aspects of the teaching-learning process 4. Essentialism - Education is viewed as mastery of essential skills. - Focus is on the three R s, English, history and science. 5. Reconstructionism - Is society-centered - Asserts that the creation of a better society is the ultimate purpose of educa tion - Focus is alleviating discrimination and poverty, school integration Taxonomy of Objectives * Cognitive - knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and eva luation * Affective - receiving, responding, valuing, organization and characterization * Psychomotor - reflex movements, fundamental movements, perceptual abilities, p hysical abilities, skilled movements and non-discussive communication SELECTION OF CONTENT AND LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Content can have different meanings: - A list of subjects for a grade or year level - A discipline (i.e. science, math) - A specific subject (e.g. biology, physics) Components of Curriculum Content: 1. Knowledge Component * Concepts regularities in objects of events designated by labels * Principles significant relationships between and among concepts * Theories contain a set of logically related principles that attempt to explain a phenomenon * Laws theories that have wide applicability and have been continuously proven t o hold true. 2. Process/skill Component * Mental processes used in handling, dealing with or transforming information an d concepts * Physical/manipulative processes used for moving and handling objects 3. Affective Component * Attitudes have feeling and emotional tones (ex: openness, respect for others rig hts) * Values serve as basis for determining when attitudes and behaviors are appropr iate and which are not. (ex: truth, honesty, justice) Criteria for Selection of Content 1. Relevance Content reflects the social, cultural and technological realities o f the time 2. Balance There is a balance between the two polar goals of education: what is constant and what is changing. There should also be balance between the three d omains of learning. 3. Validity refers to accuracy or inaccuracy of the content. Content should also coincide with the expressed aims of the curriculum. 4. Learnability Content should be selected in consideration with the learners lev el of development. 5. Feasibility This criterion considers: resources (human, physical and financia l, time allotment, school calendar, enabling legislation and public support. Learning Experiences Instructional component of the curriculum providing for the interaction between teacher, student and content (teaching methods and learning activities). Criteria for Selection of Learning Experiences 1. Appropriateness Learning experiences should be suitable to content, objective s, domain, and learners level of development. 2. Feasibility feasible in terms of time, qualification, experience of staff, av ailable resources, safety and legal considerations 3. Variety Different activities and methods are required by different discipline s and domains. 4. Optimal Value Learning experiences should encourage learners to continue lear ning on their own. EDUC 7 - Semifinals | 1