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UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD

Department of Rural Home E onom! " Synopsis for M.Sc. Degree in Home Economics (Food and Nutrition) TITLE# EFFECT OF E$OGENOUS O$YTOCIN ON %INERAL CONTENTS OF %IL&

Name of the student egestration No.

Saba Maqbool !""#$ag$%&'

ABSTRACT
Mil( is lacteal secretion of mammary gland and is an essential diet especially of ne)ly born babies and for old age group because it contains all essential nutrients e.g. protein* carbohydrate* fat* +itamin and minerals. ,-ytocin* a hormone released from the pituitary gland* causes the uterus to contract and thereby initiates the process of parturition* or childbirth. ,-ytocin plays a ma.or role in lactation mainly by its action on mil( e.ection +ia the contraction of myoepithelial cells. /he effect of o-ytocin on mil( production and the presence of o-ytocin receptors on different epithelial cells suggest that this hormone may play a role in mammary epithelial cells. E-ogenous o-ytocin is in.ected daily before mil(ing to increase mil( production. Mil( of 0 Nili a+i buffalo )ill be collected as control and treated samples from li+estoc( farm of 1ni+ersity of 2griculture* Faisalabad. Mil( samples )ill be analy3ed to determine changes in minerals due to o-ytocin. Data obtained for each attribute )ill be sub.ected to statistical analysis.

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD


Department of Rural Home E onom! " Synopsis for M.Sc. Degree in Home Economics (Food and Nutrition) TITLE# EFFECT OF E$OGENOUS O$YTOCIN ON %INERAL CONTENTS OF %IL&
Date of admission4 Date of 8nitiation ( esearch) 9robable Duration ( esearch) 56$"7$!""# 2fter appro+al 0 months

'ERSONNEL#
Name of the student egistration No. Saba Maqbool !""#$ag$%&'

SU'ERVISORY CO%%ITTEE#
Mrs. Naheed 2bbas Miss. 2smah ;odhi 9rof. Dr. <ia$ur$ ehman 4 4 4 (:hairperson) (Member) (Member)

() INTRODUCTION#
Mil( is one of the oldest foods (no)n to man and it is defined as the physiological secretion from the mammary gland of mammals (Nic(erson* 5777). Mil( is a )hitish liquid containing proteins* fats* lactose* and +arious +itamins and minerals that is produced by the mammary glands of all mature female mammals after they ha+e gi+en birth and ser+es as nourishment for their young.

Mil( is an opaque )hite liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. 8t pro+ides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. /he e-act components of ra) mil( +ary by species* but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat* protein and calcium. :attle=s mil( has a pH ranging from 0.& to 0.#* ma(ing it slightly acidic. Mil( is a food of high nutritional quality* relati+ely lo) cost* )ith high palatability and digestibility. 8t is almost complete food because it contains all essential nutrients e.g. protein* carbohydrate in the form of lactose* fat* +itamins and minerals. (>omoro)s(i and Ealy* 577!). Mil( and other dairy products* therefore* comprise an important source of food for all age groups. 9a(istan is the 6 th largest mil( producing country in the )orld )ith annual production of about &!*577 billions liters (?o+t. of 9a(istan* !""#). /he mil( business has been gro)ing rapidly for the past fe) years* especially in the country li(e 9a(istan. Mil( is the normal secretion of mammary glands of all mammals. 8ts purpose is to nourish the young of the species. /he nutritional needs of species +ary and so it is not surprising that the mil( of different mammals differ in composition. /he principal constituents of mil( are fat* protein* mil( sugar (lactose) and minerals of mil( +ary not only in amounts among the different animal species but also )ith the e-ception of lactose* some)hat in chemical* physical and biological properties (Norman and Hotch(iss* 5770). @uffalo mil( is commercially more +iable than other mil( for the manufacture of fat$ based and SNF$based mil( products* such as butter* ghee and mil( po)ders because of its lo)er )ater content and higher fat content. 9roteins of buffalo mil(* particularly the )hey proteins* are more resistant to heat denaturation. Dried mil( products prepared from buffalo mil( e-hibit higher le+els of undenatured proteins )hen processed under similar conditions. /he presence of higher le+els of +arious bioprotecti+e factors* such as immunoglobulins* lactoferrin* lyso3yme* lactopero-idase as )ell as bifidogenic factors* render buffalo mil( more suitable than co) mil( for the preparation of a )ide range of special dietary and health foods.

/he +ariation in mil( consumption depends on so many factors li(e genetics* stage of lactation* management practices* parity* diet* age* udder health and season (Haenlein* !""%). Mil( is the natural food for human. egular inta(e of mil( is beneficial as a complete

food* easily gi+en* readily digested and obser+ed. 8t is indispensable food for adults. 2s a good source of principal nutrients it can be recommended. @uffalo mil( contains &.6A carbohydrates* '.6A protein and 5"% >calBdl energy (9assmore and East)ood* 57#'). Significantly* cholesterol content of buffalo mil( is ".06 mgBg. @uffalo mil( is superior to co) mil( in terms of important minerals* namely calcium* iron and phosphorus )hich are higher by 7!A* %'.'A and 55#A respecti+ely than those present in co) mil( . @uffalo metaboli3es all the carotein into +itamin 2* )hich is passed on to mil( as such. Minerals ha+e many roles in the body including en3yme functions* bone formation* )ater balance maintenance* and o-ygen transport. Minerals contribute to the buffering capacity of mil(* the maintenance of mil( pH* the ionic strength of mil(* and mil(=s osmotic pressure. Minerals of mil( are di+ided into t)o main groups4 macrominerals and trace elements. 2ll contribute to the )ell$being of offspring and are important for gro)th of most organs* particularly for minerali3ation of bone matri-. /he se+en macrominerals of mil( are important to these processes. /hree of the se+en (:a* 9* Mg) are required to de+elop bone and are present in mil( to a large degree comple-ed )ith protein in micelles. 9otassium (>)* sodium (Na)* and chlorine (:5) are found mainly as ions in the soluble fraction of mil( (Holt* 57#6). Mil( is a good source of calcium (:a)* magnesium (Mg)* phosphorus (9)* potassium (>)* selenium (Se)* and 3inc (<n). Many minerals in mil( are associated together in the form of salts* such as calcium phosphate. 8n mil( appro-imately 0'A of the calcium (:a)* %6A of the magnesium (Mg)* and &&A of the phosphate (9) are salts bound )ithin the casein micelle and the remainder are soluble in the serum phase. /he fact that calcium and phosphate are associated as salts bound )ith the protein does not affect the nutritional a+ailability of either calcium or phosphate. Mil( contains small amounts of copper (:u)*

iron (Fe)* manganese (Mg)* and sodium (Na) and is not considered a ma.or source of these minerals in the diet. :alcium (:a) and phosphorous (9) are the ma.or minerals found in mil(. /hese minerals are required in large quantities by the rapidly gro)ing neonate for bone gro)th and de+elopment of soft tissues. :alcium (:a) and phosphorous (9) mostly are associated )ith the casein micelle structure. Mil( also contains most other minerals found in the body. <inc (<n) is a nutrient required for many proteins in+ol+ed in DN2 synthesis* protein synthesis* mitosis and cell di+ision. 2dequate 3inc (<n) supply is particularly important during the periods of rapid neonatal gro)th and de+elopment as illustrated by obser+ations of early neonatal death associated )ith lo) mil( 3inc (<n) le+els in lethal mil(. :opper (:u) plays an important role as a cofactor for en3ymes that generate cellular energy* cross$lin( connecti+e tissue and mobili3e cellular ion (;ope3 et al. !""!). 2dequate iron (Fe) inta(e is essential for optimal gro)th* hematopoiesis and cogniti+e de+elopment during infancy. 8ron (Fe) deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency* estimated to affect 5$! billion people )orld)ide. 8ron (Fe) in mil( is bound to lactoferrin* transferrin* -anthine o-idase* and some to caseins. Moreo+er* good understanding of the properties of mil( mineral is important for fundamental research and for de+elopment of dairy products. /he quality of fermented and non fermented mil( products such as yoghurt* cheese* butter and e+aporated mil( for +arious purposes are influenced significantly by compositional factors (;indmar( et al. !""%). /he mineral fraction* cations (calcium* magnesium* sodium and potassium) and anions (inorganic phosphate* citrate and chloride) play an important role in the structure and stability of casein micelles (?aucheron* !""6C Holt* 57#6). /hus structure and stability of casein micelles is closely related )ith mineral fractions. /hus* the (no)ledge of minerals concentration in mil( samples is of particular important. ,-ytocin is a hormone released from the posterior pituitary gland* causing a contraction of the myoepithelial cells around al+eoli and small ducts of mammary gland (;inda et al.

577%). /hus o-ytocin is generally considered to increase mil( production by enhancing mil( e.ection. /he magnitude of the increase from o-ytocin in.ection is quite +ariable* ranging from 5"$5!A of mil( production in some studies but sho)ing non significant effects on mil( production in some others. /he factors that control mil( production +ary and are dependent on dosage and time of o-ytocin in.ection (;inda et al. 577%). /he disco+ery of o-ytocin and the elucidation of its role in the neuro$hormonal mil( e.ection process allo)ed for managing the mil(ing process )ith an e-ogenous hormone. 2lterations in both mil( and fat yield )ere obtained by mil(ing a second time* immediately follo)ing the primary mil(ing* )ith the aid of o-ytocin. esults +aried from significant increase in mil( production and fat yield to no change either in mil( yield or fat yield. Disparate results can be e-plained by the +aried e-perimental designs employed* )ith ma.ority of )or( in+ol+ing small sample si3es* alternating treatments and short treatment periods. Dariations in dosage and timing of in.ections ha+e contributed to the confusion regarding effects of e-ogenous o-ytocin. Studies ha+e in+ol+ed in.ections prior to hourly mil(ing or in.ections up to 5 hour before mil(ing. Such design do not mimic normal physiology of lactation in )hich o-ytocin is released into blood stream due to normal mil(ing stimuli* binds to myoepithelial cells receptors in the udder and elicits mil( e.ection. ,nly a fe) studies administrated o-ytocin immediately prior to mil(ing* increases in mil( production )ere reported )hen o-ytocin administration occurred )ithin minutes of normal mil(ing. Mil( increase )as 55.0A than those not recei+ing o-ytocin but no alteration in mil( consumption (Nostrand et al. 5775). E-ogenous o-ytocin is becoming common in 9a(istan. /he purpose of this study is to sol+e the question )hich is raised about the effect of o-ytocin in.ections on the minerals of mil(.

OB*ECTIVES#
/he study )ill be conducted to achie+e the follo)ing ob.ecti+es. 5) /o chec( the effect of o-ytocin on mineral composition of Nili a+i buffalo mil(. !) /o determine chemical composition of normal and o-ytocin in.ected mil(.

+) REVIE, OF LITERATURE#
;in3ell and 9ea(er (57'5) in+estigated that )hen goats )ere mil(ed each hour after being gi+en a dose of synthetic o-ytocin )ithin the range thought to be released by the pituitary* there )as a progressi+e rise in mil( yield becoming statistically significant by 6 hr. /he effect )as reduced if the mil( )as not remo+ed from the gland each hour. ,-ytocin treatment and* to a lesser e-tent* frequent mil(ing )ithout o-ytocin* altered mil( composition. Na* :l and non$casein protein increasedC potasssium (>) and lactose decreased. ,-ytocin infusions permitted the lea(age of lactose from mil( to plasma and sucrose from plasma to mil(. 8n some goatsE +ery small doses of o-ytocin caused changes in mil(. /he increase in the rate of mil( secretion follo)ing mil( remo+al is probably of greater physiological significance than the small changes in mil( composition and supports ;e+y=s idea of a local negati+e feed$bac( +ia a chemical component of mil(. ;in3ell and 9ea(er (57'&) in+estigated the effects of o-ytocin on mil( secretion and the permeability of the mammary epithelium in rabbits. 2 single dose of 5"" m$u. o-ytocin no significant effects on mil( composition )ere e+ident but after 5 u. mil( sodium (Na) and chlorine (:l) )ere significantly increased. /)enty$four hr after 5 u. o-ytocin* sodium (Na) and chlorine (:l) )ere decreased )hile >* lactose* fat and protein )ere increased. During an 8.D. infusion of o-ytocin mil( sodium (Na) and chlorine (:l) increased )hile > and lactose decreased. /he passage of F(5&) :G sucrose* !&Na and (%0) :l from blood to mil( also increased. /hese effects of o-ytocin are discussed in relation to the permeability of the mammary epithelium and the path)ays for ion mo+ements* and to other studies on mil( composition in the rabbit in+ol+ing the administration of o-ytocin to aid in the e+acuation of mil(.

Sagi et al. (57#") sub.ected 5! Holstein co)s to four stimulation routines for the effects on mil(ing performance4 a).No stimulation b).Manual stimulation c).Manual stimulation )ith delayed mil(ing and d).8ntra+enous infusion of ".'6 81 of o-ytocin. 8n an added e-periment* effects of the first t)o treatments of mil(ing performance and release of o-ytocin and prolactin )ere measured. Mil( yield* fat* and protein contents )ere not affected by any treatment. Machine$on times )ere shorter and pea( and a+erage mil( flo) rates higher for manually stimulated and o-ytocin infused co)s. Mean o-ytocin concentration in stimulated co)s pea(ed at ! min compared )ith 6 min for unstimulated co)s. No difference in time of prolactin released )as detected. /he timing of o-ytocin release* rather than ma-imal concentration* could be the most important factor affecting mil(ing. Hohn and 2ntonie (57##) found the concentration of protein and ma.or cations (:a* >* Mg* and Na) that )ere measured by 1dy dye$binding and atomic absorption procedures in :aliforinia mar(et mil(s. Samples of nonfat (n I &')* lo) fat (n I &#)* )hole (n I 66)* e-tra rich (n I!6)* buttermil( (n I %0) )ere collected from retail stores. Mean protein concentrations )ereC nonfat %.6%A* )hole %.50A* e-tra rich %.!5A* and butter mil( %.%'A. Mean calcium concentration )ereC non fat 55'mgA* lo) fat 5!7mgA* e-tra rich 55%mgA* and butter mil( 55% mgA and butter mil( 556mgA. Mean potassium concentration s )ereC nonfat 507mgA* lo) fat 5#6 mgA* )hole 50"mgA* e-tra rich 56' mgA* and butter mil( 5'omgA. Mean magnesium concentrations )ereC non fat 56." mg A* lo) fat 50.% mgA* )hole 5&.! mgA* e-tra rich 5&." mgA* and butter mil( 56.7 mgA. /hese mean +alues are in good agreement in those pre+iously reported and can be used by processors. 2llen (577") used the o-ytocin to find the association among mil( composition* secretion rates and cell electrolytes concentration. 8t )as found that mil( yield declined. Sodium (Na) and 9otassium (>) ratio increased )ith o-ytocin dose* lactose decline and fat remained unchanged. Morrissery and Flynn (577") found that mil( is a significant source of many minerals required for normal gro)th* de+elopment* maintenance and metabolism throughout the

life cycle. Mil( helps in bioa+ailability of calcium (:a)* copper (:u)* magnesium (Mg) and 3inc (<n) their absorption and utili3ation. Nostrand et al. (5775) used eighty$four Holstein co)s determine to the effects of e-ogenous o-ytocin on mil( production and health. :o)s )ere assigned at parturition by parity group to treatments4 5) o-ytocin group* animals recei+ed an in.ection of 5 ml (!" 81) of o-ytocin at each mil(ing throughout lactation and !) control group* animals recei+ed no in.ection. ,-ytocin in.ections )ere gi+en in the thigh region )ithin % min follo)ing the initiation of udder preparation and immediately prior to machine attachment. :o)s )ere mil(ed in a parlor* and mil( yield )as recorded at each mil(ing. Mil( samples )ere collected from each co) bi)ee(ly for mil( composition determination. 8ndi+idual lactations )ere modeled using Joods= lactation equationC resulting coefficients )ere analy3ed using 2N,D2. /he o-ytocin group produced #&7 (g more mil( during the lactation than the control group* )ith a significant difference occurring after pea( mil( yield. /his suggests that e-ogenous o-ytocin maintained greater persistency during lactation. No significant differences e-isted for mil( fat or protein percentages. /he use of e-ogenous o-ytocin at mil(ing increased lactation mil( production )ith no apparent effect on health. 2nderson (577!) studied the comparison of trace elements in mil( of & species. /he amount of trace elements founded in co)s mil( )ere iron (Fe) K ".!ppm* copper (:u) "."6 ppm* aluminum (2l) ".&6 to ".5" ppm and manganese (Mn) K"."& ppm. Manganese (Mn) )as lo) relati+e to bodily needs. Flynn (577!) outlined the nutritional roles* recommended inta(e and ha3ards of deficiency or e-cess of !" mineral and trace elements e.g. Na* >* :a* :l* Mn* 9* Fe* Mn* :u etc that are considered to be nutritionally essential to man. /he content* chemical form and bioa+ailability of these minerals are considerd in both human and co) mil(. Maurya and ;udri (577!) sho)ed that o-ytocin did not affect mil( yield or residual mil( yield after mil(ing. Feeding during mil(ing has been sho)n to influence mil( production

and mil(ing time as )ell as secretion of pituitary hormone o-ytocin. He in.ected !" Murrah buffaloes )ith "$5& 81 o-ytocin before mil(ing* did not affect mil( yield. Mil( let$do)n time decreased. 9ercentage mil( fat )as higher for the 6 or 5" 81 o-ytocin in.ections than for lo)er doses. esidual mil( yield )as !.5$%.#A of the total yield. ;inda et al. (577%) studied the effect of daily o-ytocin in.ections before and after mil(ing on mil( production* mil( plasmin and mil( composition. Saline in.ection )as gi+en before mil(ing as a control. ,-ytocin increased mil( production by %A. /he effect on mil( plasmin acti+ity* fat* protein* S:: and lactose )as non significant and may indicate that effect of o-ytocin is not manifested through an effect on cell remodeling. >night (577&) e-amined eight co)s in mid lactation. /hey )ere di+ided into t)o groups* control half and test half. /he test half )as mil(ed immediately after o-ytocin administration )hile control half mil( % hour before o-ytocin. /he mil( yield in test half )as greater. /his support the established +ie) that o-ytocin act by enhancing the mil( e.ection refle-* and refutes the claim that the hormone has a direct stimulatory action on mammary metabolism. @ansode et al. (5770) found that increase in mil( yield )as not significant after o-ytocin in.ection but there )as some change in mil( composition after o-ytocin treatment.

-) %ATERIALS AND %ETHODS#


Colle t!on of %!l. Sample"# Mil( samples of 0 Nili a+i buffaloes )ill be collected as treated samples from the li+estoc( farm of 1ni+ersity of 2griculture Faisalabad and 0 animals )ill be selected for control samples. 2nalysis )ill be performed in the laboratory of ural Home Economic and Food /echnology* 1ni+ersity of 2griculture* Faisalabad.

Sample 'reparat!on# Mil( )ill be analy3ed for their mineral composition including both electrolytes and trace elements. @efore the estimation of minerals all samples )ill be sub.ected to )et digestion. ,et D!/e"t!on# 6 gram of mil( sample )ill be ta(en into 5"" ml conical flas(. 5" ml of concentrated nitric acid )ill be added. /he contents of flas( )ill be heated until the bro)n fumes )ill become )hite. 2fter cooling* 6ml perchloric acid )ill be added. /he contents of the flas( )ill be heated +igorously* till +olume )ill be reduced to !$% ml. /he contents )ill be diluted up to 5"" ml by adding distilled )ater. /his digested and diluted sample solution )ill be used for the estimation of electrolytes and trace elements. Stan0ar0 'reparat!on# :ommercially a+ailable Na and > standard ha+ing 56" mmolB;* Na and 6mmolB; ( )ill be used. /his standard )ill be diluted in ratio of !46" in redistilled )ater. For the measurement of 3inc (<n)* copper (:u) and iron (Fe) a multi standard )ill be used )hich is diluted )ith redistilled )ater to prepare ".5* ".!* ".& ppm standards. 2bsorbance of each standard )ill be di+ided by its concentration and thus a mean +alue )ill be obtained. /his +alue )ill be multiplied by absorbance of )et digested sample and +olume of dilution to estimate* the concentration of trace elements in sample. Ele trol1te" 2Na an0 &3# Na and > concentration )ill be estimated by flame photometer. Tra e element"# <n and :u )ill be determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. Stat!"t! al anal1"!"# Means and standard error of mean )ill be calculated for tabulation of data. Data thus obtained )ill be sub.ected to t)o and three )ay analysis of +ariance technique. 8n case of

any significant difference means )ill be separated and student / test )ill be applied to find the difference bet)een t)o means.

4) Referen e"#
2llen*H.:.* 577". Mil( synthesis and secretion rates in co)s )ith mil( composition changed by o-ytocin. H. Dairy Sci.* '%(&)4 7'6$7#&. 2nderson* . .* 577!. :omparison of trace elements in mil( of four species. H. Dairy Sci.* '6(55)4 %"6"$%"66. @ansode*9.D.* 2.M.Mant3i* @./.Deshmu( and @.2./al+el(ar* 5770. Effect of intramuscular in.ection of o-ytocin on mil( production and its constituents. 8nd. H. Dairy Sci.* &7(5")4 '5#$'!". Flynn*2.* 577!. Minerals and trace elements in mil(. 2d+ances in Food and Nutrition esearch.* %0(%)4 !"7$!6!. ?aucheron*F.* !""6. /he minerals of mil(. epord. Nutr. De+. &6(')4&'%$&#%. ?o+t.of 9a(istan* !""#. Economic sur+ey !""'$"#. ?o+ernment of 9a(istan* Finance Di+ision*Economic 2d+isorEs Jing* 8slamabad* 9a(istan. Haenlein*?.* !""%. Nutritional +alue of dairy products of e)e and goat mil(. 2ccessed on Han. 56* !""7. 2+ailable at. http4BBag.udel.eduBe-tensionBinformationBgoatmgtBg m$5".htm. Holt*:.* 57#6. /he mil( salts4 their secretions* concentrations and physical chemistry. H. Dairy Sic.* '5(%)475'$7!&. Hohn*M and .2ntonie* 57##. :hanges in the mineral balance of mil(. /rends in Food Science L /echnology.* 7(5)4 !#5$!## >night*:.H.* 577&. Short$term o-ytocin treatment increase bo+ine mil( remo+al )ithout any direct action on mammary metabolism. H. Endocrinol.* 5&!(%)4 &'5$&'%. >omoro)s(i*H and .H.Ealy* 577!. /he prospect of obtaining beneficial mineral and +itamin contents in co)Es mil( through feed. H. 2nimal and Feed Sciences.* 50(5)4 !5M&5 ;inda*1.;.* ?./.@lec( and .D.@remel* 577%. /he effect of daily o-ytocin in.ection before and after mil(ing on mil( production* mil( plasmin and mil( composition. H. Dairy. Sci.* '0(0)4 5&66$5&67. ;indmar(*M.H.* .Fonden and H.E.9ettersson* !""%. :omposition of S)edish dairy mil(. 8nt. Dairy H.* 0(!)4 &"7$&!6. ;in3ell*H.; and M.9ea(er* 57'5. /he permeability of mammary ducts. H. 9hysiol.* !50(55)4 '5"$'50.

;in3ell*H.; and M.9ea(er* 57'&. :hanges in colostrum composition and in the permeability of the mammary epithelium at about the time of parturition in the goat. H. 9hysiol.* !&%(5)4 5!7$565. ;ope3*H.J.* F.;eenhardt* :.:oudray and :. emesy* !""!. Minerals and phytic acid interactions4 is it a real problem for human nutrition. 8nt. H. Food Sci. /ech.* %'(7)4'!'$'%7. Maurya*D.9 and .S.;udri* 577!. Effect of o-ytocin administration on mil( let do)n time* mil(ing rate and composition of mil( in buffaloes. 8nd. H. 2nim. Sci.* 0!(%)4!5"$!5&. Morrissery*9.2 and 2.Flynn* 577". @ioa+ailability of minerals in mil(. 8nt. Dairy :ongress* Montreal. !!(!)465!$650. Nic(erson*S.:.* 5777. Mil( production4 Factors affecting mil( composition. 8n4 Mil( quality* edited by Harding* F. 2spen 9ublishers* 8nc. ?aithersburg* Maryland* 2span. (5)4 %$!%. Norman*N.9 and H.H.Hotch(iss* 5770. Food Science. :@S 9ublishers and Distributors. 6(5)4 !'7. Nostrand*S.D.* D.M ?alton* H.N.Erb and D.E @auman* 5775. Effect of daily e-ogenous o-ytocin on lactation* mil( yield and composition. H. Dairy Sci.* '&(')4 !557$ !5!'. 9assmore* and M.2 East)ood* 57#'. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. English ;anguage @oo( SocietyB :hurchill ;i+ingstone. #4 !55. Sagi* .* .:.?ore)it and D.@.Jilson* 57#". ole of e-ogenous o-ytocin in eliciting mil( e.ection in dairy co)s. H Dairy Sci.* 0%(0)4 !""0$!"55.