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# IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

cy1.0 ETAP provides two short-circuit calculation methods based on ANSI IEEE and IE! standards. "ou can select the calculation method #rom the Short-!ircuit Study !ase Editor. This section describes the IE! standard method o# calculation. Standard !ompliance ETAP short-circuit calculation per IE! standards #ully complies with the latest IE! documentation as listed below% Standard IE! &00'& IE! &00\$+\$-1 IE! &1/&/ IE! &003+1 IE! &00404-1 IE! &00404-\$ IE! &00463-1 IE! &00463-\$ Title (i)h volta)e alternatin)-current circuit-brea*ers ,uses #or volta)es e-ceedin) 1000 . ac Electrical Installations o# Ships and 0obile and ,i-ed 1##shore 2nits Application )uide #or calculation o# short-circuit currents in low volta)e radial systems Short-circuit calculation in three-phase ac systems Electrical e5uipment - data #or short-circuit current calculations in accordance with IE! 404 7ow volta)e switch)ear and control)ear8 Part 1% 9eneral rules 7ow volta)e switch)ear and control)ear8 Part \$% !ircuitbrea*ers

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These standards are #or short-circuit calculation and e5uipment ratin) in ac systems with nominal volta)es up to \$60 *. and operatin) at '0 (: or &0 (:. They cover ; three-phase8 line-to-)round8 line-to-line8 and line-to-line-to-)round #aults.

IE! 404 and the associated standards classi#y short-circuit currents accordin) to their ma)nitudes <ma-imum and minimum= and #ault distances #rom the )enerator <#ar and near=. 0a-imum short-circuit currents determine e5uipment ratin)s8 while minimum currents dictate protective device settin)s. Near-to-)enerator and #ar-#rom-)enerator classi#ications determine whether or not to model the ac component decay in the calculation8 respectively. IE! &1/&/ Standard calculates the short-circuit current as a #unction o# time and displays its instantaneous values usin) the machine>s subtransient reactance and time constants. This provides an accurate evaluation o# the short-circuit current #or si:in) protective devices and coordinatin) relays #or isolated systems such as ships and o##-shore plat#orms. /.0 9eneral ?escription o# !alculation 0ethodolo)y In IE! short-circuit calculations8 an e5uivalent volta)e source at the #ault location replaces all volta)e sources. A volta)e #actor c is applied to ad@ust the value o# the e5uivalent volta)e source #or minimum and ma-imum current calculations. All machines are represented by their internal impedances. 7ine capacitances and static loads are ne)lected. Trans#ormer taps can be set at either the nominal position or at the tapped position8 and di##erent schemes are available to correct trans#ormer impedance and system volta)es i# o##-nominal tap settin) e-ists.

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

System impedances are assumed to be balanced three-phase8 and the method o# symmetrical components is used #or unbalanced #ault calculations. !alculations consider electrical distance #rom the #ault location to synchronous )enerators. ,or a #ar-#rom-)enerator #ault8 calculations assume that the steady-state value o# the short-circuit current is e5ual to the initial symmetrical short-circuit current. 1nly the dc component decays to :ero8 whereas #or a near-to-)enerator #ault8 calculations count #or both decayin) ac and dc components. The e5uivalent A B ratios determine the rates o# decay o# both components8 and di##erent values are recommended #or )enerators and motors near the #ault. !alculations also di##er #or meshed and unmeshed networ*s. The #actor *8 which is used to multiply the initial short-circuit current to )et the pea* short-circuit current ip8 is de#ined di##erently #or di##erent system con#i)urations and the methods selected to calculate the A B ratios. 6.0 ?e#inition o# Terms IE! standards use the #ollowin) de#initions8 which are relevant in the calculations and outputs o# PowerStation. Initial Symmetrical Short-!ircuit !urrent <IC*= This is the rms value o# the ac symmetrical component o# an available shortcircuit current applicable at the instant o# short-circuit i# the impedance remains at :ero time value. Pea* Short-!ircuit !urrent <ip= This is the ma-imum possible instantaneous value o# the available shortcircuit current. Symmetrical Short-!ircuit Drea*in) !urrent <Ib= This is the rms value o# an inte)ral cycle o# the symmetrical ac component o# the available short-circuit current at the instant o# contact separation o# the #irst pole o# a switchin) device. Steady-State Short-!ircuit !urrent <I*= This is the rms value o# the short-circuit current which remains a#ter the decay o# the transient phenomena. Subtransient .olta)e <EC= o# a Synchronous 0achine This is the rms value o# the symmetrical internal volta)e o# a synchronous machine which is active behind the subtransient reactance BCd at the moment o# short-circuit. ,ar-,rom-9enerator Short-!ircuit This is a short-circuit condition durin) which the ma)nitude o# the symmetrical ac component o# available short-circuit current remains essentially constant.

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

Near-To-9enerator Short-!ircuit This is a short-circuit condition to which at least one synchronous machine contributes a prospective initial short-circuit current which is more than twice the )enerator>s rated current8 or a short-circuit condition to which synchronous and asynchronous motors contribute more than 'E o# the initial symmetrical short-circuit current < IC*= without motors.

Subtransient Aeactance <BCd= o# a Synchronous 0achine This is the e##ective reactance at the moment o# short-circuit. ,or the calculation o# short-circuit currents8 the saturated value o# <BCd= is ta*en. Accordin) to IE! Standard 4048 the synchronous motor impedance used in IE! short-circuit calculations is calculated in the same way as the synchronous )enerator. FG H G9 <A I BdC= G9 H <*.n I ! ma-= <*.n 1 I Bd sinJr= FG H G9<AIBCd= *.n cma*.r 1I-Cd sinKr G9 H Lhere *.n and *.r are the nominal volta)e o# the terminal bus and the motor rated *. respectively8 !ma- is determined based on motor rated volta)e8 -dC is machine subtransient reactance <per unit in motor base=8 and @r is the machine rated power #actor an)le.

0inimum Time ?elay <Tmin= o# a !ircuit Drea*er This is the shortest time between the be)innin) o# the short-circuit current and the #irst contact separation o# one pole o# the switchin) device. Note that the time delay <Tmin= is the sum o# the shortest possible operatin) time o# an instantaneous relay and the shortest openin) time o# a circuit brea*er. 0inimum time delay does not include the ad@ustable time delays o# trippin) devices.

.olta)e ,actor c This is the #actor used to ad@ust the value o# the e5uivalent volta)e source #or minimum and ma-imum current calculations accordin) to the #ollowin) table% N #inal V lta!e Un V lta!e Fa"t r " F r \$a%i#&# F r \$ini#&# S' rt(Cir"&it S' rt(Cir"&it C&rrent C&rrent Cal"&lati n Cal"&lati n "#in "#a% 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0' 1.0

(i)h .olta)e %- M /' *. to \$/0 *. 0edium .olta)e %- M 1 *. to /' *. 1ther .olta)e %- N 1000 .

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

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!alculation 0ethods Initial Symmetrical Short-!ircuit !urrent !alculation Initial symmetrical short-circuit current <IC*= is calculated usin) the #ollowin) #ormula% IO* H c 2n P/ F* where F* is the e5uivalent impedance at the #ault location. Pea* Short-!ircuit !urrent !alculation Pea* short-circuit current <Ip= is calculated usin) the #ollowin) #ormula% i p H P\$ * IO* where * is a #unction o# the system A B ratio at the #ault location. IE! standards provide three methods #or calculatin) the * #actor% Q 0ethod A - 2ni#orm ratio A B. The value o# the * #actor is determined #rom ta*in) the smallest ratio o# A B o# all the branches o# the networ*. 1nly branches that contain a total o# +0 percent o# the current at the nominal volta)e correspondin) to the short-circuit location are included. Dranches may be a series combination o# several elements. 0ethod D - A B ratio at the short-circuit location. The value o# the * #actor is determined by multiplyin) the * #actor by a sa#ety #actor o# 1.1'8 which covers inaccuracies caused a#ter obtainin) the A B ratio #rom a networ* reduction with comple- impedances. 0ethod ! - E5uivalent #re5uency. The value o# the * #actor is calculated usin) a #re5uency-altered A B. A B is calculated at a lower #re5uency and then multiplied by a #re5uency-dependent multiplyin) #actor.

Symmetrical Short-!ircuit Drea*in) !urrent !alculation ,or a #ar-#rom-)enerator #ault8 the symmetrical short-circuit brea*in) current <Ib= is e5ual to the initial symmetrical short-circuit current. Ib H IO * ,or near-to-)enerator #ault8 <Ib= is obtained by combinin) contributions #rom each individual machine. <Ib= #or di##erent types o# machines are calculated usin) the #ollowin) #ormula% I b H R IO * #or synchronous machines I b H R 5 IO * #or asynchronous machines where R and 5 are #actors that account #or ac decay. They are #unctions o# the ratio o# the minimum time delay and the ratio o# the machine>s initial short-circuit current to its rated current8 as well as real power per pair o# poles o# asynchronous machines.

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

IE! standards allow you to include or e-clude ac decay e##ect #rom asynchronous machines in the calculation. ?! !omponent o# Short-!ircuit !urrent !alculation The dc component o# the short-circuit current #or the minimum delay time o# a protective device8 is calculated based on initial symmetrical short-circuit current and system B A ratio% I dc H I>> * P S \$ - EBP T <- \$.U.#.t min= < B A = V W where # is the system #re5uency8 tmin is the minimum delay time o# the protective device under concern8 and B A is the system value at the #aulted bus. Asymmetrical Short-!ircuit Drea*in) !urrent !alculation The asymmetrical short-circuit brea*in) current #or comparison with circuit brea*er ratin)8 is calculated as the rms value o# symmetrical and dc components o# the short circuit current. ,or #uses8 it is the sum o# asymmetrical currents #rom all #irst level contribution branches. Steady-State Short-!ircuit !urrent !alculation Steady-state short-circuit current <I*= is a combination o# contributions #rom synchronous )enerators. <I*= #or each synchronous )enerator is calculated usin) the #ollowin) #ormula% I * ma- H X ma- I r9 I * min H X min I r9 where X is a #unction o# a )enerator>s e-citation volta)e8 ratio between its initial symmetrical short-circuit current and rated current8 and other )enerator parameters8 and Ir9 is the )enerator>s rated current. The ma-imum steady-state current re#lects ma-imum modelin) inaccuracies. This value is used to determine minimum device ratin)s. The minimum steady-state current re#lects minimum modelin) inaccuracies. This value is used #or relay coordination purposes in preventin) the occurrence o# nuisance trips and loadin) deviations. &.0 !omparison o# ?evice Aatin) and Short-!ircuit ?uty In the Three-Phase ?evice ?uty calculation8 PowerStation compares the protective device ratin) a)ainst bus short-current duty #or the devices that are chec*ed as complyin) with IE! standard and also have device ratin) entered. In case the short-circuit duty is )reater than the device duty8 PowerStation will #la) the device as underrated in both one-line dia)ram and output reports. The #ollowin) table lists the device ratin)s and short-circuit duties used #or the comparison #or 0. !D8 7. !D8 and #uses%

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

?evice Type 0. !D 0a*in) ?evice !apability S! !urrent ?uty 0a*in) ip A! Drea*in) Ib8symm Ib8asymm Y Ib8 asymm Idc Y 7. !D 0a*in) Ip A! Drea*in) Ib8symm Ib8asymm Y Ib8 asymm Idc Y ,use Drea*in) Ib8symm Ib8asymm Y Ib8asymm !omparison o# ?evice Aatin) and Short-!urrent ?uty Y?evice capability calculated by PowerStation. 3.0 Transient Short-!ircuit !alculation In additional to device duty calculations8 PowerStation also provides transient shortcircuit calculation per IE! standard &1/&/-1. The transient short-circuit calculation presents #ault current wave#orms as a #unction o# time8 considerin) a number o# #actors that a##ect short-circuit current variations at di##erent time a#ter the #ault. These #actors include synchronous machine subtransient reactance8 transient reactance8 reactance8 subtransient time constant8 transient time constant8 and dc time constant. It also considers decay o# short-circuit contributions #rom induction motors. This detailed modelin) provides an accurate evaluation o# the short-circuit current #or si:in) protective devices and coordinatin) relays #or isolated systems such as ships and o##-shore plat#orms. The calculation can be conducted on both radial and looped system with one or multiply sources. As calculation results8 PowerStation provides short-circuit current as #unction o# time up to 0.1 second at 0.001 second time increment. It also presents short-circuit current as #unction o# cycles up to 1 cycle at 0.1 cycle increment. Alon) with the instantaneous current values8 PowerStation also #urnish calculated A! component8 ?! component8 as well as top envelope o# the current wave#orm. In the summary pa)e8 it also provides the subtransient8 transient8 and steady-state #ault current #or each bus. +.0 !alculation o# IE! ?evice !apability As Shown in the above table8 some o# the dvice capability values are calculated by PowerStation based on capability provided by users and de#ault parameters )iven in IE! standards. Q 0. !D ; The asymmetrical brea*in) and dc current ratin)s #or 0. !D are calculated as #ollows8 Ib8 asymm H Ib8 symm P S 1 I \$ - EBP T <- 6.U.#.t min= < B A = V W I dc H Ib8 symm P S \$ - EBP T <- \$.U.#.t min= < B A = V W Lhere # is the system #re5uency8 tmin is the minimum delay time8 and Ib8symm is the A! brea*in) current provided by the user. ,ollowin) IE! Standard '&8 ,i)ure 48 B A is calculated based on a testin) P, o# 3E at '0(:. Q 7. !D ; The asymmetrical brea*in) current ratin) #or 7. !D is calculated as #ollows%

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## IEC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS CONCEPTS & DATA REQUIRED

Ib8 asymm H Ib8 symm P S 1 I \$ - EBP T <- 6.U.#.t min= < B A = V W Lhere # is the system #re5uency8 tmin is the minimum delay time8 and Ib8symm is the brea*in) current provided by the user. B A is calculated based on a testin) P, )iven in IE! Standard 463-\$8 Table BI. Q ,use ; The asymmetrical brea*in) current ratin) #or #use is calculated as #ollows% Ib8 asymm H Ib8 symm P S 1 I \$ - EBP T <- 6.U.#.t min= < B A = V W Lhere # is the system #re5uency8 tmin is assumed to be a hal# cycle8 and Ib8symm is the brea*in) current provided by the user. B A is calculated based on the de#ault testin) P,o# 1' E.

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