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W. H.

Auden From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 29 September 1973, pronounced !"t#n h$u d#n %&1' !ho "i(ned hi" !ork" W. H. Auden, !a" an )n(lo*)merican poet,&2'&3' born in +n(land, later an )merican citi,en, re(arded by many a" one of the (reate"t !riter" of the 20th century-&.' /i" !ork i" noted for it" "tyli"tic and technical achie0ement", it" en(a(ement !ith moral and political i""ue", and it" 0ariety of tone, form and content- &1'&2' 3he central theme" of hi" poetry are lo0e, politic" and citi,en"hip, reli(ion and moral", and the relation"hip bet!een uni4ue human bein(" and the anonymou", imper"onal !orld of nature)uden (re! up in 5irmin(ham in a profe""ional middle cla"" family and read +n(li"h literature at 6hri"t 6hurch, 78ford- /i" early poem", !ritten in the late 1920" and early 1930", alternated bet!een tele(raphic modern "tyle" and fluent traditional one", !ere !ritten in an inten"e and dramatic tone, and e"tabli"hed hi" reputation a" a left*!in( political poet and prophet- /e became uncomfortable in thi" role in the later 1930", and abandoned it after he mo0ed to the 9nited State" in 1939, !here he became an )merican citi,en in 19.2- /i" poem" in the 19.0" e8plored reli(iou" and ethical theme" in a le"" dramatic manner than hi" earlier !ork", but "till combined traditional form" and "tyle" !ith ne! form" de0i"ed by )uden him"elf- :n the 1910" and 1920" many of hi" poem" focu"ed on the !ay" in !hich !ord" re0ealed and concealed emotion", and he took a particular intere"t in !ritin( opera libretto", a form ideally "uited to direct e8pre""ion of "tron( feelin("- &7' /e !a" al"o a prolific !riter of pro"e e""ay" and re0ie!" on literary, political, p"ycholo(ical and reli(iou" "ub$ect", and he !orked at 0ariou" time" on documentary film", poetic play" and other form" of performance- 3hrou(hout hi" career he !a" both contro0er"ial and influential- )fter hi" death, "ome of hi" poem", notably ;Funeral 5lue"; (;Stop all the clock";% and ;September 1, 1939;, became !idely kno!n throu(h film", broadca"t" and popular media-&.' [edit] Childhood and education, 19071927 [edit] Name 3he name Wy"tan ori(inate" from the 9th century St Wy"tan, a (rand"on of <in( Wi(laf of =ercia, !ho may ha0e ruled =ercia him"elf briefly in >39>.0- St Wy"tan !a" murdered by 5eorht!ulf, kin( of =ercia >.0*>12- /e !a" buried at ?epton,@erby"hire, !here a cult (re! up- )udenA" father, Beor(e )u(u"tu" )uden, !a" educated at ?epton School, !here the pari"h church i" called St Wy"tanA"-&>' [edit] Childhood Wy"tan /u(h )uden !a" born in Cork, +n(land, !here hi" father Beor(e )u(u"tu" )uden !a" a phy"ician- Wy"tan !a" the third of three children, all "on"D the elde"t, Beor(e 5ernard )uden, became a farmerD the "econd, Eohn 5icknell )uden, became a (eolo(i"t- /i" mother, 6on"tance ?o"alie 5icknell )uden, had trained a" a mi""ionary nur"e- )udenA" (randfather" !ere both 6hurch of +n(land cler(ymenD hi" hou"ehold !a" )n(lo*6atholic, follo!in( a ;/i(h; form of )n(licani"m !ith doctrine and ritual re"emblin( that of ?oman 6atholici"m-&9'&10' )uden traced hi" lo0e of mu"ic and lan(ua(e partly to the church "er0ice" of hi" childhood-&11' /e belie0ed he !a" of :celandic de"cent, and hi" lifelon( fa"cination !ith :celandic le(end" and "a(a" i" 0i"ible throu(hout hi" !ork-&12' :n 190> hi" family mo0ed to /arborne, 5irmin(ham, !here hi" father had been appointed the School =edical 7fficer and Fecturer (later Grofe""or% of Gublic /ealthD )udenA" lifelon( p"ychoanalytic intere"t" be(an in hi" fatherA" library- From the a(e of ei(ht he attended boardin( "chool", returnin( home for holiday"- &9'

From the a(e" "i8 to t!el0e, ;: "pent a (reat many of my !akin( hour" in the fabrication of a pri0ate "econdary "acred !orld, the ba"ic element" of !hich !ere (a% a lime"tone land"cape mainly deri0ed from the Gennine =oor" in the Horth of +n(land, and (b% an indu"try * lead minin(-;&13' /i" 0i"it" to the Gennine land"cape and it" declinin( lead*minin( indu"try fi(ure in many of hi" poem"D the remote decayin( minin( 0illa(e of ?ookhope !a" for him a ;"acred land"cape;,&1.' e0oked in a late poem, ;)mor Foci-; 9ntil he !a" fifteen he e8pected to become a minin( en(ineer, but hi" ;pa""ion for !ord"; had already be(un- /e !rote laterI ;!ord" "o e8cite me that a porno(raphic "tory, for e8ample, e8cite" me "e8ually more than a li0in( per"on can do-;&11' [edit] ducation )udenA" fir"t boardin( "chool !a" St- +dmundA" School, Surrey, !here he met 6hri"topher :"her!ood, later famou" in hi" o!n ri(ht a" a no0eli"t- )t thirteen he !ent to Bre"hamA" School in Horfolk, !here, in 1922, hi" friend ?obert =edley fir"t "u((e"ted that he mi(ht !rite poetry- &9' Soon after, he ;di"co0er(ed% that he (had% lo"t hi" faith; (throu(h a (radual reali"ation that he had lo"t intere"t in reli(ion, not throu(h any deci"i0e chan(e of 0ie!"%- &12' /e played 6aliban in a "chool production of The Tempest in 1922,&17' and hi" fir"t publi"hed poem" appeared in the "chool ma(a,ine in 1923-&1>' )uden later !rote a chapter on Bre"hamA" for Braham BreeneA" The Old School: Essays by Divers Hands (193.%-&19' :n 1921 he !ent to 6hri"t 6hurch, 78ford, !ith a "cholar"hip in biolo(y, but he "!itched to +n(li"h by hi" "econd year- Friend" he met at 78ford included 6ecil @ay Fe!i", Foui" =acHeice, and Stephen SpenderD the"e four !ere commonly thou(h mi"leadin(ly identified in the 1930" a" the ;)uden Broup; for their "hared (but not identical% left* !in( 0ie!"- )uden left 78ford in 192> !ith a third*cla"" de(ree-&9'&11' /e !a" reintroduced to 6hri"topher :"her!ood in 1921D for the ne8t fe! year" :"her!ood !a" hi" literary mentor to !hom he "ent poem" for comment" and critici"m- )uden probably fell in lo0e !ith :"her!ood and in the 1930" they maintained a "e8ual friend"hip in inter0al" bet!een their relation" !ith other"- :n 193139 they collaborated on three play" and a tra0el book-&20' From hi" 78ford year" on!ard, hi" friend" uniformly de"cribed him a" funny, e8tra0a(ant, "ympathetic, (enerou", and, partly by hi" o!n choice, lonely- :n (roup" he !a" often do(matic and o0erbearin( in a comic !ayD in more pri0ate "ettin(" he !a" diffident and "hy e8cept !hen certain of hi" !elcome- /e !a" punctual in hi" habit", and ob"e""i0e about meetin( deadline", !hile choo"in( to li0e amid"t phy"ical di"order- &10' [edit] !"itain and u"o#e, 192$19%$ :n the autumn of 192> )uden left 5ritain for nine month" in Weimar 5erlin, partly to rebel a(ain"t +n(li"h repre""i0ene"" in a city !here homo"e8uality !a" !idely tolerated- :n 5erlin, he "aid, he fir"t e8perienced the political and economic unre"t that became one of hi" central "ub$ect"- &11' 7n returnin( to 5ritain in 1929, he !orked briefly a" a tutor- :n 1930 hi" fir"t publi"hed book, Poems (1930%, !a" accepted by 3- S- +liot for Faber and FaberD the firm al"o publi"hed all hi" later book"- :n 1930 he be(an fi0e year" a" a "choolma"ter in boy"A "chool"I t!o year" at the Farchfield )cademy, in /elen"bur(h, Scotland, then three year" at the 3he @o!n" School, in the =al0ern /ill", !here he !a" a much*lo0ed teacher-&9' )t the @o!n", in Eune 1933, he e8perienced !hat he later de"cribed a" a ;Ji"ion of )(ape,; !hen, !hile "ittin( !ith three fello!*teacher" at the "chool, he "uddenly found that he lo0ed them for them"el0e", that their e8i"tence had infinite 0alue for himD thi" e8perience, he "aid, later influenced hi" deci"ion to return to the )n(lican 6hurch in 19.0-&21' @urin( the"e year", )udenA" erotic intere"t" focu"ed, a" he later "aid, on an ideali,ed ;)lter +(o; &22' rather than on indi0idual per"on"- /i" relation" (and hi" un"ucce""ful court"hip"% tended to be une4ual either in a(e or intelli(enceD hi" "e8ual relation" !ere tran"ient, althou(h "ome e0ol0ed into lon( friend"hip"- /e contra"ted the"e relation" !ith

!hat he later re(arded a" the ;marria(e; (hi" !ord% of e4ual" that he be(an !ith 6he"ter <allman in 1939 ("ee belo!%, ba"ed on the uni4ue indi0iduality of both partner"-&23'

From 1931 until he left 5ritain early in 1939, )uden !orked a" freelance re0ie!er, e""ayi"t, and lecturer, fir"t !ith the B-G-7- Film 9nit, a documentary film*makin( branch of the po"t office, headed by Eohn Brier"on- 3hrou(h hi" !ork for the Film 9nit in 1931 he met and collaborated !ith 5en$amin 5ritten, !ith !hom he al"o !orked on play", "on( cycle", and a libretto- )udenA" play" in the 1930" !ere performed by the Broup 3heatre, in production" that he "uper0i"ed to 0aryin( de(ree"-&11' /i" !ork no! reflected hi" belief that any (ood arti"t mu"t be ;more than a bit of a reportin( $ournali"t-; &2.' :n 1932 he "pent three month" in :celand, !here he (athered material for a tra0el book Letters from Iceland (1937%, !ritten in collaboration !ith Foui" =acHeice- :n 1937 he !ent to Spain intendin( to dri0e an ambulance for the ?epublic in the Spani"h 6i0il War, but !a" put to !ork broadca"tin( propa(anda, a $ob he left in order to 0i"it the front- /i" "e0en*!eek 0i"it to Spain affected him deeply, and hi" "ocial 0ie!" (re! more comple8 a" he found political realitie" to be more ambi(uou" and troublin( than he had ima(ined-&9'&23' )(ain attemptin( to combine reporta(e and art, he and :"her!ood "pent "i8 month" in 193> 0i"itin( the Sino*Eapane"e War, !orkin( on their book Journey to a ar (1939%- 7n their !ay back to +n(land they "tayed briefly in He! Cork and decided to mo0e to the 9nited State"- )uden "pent the autumn of 193> partly in +n(land, partly in 5ru""el"-&9' =any of hi" poem" durin( the 1930" and after!ard !ere in"pired by uncon"ummated lo0e, and in the 1910" he "ummari,ed hi" emotional life in a famou" coupletI ;:f e4ual affection cannot be Fet the more lo0in( one be me; (;3he =ore Fo0in( 7ne;%- /e had a (ift for friend"hip and, "tartin( in the late 1930", a "tron( !i"h for the "tability of marria(eD in a letter to hi" friend Eame" Stern he called marria(e ;the only "ub$ect-;&21' 3hrou(hout hi" life, he performed charitable act", "ometime" in public (a" in hi" marria(e of con0enience to +rika =ann in 1931 that (a0e her a 5riti"h pa""port !ith !hich to e"cape the Ha,i"&9'%, but, e"pecially in later year", more often in pri0ate, and he !a" embarra""ed if they !ere publicly re0ealed, a" !hen hi" (ift to hi" friend @orothy @ay for the 6atholic Worker mo0ement !a" reported on the front pa(e of The !e" #or$ Times in 1912-&22' [edit] &nited 'tates and u"o#e, 19%9197% )uden and :"her!ood "ailed to He! Cork in Eanuary 1939, enterin( on temporary 0i"a"- 3heir departure from 5ritain !a" later "een by many there a" a betrayal and )udenA" reputation "uffered- &9' :n )pril 1939 :"her!ood mo0ed to 6alifornia, and he and )uden "a! each other only intermittently in later year"- )round thi" time, )uden met the poet 6he"ter <allman, !ho became hi" lo0er for the ne8t t!o year" ()uden de"cribed their relation a" a ;marria(e; that be(an !ith a cro""*country ;honeymoon; $ourney%- &27' :n 19.1 <allman ended their "e8ual relation" becau"e he could not accept )udenA" in"i"tence on a mutual faithful relation"hip, but he and )uden remained companion" for the re"t of )udenA" life, "harin( hou"e" and apartment" from 1913 until )udenA" death- )uden dedicated both edition" of hi" collected poetry (19.1 10 and 1922% to :"her!ood and <allman-&2>' :n 19.0.1, )uden li0ed in a hou"e in 5rooklyn /ei(ht" !hich he "hared !ith 6ar"on =c6uller", 5en$amin 5ritten, and other", and !hich became a famou" center of arti"tic life-&29' :n 19.0, he $oined the +pi"copal 6hurch, returnin( to the )n(lican 6ommunion he had abandoned at thirteen- /i" recon0er"ion !a" influenced partly by !hat he called the ;"ainthood; of 6harle" William",&30' !hom he had met in 1937, partly by readin( SKren <ierke(aard and ?einhold HiebuhrD hi" e8i"tential, thi"*!orldly 6hri"tianity became a central element in hi" life- &31' :n 19.1.2 he tau(ht +n(li"h at the 9ni0er"ity of =ichi(an- /e !a" a!arded a Bu((enheim Fello!"hip in 19.2, but did not u"e it, choo"in( in"tead to teach at S!arthmore 6olle(e in 19.2.1-&9' :n the "ummer of 19.1, after the end of World War :: in +urope, he !a" in Bermany !ith the 9- S- Strate(ic 5ombin( Sur0ey, "tudyin( the effect" of )llied bombin( on Berman morale, an e8perience that affected hi" po"t!ar !ork a" hi" 0i"it to Spain had affected him earlier-&2>' 7n hi" return, he "ettled in =anhattan, !orkin( a" a freelance !riter and a" a 0i"itin( profe""or at 5ennin(ton, Smith, and other )merican colle(e"- :n 19.2 he became a naturali,ed citi,en of the 9S-&9'&11'

/i" theolo(y in hi" later year" e0ol0ed from a hi(hly in!ard and p"ycholo(ically oriented Grote"tanti"m in the early 19.0" to a more ?oman 6atholic*oriented intere"t in the "i(nificance of the body and in collecti0e ritual in the later 19.0" and 1910", and finally to the theolo(y of @ietrich 5onhoeffer !hich re$ected ;childi"h; conception" of Bod for an adult reli(ion that focu"ed on the "i(nificance of human "ufferin(- &2>'&31' )uden be(an "ummerin( in +urope in 19.>, fir"t in :"chia, :taly, !here he rented a hou"e, then, "tartin( 191>, in <irch"tetten, )u"tria !here he bou(ht a farmhou"e, and, he "aid, "hed tear" of $oy at o!nin( a home for the fir"t time-&9'

:n 1911, "hortly before the t!o 5riti"h "pie" Buy 5ur(e"" and @onald =aclean fled to the 9SS?, 5ur(e"" attempted to phone )uden to arran(e a 0acation 0i"it to :"chia that he had earlier di"cu""ed !ith )udenD )uden ne0er returned the call and had no further contact !ith either "py, but a media fren,y en"ued in !hich hi" name !a" mi"takenly a""ociated !ith their e"cape- 3he fren,y !a" repeated !hen the =:1 document" on the incident !ere relea"ed in 2007-&32'&33' :n 191221, )uden !a" Grofe""or of Goetry at 78ford 9ni0er"ity !here he !a" re4uired to (i0e three lecture" each year- 3hi" fairly li(ht !orkload allo!ed him to continue to !inter in He! Cork, !here he no! li0ed on St- =arkA" Glace, and to "ummer in +urope, "pendin( only three !eek" each year lecturin( in 78ford- /e no! earned hi" income mo"tly by readin(" and lecture tour", and by !ritin( for The !e" #or$er and other ma(a,ine"-&11' @urin( hi" la"t year", hi" con0er"ation became repetiti0e, to the di"appointment of friend" !ho had kno!n him earlier a" a !itty and !ide*ran(in( con0er"ationali"t-&9'&3.' :n 1972, he mo0ed hi" !inter home from He! Cork to 78ford, !here hi" old colle(e, 6hri"t 6hurch, offered him a cotta(e, but he continued to "ummer in )u"tria- /e died in Jienna in 1973 and !a" buried in <irch"tetten-&9' [edit] Wo"( See also: %iblio&raphy of [edit] )*e"*ie+ )uden publi"hed about four hundred poem", includin( "e0en lon( poem" (t!o of them book*len(th%- /i" poetry !a" encyclopedic in "cope and method, ran(in( in "tyle from ob"cure t!entieth*century moderni"m to the lucid traditional form" "uch a" ballad" and limerick", from do((erel throu(h haiku and 0illanelle" to a ;6hri"tma" 7ratorio; and a baro4ue eclo(ue in )n(lo*Sa8on meter"-&7' 3he tone and content of hi" poem" ran(ed from pop*"on( clichL" to comple8 philo"ophical meditation", from the corn" on hi" toe" to atom" and "tar", from contemporary cri"e" to the e0olution of "ociety- &23'&.' /e al"o !rote more than four hundred e""ay" and re0ie!" about literature, hi"tory, politic", mu"ic, reli(ion, and many other "ub$ect"- /e collaborated on play" !ith 6hri"topher :"her!ood and on opera libretti !ith 6he"ter <allman, !orked !ith a (roup of arti"t" and filmmaker" on documentary film" in the 1930" and !ith the He! Cork Gro =u"ica early mu"ic (roup in the 1910" and 1920"- )bout collaboration he !rote in 192.I ;collaboration ha" brou(ht me (reater erotic $oy - - - than any "e8ual relation" : ha0e had-;&31' )uden contro0er"ially re!rote or di"carded "ome of hi" mo"t famou" poem" !hen he prepared hi" later collected edition"- /e !rote that he re$ected poem" that he found ;borin(; or ;di"hone"t; in the "en"e that they e8pre""ed 0ie!" that he had ne0er held but had u"ed only becau"e he felt they !ould be rhetorically effecti0e- &32' /i" re$ected poem" include ;Spain; and ;September 1, 1939-; /i" literary e8ecutor, +d!ard =endel"on, ar(ue" in hi" introduction to )udenA" Selected Poems that )udenA" practice reflected hi" "en"e of the per"ua"i0e po!er of poetry and hi" reluctance to mi"u"e it-&37' (Selected Poems include" "ome poem" that )uden re$ected and early te8t" of poem" that he re0i"ed-% ' H' (uden

[edit] a"ly +o"(, 192219%9

[edit] &# to 19%0 )uden be(an !ritin( poem" at thirteen, mo"tly in the "tyle" of 19th*century romantic poet", e"pecially Word"!orth, and later poet" !ith rural intere"t", e"pecially 3homa" /ardy- )t ei(hteen he di"co0ered 3- S- +liot and adopted an e8treme 0er"ion of +liotA" "tyle- /e found hi" o!n 0oice at t!enty, !hen he !rote the fir"t poem later included in hi" collected !ork, ;From the 0ery fir"t comin( do!n-;&23' 3hi" and other poem" of the late 1920" tended to be in a clipped, elu"i0e "tyle that alluded to, but did not directly "tate, their theme" of loneline"" and lo""- 3!enty of the"e poem" appeared in hi" fir"t book Poems (192>%, a pamphlet hand*printed by Stephen Spender-&3>' :n 192> he !rote hi" fir"t dramatic !ork, Paid on %oth Sides, "ubtitled ;) 6harade,; !hich combined "tyle and content from the :celandic "a(a" !ith $oke" from +n(li"h "chool life- 3hi" mi8ture of tra(edy and farce, !ith a dream play*!ithin*the*play, introduced the mi8ed "tyle" and content of much of hi" later !ork- &7' 3hi" drama and thirty "hort poem" appeared in hi" fir"t publi"hed book Poems (1930, 2nd edition !ith "e0en poem" replaced, 1933%D the poem" in the book !ere mo"tly lyrical and (nomic mediation" on hoped*for or uncon"ummated lo0e and on theme" of per"onal, "ocial, and "ea"onal rene!alD amon( the"e poem" !ere ;:t !a" +a"ter a" : !alked,; ;@oom i" dark,; ;Sir, no manA" enemy,; and ;3hi" lunar beauty-; &23' ) recurrent theme in the"e early poem" i" the effect of ;family (ho"t";, )udenA" term for the po!erful, un"een p"ycholo(ical effect" of precedin( (eneration" on any indi0idual life (and the title of a poem%- ) parallel theme, pre"ent throu(hout hi" !ork, i" the contra"t bet!een biolo(ical e0olution (uncho"en and in0oluntary% and the p"ycholo(ical e0olution of culture" and indi0idual" (0oluntary and deliberate e0en in it" "ubcon"ciou" a"pect"%- &7'&23' [edit] 19%1 to 19%, )udenA" ne8t lar(e*"cale !ork !a" The Orators: (n En&lish Study (1932D re0i"ed edition", 193., 1922%, in 0er"e and pro"e, lar(ely about hero*!or"hip in per"onal and political life- :n hi" "horter poem", hi" "tyle became more open and acce""ible, and the e8uberant ;Si8 7de"; in The Orators reflect hi" ne! intere"t in ?obert 5urn"-&7' @urin( the ne8t fe! year", many of hi" poem" took their form and "tyle from traditional ballad" and popular "on(", and al"o from e8pan"i0e cla""ical form" like the 7de" of /orace, !hich he "eem" to ha0e di"co0ered throu(h the Berman poet /Mlderlin-&23' )round thi" time hi" main influence" !ere @ante, William Fan(land, and )le8ander Gope-&39'

@urin( the"e year", much of hi" !ork e8pre""ed left*!in( 0ie!", and he became !idely kno!n a" a political poet, althou(h hi" !ork !a" more politically ambi0alent than many re0ie!er" reco(ni,ed- &23' /e (enerally !rote about re0olutionary chan(e in term" of a ;chan(e of heart;, a tran"formation of a "ociety from a clo"ed*off p"ycholo(y of fear to an open p"ycholo(y of lo0e-&10' /i" 0er"e drama The Dance of Death (1933% !a" a political e8tra0a(an,a in the "tyle of a theatrical re0ue, !hich )uden later called ;a nihili"tic le(*pull-; &.0' /i" ne8t play The Do& %eneath the S$in (1931%, !ritten in collaboration !ith :"her!ood, !a" "imilarly a 4ua"i*=ar8i"t updatin( of Bilbert and Sulli0an in !hich the (eneral idea of "ocial tran"formation !a" more prominent than any "pecific political action or "tructure&7'&23'

The (scent of )* (1937%, another play !ritten !ith :"her!ood, !a" partly an anti*imperiali"t "atire, partly (in the character of the "elf*de"troyin( climber =ichael ?an"om% an e8amination of )udenA" o!n moti0e" in takin( on a public role a" a political poet-&23' 3hi" play included the fir"t 0er"ion of ;Funeral 5lue"; (;Stop all the clock";%, !ritten a" a "atiric eulo(y for a politicianD )uden later re!rote the poem a" a ;6abaret Son(; about lo"t lo0e (!ritten to be "un( by the "oprano /edli )nder"on for !hom he !rote many lyric" in the 1930"%-&.1' :n 1931, he !orked briefly on documentary film" !ith the B-G-7- Film 9nit, !ritin( hi" famou" 0er"e commentary for !i&ht +ail and

lyric" for other film" that !ere amon( hi" attempt" in the 1930" to create a !idely*acce""ible, "ocially*con"ciou" art&23'&7'&.1'

[edit] 19%- to 19%9 3he"e tendencie" in "tyle and content culminate in hi" collection Loo$, Stran&er- (1932D hi" 5riti"h publi"her cho"e the title, !hich )uden hatedD )uden retitled the 1937 9S edition On This Island%-&23' 3hi" book included political ode", lo0e poem", comic "on(", meditati0e lyric", and a 0ariety of intellectually inten"e but emotionally acce""ible 0er"e- )mon( the poem" included in the book, connected by theme" of per"onal, "ocial, and e0olutionary chan(e and of the po""ibilitie" and problem" of per"onal lo0e, !ere ;/earin( of har0e"t";, ;7ut on the la!n : lie in bed;, ;7 !hat i" that "ound;, ;Fook, "tran(er, on thi" i"land no!; (later re0i"ed 0er"ion" chan(e ;on; to ;at;%, and ;7ur huntin( father"-;&23'&7' )uden !a" no! ar(uin( that an arti"t "hould be a kind of $ournali"t, and he put thi" 0ie! into practice in Letters from Iceland (1937% a tra0el book in pro"e and 0er"e !ritten !ith Foui" =acHeice, !hich included hi" lon( "ocial, literary, and autobio(raphical commentary ;Fetter to Ford 5yron-;&.2' :n 1937, after ob"er0in( the Spani"h 6i0il War he !rote a politically*en(a(ed pamphlet poem Spain (1937%D he later di"carded it from hi" collected !ork"- Journey to a ar (1939% a tra0el book in pro"e and 0er"e, !a" !ritten !ith :"her!ood after their 0i"it to the Sino*Eapane"e War-&.2' )udenA" la"t collaboration !ith :"her!ood !a" their third play, On the )rontier, an anti*!ar "atire !ritten in 5road!ay and We"t +nd "tyle"-&23'&11' )udenA" theme" in hi" "horter poem" no! included the fra(ility and tran"ience of per"onal lo0e (;@an"e =acabre;, ;3he @ream;, ;Fay your "leepin( head;%, a theme he treated !ith ironic !it in hi" ;Four 6abaret Son(" for =i"" /edli )nder"on; (!hich included ;7 3ell =e the 3ruth )bout Fo0e; and the re0i"ed 0er"ion of ;Funeral 5lue";%, and al"o the corruptin( effect of public and official culture on indi0idual li0e" (;6a"ino;, ;School 6hildren;, ;@o0er;%-&7'&23' :n 193> he !rote a "erie" of dark, ironic ballad" about indi0idual failure (;=i"" Bee;, ;Eame" /oneyman;, ;Jictor;%- )ll the"e appeared in hi" ne8t book of 0er"e, (nother Time (19.0%, to(ether !ith other famou" poem" "uch a" ;@o0er;, ;)" /e :";, and ;=u"Le de" 5eau8 )rt"; (all !ritten before he mo0ed to )merica in 1939%, and ;:n =emory of W- 5- Ceat";, ;3he 9nkno!n 6iti,en;, ;Fa! Fike Fo0e;, ;September 1, 1939;, and ;:n =emory of Si(mund Freud; (!ritten in )merica%-&7' 3he ele(ie" for Ceat" and Freud are partly "tatement" of )udenA" anti*heroic theme, in !hich (reat deed" are performed, not by uni4ue (eniu"e" !hom other" cannot hope to imitate, but by other!i"e ordinary indi0idual" !ho !ere ;"illy like u"; (Ceat"% or of !hom it could be "aid ;he !a"nAt cle0er at all; (Freud%, and !ho became teacher" of other", not a!e*in"pirin( heroe"- &23' [edit] .iddle #e"iod, 19/019,7 [edit] 19/0 to 19/:n 19.0 )uden !rote a lon( philo"ophical poem ;He! Cear Fetter;, !hich appeared !ith mi"cellaneou" note" and other poem" in The Double +an (19.1%- )t the time of hi" return to the )n(lican 6ommunion he be(an !ritin( ab"tract 0er"e on theolo(ical theme", "uch a" ;6an,one; and ;<airo" and Fo(o"-; )round 19.2, a" he became more comfortable !ith reli(iou" theme", hi" 0er"e became more open and rela8ed, and he increa"in(ly u"ed the "yllabic 0er"e he learned from the poetry of =arianne =oore-&2>' /i" recurrin( theme" in thi" period included the arti"tA" temptation to u"e other per"on" a" material for hi" art rather than 0aluin( them for them"el0e" (;Gro"pero to )riel;% and the corre"pondin( moral obli(ation to make and keep commitment" !hile reco(ni,in( the temptation to break them (;:n Sickne"" and /ealth;%- &7'&2>' From 19.2 throu(h 19.7 he !orked mo"tly on three lon( poem" in dramatic form, each differin( from the other" in form and contentI ;For the 3ime 5ein(I ) 6hri"tma" 7ratorio;, ;3he Sea and the =irrorI ) 6ommentary on Shake"peareA" The Tempest; (both publi"hed in )or the Time %ein&, 19..%, and The (&e of (n.iety: ( %aro/ue Eclo&ue (publi"hed "eparately 19.7%-&2>' 3he fir"t t!o, !ith )udenA" other ne! poem" from 19.0*.., !ere included in hi" fir"t collected edition, The 0ollected Poetry of ' H' (uden (19.1%, !ith mo"t of hi" earlier poem", many in re0i"ed 0er"ion"-&7' [edit] 19/7 to 19,7

)fter completin( The (&e of (n.iety in 19.2 he focu"ed a(ain on "horter poem", notably ;) Walk )fter @ark,; ;3he Fo0e Fea"t;, and ;3he Fall of ?ome-;&2>' =any of the"e e0oked the :talian 0illa(e !here he "ummered in 19.>* 17, and hi" ne8t book, !ones (1911%, had a =editerranean atmo"phere ne! to hi" !ork- ) ne! theme !a" the ;"acred importance; of the human body&.3' in it" ordinary a"pect (breathin(, "leepin(, eatin(% and the continuity !ith nature that the body made po""ible (in contra"t to the di0i"ion bet!een humanity and nature that he had empha"i,ed in the 1930"%D hi" poem" on the"e theme" included ;:n Grai"e of Fime"tone; and ;=emorial for the 6ity-;&7'&2>' :n 19.9 )uden and <allman !rote the libretto for :(or Stra0in"kyA" opera The 1a$e2s Pro&ress, and later collaborated on t!o libretti for opera" by /an" Werner /en,e-&9'&..' )udenA" fir"t "eparate pro"e book !a" The Enchaf3d )lood: The 1omantic Icono&raphy of the Sea (1910%, ba"ed on a "erie" of lecture" on the ima(e of the "ea in romantic literature- &.1' 5et!een 19.9 and 191. he !orked on a "e4uence of "e0en Bood Friday poem", ;/orae 6anonicae;, an encyclopedic "ur0ey of (eolo(ical, biolo(ical, cultural, and per"onal hi"tory, focu"ed on the irre0er"ible act of murderD the poem !a" al"o a "tudy in cyclical and linear idea" of time- While !ritin( thi", he al"o !rote a "e4uence of "e0en poem" about manA" relation to nature, ;5ucolic"-; 5oth "e4uence" appeared in hi" ne8t book, The Shield of (chilles (1911%, !ith other "hort poem", includin( the bookA" title poem, ;Fleet Ji"it;, and ;+pitaph for the 9nkno!n Soldier-; &7'&2>' +8tendin( the theme" of ;/orae 6anonicae;, in 191112 he !rote a (roup of poem" about ;hi"tory,; the term he u"ed to mean the "et of uni4ue e0ent" made by human choice", a" oppo"ed to ;nature,; the "et of in0oluntary e0ent" created by natural proce""e", "tati"tic", and anonymou" force" "uch a" cro!d"- 3he"e poem" included ;3 the Breat;, ;3he =aker;, and the title poem of hi" ne8t collection Homa&e to 0lio (1920%-&7'&2>' [edit] 0ate" +o"(, 19,$197% :n the late 1910" )udenA" "tyle became le"" rhetorical !hile it" ran(e of "tyle" increa"ed- :n 191>, ha0in( mo0ed hi" "ummer home from :taly to )u"tria, he !rote ;Bood*bye to the =e,,o(iorno;D other poem" from thi" period include ;@ichtun( und WahrheitI )n 9n!ritten Goem;, a pro"e poem about the relation bet!een lo0e and per"onal and poetic lan(ua(e, and the contra"tin( ;@ame <ind;, about the anonymou" imper"onal reproducti0e in"tinct- 3he"e and other poem", includin( hi" 1911*22 poem" about hi"tory, appeared in Homa&e to 0lio (1920%-&7'&2>' /i" pro"e book The Dyer2s Hand (1922% (athered many of the lecture" he (a0e in 78ford a" Grofe""or of Goetry in 1912*21, to(ether !ith re0i"ed 0er"ion" of e""ay" and note" !ritten "ince the mid*19.0"-&2>' While tran"latin( the haiku and other 0er"e in @a( /ammar"k$MldA" +ar$in&s, )uden be(an u"in( haiku for many of hi" poem"-&2>' ) "e4uence of fifteen poem" about hi" hou"e in )u"tria, ;3hank"(i0in( for a /abitat;, appeared in (bout the House (1921%, !ith other poem" that included hi" reflection" on hi" lecture tour", ;7n the 6ircuit-;&7' :n the late 1920" he !rote "ome of hi" mo"t 0i(orou" poem", includin( ;?i0er Grofile; and t!o poem" that looked back o0er hi" life, ;Grolo(ue at Si8ty; and ;Forty Cear" 7n-; )ll the"e appeared in 0ity ithout alls (1929%- /i" lifelon( pa""ion for :celandic le(end culminated in hi" 0er"e tran"lation of The Elder Edda (1929%-&7'&2>' /e !a" commi""ioned in 1923 to !rite lyric" for the 5road!ay mu"ical =an of Fa =ancha, but the producer re$ected them a" in"ufficiently romantic-&..' ( 0ertain orld: ( 0ommonplace %oo$ (1970% !a" a kind of "elf* portrait made up of fa0orite 4uotation" !ith commentary, arran(ed in alphabetical order by "ub$ect- /i" la"t pro"e book !a" a "election of e""ay" and re0ie!", )ore"ords and (fter"ords (1973%-&9' /i" la"t book" of 0er"e, Epistle to a 4odson (1972% and the unfini"hed Than$ #ou, )o& (197.% include reflecti0e poem" about lan(ua(e (;Hatural Fin(ui"tic";% and about hi" o!n a(in( (;) He! Cear Breetin(;, ;3alkin( to =y"elf;, ;) Fullaby; &;3he din of !ork i" "ubdued;'%- /i" la"t completed poem, in haiku form, !a" ;)rcheolo(y;, about ritual and timele""ne"", t!o recurrin( theme" in hi" later year"- &2>' [edit] 1e#utation and in2luence

)udenA" "tature in modern literature ha" been di"puted, !ith opinion" ran(in( from that of /u(h =ac@iarmid, !ho called him ;a complete !a"h*out;, to the obituari"t in The Times (Fondon%, !ho !roteI ;W- /- )uden, for lon( the enfant terrible of +n(li"h poetry - - - emer(e" a" it" undi"puted ma"ter-;&.2' :n hi" enfant terrible "ta(e in the 1930" he !a" both prai"ed and di"mi""ed a" a pro(re""i0e and acce""ible 0oice, in contra"t to the politically no"tal(ic and poetically ob"cure 0oice of 3- S- +liot- /i" departure for )merica in 1939 !a" hotly debated in 5ritain (once e0en in Garliament%, !ith "ome critic" treatin( it a" a betrayal, and the role of influential youn( poet pa""ed to @ylan 3homa", althou(h defender" "uch a" Beoffrey Bri("on, in an introduction to a 19.9 antholo(y of modern poetry, !rote that )uden ;arche" o0er all-; /i" "tature !a" "u((e"ted by book title" "uch a" (uden and (fter by Franci" Scarfe (19.2% and The (uden 4eneration by Samuel /yne" (1972%-&.' :n the 9S, "tartin( in the late 1930", the detached, ironic tone of )udenA" re(ular "tan,a" "et the "tyle for a !hole (eneration of poet"D Eohn )"hbery recalled that in the 19.0" )uden ;!a" the modern poet-;&.2' /i" manner !a" "o per0a"i0e in )merican poetry that the ec"tatic "tyle of the 5eat Beneration !a" partly a reaction a(ain"t hi" influence- :n the 1910" and 1920", "ome !riter" (notably Ghilip Farkin and ?andall Earrell% lamented that )udenA" !ork had declined from it" earlier promi"e-&.2'&.7' 5y the time of )udenA" death in 1973 he had attained the "tatu" of a re"pected elder "tate"man- 3he +ncyclopaedia 5ritannica note" that ;by the time of +liotA" death in 1921 --- a con0incin( ca"e could be made for the a""ertion that )uden !a" indeed +liotA" "ucce""or, a" +liot had inherited "ole claim to "upremacy !hen Ceat" died in 1939-;&.>' With "ome e8ception", 5riti"h critic" tended to treat hi" early !ork a" hi" be"t, !hile )merican critic" tended to fa0or hi" middle and later !ork- 9nlike other modern poet", hi" reputation did not decline after hi" death, and Eo"eph 5rod"ky !rote that hi" !a" ;the (reate"t mind of the t!entieth century-; &2' )udenA" popularity and familiarity "uddenly increa"ed after hi" ;Funeral 5lue"; (;Stop all the clock";% !a" read aloud in the film )our eddin&s and a )uneral (199.%D "ub"e4uently, a pamphlet edition of ten of hi" poem", Tell +e the Truth (bout Love, "old more than 271,000 copie"- )fter September 11, 2001, hi" poem ;September 1, 1939; !a" !idely circulated and fre4uently broadca"t-&.2' Gublic readin(" and broadca"t tribute" in the 9< and 9S in 2007 marked hi" centenary year-&.9'

Sir, no man's enemy

Sir, no man's enemy, forgiving all But will his negative inversion, be prodigal: Send to us power and light, a sovereign touch Curing the intolerable neural itch, The exhaustion of weaning, the liar's quinsy, nd the distortions of ingrown virginity! "rohibit sharply the rehearsed response nd gradually correct the coward's stance# Cover in time with beams those in retreat That, spotted, they turn though the reverse were great# "ublish each healer that in city lives $r country houses at the end of drives# %arrow the house of the dead# loo& shining at 'ew styles of architecture, a change of heart!

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