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Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen --- Application vs Specification

Valero Benicia Asphalt plant and Polyphalt Inc.


Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB)

! Overview

! Current Status & Issues ! Feature & Benefit ! Specs vs Applications

What is CRMB ?
Good question no simple answer
! Diverse recycled rubber sources ! Diverse processes and applications ! Diverse opinions and perceptions ! A moving target

CRMB: An Overview
Recycled Rubber
Blended w. AC

- McDonald - On-Site A-R - Terminal Blend


Modified Bitumen (CRMB)

Crumb Rubbers
(TR Disposal & Indus. Waste)

- Other Specialty

Blended w. AC/Aggregate

-Plus-Ride -Generic -Chunk

Rubber Aggregate (Rubber modified hot-mix)

Barriers to Market Acceptance

! Performance ! Logistics ! Economics ! Environmental
Performance Need Ease handling Logistics / handling
Crumb Rubber Loading Level

Mandates ???
! 1992 - ISTEA Mandate passed ! 1995 Sections 1038 of ISTEA mandate repealed

! Confusion ! Industry backlash ! Significant spike in R&D, field work

! Role of environmental policy in determining engineering specifications

Market Characteristics
! CRMB Paving Market approaching 400,000 tons ! Undergoing renaissance at present ! Regions of high use limited ! Many Countries exploring options ! Diverse applications

CRMB Process Comparison

Key Item
Blending Location At the Same Loading Levels Storage Stability

Conventional CRMB Process

On-Site 15% to 20% by wt

Advanced CRMB Process

Refinery / Terminal 15% to 20% by wet Compatible Physical & chemical / Modified contl. phase Maintain consistent Pumpable, Controllable

Prone to rapid settling Interaction / Physical / Swollen Nature of Modification Dispersed phase Performance Change during storing or applying Process Viscosity High, varying with AC &/or TR type, %

Morphology of CRMA
Advanced Process

Conventional Process

Advanced CRMA Process

Crumb Rubber Loading at 15 to 20% Level

Advanced CRMB Process

- Conventional CRMB process with performance uncertainty

- Produce CRMB with -a desired feature and benefit -a performance graded product

-CR Liquefied to a type of oil: miscible with bitumen but sacrificing CR performance offering

CRMB Applications
! Hot Mix Asphalt ! Hot Applied Surface Treatments ! Crack Fillers / Joint Sealers ! Bridge Deck Coatings ! Tack Coats ! Emulsions

Other Markets
! Waterproofing ! Membranes ! Coatings

CRMB Features & Benefit

! Increased rutting resistance at elevated temperatures ! Improved fatigue resistance at intermediate temperatures ! Reduced thermal cracking ! High degree of adhesivity and elastic behavior

! Consistent end-point viscosity ! Excellent storage and thermal (performance) stability ! Homogeneous and pumpable

! Straightforward compaction ! Lower temperatures reduce fuming and odors

Role of CRMB in Its Application

Material Selection



End Application and Durability

CRMB Specification Development


" "

Secure the Role of CRMB in its Application Position it into its End Application Capture its Features and Benefits

Product Specification Types

! Functional Specification
-describe end use -risk of performance is on the seller

! Performance Specification
-specify measurable capabilities -risk of performance is on the seller

! Detailed (or Design) Specification

-quantitative, physical or Chemical description -industry or commercial standard -risk of performance is on the buyer

CRMB Specification
!A Detailed (or Design) Specification
-quantitative, physical or Chemical description -industry or commercial standard -sampling defined

! Minimize Risk on Buyer/User Side -understand the application

-select relevant parameters as close as possible -address all major distresses during the application

Application vs Specification
! Pavements (Specifications)
! Hot Mix Asphalt (MB, MAC-10TR, PG-TR etc) ! Hot Applied Seal Coats (AC15-5TR) ! Crack Fillers / Joint Sealers ! Bridge Deck Coatings !Tack Coats

CRMB Specification for Hot mix An Advanced CRMB Spec must address
Rutting Fatigue Thermal Cracking Aging CRMB Stability

Pavement Rutting
Critical Factors
" " " "

Traffic Frequency Traffic Load & Speed Temperature Distribution Traffic Accumulation Rate

Parameters to Address Rutting in CRMB Specs

North America: PG/PG+ & MB: MAC-10TR : Dynamic Modulus ( G*/Sin ! ) Absolute Viscosity @ 60C
Pen & S.P.

AB Grade: Consistency @ 60C and SP

Pavement Fatigue
Critical Factors
" " " " "

Critical Temperature Aging Traffic Load & Speed Traffic Rate & Accumulation Structure (Strain level)

Parameters to Address Fatigue in CRMB Specs

North America: PG-TR: (Tex-539-C0):

Dynamic Viscosity ("* ) on PAV ER @ 50F SSD: (!@10rad/s - !@1rad/s) SSV: ("*@10rad/s-"*@1rad/s)

AB Grade: Torsional Recovery @ 25 C

Pavement Thermal Cracking Critical Factors

" " " "

Cooling Rate Aging Pavement Temperature Temperature Cycle

Parameters to Address Cracking in CRMB Specs

North America: PG-TR & MB: MAC-10TR: Creep Stiffness & Rate (on PVA) PEN @ 4C (RTFO)

AB Grade: Stiffness @ 15C

CRMB Storage Issues


CR Separation

CRMB Degradation

Critical Factors Storage Temperature Storage Time CR Type CR & Asphalt Interaction Process Type

Stability in CRMB Specs


Phase Separation

well Addressed

-Storage: 163C or 180C for 48 or 72 hours -Measure: Stiffness Difference in Top & Bottom

Advanced CRMB Spec Proposed for Hot Mix

Property AASHTO Method PGCR15 (76-22) RAC (70-22) PGCR15 (70-28) Original CRMB (at 18% at least CR load level) Flash Point, min., C
Rotational Viscosity (RV) @ 135 C Cp, max. T 48 TP 48 230 3,000 230 3,000 230 3,000

Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*/Sin Delta, kPa, min.

TP 5

1.00 at 76C

1.00 at 70C 50

1.00 at 70C 50

ASTM D50 Elastic Recovery (ER), 25C elongation @ 113 10 cm, % min. CRMB Stored @ 163C after 48 hrs

Difference in R & B from Top and Bottom, C, max Rotational Viscosity (RV) @ 135 C Cp RV Variation +%

ASTM-D36 TP 48

2 report

2 report

2 report




Advanced CRMB Spec Proposed for Hot Mix --- Contl.

Property AASHTO Method PGCR15 (76-22) RAC (70-22) PG CR15 (70-28) CRMB RTFO Residue Mass loss, %, min.
Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*/Sin Delta, kPa, min. TP 5 1.00 1.50 at 76C report 80 1.00 1.50 at 70C report 80 1.00 1.50 at 70C report 80

Elastic Recovery (ER), 25C elongation @ 10 cm, % min. ER, Retention, %, min


CRMB PAV Residue (100C) Creep Stiffness (S) Mpa @ 300 MPa, max. Slope (m) 0.300, min
TP -12 C -12 C -18 C


-12 C

-12 C

-18 C

Concluding Remarks
Properties Measured by an Advanced CRMB Spec Should Address all Critical Factors Causing Distresses in a Specific Application Current CRMB Specs do not Relate Closely to Real Pavement Performance Quite few Discrepancies of Current CRMB Specs exist in their Parameters to Predict the Performance CRMB Specs Should Take CRMB Storage/Performance Stability during Handling into Account

Thank You