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Ethanol Production Line

Project Proposal

Shandong Tianli R&D Institute

April, 2008
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1. General
Anhydrous ethanol, as an important basic raw material for chemical industry and the
essential element in synthetic organic product, is widely used in building materials,
medicine, pesticide and petroleum. Its main applications are:
‹ As the basic raw material, intermediate and carrier for medicine, pesticide and
flavor production, such as sodium ethoxide, ethyl butyrate, triethyl phosphate
production and etc.
‹ Used for ethyl silicate production in adhesive, antisepsis dope industry.
‹ As the solvent in advertisement painting, paint dope and printing ink production.
‹ Cleaning agent for electronic components, circuit board industry.
‹ As the raw material for new exploder in military industry
‹ Chemical reagent for anhydrous ethanol
With the world economic development, the international price of crude oil has been
soaring in recent years. Nonetheless, the anhydrous ethanol has attracted public
attention because it can produce a new fuel called gasohol. More importantly, gasohol
is a new type of clean fuel without pollution. It is reported that the United States has
made a great development in fuel ethanol production in order to get rid of its
dependence on oil due to the oil crisis. There are about 165 large-scaled fuel ethanol
production plants using corn as material and 312 middle and small-scaled plants built
for this purpose. According to the statistics by ACE, the gasohol sales in America
annually exceeds 15 billion gallon. Brazil is also greatly developing fuel ethanol
production by using cane sugar and molasses as material. Generally speaking, as a
green fuel, gasohol has a promising bright future, and the anhydrous ethanol will also
be increasingly demanded.

2. Design Conditions

2.1 Brief Introduction

By using cassava or molasses as the raw material, in this project hydrous or
anhydrous ethanol is to be produced by an advanced and developed technology with
production capacity between 15,000 tons/annual to 100,000 tons/annual. There are
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two feeding lines (cassava feeding line and molasses feeding line) running
continuously all day, total working days per year being around 300. The large amount
of organic wastewater out of ethanol plant (with the cassava as the raw material) is to
be treated anaerobically and aerobically and the biogas can be in recycled use for
power generation. The wastewater (with molasses as the raw material), after
concentration and vaporization, enters the boiler to combust, which will reduce
production costs and negative impact on surroundings. Besides, the auxiliary utilities
are to be supplied in this project. Capacity design of this project is flexible at a
utilizing rate of 70-110%. The whole plant comprises of three sections: ethanol
production workshop, WW treatment workshop and utility section.

2.2 Facilities

List of Facilities

Serial Item name Item No. Remark

I General layout and piping

II Main production plant
1 Ethanol production workshop
2 Cassava WW treatment workshop
3 Molasses WW treatment workshop
III Auxiliary production plant
1 Laboratory
2 Chemicals storage
3 Products storage
IV Utility
1 Circulating cooling water station
2 Water supply station
3 2.4kV substation
4 Air compression station
5 Boiler room
6 Freezing water station
7 Fire fighting facilities
V Administration utility

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Serial Item name Item No. Remark

1 Office building
2 Dining room
3 Guard's room

2.3 Utility:
Mainly includes a set of steam boiler system, a set of industrial water cycling system,
a set of process air compressor system, a set of biogas generation system (raw
material: cassava), a set of refrigerating water system, a set of electrical system, a set
of water supply system and a set of fire fighting system.

2.4 Quality Requirements for Anhydrous Ethanol

Serial Testing Item Specified Value
1 Ethanol Content (20℃) %(v) ≥ 99.8
2 Density (20℃) ≤ 0.790
3 Appearance Colorless and transparent
4 Color/Hazen ≤ 5
5 Moisture Content%(w) ≤ 0.3
6 Aldehydes%(w) ≤ 0.0025
7 Acidity (as acetic acid) %(w) ≤ 0.0025
8 Distillation Interval
Starting point ℃ ≥ 77
Dry point ℃ ≤ 81
9 Flash point ℃ +12
10 Fusel oil mg/L ≤ 50
11 Methanol mg/L ≤ 20
12 Explosion limits % (v) 3.5~15
13 Refractive index 1.3618
14 Evaporation residue mg/L ≤ 10

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3. Process Technology

3.1 Process flow of Ethanol Production Workshop (raw material:



raw material——→pulverization———→slurry——→steaming——→ vacuum cooling—

glucoamylase high active dry yeast ┌→fusel oil

↓ ↓ |
—→ saccharification ———→ fermentation —→ distillation —→qualified ethanol —→
dehydration → fuel ethanol

└→concentrated effluent

3.2 Process flow of Cassava WW Treatment

Ethanol mesh→Cyclone desander→filter tank→transportation

cooling tower

--------→mixing basin
┆ pump 1 ↓
┆ Biomass energy reactor→seal device-→air collector--→biogas utilization
┆ ↓
┆ concentrator ---------- -→Filter Press-→organic fertilizer transport
┆ ↓ ↑
┆ water collecting basin ┆
┆ pump 2 ↓ pump 4 ┆sludge
┆ cooling tower ┆
┆ ↓ ┆
┆←-----UASB reactor ┆
↓ ┆
Sludge ┆---→AO active sludge basin←blower ┆
Circulation ┆ pump 3 ↓ ┆
┆-------- Second Stage
Sedimentation basin ----→Sludge concentrator ---- ┆

Aerobic basin→standard discharge

3.3 Process flow of Molasses WW Treatment

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Fresh steam

Flash Flash Flash Flash

Jet Pump
vessel vessel vessel vessel

Stillage Evaporator Evaporator Evaporator Evaporator Boiler

Membrane Tank

Ethanol Section Vacuum pump

3.4 Process flow of Corn WW Treatment

condensate → standard discharge

clear liquid→ vaporizing station→ slurry
↑ ↓
ethanol→ separator → residue → dryer→ DDGS→ packing machine→ warehouse

4. Technology Strengths
4.1 Amylase resistant against high temperature and glucoamylase with high
conversion rate are used in the continuous liquefaction and saccharification process
for ethanol production, which fully exploits the potentials of amylase and
glucoamylase and thus greatly improves the quality, quantity and yield of ethanol.
Compared with the conventional cooking process, steam consumption is greatly
reduced by around 40%.
4.2 By using this technology the waste stillage vented from bottom of the primary
distillation column will pass through step by step from the first vacuum vessel to the
second one. 500-600kg fresh steam can be saved out of per ton ethanol. 1600 tons

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coal can be saved every year in terms of the annual output of 15,000 tons. Today, this
latent heat recovery system with excellent performance is applied in many ethanol
4.3 Biogas power generation: The biogas contains 60%-70% methane, whose calorific
value is between 23000-27000kJ/m3. As a clean fuel, having fully burnt out, methane
will be turned into CO2 and water, releasing amount of heat at the same time.
4.4 In the evaporator the wastewater will be concentrated and form dense slurry,
which enters the boiler to combust for heat recovery. One ton of concentrated stillage
is equivalent to 0.34 ton of coal. Vaporizing wastewater from producing one ton of
ethanol can gain two tons of concentrated stillage, i.e. 0.68 ton of coal, which will
greatly reduce consumption of coal.
The energy consumption of this project is relatively lower, hence, while the energy is
greatly saved, production cost is reduced, which lifts up the economic profit and
competitiveness of products.

4.5 Automation Control

The modern DCS automation control system is used in this project and three DCS
rooms separately function for three different sections, i.e. liquefaction and
saccharification section, fermentation section, distillation and dehydration section.
The main process parameters and equipment operation states in each section can be
monitored at real time by its own control room. This way, the auto-control level is
improved to keep the process parameters steady, guarantee the product quality, reduce
energy consumption and labor intensity, and ensure safe operation.

5. Safety and Environmental Protection

5.1 WW emission
CODcr ≤ 300mg/L
BOD5 ≤ 150mg/L
SS ≤ 200 mg/L
NH3-N ≤ 25mg/L
pH: 6~9

5.2 Off-gas treatment and discharge

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After desulfurization and heat recovery, the off-gas will be discharged according to
local emission regulations.

5.3 Solid waste

The following measures will be taken for disposing of solid residue:
(1) They can substitute coal for heating the boiler, which can greatly reduce the
consumption of coal. In this project one boiler is planned to be heated by the dried
residue with coal.
(2) If corn is used as material, the dried residue can be sold as feed.

5.4 Fire Fighting Facility

Foam extinguisher is suitable for fire fighting of ethanol vessels. Fixed extinguishing
devices are installed on plant. After being mixed by water pump and mixer, the foam
mixture will be sent to the igniting point. Through air the foam will uniformly cover
the surface of liquid in order to extinguish the fire.
The plant fire-fighting system is of circular piping network and low-pressure control.
The above-ground type of hydrant will be installed outdoor, while inside the plant
there are a water tank of 200m3, fire-fighting pump chamber and fire-fighting water
basin. In every building there are indoor hydrants connecting together to form a
circular net, moreover, the handy extinguishers are also equipped.
In this plant fire class in distillation section, dehydration section and ethanol storage
tanks section is A, and the fire class in other sections is B, C, D respectively.
According to the related standards, workshops with fire class A shall be 12 meters
away from the other workshops. Liquid storage tanks with fire class A shall be 25
meters away from the nearest building.
There are ring-shaped fire-fighting passages wide between 6m to 8m with clearance
no less than 4m, which can meet the requirements for passing of fire engines.

5.5 Greening
In order to beautify the environment, greening is taken into account in this project.
Shrubs, lawns and some pine trees or bamboos will be planted. Tall arbor trees will
stand on both sides of road, helping protecting from dust, noise and emission of
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harmful gas. In addition, we make good use of the designated lands by planting more
greening zones for cleaning the air and improving environment.

5.6 Noise protection

The sound pressure levels of equipment to be purchased are in accordance to the
related requirements. As for the pumps and boiler burner head, if their noise level will
not conform to the regulation, they shall be equipped with silencer or acoustic
enclosure. As far as the large compressors are concerned, besides the necessary
damping measures, isolating measure shall be taken as well.

Noise levels
NO Parameter Specification
1 Leq, 8 hours 85 dB (A)
2 4 hours 88 dB (A)
3 1 hour 94 dB (A)

6. General Layout

6.1 Principle of general layout

According to the local natural conditions and site surroundings, we do our best to
make reasonable functional divisions. The big power users are located together with
the power supply at hand and piping is neatly arranged. Such a concise layout can
fully meet the requirements in production, transportation, fire fighting, security,
sanitation and environmental protection.

6.2 Structure:
This project comprises of main production plant of 15000 t/a anhydrous ethanol,
auxiliary production plant (cassava WW treatment, molasses WW treatment), utility
(circulating cooling water station, water supply station, material storage, ethanol
storage, maintenance station, 2.4 kV substation, freezing water station, biogas power
generation station, boiler room and air compression station) and administration utility
(office building).

6.3 Features of layout

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Compact structure, distinct divisions and neatly-arranged pipelines, meet the

requirements of production and transportation.

6.4 The roads within the plant

City concrete roads in orthogonal ring shaped arrangement (width: 9m and 6m).

7. Training and Service

7.1 Staffing
60 persons working four shifts in three turns are required in this project, the
arrangement is as follows:
Senior executives and salesman: 10, technical engineers: 10, others: 40.

7.2 Training
Our company has successfully established several ethanol production lines in China.
With fully-equipped pilot base and technical engineers, our company can make
perfect training plan about process, equipment and on-site operation for the appointed
technical staff according to the owners’ needs and provide one-station service. During
the commissioning and start-up in the jobsite, we will instruct the technical personnel
from the owner to be familiar with the knowledge concerning the process and
equipment and help them acquire the operating skills as soon as possible.

8. Economic benefits
According to different conditions and production scales, the investment is between
US$ 10,000,000.00 to US$ 15,000,000.00/10000 ton for anhydrous ethanol
production, the investment return period is about two to four years.