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Quedan rigurosamente prohibidos, sin la autorizacin escrita del Copyright, bajo las sanciones establecidas en las leyes, la reproduccin total o parcial de esta obra por cualquier medio o procedimiento, comprendidos la reprografa y el tratamiento informtico y la distribucin de ejemplares de ella mediante alquiler o prstamo pblicos.

Editado por: Ediciones Cartuja S.L. Autor: Ediciones Cartuja S.L. Granada (Espaa) Depsito legal: GR-2093/2006

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Tema 1: El nombre

1. Reglas para el plural 2. Plurales irregulares 3 Los nombres contables e incontables 4. El genitivo sajn

Tema 2: El artculo determinado e indeterminado

1. El artculo determinado 1.1 Usos 1.2 Omisin del artculo determinado 2. El artculo indeterminado 2.1. Usos

Tema 3: El verbo "to be"

1. Usos del verbo to be 2. Conjugacin de to be. presente y pasado 3. Impersonal hay

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Tema 4: El verbo to have

1. Usos del verbo to have 2. Conjugacin de to have. presente y pasado

Tema 5. Los adjetivos calificativos

1. Colocacin de los adjetivos 2. Grados de comparacin 3. Formacin del comparativo de superioridad y superlativo

Tema 6: Los adjetivos determinativos

1. Adjetivos demostrativos 2. Adjetivos indefinidos 3. Adjetivos posesivos 4. Adjetivos numerales 5. Adjetivos interrogativos

Tema 7: Los pronombres

1. Pronombres demostrativos 2. Pronombres posesivos 3. Pronombres personales 4. Pronombres reflexivos 5. Pronombres interrogativos

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Tema 8: El verbo. Tiempos presentes

1. El presente simple 1.1 Formacin 1.2. Usos 2. El presente continuo 2.1 Formacin 2.2 Usos

Tema 9: El verbo. Tiempos pasados

1. El pasado simple 1.1. Formacin 1.2 Usos 2. El pasado continuo 2.1. Formacin 2.2. Usos

Tema 10: El verbo. Tiempos futuros

1. El futuro simple 1.1 Formacin 1.2 Usos 2. Going to 2.1 Formacin 2.2 Usos

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Tema 11: El imperativo

1. Formacin 2. Usos

Tema 12: El adverbio

1. Adverbios de modo 2. Adverbios de tiempo 3. Adverbios de lugar 4. Adverbios de grado 5. Adverbios de frecuencia 6. Adverbios interrogativos

Tema 13: La preposicin

1. Preposiciones de lugar 2. Preposiciones de movimiento 3. Preposiciones de medios de transporte 4. Preposiciones de tiempo

Tema 14: Los verbos modales

1. Can 2. Must 3. May

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4. Will 5. Shall

Tema 15: Formas no personales del verbo

1. El infinitivo 1.1 El infinitivo sin to 1.2 El infinitivo con to 2. La forma en -ing 2.1 Funciones de la forma en -ing 2.2 Verbos +forma en -ing

Tema 16. Anexo Tema 17. Glosario

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Tema 1

El nombre
El nombre El nombre
El nombre

El nombre

El nombre (o sustantivo) es la palabra que designa a una persona, animal, lugar o cosa, como : Peter, table, solution, happiness, gold Peter, mesa, solucin, felicidad, oro En ingls, el nombre no suele tener variacin genrica, esto es, la misma palabra sirve para masculino y femenino. Por ejemplo, la palabra teacher puede referirse a un hombre o a una mujer: This is my teacher Este es mi profesor/a

Pero hay algunos nombres que varan del masculino al femenino, es decir, se usa una palabra totalmente distinta para cada gnero: Man Boy Husband King hombre chico marido rey woman girl wife queen mujer chica esposa reina

Algunos femeninos se forman con la terminacin ess: Actor Prince actor prncipe actress princess actriz princesa

El gnero de los nombres no afecta ni al artculo ni al adjetivo que los acompaan, ya que estos no varan de forma: The blue book The blue books El libro azul Los libros azules

Pero en cambio, hay que tener en cuenta el gnero del nombre a la hora de sustituirlo por un pronombre personal: The boy is tall. The girl is beautiful The car is new He is tall She is beautiful It is new

El nombre slo cambia su forma cuando distingue entre singular y plural.

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El nombre

1. Reglas para el plural


Vamos a explicar algunas reglas para formar el plural de los nombres: - La regla general es aadir -s al nombre en singular: one table three tables una mesa tres mesas

- Cuando el nombre en singular termina en y, cambiamos la y por i y luego aadimos -es para formar el plural: nappy - nappies baby babies family families paal - paales beb- bebs familia familias

Pero no cambiamos la y por ies para formar el plural cuando el nombre en singular termina en y precedida de vocal (a, e, i, o, u): day - days toy - toys da - das juguete - juguetes

- Cuando el nombre en singular termina en: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o no formamos su plural aadiendo -s sino -es: bus - buses church-churches box - boxes potato - potatoes autobs autobuses iglesia iglesias caja - cajas patata - patatas

- Pero no ocurre lo mismo con las formas abreviadas de palabras extranjeras: Kilo kilos Radio-radios Piano pianos

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El nombre

- Algunos nombres que en singular terminan en -f o -fe forman su plural en -ves: shelf - shelves wife wives estantera estanteras esposa - esposas

- Otros lo hacen de una forma regular; simplemente aadiendo -s: Roof roofs tejado tejados

- Algunos de ellos aceptan ambas formas de plural: -ves o -s: scarf - scarfs / scarves bufanda bufandas

2. Plurales irregulares
- Hay un grupo de palabras cuyos plurales son irregulares (Nos los tenemos que aprender de memoria). Los ms comunes son: Man - men Woman - women Mouse - mice Child - children Tooth - teeth Foot - feet hombre - hombres mujer - mujeres ratn - ratones nio - nios diente - dientes pie pies

- Algunos nombres, especialmente nombres de animales, tienen la misma forma en singular y en plural: Sheep Deer Fish oveja(s) ciervo(s) pez(peces)

- Algunas palabras solo tienen forma plural y llevan el verbo en plural, especialmente cuando se refieren a prendas de vestir e instrumentos o herramien-

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tas que constan de dos partes unidas, indivisibles. Para poder contar estos objetos se antepone a pair of(un par de/unos/as): Glasses(a pair of glasses) Trousers(a pair of trousers) gafas pantalones

- Hay nombres que tienen forma singular pero que son siempre plural: People Police The police are coming Recuerda gente polica La polica viene

Persons no se utiliza en el ingls hablado, se prefiere people: Shes a nice person They are nice people ( no nice persons) People siempre va con el verbo en plural: Some people are very shy (no Some people is ) Algunas personas son muy tmidas Es una persona amable Son personas amables

3. Los nombres contables e incontables


Es necesario entender correctamente la diferencia entre contable e incontable para poder expresar correctamente las cantidades. Podemos separar los nombres en dos grupos:

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El nombre

- Los contables son aquellos nombres que nosotros podemos contar. Por ejemplo nosotros podemos decir: one pencil, two pencils, three pencils... (un lpiz, dos lpices, tres lpices). Entonces decimos que pencil es contable. Ive got a car There are many cars Tengo un coche Hay muchos coches

- Incontable es todo aquello que nosotros no podemos contar. Por ejemplo nosotros no podemos decir: one rice, two rices, three rices...(un arroz, dos arroces, tres arroces). Entonces decimos que rice es incontable. Incontables son los nombres de sustancia (sugar, azcar), de materia (wood, madera) y tambin los nombres que se refieren a cualidades abstractas (freedom, libertad). Las siguientes palabras tambin son incontables: Information News Advice Furniture Research Travel Homework Work Money informacin noticia consejo mueble investigacin viaje deberes trabajo dinero

A veces existe un nombre contable con significado similar, como por ejemplo, work = a job, travel = a journey, money = a coin or note. Ive got some money Tengo algo de dinero

- Adems muchos nombres pueden ser contables e incontables a la vez dependiendo de la funcin que desempeen: There are two lambs. We like lamb Hay dos corderos Nos gusta la carne de cordero

Es incontable cuando indica sustancia mientras que es contable cuando se refiere a las distintas clases de o indica unidad, es decir, una pieza. - Podemos contar cantidades de cosas incontables usando por ejemplo: glass,

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El nombre

bottle, litre, etc. Los nombres incontables no admiten el paso a plural. Por eso es necesario el uso del partitivo correspondiente: a glass of water a loaf of bread un vaso de agua una barra de pan

En esta tabla puedes ver las principales diferencias entre contables e incontables: Contables
- Tienen plural: house -houses - Delante de singular contable podemos usar a o an : an apple - Podemos usar nmeros delante de un contable: two houses - Many se usa para nombres plurales contables How many students were there? (Cuntos estudiantes haba?)

Incontables
- no tienen plural: milk no puede ser milks - no podemos usar a o an : no podemos decir a milk. Deben ir precedidos, si quieren individualizarse, de alguna palabra con valor partitivo como a carton of milk. - no podemos usar nmeros delante de un incontable: no podemos decir two milks - much se usa para nombres singulares no contables How much milk is there in the fridge? (Cunta leche hay en el frigorfico?)

4. El genitivo sajn
El genitivo sajn es una de las formas de indicar la posesin en ingls; la otra es con la preposicin of , que se usa normalmente cuando el poseedor no es una persona: The door of the house la puerta de la casa

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El nombre

Cuando el poseedor es una persona, se emplea una forma particular, que se conoce como genitivo sajn (por su origen). Al nombre del poseedor, se aade un apstrofo y una s (s) y figura en la frase delante del nombre de la cosa poseda, a diferencia del espaol que primero nombra la cosa poseda seguida de la preposicin de y al final se coloca el nombre del poseedor: My mothers book 1 2 el libro de mi madre 2 1

En la formacin del genitivo tenemos que distinguir dos casos: - Si el poseedor es uno solo, se coloca primero el poseedor despus el apstrofo una s y la cosa poseda sin artculo al final: The students book el libro del estudiante

- Si los poseedores son varios se coloca primero los poseedores (el plural de la palabra tiene que terminar en s), luego el apstrofo y finalmente la cosa poseda sin artculo: My friends house la casa de mis amigos

Si el nombre es plural, pero no termina en s, es decir que es un plural irregular, se aplica la regla de un solo poseedor: The childrens room la habitacin de los nios

Cuando nombramos a distintos poseedores, solamente se aplica el caso posesivo al ltimo: That is Mary and Peters house Pero observa la diferencia: Mike and Anns cars -------------- Los coches son de ambos Mikes and Anns cars ------------ Cada uno tiene su propio coche La cosa poseda se puede omitir cuando se traduce la expresin casa de,cuando se trata de tiendas y para evitar repetir la cosa poseda en la misma frase: I was at Johns I went to the butchers Yo estuve en la casa de John Fui a la carnicera Esa es la casa de Mary y Peter

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El nombre

This is my jacket and that is my brothers sta es mi chaqueta y sa la de mi hermano

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El nombre

Ejercicios
1. Escribir el plural de las siguientes palabras: Wife Door Watch Window Teacher Box Pen City Dress Pencil ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

2. Escribir el plural de estas otras palabras: Key Potato Hat Class Student Book Bus Boy ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

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El nombre

Lady Cat

______________ ______________

3. Escribir el plural irregular de estas palabras: Man Child Tooth Woman Fish Foot Person Sheep Mouse ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

4. Decidir si los siguientes nombres son contables o incontables: Juice Afternoon Animal Oil Sugar Plate Rain Ball Pen Dress ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

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El nombre

5. Decidir si los siguientes nombres son contables, incontables o ambos: Vegetable Coffee Bread Cake Petrol Money Tomato Glass People biscuit ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

6. Escribir el genitivo sajn. Ejemplo: Frank-car = Franks car Ed book George computer Bill uncle My friends bags Linda pen Alan girlfriend My sister house My brother wife Ted father Jane umbrella ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

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El nombre

7. Corregir estas frases usando el genitivo sajn . Ejemplo: The toys of the children = The childrens toys. The book of Paul ______________________________ The cars of John ______________________________ The house of Peter ______________________________ The school of the boys ______________________________ The car of my father ______________________________ The boyfriend of Mary ______________________________ The books of James and Mary ______________________________ The father of Ann ______________________________ The clothes of the boy ______________________________ The camera of Alice ______________________________

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El nombre

Soluciones
1. Wife = wives Door = doors Watch = watches Window = windows Teacher = teachers Box = boxes Pen = pens City = cities Dress =dresses Pencil = pencils 2. Key = keys Potato = potatoes Hat = hats Class = classes Student = students Book = books Bus = buses Boy = boys Lady = ladies Cat = cats 3. Man = men Child = children Tooth = teeth Woman = women Fish = fish Foot = feet Person = people Sheep = sheep Mouse = mice 4. Afternoon contable Animal contable Oil incontable Sugar incontable Plate contable Rain incontable Ball contable Pen contable Dress contable 5. Vegetable contable Coffee ambos Bread incontable Cake ambos Petrol incontable Money incontable Tomato contable Glass ambos People contable Biscuit contable

6. Ed book = Eds book George computer = Georges computer Bill uncle = Bills uncle My friends bags = My friends bags Linda pen = Lindas pen Alan girlfriend = Alans girlfriend My sister house = My sisters house My brother wife = My brothers wife Ted father = Teds father Jane umbrella = Janes umbrella

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El nombre

7. The book of Paul = Pauls book The cars of John = Johns cars The house of Peter = Peters house The school of the boys = The boys school The car of my father = My fathers car The boyfriend of Mary = Marys boyfriend

The books of James and Mary = James and Marys books The father of Ann = Anns father The clothes of the boy = The boys clothes The camera of Alice = Alices camera

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Tema 2

El artculo determinado e indeterminado


ElEl artculo determinado artculo determinado El determinado e artculo indeterminado
e indeterminado
e indeterminado

El artculo determinado e indeterminado

1. El artculo determinado
Los artculos determinados ingleses son las palabras que usamos para definir al nombre (especficamente). En ingls slo tenemos un artculo determinado, estamos hablando de la palabra the, que es invariable en genero y nmero y se puede traducir por el, la, los, las. El artculo ingls siempre preceder al nombre al que est determinando: The dog El perro

Esta nica forma the se usa con toda clase de nombres, singular, plural, contables e incontables. The hotel The money El hotel El dinero

1.1 Usos
Generalmente usamos el artculo determinado delante de nombre singular o plural, contable o incontable que ya ha sido mencionado en la oracin o que por el contexto queda perfectamente definido: I like the coffee you make Me gusta el caf que haces

En un caso similar, usamos el artculo determinado cuando hablamos de un objeto o persona donde es imposible confundirse sobre a cul de ellos nos estamos refiriendo y se usa con nombres de referencia nica como puede ser the sun (el sol), the moon (la luna), the sea (el mar) o the earth (la tierra): It is on the table The sky is blue Est sobre la mesa El cielo es azul

Usamos el artculo determinado con el nombre de los ocanos, ros, cadenas montaosas, islas, nombres de algunos pases (que indican plural) o nombres de objetos que son muy conocidos: The Atlantic Ocean The Nile

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The United States The Mediterranean (Sea) The Hilton Hotel Tambin se usa con nombres de nacionalidad, adjetivos nominalizados y en grupos nominales cuando se usa of: The poor The rich The Spanish The University of London Los pobres Los ricos Los espaoles La Universidad de Londres

Cuando hablamos de instrumentos musicales, usamos el artculo determinado. Tambin para hablar de lugares pblicos si los consideramos edificios, pero se omite the cuando nos referimos a stos lugares pblicos como una institucin y estamos interesados en el uso que hacemos de ellos. Susan plays the piano very well. Susan toca el piano muy bien The man was sent to prison El hombre fue enviado a prisin The visitors came out of the prison Los visitantes salieron de la prisin Tambin usamos el artculo determinado delante de los nmeros ordinales cuando estn definiendo una persona u objeto en concreto y tambin se usa delante de adjetivos en grado superlativo: I live on the second floor Vivo en el segundo piso Its the tallest building in the town Es el edificio ms alto de la ciudad

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1.2 Omisin del artculo determinado


No usamos el artculo determinado delante de nombres en plural o nombres incontables cuando hablamos de ellos de una forma general y no de algo particular : Cigarettes are bad for you Los cigarillos son malos para t Life is short La vida es breve

Nunca usamos un artculo determinado delante de nombres propios, de nombres de calles ni de pases. Cuando hablamos de nombres de deportes o juegos tambin omitimos el artculo determinado: Peter is twenty I live in Oxford Street England is a small country I hate football Peter tiene veinte aos Vivo en la calle Oxford Inglaterra es un pas pequeo Odio el ftbol

Cuando hablamos de los nombres de sustancias, materiales, colores, comidas, festividades, das de la semana o meses del ao no usamos el artculo determinado: Red is my favourite colour Ill see you on Monday El rojo es mi color favorito Te ver el lunes

Cuando hablamos de las partes del cuerpo y usamos el verbo to have (tener) tambin omitimos el artculo determinado: That girl has brown eyes Esa nia tiene los ojos marrones

2. El artculo indeterminado
El artculo indeterminado en ingls, a, an, es invariable en gnero, por eso la misma forma sirve para el masculino un y el femenino una. Carece de plural, as que para traducir los artculos unos, unas, se usa el adjetivo indefinido some ( algunos,as).

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Usamos a delante de palabras que empiezan por sonido consonntico: A car A table A telephone Un coche Una mesa Un telfono

Por otro lado, usamos an delante de palabras que empiezan por un sonido voclico: An umbrella An elephant Un paraguas Un elefante

Palabras como European, union, university y useful comienzan con sonido consonntico /ju:/, por ello, se debe utilizar a. A used car Un coche usado

En palabras como hour, honest, honour, hourly empiezan con una h muda y se usa an. An hour Una hora

2.1 Usos
El artculo indeterminado se usa para referirse a un objeto o una persona de una manera no especfica, es decir, no especificamos a qu persona u objeto nos estamos refiriendo exactamente. De esta forma si decimos a boy asked me to dance (un chico me pidi bailar) no estamos especificando qu chico me lo pidi, podra haber sido cualquier chico. Usamos el artculo indeterminado cuando hablamos de trabajos o profesiones. En espaol nunca usamos el artculo indeterminado en este contexto: I am a teacher (no I am teacher) She is an actress Soy professor Ella es actriz

Otro uso muy comn del artculo indeterminado es cuando queremos referirnos a toda una categora de personas, cosas o animales y lo hacemos usando slo uno de sus miembros para generalizar el resto de ellos: A horse is bigger than a pony Un caballo es ms grande que un poni

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El artculo determinado e indeterminado

Tambin utilizamos el artculo indeterminado para el llamado uso distributivo: Three times a week An apple a day Tres veces a la semana Una manzana al da

Ciertos nmeros en ingls requieren la presencia de un artculo indeterminado. A hundred A thousand A million Cien Mil Un milln

Usamos el artculo indeterminado detrs de algunos adjetivos indefinidos o adverbios de cantidad como such (tal), quite (bastante), rather (bastante), half (medio), etc. : Rather a strange woman It is quite a big house Una mujer bastante rara Es una casa bastante grande

Es normal el uso del artculo indeterminado cuando mencionamos a alguien o algo por primera vez en nuestra conversacin o texto: Look! A snake! Mira, una serpiente!

Despus de exclamaciones que empiezan por la palabra what y seguido de un nombre contable en singular: What a day! What a nice dress! Vaya da! Qu bonito vestido!

Tambin utilizamos el artculo indeterminado con nombres propios cuando no conocemos a la persona de la que estamos hablando o tenemos muy poca informacin sobre ella , se traduce la idea de un tal: A Mr Simpson Un tal Sr. Simpson

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Recuerda

No se utiliza a delante de nombres en plural. Tampoco se utiliza a delante de nombres incontables, como water, bread, information y milk.(no a rain). No se utiliza a delante de adjetivos posesivos. (no a my friend)

A continuacin vemos unos ejemplos del uso del artculo determinado e indeterminado:

Nombres contables

Nombres incontables

Singular

Plural Some beds Some women Some apples Milk

General

A bed A woman An apple

Particular

The bed The woman The apple

The beds The women The apples

The milk

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Distinguir los nombres en singular y plural. Aadir a, an o some:

_____ book _____ supermarkets _____ tomatoes _____ orange _____ banana

_____ boys _____ sport centre _____ apples _____ umbrella _____ cat

2. Elegir entre a o an: -This is my brother. Hes _____ doctor. -Mr. Kelly is ____ engineer. -Thats Roy. Hes ___ travel agent. -Robert de Niro is ___ actor. -Tom is ____ electrician. -Mr. Brown is ___ teacher. -This is Ann. Shes ___ housewife. -Thats Jack. Hes ___ police officer. -Im ____ student. -Penlope Cruz is ____ actress.

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3. Escribir a o an delante de las siguientes palabras: _____ Eagle _____ Arrow _____ Easy question _____ University _____ Umbrella _____ Uniform _____ White umbrella _____ Orange bag _____ Igloo _____ Ugly dress

4. Usar a, an, the o nada: This is ___ easy question. Please speak ___ little louder. May I have your ___ phone number? I have never seen ___ UFO. May I ask you ___ question? David is ___ best student in our class. What is ___ name of the next station? He has ___ my car today. I went to ___ sea during my summer vacation. Is there ___ public telephone near here? Completar las frases con a, an, o nada: There were many dogs in the park. One dog was ___ Dalmatian. Pandas and ___ tigers are both endangered animals.

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She is wearing ___ blue dress with red earrings Hawaii is ___ island in the Pacific Ocean. Christmas comes once ___ year. ___ ant is __ insect. The Nile is ___ river. I went to the shop to get ___ bread. He broke ___ glass when he was washing dishes. You should take ___ umbrella.

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Soluciones
1. a book some supermarkets some tomatoes an orange a banana some boys a sport centre some apples an umbrella a cat 2. This is my brother. Hes a doctor. Mr. Kelly is an engineer. Thats Roy. Hes a travel agent. Robert de Niro is an actor. Tom is an electrician. Mr. Brown is a teacher. This is Ann. Shes a housewife. Thats Jack. Hes a police officer. Im a student. Penlope Cruz is an actress. 3. An eagle An arrow An easy question A university An umbrella A uniform A white umbrella An orange bag An igloo An ugly dress 4. This is an easy question. Please speak a little louder. May I have your phone number? I have never seen a UFO. May I ask you a question? David is the best student in our class. What is the name of the next station? He has my car today. I went to the sea during my summer vacation. Is there a public telephone near here? 5. -There were many dogs in the park. One dog was a Dalmatian. -Pandas and tigers are both endangered animals. -She is wearing a blue dress with red earrings -Hawaii is an island in the Pacific Ocean. -Christmas comes once a year. -An ant is an insect. -The Nile is a river. -I went to the shop to get bread. -He broke a glass when he was washing dishes. -You should take an umbrella.

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Tema 3

El verbo to be
El verbo to be El verbo to be
El verbo to be

El verbo to be

El verbo to be tiene una gran importancia en la lengua inglesa. Suele usarse para preguntar por el nombre de alguien, de dnde proviene, etc. Todo el mundo ha odo lo del Whats your name? (Cmo te llamas?), Where are you from? (De dnde eres?), How old are you? (Cuntos aos tienes?), What time is it? (Qu hora es?). El verbo to be equivale a los verbos ser y estar. Dependiendo del sentido de la frase deducimos de cual de los dos se trata.

1. Usos del verbo to be


El verbo to be admite los siguientes usos como auxiliar : - Para formar los tiempos progresivos o continuos acompaando a la forma en ing del verbo que se conjuga: I am running Yo estoy corriendo

- Para formar la voz pasiva acompaando al participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga: These houses were built fifty years ago Estas casas se construyeron hace cincuenta aos Como verbo ordinario sirve para dar informacin sobre el sujeto. Puede ir acompaado de : - Un adjetivo: I am tired - Un nombre: I am a teacher - Una preposicin: I am at home Estoy en casa Soy una profesora Estoy cansada

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El verbo to be

2. Conjugacin de to be. Presente y pasado

La conjugacin de to be tiene las siguientes caractersticas: El presente y pasado del verbo to be son muy irregulares, pues el presente tiene tres formas distintas: am, is, are y el pasado tiene dos: was y were.Va acompaado del sujeto o de los pronombres personales: I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they. Mientras que en espaol no hace falta el pronombre o sujeto. He is American Es americano

Los pronombres personales toman el lugar del nombre y como ejemplo vamos a sustituir los siguientes nombres por pronombres personales: Mara...she (ella) Juan.........he (l) Mara and Juanthey (ellos) The dog...................it (ello) You and I................we (nosotros) Maria and you you (vosotros) Se forma la negacin con slo aadir not a la forma afirmativa: Lydia is not (isnt) from Italy Lidia no es de Italia

Se forma la interrogacin invirtiendo el orden sujeto verbo y se pone un solo signo de interrogacin al final de la pregunta: You are at school Are you at school? Ests en el colegio Ests en el colegio?

Otra particularidad es el empleo de formas contradas, tanto en la afirmacin como en la negacin:

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El verbo to be

Im not interested (o I am not interested) No estoy interesada Estas formas contradas, por ser ms cortas, se utilizan normalmente en la conversacin o en cartas informales, pero su uso no se considera correcto en la forma escrita. Lo que hacemos para formar esta contraccin es quitar la primera letra del verbo y marcar el lugar con un apstrofo. En el presente, las formas afirmativas y negativa se pueden contraer, mientras que en la forma interrogativa no. En el pasado solamente la forma negativa puede contraerse. Veamos como quedan todas las formas del verbo to be conjugado en el tiempo presente: Forma afirmativa
I am (Im) Yo soy, estoy You are (Youre) T eres, ests He/she/it is (Hes) l, ella, ello es, est We are (Were) Nosotros somos, estamos You are (Youre) Vosotros sois, estis They are (Theyre) Ellos son, estn

Forma negativa
I am not (Im not) Yo no soy, no estoy You are not (Youre not) T no eres, no ests He/she/it is not (Hes not) l ella, ello no es, no est We are not (Were not) No somos, no estamos You are not (Youre not) Vosotros no sois, no estis They are not (Theyre not) Ellos no son, no estn

Forma interrogativa
Am I? Soy yo? Estoy yo? Are you? Eres tu? Ests t? Is he/she/it? Es l, ella, ello? Est l? Are we? Somos? Estamos? Are you? Sois? Estis? Are they? Son, estn ellos?

Contestacin afirmativa
Yes, I am Yes, you are Yes, he/she/it is Yes, we are Yes, you are Yes, they are

Contestacin negativa
No, Im not No, you arent No, he/she/it isnt No, we arent No, you arent No, they arent

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El verbo to be

A continuacin tenemos el pasado del verbo to be :

Forma afirmativa
I was Fui, era / estuve, estaba You were Fuiste, eras / estuviste, estabas He was Fue, era / estuvo, estaba We were Fuimos, ramos, / estuvimos, estbamos You were Fuisteis, erais, / estuvisteis, estabais They were Fueron, eran / estuvieron, estaban

Forma negativa
I was not (I wasn't) No fui, no era / no estuve, no estaba You were not (you weren't) No fuiste, no eras / no estuviste, no estabas He was not (he wasn't) No fue, no era / no estuvo, no estaba We were not (we weren't) No fuimos, no ramos, / no estuvimos, no estbamos You were not (you weren't) No fuisteis, no erais / no estuvisteis, no estabais They were not (they weren't) No fueron, no eran / no estuvieron, no estaban

Forma interrogativa
Was I? Fui?, era? / estuve?, estaba? Were you? Fuiste?, eras? / estuviste?, estabas? Was he? Fue?, era? / estuvo?. estaba? Were we? Fuimos?, ramos? / estuvimos?, estbamos Were you? Fuisteis?, erais?, / estuvisteis?, estabais? Were they? Fueron?, eran? / estuvieron?, estaban?

Contestacin afirmativa
Yes, I was Yes, you were Yes, he/she/it was Yes, we were Yes, you were Yes, they were

Contestacin negativa
No, I wasnt No, you werent No, he/she/it wasnt No, we werent No, you werent No, they werent

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El verbo to be

Recuerda
El sujeto debe concordar con el verbo. Esto significa que cuando el sujeto es singular el verbo tambin debe ser singular, y plural cuando el sujeto es plural: The cat is pretty (no The cat are pretty) Am not no se puede contraer: I am not ready ( no I amnt ready) No estoy preparada El gato es bonito

To be sirve para expresar la edad, en cuyo caso se traduce por tener: I am 30 years old (no I have 30 years old) Tengo 30 aos Para expresar sensaciones se emplea el verbo to be y equivale al tenerespaol: I am hungry (no I have hunger) Tengo hambre

Tambin para hablar sobre el tiempo atmosfrico. En este caso se traduce por hacer. Its windy (no It does wind) Hace viento

3. Impersonal Hay
La estructura There + verbo to be corresponde al verbo haber en espaol. Tiene dos formas una para el singular y otra para el plural. En el presente pondramos there is cuando va seguida de un nombre en singular y en el pasado there was. Para el plural pondramos en el presente there are y en el pasado there were cuando la estructura va seguida de nombre en plural. There is a table in the dining room Hay una mesa en el comedor There isnt a mirror in the kitchen No hay un espejo en la cocina

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El verbo to be

There are flowers Are there cars in the garage?

Hay flores Hay coches en el garaje?

A continuacin veamos como queda sta estructura tanto en presente como en pasado:

Presente
Singular
There is There is not (There isnt) Is there? Yes, there is No, there isnt There are There are not (There arent) Are there? Yes, there are No, there arent

Plural

Pasado
Singular
There was There was not (There wasnt) Was there? Yes, there was No, there wasnt There were There were not (There werent) Were there? Yes, there were No, there werent

Plural

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El verbo to be

Ejercicios
1. Sustituir los nombres por pronombres personales. Sara Pedro Luis and Jose You and I Pepe and you The cat Pars My brother Silvia The house _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

2. Completar las oraciones usando am, is o are Silvia _____ a doctor. The dogs _____ big. My teacher ______ English. My friends _______ happy. Rubn _______ my friend. Enrique and Rubn ______ brothers. Granada and Mlaga ______ towns. You ______ intelligent.

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El verbo to be

Andrea and I ______ here. I _____ a student.

3. Escribir la forma contrada : He is They are She is not It is I am not You are not We are not I am You are It is not ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

4. Formular preguntas: She/tall? They/old? It/expensive? He/a teacher? Windows/open? We/late? It/cold? The bus/late? The room/big? She/tired? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

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El verbo to be

5. Completar las oraciones usando was o were: I _____ in Wales last year. I _____at school yesterday. My friend _____ at home last Friday. My friends _____in England last summer. My family and I ______at home last Sunday morning. My mum _______ at work yesterday. My English teacher _______ in America last year. Steve and Jane _______ in Paris on Tuesday. Jane _______ in London on Friday. They ______ angry

6. Cambiar las oraciones del presente al pasado. Theyre new. The banks are open. She isnt English. Where is he? Im not interested. Are you very hungry? We arent ready. Is it difficult? The traffic lights are red. What day is it? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

7. Cambiar las oraciones del afirmativo al negativo (forma contrada): I was a teacher. _____________________________

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El verbo to be

She was ill. The weather was very nice. My shoes were dirty. This restaurant was expensive. Your cigarettes were in your bag. The exams were difficult. The flowers were beautiful. George was in bed. He was a famous film star.

_____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

8. Elegir There is o There are _________ three pencils in the bag _________ a car in the garage _________ books on the chair _________ a telephone in the living room _________ two tables in the kitchen _________ birds in the sky _________ a book on the desk _________ five chairs in the bedroom _________ seven days in a week _________ a carton of milk in the fridge

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El verbo to be

Soluciones
1. Sara = she Pedro = he Luis and Jose = they You and I = we Pepe and you = you The cat = it Paris = it My brother = he Silvia = she The house = it 2. Silvia is a doctor. The dogs are big. My teacher is English. My friends are happy. Rubn is my friend. Enrique and Rubn are brothers. Granada and Mlaga are towns. You are intelligent. Andrea and I are here. I am a student. 3. He is = Hes They are = Theyre She is not = She isnt It is = Its I am not =Im not You are not =You arent We are not =We arent I am = Im You are = Youre It is not = It isnt 4. Is she tall? Are they old? Is it expensive? Is he a teacher? Are the windows open? Are we late? Is it cold? Is the bus late? Is the room big? Is she tired? 5. I was in Wales last year. I was at school yesterday. My friend was at home last Friday. My friends were in England last summer. My family and I were at home last Sunday morning. My mum was at work yesterday. My English teacher was in America last year. Steve and Jane were in Paris on Tuesday. Jane was in London on Friday. They were angry. 6. They were new. The banks were open. She wasnt English Where was he? I wasnt interested. Were you very hungry? We werent ready. Was it difficult?

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El verbo to be

The traffic lights were red. What day was it? 7. I wasnt a teacher. She wasnt ill. The weather wasnt very nice. My shoes werent dirty This restaurant wasnt expensive. Your cigarettes werent in your bag. The exams werent difficult. The flowers werent beautiful. George wasnt in bed. He wasnt a famous film star.

8. There are three pencils in the bag There is a car in the garage There are books on the chair There is a telephone in the living room There are two tables in the kitchen There are birds in the sky There is a book on the desk There are five chairs in the bedroom There are seven days in a week There is a carton of milk in the fridge

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Tema 4

El verbo to have
El verbo to have El verbo to have
El verbo to have

El verbo to have

El verbo to have significa haber o tener y puede funcionar como verbo auxiliar o como verbo ordinario.

1. Usos del verbo to have


Como verbo auxiliar, to have se utiliza para construir las formas compuestas: I have worked He had lost his keys Yo he trabajado El haba perdido sus llaves.

We have watched TV Nosotros hemos visto la televisin - El verbo to have se puede utilizar como un verbo ordinario y en este caso tiene el significado de tener: I have a car She had a job Yo tengo un coche Ella tuvo un trabajo

- Y tambin se utiliza en algunas expresiones con el sentido de tomar: I have tea She has a bath Tomo el t Ella toma un bao

Debemos tener claro que usar solamente have es correcto, pero que el uso de got no siempre es adecuado acompaando a have. Generalmente, el uso de got es ms corriente en ingls britnico y menos usual en ingls americano. Puede usarse have got cuando alguien posee una determinada cosa o cuando estamos mencionando una cualidad o caracterstica que alguien o algo tiene. Ive got a new car Hes got a good memory Tengo un coche nuevo Tiene buena memoria.

Se usa have, no have got, al escribir o hablar en un contexto formal. La palabra got no aade ningn significado, puede desaparecer en todas sus formas (afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo), sin que el significado cambie: Ive got a flat = I have a flat Tengo un piso

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El verbo to have

Cuando nos referimos al pasado o al futuro no utilizamos nunca got: I had a big house two years ago Tuve una gran casa hace dos aos

Recuerda
Cuando have se utiliza como verbo tomar/desayunar/comer, etc. no se puede utilizar have/has got. Por ejemplo se dice: I have dinner ( no I have got dinner)

- Es muy frecuente el uso de modismos con have, especialmente seguido del artculo a/an y un nombre, para describir ciertas actividades o acciones: To have a walk To have a try To have a look To have fun To have a headache Pasear Intentar, probar Echar un vistazo Divertirse Tener dolor de cabeza

2. Conjugacin de to have. Presente y pasado


La conjugacin de to have tiene las siguientes caractersticas: - El presente del verbo to have tiene dos formas distintas : have para el plural y la primera y segunda persona del singular y has que se usa para la tercera persona del singular. Sin embargo, el pasado slo tiene una forma : had. I have (got) green eyes I had a terrible journey Tengo los ojos verdes Tuve un viaje horrible

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El verbo to have

- Se forma la negacin con slo aadir not a la forma afirmativa (lo mismo que el verbo to be). Adems hay que destacar el empleo de formas contradas, tanto en la afirmacin como en la negacin: They havent (got) a telephone No tienen telfono

- Se forma la interrogacin invirtiendo el orden sujeto verbo y se pone un solo signo de interrogacin al final de la pregunta: Have you got children? Tienes hijos?

Observemos las formas del verbo to have conjugado en el tiempo presente :

Forma afirmativa
I have (I've) got He, tengo You have (you've) got Has, tienes He has (he's) got Ha, tiene We have (we've) got Hemos, tenemos You have (you've) got Habis, tenis They have (they've) got Han, tienen

Forma negativa
I have not (I haven't) got No he, no tengo You have haven't) got not (you

Forma interrogativa
Have I got? He?, hengo? Have you got? Has?, tienes? Has he got? Ha?, tiene? Have we got? Hemos?, tenemos? Have you got? Habis?, tenis? Have they got? Han?, tienen?

No has, no tienes He has not (he hasn't) got No ha, no tiene We have not (we haven't) got No hemos, no tenemos You have haven't) got not (you

No nabis, no tenis They have not (they haven't) got No han, no tienen

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El verbo to have

Contestacin afirmativa
Yes, I have Yes, you have Yes, he/she/it has Yes, we have Yes, you have Yes, they have

Contestacin negativa
No, I haven't No, you haven't No, he/she/it hasn't No, we haven't No, you haven't No, they haven't

Y ahora en el tiempo pasado:


Forma afirmativa I had Hube, haba / tuve, tena You had Hubiste, habas tuviste, tenas He had Hubo, habia / tuvo, tena We had Hubimos, habamos / tuvimos, tenamos You had Hubisteis, habais / tuvisteis, tenais They had Hubieron, haban / tuvieron, tenan / Forma negativa I had not (I hadn't) No hube, no haba / no tuve, no tena You had not (you hadn't) No hubiste, no habas / no tuviste, no tenas He had not (he hadn't) No hubo, no habia / no tuvo, no tena We had not (we hadn't) No hubimos, no habamos / no tuvimos, no tenamos You had not (you hadn't) No hubisteis, no habais / no tuvisteis, no tenais They had not (they hadn't) No hubieron, no haban / no tuvieron, no tenan Forma interrogativa Had I? Hube?, Haba? Huve?, Tena? Had you? Hubiste?, Habas? / Tuviste?, Tenas? Had he? Hubo?, Haba? Tuvo?, Tena? Had we? Hubimos?, Habamos? / Tuvimos?, Tenamos? Had you? Hubisteis?, Habais? / Tuvisteis?, Tenais? Had they? Hubieron?, Haban? / Tuvieron?, Tenan? / /

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El verbo to have

- En el Negativo y el Interrogativo se acepta, adems de la forma vista en la tabla, utilizar los auxiliares dont / doesnt y do / does + base del verbo ,respectivamente, pero sin incluir la partcula got : Forma afirmativa: I have Forma negativa: I dont have Forma interrogativa: Do I have? Yo tengo Yo no tengo Tengo yo?

Has Carmen got a car ? / Does Carmen have a car ? Tiene Carmen un coche?.

Recuerda
No confundir la contraccin de la tercera persona: Shes/Hes/ Its got, con la contraccin del verbo to be, no es is sino has. La estructura have/has got slo se puede utilizar en el tiempo presente. Para el pasado y otros tiempos verbales hay que utilizar necesariamente el verbo have.

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El verbo to have

Ejercicios
1. Completar las frases usando el verbo have got: ____________ Jane got a brother? Sally ____________ We ____________ ____________ got a new boyfriend. got a house in Jan. got a garage. got a garden.

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

My flat We

____________

____________

you got a dog or a cat? ____________ ____________

Have they got a SEAT? No, they

Has Gary got a Mercedes? Yes, he My sister Megan ____________ ____________

got long hair. got blonde hair - shes got brown hair.

2. Escribir las siguientes frases en la forma negativa: Terry has got a girlfriend. Tom has got an uncle. Aziz has got green eyes. Sue is Peters brother. Lidia has got brown hair. Im a doctor. Darren is Megans boyfriend. Ej.: Terry hasnt got a girlfriend. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

Terry has got a date for Saturday. ___________________________________

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El verbo to have

Shes very pretty.

_____________________________

My neighbours have got two daughters. _____________________________ My best friend has got two brothers. _____________________________

3. Escribir have o has: I ___ blond hair and blue eyes. Mr. Brown ___ two brother They ___ two cats and three rabbits. The man next door ___ a pet. The new supermarket ___ everything. ___ your father got a nice car? ___ she got many friends? ___ your mother got blue eyes? ___ you got a ticket? ___ they got any children?

4. Elegir la respuesta correcta: My father have got / has got an old car. They have got / has got an armchair in their room. The man have got / has got very short hair. My sister have got / has got a sofa in her bedroom. We have got / has got a lamp in our room. My window have got / has got a curtain. You have got / has got beautiful eyes. She have got / has got a television . __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

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El verbo to have

Megans father have got / has got a computer in his house. Elena and Maria have got / has got toys in their room.

__________ __________

5. Convertir estas oraciones en forma negativa e interrogativa I have got two cars in the garage ____________________________________ Marta has got a computer in her room ____________________________________ He has got a sister ____________________________________ They have got blue eyes ____________________________________ Your house has got ten windows ____________________________________

6. Contestar a las preguntas con respuestas breves y traducirlas como en el ejemplo : Has she got a pen? yes, she has Tiene ella un boli? S, ella s. Has she got a book? yes, ............................ ______________________________________ Have they got the money? yes, ...................... ______________________________________ Has it got a two bathrooms? yes, .......................... ______________________________________

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El verbo to have

Has he got a car? yes, ................................. ______________________________________ Have we got the CDs? yes,....................... ______________________________________ Have you got a flat? yes,.............................. ______________________________________ Have Joe and Phil got a big house? yes,..... ______________________________________ Has Betty got a dog? Yes,............................ ______________________________________ Have you got a pet? yes,................................

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Soluciones
1. Has Jane got a brother? Sally has got a new boyfriend. We have got a house in Jan. My flat has got a garage. We have got a garden. Have you got a dog or a cat? 'Have they got a SEAT?' 'No, they haven't .' 'Has Gary got a Mercedes?' 'No, he hasn't .' My sister has got long hair. Megan hasn't got blonde hair - she's got brown hair. 2. Tom hasn't got an uncle. Aziz hasn't got green eyes. Sue isn't Peter's brother. Lidia hasn't got brown hair. I'm not a doctor. Darren isn't Megan's boyfriend. Terry hasn't got a date for Saturday. She isn't very pretty. My neighbours haven't got two daughters. 3. I have blond hair and blue eyes. Mr. Brown has two brother They have two cats and three rabbits. The man next door has a pet. The new supermarket has everything. Has your father got a nice car? Has she got many friends? Has your mother got blue eyes? Have you got a ticket? Have they got any children? 4. My father has got an old car. They have got an armchair in their room. The man has got very short hair. My sister has got a sofa in her bedroom. We have got a lamp in our room. My window has got a curtain. You have got beautiful eyes. She has got a television . Megan's father has got a computer in his house. Elena and Maria have got toys in their room. 5. I have got two cars in the garage I haven't got two cars in the garage Have I got two cars in the garage? Marta has got a computer in her room Marta hasn't got a computer in her room Has Marta got a computer in her room? He has got a sister He hasn't got a sister Has he got a sister? They have got blue eyes They haven't got blue eyes Have they got blue eyes?

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El verbo to have

Your house has got ten windows Your house hasn't got ten windows Has your house got ten windows? 6. Has she got a book ? yes, she has. Tiene ella un libro? S, ella s Have they got money? yes, they have. Tienen ellos dinero? S, ellos s. Has it got a two bathrooms ? yes, it has Tiene ello dos cuartos de bao? S, ello s. Has he got a car ? yes, he has Tiene l un coche? S, l s

Have we got the CDs ? yes, we have. Tenemos nosotros los Cds? S, nosotros s. Have you got a flat ? yes, I have Tienes t un piso? S, you s Have Joe and Phil got a big house ? yes, they have Tienen Joe y Phil una gran casa? S, ellos s Has Betty got a dog ? Yes, she has Tiene Betty un perro? S, ella s Have you got a pet ? yes, I have Tienes t una mascota? S, yo s

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Tema 5

Los adjetivos calificativos


Los adjetivos calificativos
Los adjetivos calificativos
Los adjetivos calificativos

Los adjetivos calificativos

Los adjetivos son las palabras que utilizamos para describir los nombres. Pueden decirnos cualquier caracterstica del nombre con el que van. Podra ser sobre su forma, color, tamao, etc. En ingls, los adjetivos son palabras invariables, es decir, slo tienen una forma nica (singular). A diferencia del espaol, los adjetivos ingleses no tienen gnero y no cambian del singular al plural cuando el nombre al que describen cambia su forma: The happy boy The happy girl The happy boys The happy girls El nio feliz La nia feliz Los nios felices Las nias felices

En ingls se pueden utilizar el gerundio (present participle) y el participio (past participle) con funcin de adjetivo: An amusing book An amused boy An interesting student An interested student Un libro divertido Un nio que se ha divertido Un estudiante interesante Un estudiante que est interesado

La diferencia entre el gerundio (-ing) y el participio (-ed) est en que el primero tiene un sentido activo (es el causante del efecto), mientras que el segundo tiene un sentido pasivo (es el receptor del efecto): Como ya mencionbamos en el tema dedicado a los nombres, en ingls a veces se utilizan adjetivos con funcin de sustantivos, normalmente haciendo referencia a colectivos: The rich The poor The Spanish Los ricos Los pobres Los espaoles

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Los adjetivos calificativos

1. Colocacin de los adjetivos


- El adjetivo en ingls se sita delante del sustantivo: A big house An old woman Una casa grande Una mujer mayor

- Pero en las frases atributivas se coloca detrs del verbo (to be): The house is big The woman is old La casa es grande La mujer es mayor

- Cuando varios adjetivos van delante de un mismo sustantivo, estos adjetivos se colocan siguiendo un orden determinado, que suele ser:

Caractersticas, opiniones Tamao, peso Edad Forma Color Procedencia Material Nombre

Beautiful, mysterious Small, enormous Old, young.... Round, narrow.. Red, blue.... German, Dutch Glass, paper Bottle, cheese

A big German car

Un coche alemn grande

An old, brown, paper parcel Un viejo paquete marrn de papel

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Los adjetivos calificativos

2. Grados de comparacin
Hemos estudiado que los adjetivos describen a los nombres, pero tambin se pueden usar para comparar dos nombres diferentes. Este fenmeno es lo que llamamos comparaciones. La nica vez que vemos cambios en la forma de los adjetivos es con las comparaciones: - De igualdad. Los dos nombres que estamos comparando comparten la caracterstica que el adjetivo est describiendo al mismo nivel. No hay diferencia ente los nombres en ese aspecto comparado. Para esta comparacin usamos la estructura as + adjetivo + as (tan + adjetivo + como): He is as tall as she l es tan alto como ella

- Cuando usamos la forma negativa, a veces cambiamos el primer as por so. so + adjetivo + as (tan + adjetivo + como): He is not as/so tall as she l no es tan alto como ella

- De superioridad. Un nombre posee la caracterstica comparada en un nivel ms alto que el otro nombre. Para este tipo de comparaciones usamos la estructura adjetivo + er + than (ms + adjetivo + que). Si el adjetivo que estamos comparando tiene dos o ms slabas usamos more + adjetivo + than (ms + adjetivo + que): He is taller than she l es ms alto que ella

- Inferioridad.Un nombre tiene la caracterstica que el adjetivo describe en un nivel inferior al del otro nombre. Usamos la estructura less + adjetivo + than (menos + adjetivo + que): He is less tall than she l es menos alto que ella

- Adjetivo superlativo. El superlativo denota la cualidad en su ms alto grado. Usamos la estructura: the + adjetivo + est (el, la, lo, las, los + ms + adjetivo). Si el adjetivo tiene dos o ms slabas entonces utilizamos the most + adjetivo (el, la, lo, las, los + ms + adjetivo) para expresar el nivel ms alto y the least + adjetivo (el, la, lo, las, los + menos + adjetivo) para describir el nivel ms bajo: He is the tallest in the class l es el ms alto de la clase

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Los adjetivos calificativos

3. Formacin del comparativo de superioridad y superlativo


Existen dos maneras de formar el comparativo y el superlativo en ingls: - Aadiendo al adjetivo el sufijo er para el comparativo y est para el superlativo. As lo forman los adjetivos monoslabos y los bislabos terminados en y. Los terminados en y precedida de consonante transforman la y griega en i latina. Cuando la y va precedida de vocal no cambia : Long /longer /the longest Largo / ms largo / el ms largo Happy/ happier / the happiest Feliz / ms feliz / el ms feliz Cuando el adjetivo monoslabo termina en consonante simple precedida de una sola vocal de sonido breve, se dobla la consonante: Hot / hotter / the hottest Caliente / ms caliente / el ms caliente Los terminados en e aaden slo r y st : Nice /nicer /the nicest Agradable / ms agradable / el ms agradable - Anteponiendo al adjetivo la palabra more (ms) para el comparativo, y the most (el ms) para el superlativo. Lo forman as todos los adjetivos no incluidos anteriormente, es decir, los bislabos no mencionados y todos los polislabos: Intelligent / more intelligent / the most intelligent Algunos adjetivos en ingls son irregulares cuando hacen los comparativos. Nos los tenemos que aprender de memoria:

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Adjetivo
Bad (malo) Good (bueno) Little (pequeo) Many (mucho) Much (mucho) Old (viejo)

Comparativo
Worse (peor) Better (mejor) Less (menos) More (ms) More (ms) Older (mayor)

Superlativo
The worst (el peor) The best (el mejor) The least (generally: el/lo menos) The most (el ms) The most (el ms) The eldest (el mayor)

Veamos ahora una tabla que resume las distintas maneras de formar los comparativos y superlativos: Formacin
Una sola slaba Terminado en -e Terminado consonante simple Dos slabas terminado en -y Dos o ms slabas Tall Rude Big

Adjetivo

Comparativo
Taller Ruder Bigger

Superlativo
The tallest The rudest The biggest

Easy

Easier

The easiest

Expensive

More expensive

The most expensive

Recuerda

Usamos siempre than siguiendo el adjetivo cuando estemos comparando dos cosas o personas: His car is more expensive than my car. ( no His car is more expensive that my car) Su coche es ms caro que mi coche. La partcula comparativa es than no that. Usamos siempre el artculo the delante del adjetivo cuando estemos formando el superlativo: Mary is the funniest girl in the class ( no Mary is funniest girl in the class) Mary el la chica ms divertida de la clase.

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Escribir la forma comparativa de superioridad y del superlativo de los siguientes adjetivos: Strong Important Difficult Large Pretty Heavy Good Early Thin Cheap ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

2. Completar las siguientes frases con el adjetivo en grado comparativo de superioridad: Andorra is ___________ than Spain (small) Barcelona is __________ than Almera (noisy) Mount Everest is __________ than Teide (high) Football is __________ than tennis (popular) Barcelona is __________ than Liverpool (good) A Ferrari is ___________ than a Renault (fast) Spanish is ____________ than English (difficult)

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A Citroen is _____________ than a BMW (cheap) Big motorbikes are ___________ than small cars (expensive) Bicycles are ______________than motorbikes (slow)

3. Completar las siguientes frases con el adjetivo en grado superlativo: The ____________town in Spain is Madrid (big) The _____________ TV programmes are reality shows (bad) Mount Everest is the____________ mountain in the world (high) London is the ____________ town in Europe (expensive) You are my_____________ friend (good) Beyonc is the___________ pop star (pretty) Japanese is the____________ language in the world (difficult) Tigers are the ____________animals (brave) Scuba diving is the _________ sport (dangerous) Tortoises are the_________ animals (slow)

4. Completar con la forma comparativa o superlativa del adjetivo escrito entre parntesis: This MP3 is ___________(new) than your MP3. Peter is ___________(old) than Liz. Ben is ___________(young) than Jill. Jack is ______________(young) in the class. That car is ____________(expensive) than this car. That mobile phone is _____________(expensive) in the market. Your car is ______________(fast) than my car. Your car is _____________(fast) in the street.

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This house is _____________(big) than my house. This house is ___________ (big) in the town.

5. Escribir oraciones que establezcan una comparacin como en el ejemplo John / tall (Peter)= John is tall, but Peter is taller (John es alto pero Peter es ms alto) Angela/beautiful (Betty) _____________________________________________________________ Granada/nice (Madrid) _____________________________________________________________ George/strong (Jack) _____________________________________________________________ Spain / warm (Greece) _____________________________________________________________ Denmark / small (Andorra) _____________________________________________________________ Paul /young (Tom) _____________________________________________________________ Writing / difficult (speaking) _____________________________________________________________ My room / big (your room) _____________________________________________________________ My house / dirty ( your house) _____________________________________________________________ George Clooney / famous (Brad Pitt) _____________________________________________________________

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6. Escribir comparaciones de superioridad usando los dos trminos de la comparacin y el adjetivo como en el ejemplo ( My bike / small / your bike) My bike is smaller than your bike: My present / cheap / your present _____________________________________________________________ My room / dark / your room _____________________________________________________________ Fruit / healthy / meat _____________________________________________________________ Megan / thin / Kate _____________________________________________________________ Dresses / comfortable / skirts _____________________________________________________________ Oranges / good / sweets _____________________________________________________________ Lions / dangerous / dogs _____________________________________________________________ Alaska / cold / Italy _____________________________________________________________ Ben / young / Tom _____________________________________________________________ Tennis / safe / rugby _____________________________________________________________

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7. Escribir comparaciones de igualdad y luego pasarlas a negativa como en el ejemplo ( Goya / important / Picasso) Goya is as important as Picasso Goya is not as /so important as Picasso. My suitcase / heavy / your suitcase _____________________________________________________________ Paris / beautiful / New York _____________________________________________________________ My ruler / long / your ruler _____________________________________________________________ Jane / thin / Ben _____________________________________________________________ Valencia / warm / Marbella _____________________________________________________________ Sara / friendly / Laura _____________________________________________________________ This street / quiet / that street _____________________________________________________________ My sweater / colourful / your sweater _____________________________________________________________ This photo / funny / that photo _____________________________________________________________ Boots / fashionable / trainers _____________________________________________________________

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Soluciones
1. Strong stronger the strongest Important more important the most important Difficult more difficult the most difficult Large larger the largest Pretty prettier the prettiest Heavy heavier the heaviest Good better the best Early earlier the earliest Thin thinner the thinnest Cheap cheaper the cheapest 2. Andorra is smaller than Spain Barcelona is noisier than Almera Mount Everest is higher than Teide Football is more popular than tennis Barcelona is better than Liverpool A Ferrari is faster than a Renault Spanish is more difficult than English A Citroen is cheaper than a BMW Big motorbikes are more expensive than small cars Bicycles are slower than motorbikes 3. The biggest town in Spain is Madrid (big) The worst TV programmes are reality shows (bad) Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world (high) London is the most expensive town in Europe (expensive) You are my best friend (good) Beyonc is the prettiest pop start (pretty) Japanese is the most difficult language in the world (difficult) Tigers are the bravest animals (brave) Scuba diving is the most dangerous sport (dangerous) Tortoises are the slowest animals (slow) 4. This MP3 is newer than your MP3. Peter is older than Liz. Ben is younger than Jill. Jack is the youngest in the class. That car is more expensive than this car. That mobile phone is the most expensive in the market. Your car is faster than my car. Your car is the fastest in the street. This house is bigger than my house. This house is the biggest in the town. 5. Angela is beautiful , but Betty is more beautiful Granada is nice, but Madrid is nicer George is strong , but Jack is stronger Spain is warm, but Greece is warmer Denmark is small , but Andorra is smaller Paul is young, but Tom is younger Writing is difficult, but speaking is more difficult My room is big , but your room is bigger

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My house is dirty, but your house is dirtier George Clooney is famous, but Brad Pitt is more famous 6. My present is cheaper than your present My room is darker than your room Fruit is healthier than meat Megan is thinner than Kate Dresses are more comfortable than skirts Oranges are better than sweets Lions are more dangerous than dogs Alaska is colder than Italy Ben is younger than Tom Tennis is safer than rugby 7. My suitcase is as heavy as your suitcase. My suitcase is not so/as heavy as your suitcase

Paris is as beautiful as New York. Paris is not so/as beautiful as New York. My ruler is as long as your ruler. My ruler is not so/as long as your ruler Jane is as thin as Ben. Jane is not so/as thin as Ben Valencia is as warm as Marbella. Valencia is not so/as warm as Marbella Sara is as friendly as Laura. Sara is not so/as friendly as Laura This street is as quiet as that street. This street is not so/as quiet as that street My sweater is as colourful as your sweater. My sweater is not so/as colourful as your sweater This photo is as funny as that photo. This photo is not so/as funny as that photo. Boots are as fashionable as trainers. Boots are not so/as fashionable as trainers.

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Tema 6

Los adjetivos determinativos


Los adjetivos determinativos
Los adjetivos determinativos
Los adjetivos determinativos

Los adjetivos determinativos

La funcin de los adjetivos determinativos, cmo su nombre indica, es la de determinar al nombre y siempre lo acompaan. Los adjetivos determinativos se pueden dividir en : demostrativos, indefinidos, posesivos, numerales e interrogativos.

1. Adjetivos demostrativos
Los adjetivos demostrativos ingleses son: This (este, esta) That ( aquel, aquella) These (estos, estas) Those (aquellos, aquellas)

Los adjetivos demostrativos sirven para sealar la posicin de las cosas. En espaol encontramos tres distintos grados de proximidad. Esto (para lo que est ms cerca del sujeto). Eso (situado a media distancia) y Aquello (lejano). En ingls, en cambio, solamente encontramos dos grados de proximidad. This( este), que se utiliza para designar las cosas o personas relativamente cercanas y that (ese o aquel), para las ms alejadas. Los adjetivos demostrativos son invariables en gnero, pero tienen en cambio plural. - This se usa para indicar una sola persona o cosa que est cerca del hablante: Does this bus go to the centre? Va este autobs al centro?

- That se usa para una sola persona o cosa que no est cerca del hablante: That house is nice Aquella casa es bonita

- These se usa para dos o ms personas o cosas que estn cerca del hablante: These books are green Estos libros son verdes

- Those se usa para dos o ms personas o cosas que estn lejos del hablante: Look at those clouds! Mira aquellas nubes !

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This puede utilizarse tambin para presentarse uno mismo (no personalmente) o para presentar a un tercero.: Hello. This is Eve. Hola. Soy Eva (En una conversacin telefnica) Peter, this is Megan Peter, sta es Megan This tambin se emplea coloquialmente para empezar un relato, historietas, chistes o para indicar grficamente el tamao de algo: This is the story of Miss Brodie... Esta es la historia de Miss Brodie... An elephant this big Un elefante as de grande

This / that / these / those pueden preceder a un sustantivo o ir solos( entonces funciona como pronombre). What is that? Qu es aquello?

That y those sirve para hablar del pasado mientras que this y these para lo que est ocurriendo ahora o para referirnos a algo de lo que estamos hablando: That was a wonderful film Listen to this new Cd Ha sido una pelcula maravillosa. Escucha este nuevo Cd

2. Adjetivos indefinidos
El uso de los adjetivos indefinidos guarda una estrecha relacin con los nombres contables y no contables, ya que sirven para determinar la cantidad . Hay adjetivos que solamente se usan con nombres no contables, otros que slo pueden usarse con nombres contables y los ltimos que pueden usarse tanto con nombres contables y no contables. A continuacin veremos una seleccin de los adjetivos indefinidos ms importantes:

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- Some (algunos, algunas) refiere una cantidad indefinida (cierto nmero de...) se usa en las frases afirmativas y las interrogativas cuando se espera una respuesta afirmativa, cuando ofrecemos algo o cuando pedimos algo cortsmente: We need some milk I have some money Would you like some coffee? Can you lend me some money? Me puedes prestar algo de dinero? Some puede ser sustituido por a little, con nombres singulares incontables o por ) a few, con nombres en plural contables: I have a little tea I have a few books on my shelf Tengo algunos libros en la estantera - Any, puede usarse en frases interrogativas (cantidad indefinida) o negativas (en este caso expresa la ausencia de cantidad). En el caso de las frases interrogativas, a diferencia de some, no se espera una respuesta afirmativa (podemos esperar tanto una respuesta afirmativa como negativa). There isnt any problem No hay ningn problema Are there any policemen in the street? Hay algunos policies en la calle? En las frases afirmativas any significa cualquier: Bring me any book you like Treme cualquier libro que te guste De acuerdo con lo dicho podemos resumirlo en la siguiente tabla: Tomo un poco de t Necesitamos algo de leche Tengo algo de dinero Quires un poco de caf?

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Some

Frases afirmativas Frases interrogativas(peticiones) Frases negativas

There are some pictures in my house May I have some coffee? There isnt any milk Is there any milk? If you have any doubts...

Any

Frases interrogativas Frases afirmativas

- No tiene valor negativo y exige por lo tanto el uso del verbo en forma afirmativa ( en lengua inglesa no se niega dos veces, se evita la doble negacin): I bought no cheese yesterday No compr queso ayer - Much (mucho)se usa con nombres incontables en oraciones negativas e interrogativas. Para las oraciones afirmativas preferimos a lot of que puede acompaar tanto a nombres incontables como contables. Much tambin se usa para formar las siguientes expresiones: so much (tanto), too much (demasiado) y how much? (cuanto?). There isnt much milk in the supermarket No hay mucha leche en el supermercado Do you drink much tea? How much is it? Thank you very much Bebes mucho t? Cunto es esto? Muchas gracias

Pueden tambin emplearse expresiones como a great deal (of...) y plenty (of...) con el significado de much I want a great deal of money Quiero mucho dinero

- Many (muchos). Usamos many con nombres contables en plural en oraciones negativas e interrogativas. En frases afirmativas es ms corriente el uso de a lot of. He cant speak many languages No sabe hablar muchos idiomas Hes got a lot of money Tiene mucho dinero

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- Little (poco) y a little (un poco de) acompaan siempre a nombres incontables. Little tiene un significado negativo mientras que a little lo tiene ms positivo: We have little time left I have a little time Nos queda poco tiempo Tengo un poco de tiempo

- Few y a few van seguidos de un nombre contable en plural. Few tiene un sentido negativo (poco) mientras que a few tiene un sentido ms positivo y equivale a algunos. There are few books on the table Hay pocos libros sobre la mesa I have read a few books this summer He ledo algunos libros este verano Encontraremos generalmente ms usuales las construcciones con many en forma negativa que con few en su forma positiva. As, la primera frase del ejemplo anterior quedara: There arent many books on the table No hay muchos libros sobre la mesa - Enough significa bastante, en el sentido de suficiente. Cuando acompaa a un adjetivo, a un adverbio o a un participio siempre se coloca detrs de los mismos. En cambio, cuando acompaa a un nombre suele colocarse delante de ste. He is strong enough He has enough money Es bastante fuerte Tiene bastante dinero

A continuacin veamos otros adjetivos indefinidos: Several Both All Every Another Varios, as Ambos, as Todo, a, os, as Cada, todos, as Otro, a

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Other Each

Otros, as Cada, cada uno

Algunos de estos adjetivos se unen a palabras como thing, body y one para formar pronombres indefinidos. Llevan siempre el verbo en singular y funcionan de la misma manera en su distribucin en frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas: Something Anything Nothing Everything Algo Algo, nada, cualquier cosa Nada Todo

Somebody/ someone Anybody / anyone Nobody / no one Everybody / everyone

Alguien Alguien, nadie, cualquiera Nadie Todos

3. Adjetivos posesivos
Los adjetivos posesivos en ingls hacen referencia al poseedor y no a la cosa poseda y se usan con ms frecuencia en ingls que en espaol. Preceden normalmente a los nombres que indican partes del cuerpo, parentesco, vestimenta y objetos personales, nombres que se usan en espaol con el artculo determinado: He washed his hands Se lav las manos (sus manos)

Los adjetivos posesivos tienen tres formas para la tercera persona singular: his (su de l), her (su de ella) e its (su de ello, de una cosa, animal o beb). Por lo dems, son invariables; as our significa nuestro, nuestra, nuestros o nuestras segn el nombre que le acompae. Los adjetivos en ingls son:

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Ingls

My

Your Tu Tus Vuestro Vuestra Vuestro Vuestras

His

Her

Its

Their

Our

Espaol

Mi Mis

Su Sus

Nuestro Nuestra Nuestros Nuestras

Thats my watch Put on your hat This is his signature The bird is in its cage

Ese es mi reloj Ponte el / tu sombrero sta es su firma El pjaro est en su jaula

Recuerda

Fjate que el tratamiento en ingls no cambia, a diferencia de la distincin en espaol del t y el su (de usted). I like your shoes Me gustan tus/ sus zapatos

4. Adjetivos numerales
Podemos dividir los adjetivos numerales en Cardinales y Ordinales

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Nmero
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1.000 1.000.000

Cardinal
nought, zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a/one hundred a/one thousand a/one million

Ordinal
first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth a/one hundredth a/one thousandth a/one millionth

Los numerales cardinales: - Podemos expresar el nmero cero de varias formas: nought o naught, usado de forma genrica y en matemticas. Zero, usado normalmente para indicar la temperatura. Tambin en matemticas. o (pronunciado: oh), se usa genricamente y para indicar los nmeros de telfono y nil, usado generalmente para indicar resultados de algunos eventos deportivos, como el ftbol. En tenis se dice love por cero. Ten degrees below zero Diez grados bajo cero

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My telephone number is 01204 Spain beat Great Britain three-nil

(o - one - two - o - four)

Espaa gan a Gran Bretaa tres a cero - Separamos con un guin las unidades que siguen a las decenas, a partir del nmero 20 36 = thirty- six 79 = seventy-nine

- Los nmeros entre 100 y 1000 unen las centenas y decenas con and 236 = two hundred and thirty - six - Los millares no van seguidos de guin ni de and, pero si 1000 va seguido de un nmero inferior a 100, se usa and. Si los nmeros de cuatro cifras se refieren a fechas se leen en grupos de dos: 1350 = one thousand three hundred and fifty 1050 = one thousand and fifty 1973 = nineteen seventy three (fecha) Los numerales ordinales: - Se forman aadiendo el sufijo -th al nmero, a excepcin de los 3 primeros (first, second, third). - Se expresan de forma abreviada aadiendo a las cifras las dos ltimas letras del ordinal. 1 = 1st 2 = 2nd 3 = 3rd 4 = 4th 5 = 5th...

Se usan los ordinales para los das del mes y en los ttulos de reyes: 2nd February Elizabeth II 2 de febrero (ledo second of February) Isabel II (ledo Elizabeth the Second)

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5. Adjetivos interrogativos
Los adjetivos interrogativos son: - What? significa qu?. Utilizamos what cuando preguntamos por informacin que queremos conocer. What time is it? Qu hora es?

Whats his telephone number? Cul es su nmero de telfono? - Which? Significa cul(es)? Usamos which en preguntas en las cuales hay dos o ms posibles respuestas o alternativas. Which sport do you like best? Qu deporte te gusta ms?

La diferencia entre what y which es que what tiene un sentido general, mientras que which selecciona o restringe. - Whose? significa de quin?. Se utiliza generalmente en preguntas para saber a quin pertenece algo. Whose umbrella is that? De quin es ese paraguas?

- How much? que significa cunto? En espaol se utiliza con sustantivos no contables: How much wine can you drink? Cunto vino puedes beber?

- How many? Que es cuntos? En espaol se utiliza con sustantivos contables: How many bottles of wine can you drink? Cuntas botellas de vino puedes beber? Todos ellos son invariables en gnero y nmero

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Completar las oraciones con el adjetivo posesivo adecuado a cada caso: Karen forgot ________ pencil. Susan and Henry talk with _______ mother. Ann and I were late for _______ school. Richard is doing _______ homework. They didnt decorate ________ room. Where are _______ keys? I cant find them. This is my father. _______ name is Carlos. Marta likes that colour. Its ________ favourite colour. Lisa and I have done ______ projects You have got a green umbrella. Is this _______ umbrella?

2. Escribir los adjetivos posesivos correspondientes: I You He She It We They ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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3. Escribir el adjetivo posesivo para formar frases correctas: Weve got a nice daughter. This is ______ daughter. Theyve got a beautiful cat. That is ______ cat. Youve got a fantastic TV set. This is ______ TV set. Carmen has got a red T-shirt. This is _______ T- shirt. The cat has got a ball. This is ______ ball. My friend Carlos has got a brother. This is ______ brother. Ive got an interesting book. This is ______ book. George likes playing volleyball. Its ________ favourite sport. Sandra and Sara like playing the violin. These are ________ violins.

4.Completar las siguientes frases con los adjetivos posesivos: You sell magazines. _________ magazines are expensive. I make cakes every day. _______ cakes are good. He sells textbooks. ______ textbooks are cheap. She teaches English. ______ students are very intelligent. Tim and Steven are brothers. ______ mother is forty years old Peter and I like music. _______ favourite singer is Serrat. Im from Spain. ______ name is Carmen. He likes watching TV. ________ favourite programme is Documentos TV. The shop is closed. _____ doors are locked. My friends like studying. _______ favourite subject is Maths.

5. Elegir entre los adjetivos demostrativos This y These: This/ these cheese is horrible. This/ these tomatoes are excellent. ________ ________

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How much is this/ these bag? I like this/ these car. I dont understand this/ these word. This/ these songs are very good. What is this/ these animal? This/ these Cds are mine. My father gave me this/ these notebooks. This/ these rubber is pink.

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

6. Elegir entre How much y How many: _________ brothers have you got? _________ money have you got? _________books have you got in your bag? ________ milk have you got in the fridge? _________ water do you drink? _________ bottles of water do you drink? _________ bread do you have ? _________ chocolate bars do you eat? _________ chocolate do you eat? ________ hours do you sleep?

7. Elegir entre some o any I dont drink _______ beer There arent ______ oranges There is ________ fruit, but there isnt _______ bread or ham I have _______ new CDs

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Have you got ______ posters on your bedroom walls? There are _______people at the front door She doesnt have ________ brothers or sisters Do you play ______instruments? Do you like _______ classical music? My boyfriend doesnt eat ________ meat

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Soluciones
1. Karen forgot her pencil. Susan and Henry talk with their mother. Ann and I were late for our school. Richard is doing his homework. They didnt decorate their room. Where are my keys? I cant find them. This is my father. His name is Carlos. Marta likes that colour. Its her favourite colour. Lisa and I have done our projects You have got a green umbrella. Is this your umbrella? 2. I = my You = your He = his She = her It = its We = our They = their 3. Weve got a nice daughter. This is our daughter. Theyve got a beautiful cat. That is their cat. Youve got a fantastic TV set. This is your TV set. Carmen has got a red T-shirt. This is her T- shirt. The cat has got a ball. This is its ball. My friend Carlos has got a brother. This is his brother. Ive got an interesting book. This is my book. George likes playing volleyball. Its his favourite sport. Sandra and Sara likes playing the violin. These are their violins 4. You sell magazines. Your magazines are expensive. I make cakes every day. My cakes are good. He sells textbooks. His textbooks are cheap. She teaches English. Her students are very intelligent. Tim and Steven are brothers. Their mother is forty years old Peter and I like music. Our favourite singer is Serrat. Im from Spain. My name is Carmen. He likes watching TV. His favourite programme is Documentos TV. The shop is closed. Its doors are locked. My friends like studying. Their favourite subject is Maths. 5. This cheese is horrible. These tomatoes are excellent. How much is this bag? I like this car. I dont understand this word. These songs are very good. What is this animal? These Cds are mine. My father gave me these notebooks.

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This rubber is pink. 6. How many brothers have you got? How much money have you got? How many books have you got in your bag? How much milk have you got in the fridge? How much water do you drink? How many bottles of water do you drink? How much bread do you have ? How many chocolate bars do you eat? How much chocolate do you eat? How many hours do you sleep?

7. I dont drink any beer There arent any oranges There is some fruit, but there isnt any bread or ham I have some new CDs Have you got any posters on your bedroom walls? There are some people at the front door She doesnt have any brothers or sisters Do you play any instruments? Do you like any classical music? My boyfriend doesnt eat any meat

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Tema 7

Los pronombres
Los pronombres
Los pronombres
Los pronombres

Los pronombres

Los pronombres en ingls tienen algunas veces la misma forma y significado que los adjetivos determinativos, distinguindose solamente por la funcin que realizan: acompaar a un nombre o reemplazarlo que es lo que hacen los pronombres. En este tema vamos a ver los siguientes pronombres: demostrativos, posesivos, personales, reflexivos e interrogativos.

1. Pronombres demostrativos
Los pronombres demostrativos se usan para sustituir nombres y, al mismo tiempo, para indicar si estn cerca o lejos en el espacio o el tiempo, del hablante en el momento de hablar. THIS (ste, sta, sto) y THAT (se, sa, eso, aqul, aqulla, aquello) se refieren a nombres en singular. THIS (ste, sta, sto) muestra una posicin ms cercana del objeto con el hablante y THAT (se, sa, eso) una posicin ms lejana: THESE (stos, stas) y THOSE (sos, sas, aqullos, aqullas) se refieren a nombres en plural. THESE (stos, stas) muestra una posicin ms cercana del objeto con el hablante y THOSE (sos, sas, aqullos, aqullas) una posicin ms lejana: This is my book That is your car. These are my friends. Those are their relatives. Este es mi libro Ese es tu coche Estos son mis amigos Esos son sus familiares

A veces, los pronombres demostrativos van reforzados por el pronombre one en singular o ones en plural: I want this (one) I want those (ones) Quiero ste Quiero sos

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Los pronombres

2. Pronombres posesivos
El adjetivo posesivo en ingls tiene las siguientes formas: Mine (el, la, los. mo), yours (el, la, los... tuyo) his (el, la, los... suyo), hers (el, la, los... suyo), its (el, la, los... suyo), ours (el, la, los... nuestro), yours (el, la, los vuestro) y theirs (el, la, los... suyo). - Se forman aadiendo la letra -s al adjetivo posesivo correspondiente, a excepcin de la primera persona singular (mine) y la tercera persona singular (his). - Usamos los pronombres posesivos cuando queremos sustituir un grupo de palabras que estn indicando una relacin de posesin: This is my book This is mine / This book is mine ste es el mo / Este libro es mo Igual que los adjetivos posesivos, los pronombres conciertan con el poseedor pero no con la cosa poseda. These are my books stos son mis libros ste es mi libro

These are mine / These books are mine stos son mos / Estos libros son mos

3. Pronombres personales
Los pronombres personales en ingls tienen dos formas, una para la funcin de sujeto (caso nominativo) y otra cuando funcionan como complemento (caso objetivo) - Los pronombres personales sujeto son en singular I / yo, you / t, usted, he / l , she / ella, it / ello y en plural we / nosotros, nosotras, you / vosotros -as, ustedes , they / ellos, ellas.

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Recuerda
El pronombre I siempre se escribe con mayscula. I am thirty years old Tengo treinta aos You equivale a los pronombres espaoles t, usted, vosotros, vosotras, ustedes (debemos determinar a qu forma pertenece por el contexto de la frase). You are forty years old Tienes / tiene cuarenta aos Los pronombres personales sujetos no se sobreentienden nunca, (no existen los sujetos elpticos), es decir, en ingls es necesario emplear siempre el pronombre sujeto, a diferencia del espaol que generalmente se sobreentiende y no es necesario utilizarlo.

Los pronombres personales complemento tienen las siguientes formas , para el singular me / me, mi, you / te, ti , him / le, l, her / le, la, ella it / lo, l, ella, ello, y para el plural us / nos, nosotros, nosotras, you / os, vosotros, vosotras, them / les, los, las, ellos, ellas. Los pronombres personales complemento van detrs del verbo ( a diferencia del espaol que suelen ir delante) y despus de las preposiciones. I go out with him Salgo con l

Observemos la tabla comparativa para comprender el uso de los pronombres personales complemento y los pronombres personales sujeto:

Pronombres personales (sujeto)


I see lvaro You see lvaro He sees lvaro She sees lvaro It sees lvaro We see lvaro You see lvaro They see lvaro Yo veo a lvaro T ves a lvaro l ve a lvaro Ella ve a lvaro Ello ve a lvaro Nosotros vemos a lvaro Vosotros veis a lvaro Ellos ven a lvaro

Pronombres personales (objeto)


lvaro sees me lvaro sees you lvaro sees him lvaro sees her lvaro sees it lvaro sees us lvaro sees you lvaro sees them lvaro me ve (a m) lvaro te ve (a t) lvaro lo ve (a l) lvaro la ve (a ella) lvaro lo ve (a ello) lvaro nos ve (a nosotros) lvaro os ve (a vosotros) lvaro los ve (a ellos)

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4. Pronombres reflexivos
Usamos los pronombres reflexivos para indicar que la persona que realiza la accin del verbo es la misma persona que recibe la accin Se forman mediante el agregado de self (mismo) al pronombre posesivo singular y selves (mismos) al plural: I looked at myself in the mirror Me mir en el espejo We looked at ourselves in the mirror Nos miramos en el espejo Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Oneself Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Se, a s mismo, uno mismo (impersonal) Me, a m mismo, yo mismo Te, t mismo, a ti mismo, a usted mismo Se, a s mismo, a l mismo Se, a s misma, a ella misma Se, a s mismo, a ello mismo Nos, a nosotros mismos Os, a vosotros mismos, a ustedes mismos Se, a s mismos, a ellos mismos

Los pronombres reflexivos se utilizan para enfatizar el sentido de la frase (para realzar al sujeto que realiza la accin por si mismo) y en este caso se suelen colocar detrs del nombre o pronombre al que acompaa, o en posicin final: I myself will do it Lo har yo mismo

Conjuntamente con by expresan la idea de que algo se hizo sin ayuda, solo: I will do it by myself Lo har solo

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Slo unos pocos verbos son siempre reflexivos en ingls: (to pride oneself, to absent oneself, enorgullecerse de, ausentarse de) el resto de los verbos pueden ser reflexivos o no dependiendo de su funcin en la oracin. To wash To wash oneself lavar lavarse

Pero hay que tener en cuenta que los verbos reflexivos no coinciden necesariamente en castellano y en ingls. Hay ciertas expresiones, sobre todo del cuerpo humano o prendas de vestir que en espaol usamos verbos reflexivos y en ingls no: To get up To sit down To wake up To stand up levantarse sentarse despertarse ponerse de pie

We got up very late

Nos levantamos muy tarde

5. Pronombres interrogativos
Los pronombres interrogativos son las palabras que colocamos al principio de las preguntas. Algunos de ellos se refieren slo a personas, como who, whom y whose y otros se refieren a personas y objetos como what y which . No distinguen entre singular y plural, as que slo tienen una forma: WHAT (qu), WHICH (cul, cules), WHO (quin, quines), WHOSE (de quin, de quines), WHOM ( a quin, quines) Usamos los pronombres interrogativos al principio de las preguntas: What do you want? Which is your favourite one? Who are you? Qu quieres? Cul es tu favorita? Quin eres?

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Whose is this book? Whom did you call?

De quin es este libro? A quin llamaste?

- Conviene distinguir entre dos funciones del pronombre interrogativo who. Puede funcionar como sujeto del verbo y por tanto no se usa auxiliar. Otras veces who funciona como complemento y debe usar auxiliar: Who loves Mary? Who does Mary love? Recuerda
Pronombres sujeto A diferencia del espaol, en ingls el pronombre sujeto debe figurar siempre: You are sad Pronombres complemento El pronombre se coloca detrs del verbo que complementa: He saw her She told me something Usamos las preposiciones to o for cuando hay dos pronombres complemento, uno en funcin de directo y otro en funcin de indirecto. I bought it for me En muchos verbos se coloca una preposicin antes del pronombre de objeto. They talked to her Los pronombres posesivos sustituyen la estructura adjetivo posesivo + nombre: This is my room, it is mine. Los pronombres reflexivos Son usados cuando: 1) el sujeto y el complemento del verbo son el mismo: I saw it for myself. 2) cuando se quiere destacar quin hace la accin: I have too much work, can you help me? - No, do it yourself

Quin quiere a Mary? A quin quiere Mary?

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Sustituir la palabra entre parntesis por un pronombre personal: _________ is reading a magazine. (John) _________ is yellow. (The sun) _________ are on the wall. (The pictures) _________ is running. (The horse) _________ are watching TV. (My mother and I) _________ are in the garden. (The flowers) _________ is driving a car. (Tom) _________ are dirty. (Henrys shoes) _________ has got two grandmothers. (Diana) Has ________ got a hamster? (Claire)

2. Elegir el pronombre personal complemento: I see ________ (they/them) every day. He sits near ___________(I/me) in class. She goes with _________(we/us) to the horse I like (she/her) very much. I know (he/him) I often go with (they/them) to my village. He often helps (I/me) with my homework. She writes many postcards to (he/him)

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Mr. Brown teaches (we/us) Maths. He gives many presents to (she/her)

3. Elegir el pronombre personal sujeto o complemento: They/them are my friends She/ her is reading a book What a beautiful dress! I want its/it Can you help I/me, please? You/your are my pupil. Pleased to meet your/you She/her is talking to him Thank you for inviting we/us Carol is telling they/them a joke David is kissing she/her

4. Sustituir las palabras en negrita por pronombres posesivos: These pencils are Claires and Johns pencils. This room is her room That book is our book This jacket is your jacket That horse is my horse These gloves are his gloves These magazines are our magazines That pen is my pen Those books are Henrys and Annes books Is this desk your desk?

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5. Escribir la forma correcta del pronombre posesivo It belongs to me, its _________. It belongs to my father, its _________ It belongs to her, its __________ It belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, its __________ It belongs to me and my wife, its ____________ It belongs to my mother, its ___________ It belongs to him, its _______________ It belongs to you, its ____________ It belongs to the dog, its ___________ It belongs to them, its ____________

6. Escribir el pronombre reflexivo: The dog killed ________ when it went across the street I enjoyed ___________ at the concert He always looks at _______ in the mirror The woman hurt ____________ with the knife The children enjoyed ____________ in the park You two shouldnt do that. Youll hurt _________ He lives by ________ Some people only think about _________ My friend didnt tell him. I told him _________ We dont like eating by _____________

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7. Emplear who, whose, what o which: ________ time is it? Its half past five ________ jacket is this? Its mine. Ive got chocolate or vanilla ice-cream, ________ do you prefer? ______ is that man with your daughter? Its her boss. ______ did you say? I said nothing ______ road should I take? ______ house is that? ______ nationality are you? ______ kind of music do you like? ______ T-shirt are you going to wear, the pink or the white one?

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Soluciones
1. He is reading a magazine. It is yellow. They are on the wall. It is running. We are watching TV. They are in the garden. He is driving a car. They are dirty. She has got two grandmothers. Has she got a hamster? 2. I see them every day. He sits near me in class. She goes with us to the beach I like her very much. I know him I often go with them to my village. He often helps me with my homework. She writes many postcards to him Mr. Brown teaches us Maths. He gives many presents to her 3. They are my friends She is reading a book What a beautiful dress! I want it Can you help me, please? You are my pupil. Pleased to meet you She is talking to him Thank you for inviting us Carol is telling them a joke David is kissing her 4. These pencils are theirs. This room is hers That book is ours This jacket is yours That horse is mine These gloves are his These magazines are ours That pen is mine Those books are theirs 5. It belongs to me, its mine. It belongs to my father, its his It belongs to her, its hers It belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, its theirs It belongs to me and my wife, its ours It belongs to my mother, its hers It belongs to him, its his It belongs to you, its yours It belongs to the dog, its its It belongs to them, its theirs 6. The dog killed itself when it went across the street I enjoyed myself at the concert He always looks at himself in the mirror The woman hurt herself with the knife The children enjoyed themselves in the park You two shouldnt do that. Youll hurt yourselves He lives by himself . Some people only think about them-

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selves My friend didnt tell him. I told him myself We dont like eating by ourselves 7. What time is it? Its half past five Whose jacket is this? Its mine. Ive got chocolate or vanilla ice-cream, which do you prefer?

Who is that man with your daughter? Its her boss. What did you say? I said nothing Which road should I take? Whose house is that? What nationality are you? What kind of music do you like? Which T-shirt are you going to wear, the pink or the white one?

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Tema 8

El verbo: Tiempos presentes


El verbo: Tiempos presentes
El verbo: Tiempos presentes
El verbo: Tiempos presentes

El verbo: Tiempos presentes

Los verbos en ingls como en espaol tienen modo, nmero , persona, tiempo y voz. Pero enseguida nos damos cuenta que hay una diferencia fundamental: mientras el espaol se vale de distintas terminaciones para las personas en singular, plural y los tiempos simples, en ingls las terminaciones son mucho menos numerosas. Por ello en ingls el uso del pronombre sujeto es obligatorio para poder distinguir las personas y tambin el uso de auxiliares es necesario en la formacin de determinados tiempos y formas. Una distincin muy importante en los verbos ingleses es la diferencia entre los tiempos simples y los progresivos o continuos, segn interese destacar la accin realizndose en este momento o no.

1. El presente simple
1.1 Formacin
Para formar el Presente Simple necesitamos coger el verbo tal como lo encontramos en el diccionario y quitar el to.Esta forma de verbo se usar para todas las personas menos para he (l), she (ella), it (ello ) a las que les tenemos que aadir una -s o -es. I live in Granada She lives in Sevilla Vivo en Granada Vive en Sevilla

Tenemos que seguir ciertas reglas de ortografa para poder usar -s o -es: - Si el verbo termina en -ch, -sh, -ss, -x o -o aadiremos -es: I watch /she watches television Veo / ve la televisin I wash/ she washes my /her hair every day Me lavo /se lava el pelo todos los das - Normalmente, si el verbo termina en -y precedida de consonante cambiar por i y luego aadimos -es:

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I study / she studies Spanish Estudio / estudia espaol - Se aadir s cuando el verbo termine en consonante y vocal excepto las consonantes y la vocal mencionadas anteriormente: He drinks a glass of red wine l bebe un vaso de vino tinto She plays the piano very well Ella toca el piano muy bien As pues la conjugacin del presente simple quedara as: Afirmativa
I play You play He/She/it plays We play You play They play Yo juego T juegas l/ella/ello juega Nosotros jugamos Vosotros jugis Ellos juegan Yo no juego T no juegas l no juega Nosotros no jugamos Vosotros no jugis Ellos no juegan

Negativa
I do not play You do not play He does not play We do not play You do not play They do not play

Interrogativa
Do I play? Do you play? Does he play? Do we play? Do you play? Do they play? Juego yo? Juegas t? Juega l? Jugaos nosotros? Jugis vosotros? Juegan ellos?

Respuesta breve
Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, I do you do he does we do you do they do No, No, No, No, No, No, I don't you don't he doesn't we don't you don't they don't

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- Para la forma negativa necesitamos usar dont = do not (no) delante del verbo para todas la personas menos para he (l), she (ella), it (ello) que usamos doesnt = does not (no). Al utilizar does no aparece la s: You dont work hard She doesnt work hard T no trabajas duro Ella no trabaja duro

- Para la forma interrogativa necesitamos usar do (no se traduce al espaol) delante de la persona y para he (l), she (ella), it (ello) usaremos does (no se traduce al espaol). Merece la pena recordar que cuando aparece el auxiliar does no se pone s al verbo principal: Do you study Spanish? Does she study Spanish? Recuerda
Para negar y preguntar en presente se utiliza el verbo auxiliar DO o DOES. El verbo DO/DOES es un verbo auxiliar (no significa hacer) y, por tanto, NUNCA debe utilizarse conjuntamente con el verbo to be. Por ejemplo: No se dice: Dont are. sino You arent..

Estudias espaol? Estudia (ella) espaol?

1.2 Usos
- Usamos el presente simple para expresar verdades y hechos que son vlidos para siempre y no slo para el presente: The sun rises in the East El sol sale por el este

- Tambin usamos el presente simple para hablar de hbitos, rutinas o costumbres. Cuando una accin se repite en nuestras vidas y forma parte de nuestro da a da, hablamos sobre ella usando el presente simple. Hablamos sobre actividades que realizamos peridicamente, es decir, todos los das, una vez por semana, a veces, frecuentemente, siempre, nunca: I get up at eight oclock Me levanto a las ocho en punto We usually go to bed at twelve oclock Nos solemos acostar a las doce

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- El presente simple se usa tambin para hablar de horarios, por ejemplo de transportes pblicos, cines y programas de televisin: The train to Barcelona arrives at 6.30 pm. El tren para Barcelona llega a las 6.30 de la tarde. - Con el presente simple es frecuente encontrar adverbios de frecuencia como: always (siempre), usually (normalmente), often (a menudo), sometimos (a veces), hardly ever (casi nunca), never (nunca). Estos adverbios siempre preceden al verbo principal: They never study at night Ellos nunca estudian por la noche She always goes out at the weekends Ella siempre sale los fines de semana. Recuerda
El Simple Present Tense (El Presente) no se utiliza para hablar de lo que est ocurriendo ahora (para ahora, se emplea el Present Continuous). El Simple Present Tense se utiliza para hablar de actividades que se realizan peridicamente o, para hablar de verdades generales, o particulares.

2. El presente continuo
El presente continuo equivale en espaol a la forma presente del verbo estar ms el gerundio del verbo que se conjuga.

2.1 Formacin
- Para formar el presente continuo necesitamos el presente simple del verbo to be (ser o estar) y otro verbo terminado en -ing que se obtiene aadiendo la terminacin ing a la base del verbo ( es el infinitivo sin to).

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Tom is writing a letter Im watching TV

Tom est escribiendo una carta Estoy viendo la televisin

Algunos verbos tienen ciertos cambios de ortografa cuando aadimos -ing: - Si el verbo termina en -e, quitaremos la e y luego aadiremos -ing: I dance at parties I am dancing in the disco Bailo en fiestas Estoy bailando en la discoteca

- Si el verbo est formado por una sola slaba y las tres ltimas letras son: consonante ms vocal ms consonante, doblaremos la ltima consonante y luego aadimos -ing: I swim on Mondays Nado los lunes

He is swimming at the moment l est nadando en este momento - Para la forma negativa usamos not (no) detrs del verbo to be (ser o estar) m el verbo en -ing. They are not (arent) playing in the garden No estn jugando en el jardn Mr. Smith isnt working today El seor Smith no est trabajando hoy - Para la forma interrogativa colocamos el verbo to be (ser o estar) delante del sujeto y luego le sigue el verbo en -ing: What are you wearing? Where are they going? Qu llevas puesto? Dnde se van?

Veamos la conjugacin en presente continuo:

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El verbo: Tiempos presentes

Afirmativa
I am playing You are playing He is playing We are playing You are playing They are playing Yo estoy jugando T ests jugando l est jugando Nosotros estamos jugando Vosotros estis jugando Ellos estn jugando

Negativa
I am not playing You are not playing He is not playing We are not playing You are not playing They are not playing Yo no estoy jugando T no ests jugando l no est jugando Nosotros no estamos jugando Vosotros no estis jugando Ellos no estn jugando

Interrogativa
Am I playing? Are you playing? Is he playing? Are we playing? Are you playing? Are they playing? Estoy yo jugando? Ests t jugando? Est l jugando? Estamos nosotros jugando? Estis vosotros jugando? Estn ellos jugando?

Respuesta breve
Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, I am you are he is we are you are they are No, No, No, No, No, No, I'm not you're not he's not we're not you're not they're not

2.2 Usos
- Utilizamos el presente continuo para hablar de eventos que estn en progreso ahora, en el mismo momento de hablar o escribir: You are wearing shoes They are eating sandwiches T llevas puestos unos zapatos Ellos estn comiendo bocadillos

- El presente continuo tambin se utiliza para referirnos a una accin que est concertada o programada para el futuro, generalmente prximo:

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El verbo: Tiempos presentes

They are leaving Madrid tomorrow Se van de Madrid maana Alice is meeting Bill on Friday Alice va a quedar con Bill el viernes - Con el presente continuo es frecuente encontrar expresiones de tiempo o adverbios de tiempo como: now (ahora), right now (ahora mismo), at the moment (en este momento), at present (actualmente): They are watching a film on television right now. Estn viendo una pelcula en televisin ahora mismo He is doing his homework at the moment. Est haciendo sus deberes en este momento

Recuerda
En espaol utilizamos el Presente para hablar de algo que ocurre en el momento en que hablamos, en ingls cometemos el error de utilizar el Presente cuando deberamos utilizar el Present Continuous. Por ejemplo, decimos: She comes, cuando deberamos decir: Shes coming. Es verdad que en ingls hay algunos verbos que no se conjugan en presente continuo, por ejemplo verbos de percepcin o de sentimiento, to want = querer es uno de ellos, pero son pocos.

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Escribir la tercera persona del singular de los siguientes verbos: Read Repair Watch Listen Love Push Do Kiss Buy Go ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

2. Convertir las frases afirmativas en negativas y viceversa: I understand He doesnt smoke They know She loves him They speak French I dont want this house She doesnt want her car He lives in Murcia _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos presentes

She works very hard They dont do the same thing every day

_____________________________

_____________________________________

3. Pasar las siguientes oraciones a interrogativas.

You work hard You play tennis You know the answer You like hot weather You speak English

_____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________

You want to be famous _____________________________________ You smoke You live in a big city _____________________________________ _____________________________________

You play a musical instrument _____________________________________ You go to work by bus _____________________________________

4. Formular las preguntas en presente simple: ___________after cats? (dogs/to run) ___________photos when you are on holiday? (you/to take) ___________a cup of tea? (the ladies/to have) ___________text messages during the lessons? (Ann/to send) ___________mini-skirts? (Melissa and Ruth/to wear) ___________hello to people in the street? (your brother/to say) ___________the windows in your classroom? (the students/to open) ___________football? (the girls in your class/to play)

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___________dinner every evening? (your mother/to make) ___________pop music? (Tom /to listen to) 5. Completar las siguientes oraciones formando el presente continuo y pasarlas a negativas. The children ___________ in the house. (to play) __________________________________________________________ The cat ___________ under the tree. (to hide) __________________________________________________________ John and Gary ___________ home. (to leave) __________________________________________________________ I ___________ on the sofa. (to sit) __________________________________________________________ Chris ___________ etters. (to write) __________________________________________________________ They ___________ to the radio. (to listen) __________________________________________________________ My mother ___________ breakfast at the moment. (to have) __________________________________________________________ We ___________ the grass. (to cut) __________________________________________________________ The sun___________ (to shine) __________________________________________________________ We ___________ (to go) to the cinema now __________________________________________________________

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6. Formular preguntas en presente continuo: ______ she ______ books? (to read) ______ Carlos on the computer? (to work) the friends from school? (to come) you to music? (to listen) your brother at the picture? (to look) -Betty-her friend? (to phone) the girl the windows? (to open) -she -judo? (to do) his father the bike? (to repair) -your cousin with the cooking? (to help)

7. Completar las frases en presete simple o continuo. Richard sometimes (to read) a comic. I (to phone) my friend at the moment. Listen! Mum (to sing) in the bathroom. My sister usually -(to help) in the kitchen. Look! The boys -(to come) home. My mother (to have) breakfast now. We never (to watch) TV in the morning. They often (to clean) the bathroom. My grandfather (to go) for a walk every day. Cats (to eat) mice.

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Soluciones
1. Reads Repairs Watches Listens Loves Pushes Does Kisses Buys Goes 2. I dont understand He smokes They dont know She doesnt love him They dont speak French I want this house She wants her car He doesnt live in Murcia She doesnt work very hard They do the same thing every day 3. Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do 4. Do dogs run after cats? Do you take photos when you are on holiday? Do the ladies have a cup of tea? Does Ann send text messages during the lessons? Do Melissa and Ruth wear mini-skirts? Does your brother say hello to people in the street? Do the students open the windows in your classroom? Do the girls in your class play football? 9. Does your mother make dinner every evening? 10. Does Tom listen to pop music? 5. The children are playing in the house. The children arent playing in the house The cat is hiding under the tree. The cat isnt hiding under the tree. John and Gary are leaving home. John and Gary arent leaving home. I am sitting on the sofa. I am not sitting on the sofa. Chris is writing letters. Chris isnt writing letters They are listening to the radio. They arent listening to the radio My mother is having breakfast at the moment. My mother isnt having breakfast at the moment We are cutting the grass. We arent cutting the grass The sun is shining. The sun isnt shining.

you you you you you you you you you you

work hard? play tennis? know the answer? like hot weather? speak English? want to be famous? smoke? live in a big city? play a musical instrument? go to work by bus ?

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We are going to the cinema now. We arent going to the cinema now 6. Is she reading books? Is Carlos working on the computer? Are the friends coming from school? Are you listening to music? Is your brother looking at the picture? Is Betty phoning her friend? Is the girl opening the windows? Is she doing judo? Is his father repairing the bike? Is your cousin helping with the cooking?

7. Richard sometimes reads a comic. I am phoning my friend at the moment. Listen! Mum is singing in the bathroom. My sister usually helps in the kitchen. Look! The boys are coming home. My mother is having breakfast now. We never watch TV in the morning. They often clean the bathroom. My grandfather goes for a walk every day. Cats eat mice.

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Tema 9

El verbo: Tiempos pasados


El verbo: Tiempos pasados
El verbo: Tiempos pasados
El verbo: Tiempos pasados

El verbo: Tiempos pasados

En este tema veremos dos tiempos en pasado: el pasado simple y el pasado continuo o progresivo. El pasado simple tiene dos traducciones posibles al espaol, el pretrito indefinido y el pretrito imperfecto. La frase he worked se traducir por l trabaj o l trabajaba , depender del contexto. El pasado continuo corresponde a la perfrasis del indefinido o imperfecto del verbo estar + gerundio del verbo que se conjuga.

1. El pasado simple
1.1 Formacin
Debemos distinguir entre la forma afirmativa , por un lado, y la interrogativa y negativa por otro. La afirmativa se forma de dos maneras diferentes segn sea el verbo regular o irregular. Mientras que la interrogativa y negativa se forman igual , ya sean verbos regulares o irregulares. Vamos a empezar por la forma afirmativa. Los verbos regulares forman el pasado simple cogiendo el verbo como lo encontramos en el diccionario y quitando el to. Luego necesitamos aadir ed al verbo: Mark worked in a bank Mark trabaj en un banco

Algunos verbos tienen cambios en su ortografa cuando aadimos -ed: - Si el verbo termina en -e, slo aadimos -d para formar el pasado simple: They live in an old house They lived in an old house Viven en una casa antigua Vivieron en una casa antigua

- Si el verbo est formado por slo una slaba y las tres ltimas letras son: consonante ms vocal ms consonante, doblaremos la ltima consonante y luego aadimos -ed: Stop / stopped (parar) Plan / planned (planear) We planned a trip to Cazorla

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

Planeamos una excursin a Cazorla - Los acabados en y precedida de consonante, cambian y en i: Marry / married (casarse) Try / tried (intentar) Muchos verbos forman el pasado simple de una forma irregular, no tienen regla fija y hay que estudiar su pasado en cada caso (vase lista de verbos irregulares en el anexo). Los verbos irregulares forman un grupo relativamente reducido pero muy importante ya que encontramos verbos como come (venir), eat (comer), do (hacer) y see (ver): Mr. Smith came into the room El seor Smith entr en la habitacin We did our homework yesterday Hicimos nuestros deberes ayer Para la forma negativa usamos el sujeto + el verbo auxiliar do en pasado, que es did + la negacin not (contrado didnt) + el verbo que se conjuga en infinitivo sin to, es decir, no hay poner el verbo en pasado puesto que el auxiliar ya cumple con esa funcin: Yesterday we did not(didnt) study Spanish Ayer no estudiamos espaol I didnt watch televisin yesterday No vi la television ayer Para formar la interrogativa usamos el verbo auxiliar did en primer lugar seguido del sujeto + verbo que se conjuga en infinitivo sin to : Did you see Peter yesterday? No, I didnt Viste ayer a Peter? No. Did it rain on Sunday? Yes, it did Llovi el domingo? S

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Recuerda
Para negar y preguntar en pasado se utiliza el verbo auxiliar Didnt y Did, para todas las personas. El verbo que le sigue no va en pasado: Did you play tennis? (no Did you played tennis?). El verbo Did es un verbo auxiliar (no significa hacer) y, por tanto, NUNCA debe utilizarse conjuntamente con el verbo to be: (no Didnt are.), sino You werent..

Damos a continuacin la conjugacin del pasado simple. Afirmativa


I played You played He played We played You played They played Yo jugu T jugaste l jug Nosotros jugamos Vosotros jugasteis Ellos jugaron

Negativa
I did not play You did not play He did not play We did not play You did not play They did not play Yo no jugu T no jugaste l no jug Nosotros no jugamos Vosotros no jugasteis Ellos no jugaron

Interrogativa
Did Did Did Did Did Did I play? you play? he play? we play? you play? they play? Jugu? Jugaste? Jug? Jugamos? Jugasteis? Jugaron? Didn't Didn't Didn't Didn't Didn't Didn't

Interrogativa negativa
I play? you play? he play? we play? you play? they play? No No No No No No jugu? jugaste? jug? jugamos? jugasteis? jugaron?

1.2 Usos
- Usamos el pasado simple para hablar de una accin o evento pasado que tuvo lugar en un punto especfico del pasado. Podemos decir exactamente cundo ocurri, o no, si as lo preferimos: I saw him yesterday They lived in Germany Lo vi ayer Ellos vivan en Alemania

- El pasado simple se refiere a una accin pasada (terminada) en un tiempo pasado. Esto quiere decir que no slo la accin est terminada sino que tambin el tiempo cuando ocurri est terminado y pasado: Last week I wrote a letter La semana pasada escrib una carta

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Last year I travelled around Europe El ao pasado viaj por Europa - Tambin usamos el pasado simple para expresar una accin habitual en el pasado: He never smoked l nunca fumaba

We went every Saturday to the same pub Todos los sbados bamos al mismo bar - Con el pasado simple es frecuente encontrar en la frase adverbios de tiempo especficos al pasado como: yesterday (ayer), the day before yesterday (anteayer), last week (la semana pasada), last year (el ao pasado), two years ago (hace dos aos): We went to the cinema last week Fuimos al cine la semana pasada

2. El pasado continuo
2.1 Formacin
Para formar el pasado continuo necesitamos el pasado simple del verbo to be (ser, estar) y otro verbo terminado en -ing: She was playing tennis Ella estaba jugando al tennis

Algunos verbos sufren ciertos cambios en su ortografa cuando aadimos ing: - Si el verbo termina en -e quitaremos la e y luego aadiremos -ing: I dance at the parties I was dancing at the party Bailo en las discotecas Estaba bailando en la discoteca

- Si el verbo est formado por una sola slaba y las tres ltimas letras son: consonante ms vocal ms consonante, doblaremos la ltima consonante y luego aadimos -ing:

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I run on Sundays I was running when it started to rain

Corro los domingos

Estaba corriendo cuando empez a llover. - Para la forma negativa usamos not detrs del pasado del verbo to be (ser, estar): They were not (werent) eating their dinner No estaban cenando She was not (wasnt) washing her car No estaba lavando su coche - Para la forma interrogativa colocamos el verbo to be (ser, estar) delante del sujeto + el verbo que se conjuga en ing: Were you studying English? Estabas estudiando ingls? What were you doing at 3 oclock? Qu estabas haciendo a las 3?

Recuerda
El pasado continuo se forma igual que el presente continuo pero cambiando am/is/are por was/were y sirve para hablar del pasado poniendo nfasis en la prolongacin en el tiempo de la accin . Equivale en espaol a la estructura: Yo..estuve... + verbo principal acabado en ando/endo. Por ejemplo: Yo estuve durmiendo

Vamos a ver la conjugacin del pasado continuo:

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

Afirmativa
I was playing (yo estaba jugando) You were playing He/she/it was playing We were playing You were playing They were playing

Negativa
I wasn't playing (yo no estaba jugando) You weren't playing He/she/it wasn't playing We weren't playing You weren't playing They weren't playing

Interrogativa
Was I playing? (Estaba yo jugando?) Were you playing? Was he/she/it playing? Were we playing? Were you playing? Were they playing? Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

Respuesta breve
I was / No, I wasn't you were / No, you weren't he/she/it was / No, he/she/it wasn't we were / No, we weren't you were / No, you weren't they were / No, they weren't

2.2 Usos
- Utilizamos el pasado continuo para expresar acciones que eran temporales en el pasado. Podran haber tenido lugar durante un periodo de tiempo corto o largo. La accin comenz antes y, probablemente, continu despus de dicho momento:

17:00
They began playing

18:00
They were playing

19:00
They stopped playing

They were playing football Ellos estuvieron jugando al ftbol - Otro uso del pasado continuo es para expresar la interrupcin de una accin en progreso en el pasado. Normalmente esta interrupcin es expresada con el verbo en su forma de pasado simple:

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I was having a shower the phone rang

I was having a shower when the phone rang Estaba duchndome cuando el telfono son - El pasado continuo tambin se usa para expresar acciones en progreso, continuas y simultneas en el pasado: While I was reading the newspaper, my wife was cooking lunch Mientras you estaba leyendo el peridico, mi mujer estaba preparando el almuerzo. - Se usa el pasado continuo para expresar la idea de repeticin molesta de un hecho. Para que se entienda de esta manera tiene que ir acompaado de adverbios como always (siempre), constantly (constantemente), invariably (invariablemente): He was always looking at me Siempre me estaba mirando

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Escribir la forma correcta de los verbos regulares entre parntesis en pasado simple: I (walk) to work last week _________________________________________ He (study) Law for five years ______________________________________ They (arrive) late at school ________________________________________ We (marry) in an old church _______________________________________ The film (end) at 3 pm _________________________________________ Betty (wait) for an hour ________________________________________ You (like) the concert _________________________________________ Tom ( need) that book yesterday ___________________________________ They (use) my new rubber ________________________________________ The teacher (help) the students ____________________________________

2. Formar frases negativas como en el ejemplo: I spoke to Carmen but I didnt speak to Fernando. They swam on Friday but they ___________on Monday. I went to work on Monday but I __________to work on Wednesday. He bought a new car. He ____________a second-hand car. She learnt German in high school. She _________German in primary school. We got up late this morning. We ____________late yesterday. They did Maths at school but they __________Maths at University. He slept on the sofa last night but he ____________on the sofa the night before.

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

I ate meat for lunch but I ____________anything for dinner. You saw my boyfriend but I ___________your boyfriend. They lived in Seville. They ____________in Berlin.

3.Cambiar las frases a interrogativas como en el ejemplo: He went to the shop yesterday. Did he go to the shop yesterday? They saw the movie last week. ______________________________________________________________ Alice wrote him a letter. ______________________________________________________________ George and Lisa had dinner at the MacDonalds. ______________________________________________________________ They got up at 7 oclock . ______________________________________________________________ He bought a new car last year. ______________________________________________________________ I arrived late for class. ______________________________________________________________ It rained all night? ______________________________________________________________ We sat near the door. ______________________________________________________________ He drived to work yesterday. ______________________________________________________________ She told him an incredible story. ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

4. Usar las siguientes palabras para formar el pasado continuo como en el ejemplo: Jane /have/dinner = Jane was having dinner Michael / play / tennis with his friends ______________________________________________________________ Megan / study / English ______________________________________________________________ Jill / cook / eggs ______________________________________________________________ She / eat / dinner ______________________________________________________________ John / have / a bath ______________________________________________________________ We / walk / home ______________________________________________________________ They/ watch / TV ______________________________________________________________ You / clean / the house ______________________________________________________________ Sue / drink / coffee ______________________________________________________________ Bill / do / the washing ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

5. Formar oraciones negativas de las siguientes frases en pasado continuo: Henry (watch) TV at last night. He was reading. ______________________________________________________________ Alice (wear) her coat at work yesterday. ______________________________________________________________ They (cook) dinner when I arrived. ______________________________________________________________ We (carry) an umbrella when it started to rain. ______________________________________________________________ She (listen) to her mother when he asked a question. ______________________________________________________________ It (rain) while we were playing chess this evening. ______________________________________________________________ George (study) when we went to see him. ______________________________________________________________ You (play) cards when we came in. ______________________________________________________________ They (have) a good time at the party when they decided to go home. ______________________________________________________________ Ben (eat) dinner when we left. ______________________________________________________________

6. Formar preguntas con las siguientes palabras como en el ejemplo: he / shop / alone = Was he shopping alone? he / drive / a sports car ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

Ben and George / smoke ______________________________________________________________ they / speak / English ______________________________________________________________ we / go / to the theatre ______________________________________________________________ they / read / a book ______________________________________________________________ Sue / write / a letter to his mother ______________________________________________________________ the old lady / walk / with a stick ______________________________________________________________ you / wait / at the bus-stop ______________________________________________________________ he / take / the dog for a walk ______________________________________________________________ he / carry / a bag ______________________________________________________________

7. Poner los verbos entre parntesis en pasado continuo y pasado simple como en el ejemplo: I (swim) when I (see) a ship. I was swimming when I saw a ship. I (have) a nightmare when you (wake) me. ______________________________________________________________ We (watch) television when they (arrive). ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

When we (get ) off the plane it (rain). ______________________________________________________________ I (play) in the street when it (start) to snow. ______________________________________________________________ While she (learn) English she (meet) her best friend. ______________________________________________________________ As we (leave) the phone (ring) ______________________________________________________________ They (walk) along the street when the bomb (explode) ______________________________________________________________ When he first (see) her, she (sit) at a caf. ______________________________________________________________ When I (open) the door, they (make) a terrible noise. ______________________________________________________________ They (kill) him when he (wait) at the bus stop. ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

Soluciones
1. I walked to work last week He studied Law for five years They arrived late at school We married in an old church The film ended at 3 pm Betty waited for an hour You liked the concert Tom needed that book yesterday They used my new rubber The teacher helped the students 2. They swam on Friday but they didnt swim on Monday. I went to work on Monday but I didnt work to work on Wednesday. He bought a new car. He didnt buy a second-hand car. She learnt German in high school. She didnt learn German in primary school. We got up late this morning. We didnt get up late yesterday. They did Maths at school but they didnt do Maths at University. He slept on the sofa last night but he didnt sleep on the sofa the night before. I ate meat for lunch but I didnt eat anything for dinner. You saw my boyfriend but I didnt see your boyfriend. They lived in Seville. They didnt live in Berlin. 3. Did they see the movie last week? Did Alice write him a letter? Did George and Lisa have dinner at the MacDonalds? Did they get up at 7 oclock ? Did he buy a new car last year? Did I arrive late for class? Did It rained all night? Did we sit near the door? Did he drive to work yesterday? Did she tell him an incredible story? 4. Michael was playing tennis with his friends Megan was studying English Jill was cooking eggs She was eating dinner John was having a bath We were walking home They were watching TV You were cleaning the house Sue was drinking coffee Bill was doing the washing 5. Henry wasnt watching TV at last night. He was reading . Alice wasnt wearing her coat at work yesterday. They werent cooking dinner when I arrived. We werent carrying an umbrella when it started to rain. She wasnt listening to her mother when he asked a question.

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El verbo: Tiempos pasados

It wasnt raining while we were playing chess this evening. George wasnt studying when we went to see him. You werent playing cards when we came in. They werent having a good time at the party when they decided to go home. Ben wasnt eating dinner when we left. 6. Was he driving a sports car? Were Ben and George smoking? Were they speaking English? Were we going to the theatre? Were they reading a book? Was Sue writing a letter to his mother? Was the old lady walking with a stick? Were you waiting at the bus-stop? Was she taking the dog for a walk? Was he carrying a bag?

7. I was having a nightmare when you woke me. We were watching television when they arrived. When we got off the plane it was raining. I was playing in the street when it started to snow. While she was learning English she met her best friend. As we were leaving the phone rang. They were walking along the street when the bomb exploded. When he first saw her, she was sitting at a caf. When I opened the door, they were making noise. They killed him when he was waiting at the bus stop.

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Tema 10

El verbo: Tiempos futuros


El verbo: Tiempos futuros
El verbo: Tiempos futuros
El verbo: Tiempos futuros

El verbo: Tiempos futuros

En este tema veremos dos tiempos verbales relacionados con el futuro: el futuro simple y la estructura con going to.

1. El futuro simple
1.1 Formacin
Para formar el futuro simple necesitamos colocar will (no se traduce al espaol, slo traduciremos el otro verbo en futuro) delante del infinitivo sin to del verbo que queremos conjugar. A veces ,aunque cada vez menos, podemos encontrar la forma shall en vez de will para las personas I (yo) y we (nosotros): I will be at home We will win Estar en casa Ganaremos

- Es frecuente utilizar en el lenguaje hablado la forma contrada del auxiliar will, que se representa por ll : Well probably go out this evening Probablemente saldremos esta noche - La forma negativa se construye situando la partcula de negacin not entre el auxiliar y el verbo principal. Se suele utilizar la forma contrada de will not que se representa por wont (la contraccin de shall not es shant): We will not (wont ) be in Paris No estaremos en Pars - La forma interrogativa se construye comenzando la oracin con el auxiliar will, seguido del sujeto y del verbo principal: Will you be at home this evening? Estars en casa esta noche? Will Diana pass the exam? Aprobar Diana el exmen?

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El verbo: Tiempos futuros

Veamos un ejemplo de conjugacin del futuro simple:

Affirmative
Subject + will + infinitive I will work (yo trabajar) You will wor He will work She will work It will work We will work You will work They will work

Negative
Subject + won't + infinitive I won't work (yo no trabajar) You won't work He won't work She won't work It won't work We won't work You won't work They won't work

Interrogative
will + Subject + infinitive Will I work?(trabajar yo?) Will you work? Will he work? Will she work? Will it work? Will we work? Will you work? Will they work?

1. 2 Usos
- Usamos el futuro simple para hablar de acciones futuras: I will phone you tomorrow Te llamar maana

- A veces usamos el futuro simple cuando hablamos de un tiempo futuro que no est muy cerca al momento de hablar. Podemos usar el futuro simple para predicciones basadas en lo que pensamos o creemos que va a pasar, ofrecimientos y promesas : Youll marry a rich man Te casars con un hombre rico

Tomorrow it will be a sunny day Maana ser un da soleado I will always love you Siempre te querr

I will solve the problems of this village Solucionar los problemas de este pueblo. - Tambin usamos el futuro simple para expresar decisiones hechas en el mismo momento de hablar:

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El verbo: Tiempos futuros

Ill take these Ill have a salad

Yo tomar stos. Tomar una ensalada.

Its too dark. Ill switch on the light Est demasiado oscuro. Encender la luz. Ill answer it Contestar.

2. Goin to
2.1 Formacin
Para formar el futuro con going to necesitamos usar el presente de to be + going to + el verbo que se conjuga. En espaol se traduce por la perfrasis ir a + infinitivo: Im going to tell him the truth Voy a contarle la verdad

- Para la forma negativa usamos not (no) detrs del verbo to be (ser, estar): Im not going to wash my car Sarah isnt going to sell her house No voy a lavar mi coche Sarah no va a vender su casa

- Para la forma interrogativa colocamos el verbo to be (ser, estar) delante del sujeto + going to + el verbo que se conjuga: Are you going to invite Peter to your party? Vas a invitar a Peter a tu fiesta? Is Jack going to play tennis with you? Va Jack a jugar al tenis contigo?

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El verbo: Tiempos futuros

Afirmativa
(Voy a trabajar) I am going to work You are going to work He is going to works She is going to work It is going to work We are going to work You are going to work They are going to work

Negativa
(No voy a trabajar) I am not going to work You aren't going to work He isn't going to work She isn't going to work It isn't going to work We aren't going to work You aren't going to work They aren't going to work

Interrogativa
(Voy a trabajar?) Am I going to work? Are you going to work? Is he going to work? Is she going to work? Is it going to work? Are we going to work? Are you going to work? Are they going to work?

2.2 Usos
- Usamos el futuro con going to para expresar planes de futuro. Normalmente nos referimos con el futuro con going to a un futuro cercano o inmediato: I am going to have a shower I am going to throw this rubbish Voy a ducharme Voy a tirar esta basura

- El futuro con going to se usa para expresar intenciones (normalmente decisiones ya tomadas) : Im going to visit the USA next year Voy a visitar los Estados Unidos el ao que viene Im going to buy some books tomorrow Voy a comprar algunos libros maana

Decid comprar los libros

Los voy a comprar (Im going to buy them)

Pasado

Presente

Futuro

- Be going to se utiliza tambin para hacer predicciones cuando hay algo en el presente que nos permite inferir el futuro( a menudo prximo), es decir, basadas en lo que se ve venir en ese momento:

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El verbo: Tiempos futuros

Look at those clouds! Its going to rain Mira esas nubes!Va a llover Oh , its nine oclock. Im going to be late Ay, son las nueve. Voy a llegar tarde Look, Fernando Alonso. He is going to win the race Mira, Fernando Alonso. Va a ganar la carrera

Recuerda
Para hablar de algo que has planificado y vas a hacer en un futuro inmediato, debes utilizar la expresin going to. Es decir , el verbo go en Present Continuous. Cuando quieras hablar de un futuro no planificado e incierto, debes utilizar will o wont (negativo).

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Poner los verbos que estn entre parntesis en futuro simple: I (go) to London They (tidy) their room _______________________ ____________________________________

Henry (study) German ____________________________________ She (play) the match They (live) in Norway My aunt (phone) me We (speak) English You (cut) yourself ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________

The exam (be) very difficult

The birds (eat) the bread in the garden _____________________________

2. Formar el futuro simple con los siguientes verbos y completar las oraciones (be, buy, do, get, get up, give, go, have, travel ,win) Diana ________ a new car. Sam __________ rich. Carol __________ to Monaco next summer I __________my homework in the evening Sue___________ to university She ____________ at 9 oclock. Our team ___________ the competition. Jack ____________ you a ring.

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Victoria and Sam ___________ married . Claire ____________ a baby in the future.

3. Formar las siguientes frases en futuro simple segn las instrucciones: I/ go / out / this / week / (negative) ______________________________________________________________ When / you / come/ back/ (question) ______________________________________________________________ I / think / that / your / daughter / pass / the / exam/ (negative) ______________________________________________________________ Where / you / stay / in / Valencia / (question) ______________________________________________________________ I / promise/ I / drive / too / fast / (negative) ______________________________________________________________ We / miss / the / train/ (affirmative) ______________________________________________________________ Tomorrow / it / rain / a lot / (affirmative) ______________________________________________________________ He / believe / you/ (negative) ______________________________________________________________ I / be / there / next month/ (affirmative) ______________________________________________________________ you / come / to / my / birthday party / (question) ______________________________________________________________

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4. Convertir las siguientes frases de going to en negativas: Im going to help you. ______________________________________________________________ Your friends are going to study Maths. ______________________________________________________________ My neighbour is going to play the flute. ______________________________________________________________ Its going to rain. ______________________________________________________________ Theyre going to tidy their room. ______________________________________________________________ Im going to wear a fashionable dress. ______________________________________________________________ Tom is going to phone you tonight. ______________________________________________________________ She is going to wash her hair. ______________________________________________________________ He is going to study engineering. ______________________________________________________________ We are going to buy her a present. ______________________________________________________________

5. Elegir entre going to y will (futuro simple) I dont think Valencia _______ win the league next year My brother ________ work in a pub in summer

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Be careful with the ball! you ________ break a window Look at those boys on the bike! They _______ fall down Next weekend, we _______ have a party I _______ visit you if I finish the exercises Susan _______ buy a new dress for her sisters wedding I ______ help you with your homework Tomorrow it ________ be rainy and cold. Sarah ______ take part in a concert next month

6. Usar los verbos entre parntesis para formar going to (intenciones) We (not drink) much alcohol ______________________________________________________________ He ( learn) French and German ______________________________________________________________ They (not eat) fast food ______________________________________________________________ We ( find) a job ______________________________________________________________ I (leave) home and get my own flat ______________________________________________________________ I (study) hard ______________________________________________________________ She (give up) smoking ______________________________________________________________ They (stop) arguing so much ______________________________________________________________

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El verbo: Tiempos futuros

I (not buy) any clothes ______________________________________________________________ He (not spend) money in pubs ______________________________________________________________

7. Ordenar las siguientes frases, luego pasarlas a negativa e interrogativa: get married he soon will __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ are fly to going to Miami we ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ will she come the party to _________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ they going to car buy a new are _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ this year have a holiday I going to am ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ You a friend bring will ____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Soluciones
1. I will go to London They will tidy their room Henry will study German She will play the match They will live in Norway My aunt will phone me We will speak English You will cut yourself The exam will be very difficult The birds will eat the bread in the garden 2. Diana will buy a new car. Sam will be rich. Carol will travel to Monaco next summer I will do my homework in the evening Sue will go to university She will get up at 9 oclock. Our team will win the competition. Jack will give you a ring. Victoria and Sam will get married . Claire will have a baby in the future. 3. I wont go out this week When will you come back? I think that your daughter wont pass the exam Where will you stay in Valencia ? I promise I wont drive too fast We will miss the train Tomorrow it will rain a lot He wont believe you I will be there next month Will you come to my birthday party? 4. Im not going to help you. Your friends arent going to study Maths. My neighbour isnt going to play the flute It isnt going to rain. They arent going to tidy their room. Im not going to wear a fashionable dress Tom isnt going to phone you tonight She isnt going to wash her hair. He isnt going to study engineering. We arent going to buy her a present. 5. I dont think Valencia will win the league next year My brother is going to work in a pub in summer Be careful with the ball! you are going to break a window Look at those boys on the bike! They are going to fall down Next weekend, we are going to have a party I will visit you if I finish the exercises Susan is going to buy a new dress for her sisters wedding I will help you with your homework Tomorrow it will be rainy and cold. Sarah is going to take part in a concert next month

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6. We arent going to drink much alcohol He is going to learn French and German They arent going to eat fast food We are going to find a job I am going to leave home and get my own flat I am going to study hard She is going to give up smoking They are going to stop arguing so much I am not going to buy any clothes He is not going to spend money in pubs 7. He will get married soon . He wont get married soon. Will he get married soon?

We are going to fly to Miami. We arent going to fly to Miami. Are we going to fly to Miami? She will come to the party. She wont come to the party. Will she come to the party? They are going to buy a new car. They arent going to buy a new car. Are they going to buy a new car? I am going to have a holiday this year. I am not going to have a holiday this year. Am I going to have a holiday this year? You will bring a friend. You wont bring a friend. Will you bring a friend?

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Tema 11

El imperativo
El imperativo
El imperativo
El imperativo

El imperativo

Los verbos en ingls tienen tres modos: indicativo, subjuntivo e imperativo. El modo indicativo expresa la accin como un hecho real. El modo subjuntivo expresa la accin como algo que depende de la voluntad , deseo o estado de nimo del que habla. Y, por ltimo, el modo imperativo expresa fundamentalmente una orden o ruego.

1. Formacin
Lo primero que nos llama la atencin de la formacin del imperativo es la ausencia del pronombre personal, cuando sabemos de la importancia de los pronombres en la lengua inglesa. El imperativo slo tiene dos personas: la segunda , tanto del singular como del plural, y la primera del plural. - La segunda persona afirmativa se forma con la base del verbo (infinitivo sin to) seguido de los complementos pero sin sujeto. Si aparece el sujeto, normalmente figura al final de la frase: Sit down Look at my car Come here, Mary. Sintate / Sentaos Mira mi coche /Mirad mi coche Ven aqu, Mary

- La negacin se forma con el auxiliar do + la partcula negativa not (puede ir en la forma contrada) + la base del verbo y sus complementos: Do not go = Dont go Do not move = Dont move No te vayas / no os vayis No te muevas / no os movis

- La primera persona del plural afirmativa se forma con el verbo let (permitir, dejar) seguido del pronombre personal complemento en primera persona del plural (us) y el verbo que se conjuga en infinitivo sin to ( Let us) tiene tambin su forma contrada (Lets). Para la negacin se aade la partcula negativa tras el pronombre y delante del verbo a conjugar. Tambin podramos usar la estructura Why dont we (por qu no...?) para sugerencias:

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El imperativo

Let us go to the theatre Why dont we go to the theatre? Por qu no vamos al teatro? Lets eat something tonight Vamos a comer algo esta noche Lets not go

Vamos al teatro

No vayamos

- Podemos utilizar do precediendo al imperativo. Es una forma enftica de expresin (la construccin de imperativo con do le da una mayor firmeza): Do come Do sit down Ven (con insistencia) Sintate

- Normalmente, la segunda persona de imperativo se acompaa de please para hacer la expresin menos drstica y ms corts: Dont leave , please Open the window, please No te vayas, por favor Abre la ventana, por favor

2. Usos
Bsicamente en el uso de los imperativos (rdenes, sugerencias, invitaciones, etc.) suelen presentarse tres alternativas: - Cuando le pedimos u ordenamos a alguien que haga algo, se utiliza la forma bsica del verbo sin el to infinitivo. Otra forma para expesar rdenes o peticiones sera I want you to do something (quiero que hagas una cosa): Dont smoke Be quiet Close the door I want you to close the door in the library No fumes en la biblioteca Cllate Cierra la puerta Quiero que cierres la puerta

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El imperativo

- A modo de invitacin o sugerencia. Tambin puedes utilizar Lets... cuando deseas que alguien haga algo contigo: Have a drink Feel free to take what you like Have some coffee Tmate una copa Toma cunto quieras Tmate un caf

- A veces se utiliza el imperativo para avisar, aconsejar o para expresar deseos: Dont worry, be happy. Just be patient Go to bed and sleep Get some exercise every day Haz algo de ejercicio todos los das Have a nice journey Ten un buen viaje No te preocupes, s feliz Slo s paciente Vete a la cama y duerme

- El imperativo sirve para informar a alguien de cmo hacer algo (para dar instrucciones, para indicar el camino, etc.): Go straight on and turn right Sigue recto y gira a la derecha Add salt to potatoes Aade sal a las patatas

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El imperativo

Ejercicios
1. Ordenar las palabras para formar frases correctas: Homework / your / do

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

______________________________________________________________ Open / dont / notebook / your ______________________________________________________________ The / blackboard / at / look ______________________________________________________________ Teacheryour / to / listen ______________________________________________________________ Walk / on / grass / dont / the ______________________________________________________________ Up / your / rubber / pick ______________________________________________________________ Up / please / stand ______________________________________________________________ Weekend / have / nice / a ______________________________________________________________ Car / take / the ______________________________________________________________ Work / go / dont / to ______________________________________________________________

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2. Escribir la forma negativa de estas rdenes: Close your books Listen carefully Open your notebooks Be quiet Raise your hand Write your name Take out your book Sit down Take out a piece of paper Open your pencilcase _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. Construir estas frases usando la expresin Lets como en el ejemplo Why dont we wait here? = Lets wait here Why dont we have a party? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we have a picnic? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we put a tree in the garden? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we make a cake? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we eat chocolate? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we send cards? ______________________________________________________________

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El imperativo

Why dont we visit the family? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we go out? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we drink wine? ______________________________________________________________ Why dont we visit Paris? ______________________________________________________________

4. Escribir la forma negativa de las siguientes oraciones: Lets go for a swim Lets play cards Lets go for a walk Lets lock the door Lets get out of town Lets drive fast Lets have some fruit Lets speak English Lets wait for him Lets go to sleep _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

5. Escribir las rdenes para estas frases como en el ejemplo: I want you to go away = Go away I want you to say that again ______________________________________________________________

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I want you to give me some popcorn ______________________________________________________________ I want you to help me ______________________________________________________________ I want you to look at me ______________________________________________________________ I want you to get out of my way ______________________________________________________________ I want you to call the police ______________________________________________________________ I want you to pour me a whisky ______________________________________________________________ I want you to do the housework ______________________________________________________________ I want you to turn on the television ______________________________________________________________ I want you to have fun ______________________________________________________________

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El imperativo

6. Unir para formar oraciones correctas:

Come Take off Have Make Turn on Help yourself Dont hesitate Dont sit

a seat in yourself at home the television if you like to a beer in the fridge your coat to ask if you need anything there. Thats the dogs chair

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El imperativo

Soluciones
1. Do your homework Dont open your notebook Look at the blackboard Listen to your teacher Dont walk on the grass Pick up your rubber Stand up please Have a nice weekend Take the car Dont go to work 2. Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont Dont 3. Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets 4. Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets Lets not not not not not not not not not not go for a swim play cards go for a walk lock the door get out of town drive fast have some fruit speak English wait for him go to sleep

close your books listen carefully open your notebooks be quiet raise your hand write your name take out your book sit down take out a piece of paper open your pencilcase

5. Say that again Give me some popcorn Help me Look at me Get out of my way Call the police Pour me a whisky Do the housework Turn on the television I want you to have fun 6. Come in Take off your coat Have a seat Make yourself at home Turn on the television if you like Help yourself to a beer in the fridge Dont hesitate to ask if you need anything Dont sit there. Thats the dogs chair

have a party have a picnic put a tree in the garden make a cake eat chocolate send cards visit the family go out drink wine visit Paris

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Tema 12

El adverbio
El adverbio
El adverbio
El adverbio

El adverbio

El adverbio desempea dentro de la oracin las funciones de modificar al verbo principal de la oracin, modificar a un adjetivo, a otro adverbio o a toda una frase: He ran quickly to the park He is a very good teacher She got up pretty soon Unfortunately, he came late Corri rpidamente hacia el parque l es un professor muy bueno Ella se levant muy pronto Desgraciadamente lleg tarde

Simplemente aadiendo -ly a un adjetivo formamos muchos adverbios en ingls. Son los equivalentes a los adverbios espaoles terminados en mente: Slow - slowly Lento lentamente

Si el adjetivo termina en y, se cambia por ily. Si termina en ic, se agrega ally: Happy happily Basic - basically Feliz - felizmente Bsico - bsicamente

Algunos adjetivos no se modifican cuando se convierten en adverbios, tienen la misma forma, pero se distinguen fcilmente por su funcin en la oracin ( close, daily, early, far, fast, high, late, long, wrong) This is a fast car He drives fast Este es un coche rpido Conduce rpido

Hay seis tipos principales de adverbios que necesitamos aprender: - Adverbios de modo: happily (felizmente), sadly (tristemente), slowly (lentamente) - Adverbios de tiempo: now (ahora), then (entonces), already (ya) - Adverbios de lugar: there (all), here (aqu), nearby (cercano) - Adverbios de grado o intensidad: rather (bastante), enough (suficiente), quite (bastante) - Adverbios de frecuencia: always (siempre), sometimes (a veces), never (nunca) - Adverbios interrogativos: when.? (cundo), where.? (dnde), why.? (por qu)

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Vamos a explicar ahora cada uno de los tipos de adverbios.

1. Adverbios de modo
Los adverbios de modo nos van a decir el modo en que la accin del verbo ha sido llevada a cabo, as que preguntando how (cmo) conseguiremos el adverbio de modo dentro de una frase. Se sitan detrs del verbo, o detrs del complemento si lo hubiera. La inmensa mayora terminan en ly. La mayor parte se forman a partir de adjetivos. Slow + ly = She drives slowly Quick + ly = They speak quickly Ella conduce lentamente Ellos hablan rpidamente

La diferencia entre el adjetivo y el adverbio es que el adjetivo nos dice algo de un nombre, mientras que un adverbio nos dice algo de un verbo, adjetivo o de otro adverbio. Adems el adjetivo va delante del nombre y el adverbio de modo detrs del verbo: Hes a bad teacher He teaches badly l es un mal profesor l ensea mal

2. Adverbios de tiempo
Los adverbios de tiempo nos dicen cundo ocurri la accin. Para identificarlos podemos hacer una pregunta empezando por when (cundo). Se sitan al principio o al final de la oracin. Algunos de los adverbios de tiempo ms frecuentes son: After Again Ago despus otra vez, de nuevo hace

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El adverbio

Already Before Early Late Next Now Since Soon Still Today Tomorrow Yesterday Then Yet They are still waiting for Bill Todava estn esperando a Bill He hasnt come yet They have already finished

ya (frases afirmativas) antes temprano tarde despus, .que viene ahora desde entonces pronto todava (frases afirmativas) hoy maana ayer entonces todava, ya (frases negativas e interrogativas)

Todava no ha venido Ya han terminado

She phoned me three days ago Me llam por telfono hace tres das Yesterday we went to the beach Ayer nos fuimos a la playa Bob will soon be here Bob will be here tomorrow Bob estar pronto aqu Bob estar aqu maana

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El adverbio

3. Adverbios de lugar
Los adverbios de lugar nos dicen dnde se llev a cabo la accin. Para identificarlos podemos hacer una pregunta comenzando por where (dnde). Se sitan detrs del verbo, o detrs del complemento si lo hubiera. He aqu algunos de los ms frecuentes: Above Abroad Anywhere Away Back Downstairs Everywhere Far Here Nowhere Outside Somewhere There Up /uptairs We went there on Sunday morning Fuimos all el sbado por la maana Come and sit here The children are playing upstairs Los nios estn jugando en el piso de arriba Ven y sintate aqu arriba en el extranjero en cualquier / alguna / ninguna parte fuera, lejos de regreso abajo en todas partes lejos aqu en ninguna parte fuera en alguna parte all arriba

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El adverbio

4. Adverbios de grado
Los adverbios de grado van a modificar otros adverbios o adjetivos. Para identificarlos podemos hacer una pregunta empezando por how much? (cunto). Estos adverbios de grado pueden intensificar o disminuir el significado del adverbio o adjetivo que estn modificando. Almost Completely Enough Nearly Much Only Quite Rather So Too Very Very much The music is very loud The shelf is too high Im not tall enough I completely forgot about it casi completamente bastante (se coloca detrs del adj. o adv.) casi con mucho solamente completamente, bastante bastante tan demasiado (se coloca delante del adj. o adv) muy muchsimo La msica est muy alta La repisa est demasiado alta No soy lo bastante alta Lo olvid completamente

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El adverbio

5. Adverbios de frecuencia
Los adverbios de frecuencia nos dicen con qu asiduidad se lleva a cabo la accin del verbo. Para identificarlos podemos hacer una pregunta comenzando por how often? (con qu frecuencia). Se sitan delante del verbo, o entre el auxiliar y el verbo principal en las formas compuestas. Con el verbo to be se sitan detrs del mismo. Algunos adverbios de frecuencia pueden aparecer al final de frase.

Frecuencia
100 % 80 % 60 % 50 % 20 % 5% 0% Always

Adv. ingls

Adb. espaol
Siempre Normalmente A menudo A veces En ocasiones Raramente Pocas veces Nunca

Usually Normally Often Sometimes Occasionally Seldom Hardly ever Never

Otros adverbios de frecuencia son: Once a week Twice a month Three times a year Every day You are always playing football Siempre ests jugando al ftbol Una vez a la semana Dos veces al mes Tres veces al ao Cada da

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El adverbio

I never carry an umbrella I usually have lunch at school

Nunca llevo un paragas

Normalmente almuerzo en la escuela He is never happy We go camping once a year Nunca es feliz Vamos de acampada una vez al ao

Recuerda
El adverbio never va siempre con el verbo en forma afirmativa. I never get up at 7. (Nunca me levanto a las 7) (no I dont never get up at 7).

6. Adverbios interrogativos
Los adverbios interrogativos se usan al principio de las preguntas para ayudarnos a determinar el significado de nuestra cuestin y la respuesta que esperamos. Son: How? How far? How long? How often? When? Where? Why? How was the party ? How far is it to the shops? cmo? a qu distancia? cunto tiempo? con qu frecuencia? cundo? dnde? por qu? Cmo estuvo la fiesta A qu distancia est de las tiendas?

How often do you go on holiday? Con qu frecuencia te vas de vacaciones?

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El adverbio

Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Insertar el adverbio entre parntesis en la posicin adecuada: Im late (never) ____________________________ They go out at the weekend (seldom) ________________________________ We dont see her (often) ________________________________ I have a bath (always) ______________________________ Susan arrives on time (usually) ________________________________ Our house isnt dirty (always) _________________________________ They go to the cinema on Fridays (always) ____________________________ You feel sad (sometimes) ________________________________ Our teacher smiles (hardly ever) __________________________________ My parents shout at me (never) __________________________________

2. Formar los adverbios con la terminacin ly: Quick Bad Sudden Heavy Happy Lucky Angry _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

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El adverbio

Quiet dangerous

_____________________ _____________________

3. Completar las frases con too + los siguientes adjetivos (hot, loud, fast, crowded, sharp, high, expensive, dangerous, late, big) The radio is _____________ The net is _____________ Today it is ______________ Shes driving ____________ The restaurant is _________________ This T-shirt is ______________ This knife is ______________ The ball is __________________ Dont phone Ann now. Its ___________________ Nobody goes out at night. Its _____________

4. Escribir el adverbio de frecuencia que hace referencia el porcentaje: Nancy and I (20%) go out for coffee Desi (80%) has an ice-cream I (5%) drive my car on holidays It (0%) rains here in winter We (50%) take the dog for a walk My sister (60%) wear make-up John (100%) gets up early He (5%) buys clothes _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

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El adverbio

They (0%) understand my Spanish Megan is (80%) tired on Monday morning

_____________________ _____________________

5. Elegir la partcula interrogativa adecuada: _________ is she? At home _________ does Tom get up? At half past eight _________ do you study English? In the afternoon _________ do you go to the cinema? Three times a month _________ does he study every day? For two hours _________ does Tom wear jeans? Because they are comfortable _________ do you go to school? I go to school by car _________ do you live? In Granada _________ are you? Im 33 years old _________ is the weather like in January? Its cold

6. Elegir la forma del adjetivo o del adverbio: He drives very careful / carefully They speak French quick / quickly Isabel is working hard / hardly Peter left sudden / suddenly This is a library. Please be quiet / quietly He shut the door quiet / quietly The teacher speaks clear /clearly The sky is clear /clearly _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

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El adverbio

The teacher explained the lesson bad / badly Brad is a careful / carefully driver

_______________________ _______________________

7. Elegir entre el adjetivo good o el adverbio well : He is a ________ dentist He works ________ I like watching ________ programmes She speaks Spanish _________ Its a very _________ place to live That was a really _________ book He always drives _________ Im a bit dizzy. I dont feel __________ Youre a very _________ writer You write __________

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El adverbio

Soluciones
1. Im never late They seldom go out at the weekend We dont often see her I always have a bath Susan usually arrives on time Our house isnt always dirty They always go to the cinema on Fridays You sometimes feel sad Our teacher hardly ever smiles My parents never shout at me 2. quickly badly suddenly heavily happily luckily angrily quietly dangerously 3. The radio is too loud The net is too high Today it is too hot Shes driving too fast The restaurant is too crowded This T-shirt is too expensive This knife is too sharp The ball is too big Dont phone Ann now. Its too late Nobody goes out at night. Its too dangerous 4. Nancy and I occasionally go out for coffee Desi usually has an ice-cream I hardly ever drive my car on holidays It never rains here in winter We sometimes take the dog for a walk My sister often wear make-up John always gets up early He seldom buys clothes They never understand my Spanish Megan is usually tired on Monday morning 5. Where is she? At home What time does Tom get up? At half past eight When do you study English? In the afternoon How often do you go to the cinema? Three times a month How long does he study every day? For two hours Why does Tom wear jeans? Because they are comfortable How do you go to school? I go to school by car Where do you live? In Granada How old are you? Im 33 years old What is the weather like in January? Its cold 6. He drives very carefully They speak French quickly Isabel is working hard

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El adverbio

Peter left suddenly This is a library. Please be quiet He shut the door quietly The teacher speaks clearly The sky is clear The teacher explained the lesson badly Brad is a careful driver

7. He is a good dentist He works well I like watching good programmes She speaks Spanish well Its a very good place to live That was a really good book He always drives well Im a bit dizzy. I dont feel well Youre a very good writer You write well

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Tema 13

La preposicin
El preposicin
El preposicin
El preposicin

La preposicin

Las preposiciones son palabras pequeas que nos ayudan a establecer relaciones entre diferentes elementos de una frase. Pueden mostrar una relacin de movimiento, tiempo y posicin entre dos o ms objetos dentro de la frase. En ingls tenemos preposiciones simples, es decir, una sola palabra y, preposiciones compuestas que estn formadas por ms de una palabra. Las preposiciones normalmente van delante de los nombres o pronombres en la frase: Sally goes with you. Sally va contigo

En preguntas es frecuente encontrar la preposicin al final de la frase, especialmente cuando empiezan por una palabra interrogativa: Who does Sally go with? Con quin va Sally?

Cuando usamos un pronombre relativo, tambin es frecuente encontrar la preposicin al final de la frase: Sally is who we go with. Sally es con quien vamos nosotros

En este tema vamos a clasificar las preposiciones en preposiciones de lugar, de movimiento, de medios de transporte y de tiempo. A continuacin vamos a indicar sus principales usos.

1. Preposiciones de lugar
Algunas preposiciones describen dnde est algo o alguien. Siempre van despus de verbos estticos. Las preposiciones de lugar ms importantes son:

In

Dentro de (espacio cerrado, objeto, lugar abierto (con lmites) pases, ciudades y pueblos. Expresiones como: in bed, a street, the world, the newspaper, hospital, school, a book, the middle of. Sobre (una superficie con contacto fsico, en expresiones: on the left / on the right/ on the second floor). En (lugar determinado, una posicin, con expresiones : at home, at school, at the bus stop, at the airport) con acontecimientos, con edificios cuando estamos pensando en la actividad que se desarrolla all. En expresiones como: at the end, the bottom, the top of, the dentists a concert, conference, a party, a football match, etc.

On

At

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La preposicin

We were listening to music in the bedroom Escuchamos msica en el dormitorio The pictures are on the wall Los cuadros estn en la pared I always study at home Siempre estudio en casa Veamos la diferencia entre in, at, on: I was waiting in the car Estaba esperando en el coche ( dentro ) I was waiting on the car Estaba esperando encima del coche I was waiting at the car Estaba esperando en el coche (justo al lado) Otras preposiciones de lugar son: Above Against Among Behind Below Beside Between In front of Inside Next to Opposite Por encima de Contra Entre (ms de 2 personas u objetos) Detrs de Debajo de (no hay contacto fsico) Junto a, al lado de Entre (2 personas u objetos) Delante de Dentro de Al lado de, junto a Enfrente de

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La preposicin

Over Under

Por encima de , sobre (sin contacto fsico) Debajo de ( puede haber contacto) The book shop is between the bakery and the sweet shop La librera est entre la panadera y la tienda de golosinas The flats are above the shops Los pisos estn por encima de las tiendas He was hiding venid the door Estaba escondido detrs de la puerta

2. Preposiciones de movimiento
Algunas preposiciones describen el movimiento o la accin que ocurre. Acompaan siempre a verbos de movimiento: From To Into Out of On Across Along Down Over Past Round De, desde (indica el origen de un movimiento) A, hacia, hasta (indica el destino, el punto final de un movimiento) En (cuando el movimiento finaliza dentro de un lugar) Fuera de (salir de un lugar ) Sobre (cuando el movimiento finaliza sobre una superficie) A travs de (de un lado a otro) A lo largo de Abajo Sobre, por encima de Por delante de, pasado, ms all de Alrededor de

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La preposicin

Through Towards Up I am from Granada Tony flied to Barcelona He went to the cinema He went out of the pub The book falls on the floor

A travs de Hacia Arriba Soy de Granada Tony vol a Barcelona Fue al cine Sali de la taberna El libro cay al suelo

Recuerda
Con el verbo to arrive (llegar a ) no se utiliza la preposicin to sino: in (si el destino es una ciudad o un pas)o at (si el destino es un pueblo u otros destinos). I arrived in Spain (no I arrived to Spain) Con el sustantivo home no se utiliza preposicin: I go home. (no I go to home) casa.

3. Preposiciones de medios de transporte


- Cuando queremos sealar el viaje en un medio de transporte usamos las siguientes preposiciones:

By

Si se hace referencia nicamente al medio de transporte utilizado y no el vehculo

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La preposicin

I go to school by car / by bus / by bicycle Voy al colegio en coche, autobs, bicicleta - Tambin: We came by road / by sea/ by air Vinimos por carretera, mar, aire - Salvo en las expresiones: I go to school on foot / on horse Voy al colegio a pie, a caballo - Cuando se hace referencia a un vehculo concreto usamos las siguientes preposiciones: In On En (coche, taxi) En (autobs, tren, barco, bicicleta, metro, avin) On a bus / train / plane In a car / taxi - Cuando queremos hacer referencia al hecho de subir o bajar de un medio de transporte usamos las siguientes preposiciones pero siempre depende del tipo de vehculo: Con car, taxi se utilizan las expresiones: Get in (into) Get out of subir bajar

Con train, bus, horse, bicycle, motorbike, etc.: Get on (onto) Get off subir bajar Con un barco se utiliza la expresin: To go on board

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La preposicin

4. Preposiciones de tiempo
Usamos las preposiciones de tiempo para indicar cuando ocurre algo. Se usa:

In

Con distintas partes del da (pero no con night, at night) Con los meses del ao Con las estaciones Con los aos Con los siglos Para indicar cunto falta para que ocurra algo in five minutes (dentro de cinco minutos. En expresiones como in time (a tiempo)

Im going on holiday in July

Me voy de vacaciones en julio

I dont work in the afternoon No trabajo por la tarde I got married in 2000 Me cas en el 2000

At

Con la hora Con las fiestas o festividades Con night (excepcin las dems con in) Con expresiones como the beginning/end / moment Con the weekend (fin de semana)

Are you going away at the weekend? Te vas fuera el fin de semana?

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La preposicin

At Christmas children get presents Los nios reciben regalos en navidad I start work at 8 oclock Empiezo a trabajar a las 8

On

Con los das de la semana Con fechas completas Con el nombre de un da seguido de morning, afternoon,etc.

Are you busy on Friday evening? Ests ocupado el viernes por la noche? See you on Monday. The concert is on 2nd April Te ver el lunes El concierto es el 2 de abril

Veamos otras preposiciones temporales:

Until / till By During For After Before

Hasta ( un determinado momento) Antes de, no ms tarde de Dentro de, durante un perodo de tiempo, contesta a la pregunta When? Durante, perodos de tiempo, contesta a la pregunta How long? Despus de, tras Antes de

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La preposicin

We didnt speak during the meal No hablamos durante la comida I went to sleep after the film Me fui a dormir despus de la pelcula Theyve been married for ten years Llevan casados durante diez aos

Recuerda
No usamos at / on / in delante de this, every, last y next. Theyre going to the mountain next Monday / this week. (no Theyre going to the mountain the next Monday / the this week)

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La preposicin

Ejercicios
1. Elegir entre las preposiciones de lugar in o at: Fred is _____ hospital because of the accident Susan is _____ the garden The boys are waiting _______ the bus stop Mum is ______ the top of the photo The girls are playing ________ the street Did you see my photo _______ the newspaper? She had a toothache so shes ______ the dentists I am _______ home Were meeting ______ the traffic light There are many different cultures ______ the world

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

2. Elegir entre las preposiciones de lugar in, on o at My flat is _______ the fifth floor I live _____ San Francisco Its the third door ______ the left The label is ______ the tin Philip is waiting _______ the bottom of the stairs Hes sitting ______ a chair He has beautiful pictures _______ the wall Paris is _________ the river Seine

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La preposicin

Can you see who is _____ the door? He arrived _______ London

3. Completar las frases con las preposiciones temporales in on o at: _____ the afternoon I have a snack I arrived just ______ time We want to go away _______ Easter I met my husband _____ 1990 I read an interesting book _____ night I start working _____ nine oclock Im going out _____ my birthday What are you doing _____ the weekend Im playing tennis _____ Saturday morning Im going to New York _____ April

4. Unir las preposiciones de la izquierda con los opuestos de la derecha

Behind Into Under Up Next to

on out of in front of down opposite

5. Escribir in, into , by o to en los huecos: My friend jumped ______ the swimming-pool Come ______the house and sit down

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La preposicin

My wife poured the coffee ________ the cup The bird flew ______ the tree There are a lot of museums ______ Madrid I go ____ the supermarket twice a week After holidays, George returned ______ his work My friend is ______ the park at this moment We are walking ______ the street Betty goes to work _______ bus

6. Completar las frases usando until, by, during o for: I slept ______ twelve oclock this morning _______ the night, I had a lot of nightmares Susan was waiting at the bus stop ______ one hour _______ the holidays we travelled to Germany I waited _______ three oclock, then I left the school What did your husband do ______ the holidays He should be here ________ midnight I always work _______ the bell rings I am waiting for her call ________ hours I must be at home ______ nine, not a minute later

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La preposicin

7. Completar las frases con on, next to, between, above, below usando la tabla:

Hay nueve personas que viven en un bloque de pisos

ALICE

KEN

SUSAN

JILL

MIKE

DIANE

GEORGE

TINA

CHARLIE

Mike lives ________Jill and Diane Charlie lives _________ the ground floor Ken lives ___________ Alice and Susan Diane lives _________ the first floor ______ Mike Jill lives ________ George Mike lives ________ Tina and _________ Ken

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La preposicin

Soluciones
1. Fred is in hospital because of the accident Susan is in the garden The boys are waiting at the bus stop Mum is on the top of the photo The girls are playing in the street Did you see my photo in the newspaper? She had a toothache so shes at the dentists I am at home Were meeting at the traffic light There are many different cultures in the world 2. My flat is on the fifth floor I live in San Francisco Its the third door on the left The label is on the tin Philip is waiting at the bottom of the stairs Hes sitting on a chair He has beautiful pictures on the wall Paris is on the river Seine Can you see who is at the door? He arrived in London 3. In the afternoon I have a snack I arrived just in time We want to go away at Easter I met my husband in 1990 I read an interesting book at night I start working at nine oclock Im going out on my birthday What are you doing at the weekend Im playing tennis on Saturday morning Im going to New York in April 4. Behind in front of Into out of Under- on Up down Next to opposite 5. My friend jumped into the swimmingpool Come into the house and sit down My wife poured the coffee into the cup The bird flew to the tree There are a lot of museums in Madrid I go to the supermarket twice a week After holidays, George returned to his work My friend is in the park at this moment We are walking along the street Betty goes to work by bus 6. I slept until twelve oclock this morning During the night, I had a lot of nightmares Susan was waiting at the bus stop for one hour During the holidays we travelled to Germany I waited until three oclock, then I left the school What did your husband do during the holidays

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La preposicin

He should be here by midnight I always work until the bell rings I am waiting for her call for hours I must be at home by nine, not a minute later

7. Mike lives between Jill and Diane Charlie lives on the ground floor Ken lives between Alice and Susan Diane lives on the first floor next to Mike Jill lives above George Mike lives above Tina and below Ken

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Tema 14

Los verbos modales


Los verbos modales
Los verbos modales
Los verbos modales

Los verbos modales

Hay un grupo especial de verbos llamados modales. Los verbos modales forman la negacin aadiendo not, igual que los verbos auxiliares. Forman la interrogacin inviertiendo el orden sujeto-verbo. Admiten contracciones, carecen de participios y de infinitivo, no aaden s en la tercera persona del singular y van seguidos de infinitivo sin to. La lengua inglesa necesita los verbos modales para expresar una variada gama de ideas y matices que no quedaran claros si utilizaran solamente los tiempos verbales. De ah la gran importancia de estos verbos. En este tema veremos los siguientes verbos modales: can, must, may, will y shall.

1. Can
El verbo can es un verbo modal que significa saber o poder. Este verbo se utiliza siempre acompaado de un verbo principal en su forma infinitiva. En los verbos modales la tercera persona del singular no aade la s que incorporan los dems verbos en ingls. They can play the guitar He cannot type Can you draw? Saben tocar la guitarra No sabe escribir a mquina Sabes dibujar?

- La forma negativa de can en presente es cannot (o su forma contrada cant). Cannot se escribe en una sola palabra. Cuando escribimos en ingls formal usamos cannot, pero cant es ms usual. I cannot go to the party They cant swim No puedo ir a la fiesta No saben nadar

- En las frases interrogativas can se coloca al comienzo de la interrogacin, con una estructura similar a la que vimos para los verbos to be y to have.La respuesta breve sera: Yes, I (el sujeto) can o No, I (sujeto) cant. What can you see? Can you speak German? Qu puede ver? Sabe hablar alemn?

Veamos cmo quedara la conjugacin del verbo can:

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Los verbos modales

Afirmativa
I can You can He can She can It can We can You can They can

Negativa
I cannot You cannot He cannot She cannot It cannot We cannot You cannot They cannot

Forma contrada
I can't You can't He can't She can't It can't We can't You can't They can't

Interrogativa
Can I ? Can you ? Can he ? Can she ? Can it ? Can we ? Can you ? Can they ?

- Can significa saber con el sentido de tener habilidad para hacer algo o poder tener la posibilidad de hacer algo: She can cook My sister can dance I can change twenty euros Ella sabe cocinar Mi hermana sabe bailar Puedo cambiar veinte euros

- Tambin utilizamos can cuando queremos preguntar si podemos hacer algo (pedir permiso). Cuando usamos la forma negativa entonces significa prohibicin: Can I go to the toilet, please? Puedo ir al lavabo, por favor? No, you cant You cant come to the party No, no puedes No puedes ir a la fiesta

- Cuando queremos pedirle a alguien que haga algo usamos can: Can you do me a favour? Can you help me? Me puedes hacer un favor? Me puedes ayudar?

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Los verbos modales

2. Must
El verbo modal must significa deber. Tiene una nica forma para presente y futuro, para el pasado se usa had to + infinitivo. I must go to school now Tengo que ir al colegio ahora I must go to school tomorrow Tengo que ir al colegio maana I had to go to school yesterday Tuve que ir al colegio ayer - La formacin del verbo must es similar a la de los dems verbos modales. En la forma afirmativa se pone must seguido de el verbo en infinitivo sin to. La forma negativa sera must not y la contrada mustnt. La forma interrogativa quedara verbo modal + sujeto + verbo infinitivo sin to: You must stand up They mustnt eat in class Must they work every day? Debes levantarte No deben comer en clase Deben trabajar todos los das?

Afirmativa
I must study You must study He must study She must study We must study You must study They must study

Negativa
I must not talk You must not talk He must not talk She must not talk We must not talk You must not talk They must not talk

F. contrada
I mustn't talk You mustn't talk He mustn't talk She mustn't talk We mustn't talk You mustn't talk They mustn't talk

Interrogativa
Must I study? Must you study? Must he study? Must she study? Must we study? Must you study? Must they study?

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Los verbos modales

- Este verbo modal tiene varias acepciones . Se utiliza para indicar deber u obligacin, incluso puede ser una orden. Tambin se utiliza cuando estamos seguros de que algo es cierto (una deduccin o suposicin). Must se utiliza para indicar que es necesario hacer algo, expresando una opinin del que habla o un consejo. I must wash my hair Debo lavarme el pelo

You must be tired after running Debes estar cansado despus de corer We must hurry Debemos darnos prisa

- La negacin es must not (o su forma abreviada musnt), indica prohibicin: He mustnt sell the house You mustnt do that I mustnt be late No debe vender la casa No debes hacer eso No debo llegar tarde

3. May
El verbo modal may se puede traducir por el verbo espaol poder. May se usa para el presente en la forma afirmativa seguido del verbo infinitivo sin to. La forma negativa sera may not (maynt) y la forma interrogativa quedara may + sujeto + verbo infinitivo sin to: I may go to Paris I may not go to Paris May I open the window? Puede que vaya a Pars Puede que no vaya a Pars Puedo abrir la ventan?

- El verbo modal may se utiliza para indicar que algo puede ser posible (posibilidad): It may rain this evening Puede que llueva esta noche

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I may play tennis tomorrow Puede que juegue al tenis maana - May tambin se utiliza para pedir permiso de una manera educada (peticiones corteses): May I make a call? May I open the door? Puedo hacer una llamada ? Puedo abrir la puerta ?

4. Will
Ya estudiamos el verbo will como auxiliar de futuro. En este tema will toma la acepcin de querer, ya que en realidad will tiene el significado primario de voluntad. - Se formara de la siguiente manera , para la afirmativa will + verbo infinitivo sin to, la negativa wont + verbo infinitivo sin to y la interrogativa will + sujeto + verbo: You will start work at 8 I wont go to the beach Will you give me the book? Empezars a trabajar a las 8 No quiero ir a la playa Quiere darme el libro?

- Es muy frecuente el uso de will en forma interrogativa para peticiones corteses e invitaciones, traducindose por querer en presente: Will you close the door? Will you sit down? Quiere cerrar la puerta? Quiere sentarse?

Will you have a cup of coffee? Quiere tomar una taza de caf? - El uso de will en primera persona expresa la idea de voluntad por parte del que habla (promesas): I will phone you Te llamar

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Los verbos modales

I will take you to the cinema I will always love you

Te llevar al cine Siempre te amar

5. Shall
El verbo modal shall originariamente significaba deber. Como veremos a continuacin tiene un variado nmero de usos y matices y por eso en ocasiones la traduccin adecuada ser un futuro o presente: I shall be thirty next week Cumplir treinta aos la prxima semana You shall have your dog Shall I call the police? Tendrs tu perro Llamo a la polica?

- La forma afirmativa es shall, la negativa es shall not , contrada quedara shant y la forma interrogativa se formara por inversin del sujeto y el verbo modal. You shant go to the party They shall not pass No iris a la fiesta No pasarn

- Se usa siempre shall para preguntas en primera y tercera persona, cuando se quiere expresar la idea de hacer una sugerencia, pedir instrucciones a la persona a la que se dirige o para ofrecimientos: Shall we go to the theatre? Shall I carry your bags? Vamos al teatro? Te llevo tus bolsas?

- El uso de shall aade a la idea de futuro el matiz de promesa, orden o amenaza, segn los casos: You shall get what you want Tendrs lo que quieres You shall have your money Tendrs tu dinero

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Ejercicios
1. Ordenar las siguientes frases: cant / uncle / swim / my

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

______________________________________________________________ piano / he / can / the / play ______________________________________________________________ dance / they / can / well / very ______________________________________________________________ Spanish / speak/ and / can / I / Japanese ______________________________________________________________ cant / elephants / write ______________________________________________________________ friend / can / my / run / 30 / kilometres ______________________________________________________________ we / pizza / cook / can ______________________________________________________________ any / musical / cant / she / play / instrument ______________________________________________________________ can / fire / make / he / a ______________________________________________________________ cant / I / my / homework / do ______________________________________________________________

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2. Escribir can o cant en las siguientes oraciones: I ________go out tonight. Im busy. __________ you come to the cinema tonight? You _________ park here. Its no parking. ___________you tell me the time, please? She _______ speak English well. I _________play football, but not basketball. _______I park my car here? Where? I __________see him. _________you help me with my homework? You __________smoke there, but not here. Sorry. I __________remember the answer. I __________speak Spanish and Italian.

3. Completar las frases con must o mustnt y uno de estos verbos: meet, help, learn, speak, hurry, be, tell, wash, buy, take: You _____________ to drive You _____________ patient You _____________ to her about the children You _____________ anyone what happened You look tired. You ______________ a nap You _____________ this book. It is really entertaining. You _____________ . We are late You_____________ my blouse. It is a delicate garment You ____________ my brother. He is very nice. Its a very difficult exercise. You _____________ me

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4. Encontrar y corregir el error de cada frase: I know she can does it ______________________________________________________________ All students must studying ______________________________________________________________ She cans speak English well ______________________________________________________________ I cant to see it ______________________________________________________________ She must to drive slowly ______________________________________________________________ She may go not to the cinema ______________________________________________________________ He must to study all day ______________________________________________________________ May I to smoke? ______________________________________________________________ He can helps you with your homework ______________________________________________________________ You may going to Spain ______________________________________________________________

5. Escribir frases con Shall we? (sugerencias) Lets go out tonight Lets have a holiday __________________________________________ __________________________________________

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Los verbos modales

Lets spend some money ________________________________________ Lets have a party Lets go for a walk Lets wear funny hats Lets see a film Lets watch TV __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

Lets buy a new carpet __________________________________________ Lets phone Jack __________________________________________

6. Completar las oraciones con must be o cant be Hes taking photos, he ________ a tourist He is still in bed, he __________ tired Hes running, he ____________ late Shes a terrible football player, she ________ good at it All the doors are open, it __________ cold Hes pale, he ___________ ill They dont want to eat, so they ________ hungry They spend a lot of money. They ___________ rich They are kissing each other. They ___________ friends

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Los verbos modales

Soluciones
1. My uncle cant swim He can play the piano They can dance very well I can speak Spanish and Japanese Elephants cant write My friend can run 30 kilometres We can cook pizza She cant play any musical instrument He can make a fire I cant do my homework 2. I cant go out tonight. Im busy. Can you come to the cinema tonight? You cant park here. Its no parking. Can you tell me the time, please? She can speak English well. I can play football, but not basketball. Can I park my car here? Where? I cant see him. Can you help me with my homework? You can smoke there, but not here. Sorry. I cant remember the answer. I can speak Spanish and Italian. 3. You must learn to drive You must be patient You must speak to her about the children You mustnt tell anyone what happened You look tired. You must take a nap You must buy this book. It is really entertaining. You must hurry . We are late You mustnt wash my blouse. It is a delicate garment You must meet my brother. He is very nice. Its a very difficult exercise. You must help me 4. I know she can do it All students must study She can speak English well I cant see it She must drive slowly She may not go to the cinema He must study all day May I smoke? He can help you with your homework You may go to Spain 5. Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall Shall

we we we we we we we we we we

go out tonight? have a holiday? spend some money? have a party? go for a walk? wear funny hats? see a film? watch TV? buy a new carpet? phone Jack?

6. Hes taking photos, he must be a tourist He is still in bed, he must be tired Hes running, he must be late

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Los verbos modales

Shes a terrible football player, she cant be good at it All the doors are open, it cant be cold Hes pale, he must be ill They dont want to eat, so they cant be hungry

They spend a lot of money. They must be rich They are kissing each other. They cant be friends

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Tema 15

Formas no personales del verbo


Formas no personales del verbo
Formas no personales del verbo
Formas no personales del verbo

Formas no personales del verbo

Las formas no personales del verbo son el infinitivo, la forma en -ing y el participio. Se distinguen de las formas personales en que no pueden expresar por s solas las relaciones de modo, tiempo, nmero y persona. En este tema veremos el infinitivo y la forma en -ing.

1. El infinitivo
El infinitivo es la forma bsica del verbo. Es invariable y suele llevar la preposicin to delante (to write, to speak) escribir, hablar. La negacin se forma anteponiendo not (not to write, not to speak). En ingles, el infinitivo va normalmente precedidio de la preposicin to. Sin embargo, hay algunos casos en los que el infinitivo sin to parece adecuada.

1.1 El infinitivo sin To


- Se usa el infinitivo sin to despus de los verbos auxiliares y modales (do, can, will, shall, must, may, etc) Do you play football? I can swim Juegas al ftbol? S nadar

- El infinitivo sin to se emplea con los verbos de percepcin to hear (or) , to see ( ver), to watch (contemplar, ver), to feel (sentir). Algunos verbos rigen infinitivo sin to, por ejemplo, to make (hacer) y to let (dejar, permitir): I heard a man sing He made her cry Let it be O a un hombre cantar La hizo llorar Djalo estar

1.1 El infinitivo con To


- El infinitivo puede utilizarse detrs de determinados verbos como por ejemplo: agree, begin, choose, decide, expect, fail, forget, hope, intend., learn, manage, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, remember, refuse, seen, start, try, want o wish:

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Formas no personales del verbo

She forgot to turn on the light We decided to stay He learnt to drive

Olvid encender la luz Decidimos quedarnos Aprendi a conducir

- Siempre debe usarse el infinitivo con to con los verbos modales have (got) to (tener que ), ought to (deber ), used to (soler, acostumbrar) y con el futuro be going to. Tambin en expresiones como would like, would love, would hate, would prefer ( me gustara, me encantara,...) : Im going to do it Youll have to wait He would like to meet you Voy a hacerlo Tendrs que esperar Le gustara conocerte

- Usamos el infinitivo con to despus de las partculas interrogativas how, where, what, which, when y who: We dont know how to say goodbye No sabemos cmo despedirnos She explained what to do Explic qu hacer

- Tambin se utiliza para expresar la finalidad o propsito de una accin. En espaol, la finalidad se expresa con la preposicin para: I came here to dance and sing I went there to learn English Vine aqu para bailar y cantar Fui all para aprender ingls

- Usamos el infinitivo con to o un pronombre (o nombre) + infinitivo con to, despus de ciertos verbos (ask, choose, expect, mean, need, promise, want, wish, etc.): You asked me to buy some clothes Me pedisteis que comprara algo de ropa He promised her to be her husband Le prometi ser su marido

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Formas no personales del verbo

- Siempre debemos usar un pronombre o un nombre y el infinitivo con to despus de determinados verbos (allow, force, invite, order, persuade, teach, tell, warn): Ill invite her to come He told me to be happy La invitar a que venga Me pidi que fuera feliz

- El infinitivo es muy frecuente detrs de algunos adjetivos, como pleased, upset, surprised, easy, difficult, etc. : I am very pleased to see you Estoy encantada de verte This theme is easy to understand Este tema es fcil de comprender

2. La forma en -ing
2.1 Funciones de la forma en -ing
El verbo + ing puede ser un gerundio o un participio presente. El gerundio funciona como un sustantivo. El participio presente funciona generalmente como un verbo(formando los tiempos continuos), pero en ocasiones hace las veces de un adjetivo: I was reading The book is interesting Travelling is my favourite hobby Yo estaba leyendo El libro es interesante Viajar es mi aficcin favorita

Se forma aadiendo la terminacin -ing al infinitivo ( to write writing), ( to sing singing). - Si el infinitivo termina en -e, se suprime la -e: make > making.

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Formas no personales del verbo

- Si el infinitivo termina en -y, sigue la regla general: try > trying. - Si el infinitivo acaba en consonante precedida de una sola slaba tnica, se duplica la consonante: run > running. - Si el infinitivo acaba en -ie, se cambia por -y: die > dying - Como ya hemos dicho la forma en ing tiene el doble carcter de nombre y verbo. En su calidad de nombre puede tener la funcin de complemento de una preposicin. Normalmente detrs de una preposicin va la forman en ing, aunque hay algunas excepciones que lleva el infinitivo con to: I am very interested in collecting stamps Estoy muy interesado en coleccionar sellos

Recuerda
Las funciones la forma en ing son: a) Gerundio: Se utiliza en los tiempos continuos (Im reading) y cuando el verbo va precedido de preposicin (a machine for cutting grass). b) Participio presente: equivale a una oracin de relativo (The boy talking to her mother...).El chico hablando con su madre c) Se utiliza para formar un nombre a partir de un verbo: meeting, .. d) Para formar un adjetivo a partir de un verbo: loving letter, stinking room...

2.2 Verbos + forma en -ing


- Es muy frecuente utilizar ing detrs del verbo to go y come cuando hablamos de determinadas actividades. Y tambin detrs de preposiciones: We went shopping Fuimos de compras They go swimming once a week Ellos van a nadar una vez a la semana

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Formas no personales del verbo

I dreamt about winning an Oscar So que ganaba un Oscar - Se puede utilizar la forma en ing o el infinitivo con to despus de los verbos siguientes: begin, enjoy, hate, like, love, mind, prefer, start, suggest. La forma en ing es ms comn que el infinitivo: I enjoy travelling around the world Disfruto viajando por todo el mundo I hate studying Maths I like swimming in the sea Odio estudiar matemticas Me gusta nadar en el mar

- Tambin se puede usar la forma ing o el infinitivo con los verbos start, begin, continue y prefer. Algunos cambian su sentido como stop o remember: He stopped smoking He stopped to smoke l dej de fumar (cese de actividad) l par para fumar (propsito)

Remember to visit your mother Acurdate de visitar a tu madre (acordarse de hacer algo) I remember visiting my mother Me acuerdo de haber visitado a mi madre (recordar haber hecho algo) - Usamos la forma en ing tras las expresiones cant stand, cant help, its no use, its no good, its (not worth): I cant stand listening to pop music No puedo soportar escuchar msica pop I cant help loving him No puedo evitar quererle

Recuerda
En espaol traducimos la forma en ing por un infinitivo, pero no se puede sustituir la forma en ing utilizando un infinitivo. I go fishing (no I go to fish) me voy de pesca.

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Ejercicios

Responde a las siguientes cuestiones

1. Completar las siguientes frases usando call Mary o to call Mary (I cant _____= I cant call Mary) Ill ___________ Im going __________ Can you ____________ Shall I ______________ I would like ____________ I have___________ You ought ___________ I want ___________ You must _________ She forgot _____________

2. Formular preguntas comenzando con Do you like como en el ejemplo ( I often get up early = Do you like getting up early?) I often write letters ______________________________________________ I often travel by underground ______________________________________________ I often visit my uncle ______________________________________________

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Formas no personales del verbo

I often eat in restaurants ______________________________________________ I often dance ______________________________________________ I often go to the cinema ______________________________________________ I often watch TV ______________________________________________ I often listen to the teacher ______________________________________________ I often wash my hair ______________________________________________ I often drink coffee ______________________________________________

3. Escribir frases con I went to the to Elegir entre estas expresiones (get some medicine, meet a friend, catch a train, buy some fruit, ask for a loan, get an envelope, watch TV, learn German, dance, get some petrol). (the bakery) I went to the bakery to buy some bread (the station)________________________________ (the bank) _________________________________ (the disco) _________________________________ (the petrol station) ___________________________ (the supermarket) ____________________________ (the post office) _____________________________ (Germany) _________________________________

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Formas no personales del verbo

(the living room)_____________________________ (the chemist) _______________________________ (the caf) ___________________________________

4. Poner el verbo entre parntesis en la forma ing o infinitivo: Carmen and Pablo must (stay) at home ______________________________________________ I like (draw) very much ______________________________________________ He is interested in (read) detective stories ______________________________________________ She wants (study) Law at university ______________________________________________ She pretended (be) angry ______________________________________________ She cant (swim) ______________________________________________ She refused (buy) this expensive picture ______________________________________________ They decided (buy) a huge house ______________________________________________ I usually go (fish) in the river ______________________________________________ I hate (play) cards ______________________________________________

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Formas no personales del verbo

She hoped (pass) her exams ______________________________________________ Peter forgot (bring) the tickets ______________________________________________

5. Completar las frases afirmativas e interrogativas con el verbo to be + adjetivo + infinitivo con to: I / pleased / see you again ______________________________________________ It possible / leave late? ______________________________________________ It / impossible / learn this by heart ______________________________________________ Japanese /easy / understand? ______________________________________________ It / lovely / see the girls playing ______________________________________________ This recipe / not difficult /do ______________________________________________ I / surprised / hear this gossip ______________________________________________ English / hard / speak ______________________________________________

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Formas no personales del verbo

6. Poner el verbo entre parntesis en la forma correcta: I would like (come) to the party ______________________________________________ Jane decided (give) her mother a present ______________________________________________ Lets (go) to Los Angeles for our holiday ______________________________________________ We would love (meet) your children ______________________________________________ He promised (love) her forever ______________________________________________ Can you (help) me with the cooking? ______________________________________________ I dont want (go) out tonight ______________________________________________ It was easy (decide) what (do) ______________________________________________ He hates (sunbathe) ______________________________________________ The policeman tried (help) us ______________________________________________

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Formas no personales del verbo

Soluciones
1. Ill call Mary Im going to call Mary Can you call Mary? Shall I call Mary? I would like to call Mary I have to call Mary You ought to call Mary I want to call Mary You must call Mary She forgot to call Mary 2. Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do I went to the chemist to get some medicine I went to the caf to meet a friend 4. Carmen and Pablo must stay at home I like drawing very much He is interested in reading detective stories She wants to study Law at university She pretended to be angry She cant swim She refused to buy this expensive picture They decided to buy a huge house I usually go fishing in the river I hate playing cards She hoped to pass her exams Peter forgot to bring the tickets 5. I am pleased to see you again Is it possible to leave late? It is impossible to learn this by heart Is Japanese easy to understand? It is lovely to see the girls playing This recipe is not difficult to do I am surprised to hear this gossip English is hard to speak

you you you you you you you you you you

like like like like like like like like like like

writing letters? travelling by underground? visiting my uncle? eating in restaurants? dancing ? going to the cinema? watching TV? listening to the teacher? washing my hair? drinking coffee?

3. I went to the bakery to buy some bread I went to the station to catch a train I went to the bank to ask for a loan I went to the disco to dance I went to the petrol station to get some petrol I went to the supermarket to buy some fruit I went to the post office to get an envelope I went to Germany to learn German I went to the living room to watch TV

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Formas no personales del verbo

6. I would like to come to the party Jane decided to give her mother a present Lets go to Los Angeles for our holiday We would love to meet your children

He promised to love her forever Can you help me with the cooking? I dont want to go out tonight It was easy to decide what to do He hates sunbathing The policeman tried to help us

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Tema 16

Anexo
Anexo
Anexo
Anexo

Anexo

1. La pronunciacin en ingls
Vocales

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Diptongos

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Anexo

Consonantes

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Anexo

2. El abecedario
A (i) D (di) G (gi) J (jei) M (em) P (pi) S (es) V (vi) Y (ui) B (bi) E (i) H (eich) K (kei) N (en) Q (kiu) T (ti) W (dobliu) Z (sed)

(pronunciacin figurada)

C (si) F (ef) I (ai) L (el) O (ou) R (ar) U (yu) X (ecs)

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Anexo

3. Los das de la semana


Sunday - domingo Monday - lunes Tuesday - martes Wednesday - mircoles Thursday - jueves Friday - viernes Saturday - sbado

4. Los meses del ao


January - enero February - febrero March - marzo April - abril May - mayo June - junio July - julio August - agosto September - septiembre October - octubre November - noviembre December - diciembre

5. Las estaciones del ao


Spring - primavera Summer - verano Autumn (UK) fall (USA) - otoo Winter - invierno

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Anexo

6. La hora
1:00 It's one o'clock 1:05 It's five 1:10 It's ten past one 1:15 It's a quarter past one 1:30 It's half past one 1:35 It's twenty-five to two 1:45 It's a quarter to two 1:50 It's ten to two

7. La fecha
Las fechas en ingls se forman con los nmeros ordinales. Hay que distinguir entre cmo se escriben y cmo se dicen. Se escriben: 14th June 2005 June 14th 2005 14/6/05 14.6.05 Se dicen: The fortieth of June, two thousand and five o bien: June the fortieth , two thousand and five

8. Das festivos
Easter - Pascua Halloween - Vspera de Todos los Santos - Noche de Brujas Thanksgiving - Da de Accin de Gracias Christmas - Navidad Independence day - Da de la Independencia New year's day - Da de ao nuevo New year's eve - Vspera de ao nuevo

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Anexo

9. Lista de verbos irregulares


Verbos que tienen las tres formas iguales

Verbos que tienen la misma forma en el infinitivo y en el participio

Verbos que tienen la misma forma en pasado simple y en el participio

247

Ingls bsico

Anexo

Verbos que tienen las tres formas diferentes

248

Ingls bsico

Tema 17

Glosario
Glosario
Glosario
Glosario

Glosario

afternoon: tarde animal: animal answer: respuesta apple: manzana armchair: silln arrow: flecha aunt: ta bag: bolso bakery: panadera ball: pelota bank: banco bathroom: cuarto de bao beer: cerveza believe: creer bell: campana belong: pertenecer bike: bicicleta bird: pjaro birthday: cumpleos biscuit: galleta blackboard: pizarra book: libro boss: jefe box: caja boy: nio boyfriend: novio

brave: valiente bread: pan breakfast: desayuno brother: hermano bus: autobs bus-stop: parada de autobs busy: ocupado buy: comprar caf: cafetera cake: pastel call: llamar carefully: cuidadosamente carpet: alfombra cat: gato cheap: barato cheese: queso chemist's: farmacia chess: ajedrez child: nio/a church: iglesia city: ciudad class: clase clean: limpiar clothes: ropa coat: abrigo coffee: caf

251

Ingls bsico

Glosario

cold: fro computer: ordenador cook: cocinar crowded: atestado, lleno curtain: cortina dance: bailar dangerous: peligroso date: cita daughter: hija difficult: difcil dinner: cena dirty: sucio dish: plato dizzy: mareado do: hacer door: puerta draw: dibujar dress: vestido eagle: guila early: temprano earrings: pendientes egg: huevo electrician: electricista endangered: en peligro de extincin engineer: ingeniero engineering: ingeniera

entertaining: entretenido expensive: caro eye: ojo fashionable: de moda fast: rpido film: pelcula fire: fuego fish: pescado flat: piso flower: flor flute: flauta food: comida foot: pie forever: para siempre friendly: simptico, amable fruit: fruta fun: diversin funny: divertido garment: prenda de vestir girlfriend: novia glass: vaso glove: guante go: ir good: bueno gossip: cotilleo grass: hierba

252

Ingls bsico

Glosario

hair: pelo ham: jamn hand: mano happen: suceder, ocurrir hard: duro, difcil hat: sombrero healthy: saludable heavy: pesado help: ayudar hesitate: dudar hide: esconder high: alto high school: instituto holiday: vacaciones home: casa, hogar horse: caballo hour: hora housewife: ama de casa housework: tareas domsticas hungry: hambriento ice-cream: helado ill: enfermo important: importante island: isla jacket: chaqueta jeans: pantalones vaqueros

joke: chiste juice: zumo key: llave kill: matar kiss: besar kitchen: cocina knife: cuchillo lady: seora, dama lamp: lmpara large: grande law: derecho, ley left: izquierda letter: carta listen: escuchar living room: saln locked: cerrado con llave long: largo look: mirar loud: fuerte, alto love: amar lovely: encantador magazine: revista make-up: maquillaje man: hombre married: casado match: partido

253

Ingls bsico

Glosario

message: mensaje midnight: medianoche mini-skirts: minifalda mirror: espejo miss: perder, echar de menos money: dinero mouse: ratn movie: pelcula (ingls americano) neighbour: vecino net: red newspaper: peridico nightmare: pesadilla noise: ruido noisy: ruidoso notebook: libreta oil: aceite old: viejo open: abierto orange: naranja pale: plido paper: papel pen: bolgrafo pencil: lpiz people: gente person: persona pet: animal domstico, mascota

petrol: gasolina petrol station: gasolinera picture: cuadro pink: rosa plane: avin plate: plato pleased: encantado popcorn: palomitas de maz post office: oficina de correos postcard: postal potato: patata pour: verter present: regalo pretty: bonito primary school: escuela de primaria pupil: alumno push: empujar question: pregunta quick: rpido quiet: tranquilo rabbit: conejo rain: lluvia, llover raise: levantar read: leer ready: preparado remember: recordar

254

Ingls bsico

Glosario

repair: reparar right: derecha ring: llamar, sonar river: ro room: habitacin rubber: goma ruler: regla run: correr sad: triste safe: seguro scuba diving: buceo sea: mar second-hand: de segunda mano send: enviar sharp: afilado sheep: oveja shop: tienda shout: gritar singer: cantante skirt: falda sky: cielo slow: lento small: pequeo smile: sonrer smoke: fumar snack: tentempi

song: cancin sport: deporte sport centre: centro deportivo station: estacin de tren stick: bastn story: historia, relato street: calle strong: fuerte student: estudiante suddenly: de repente sugar: azcar suitcase: maleta sun: sol sunbathe: tomar el sol sweater: suter sweets: caramelos swimming-pool: piscina talk: hablar tall: alto teacher: profesor textbook: libro de texto theatre: teatro thin: delgado tidy: ordenar tired: cansado tomato: tomate

255

Ingls bsico

Glosario

tooth: diente toothache: dolor de muelas tortoise: tortuga town: ciudad traffic lights: semforo travel: viajar travel agent: agente de viajes tree: rbol T-shirt: camiseta ugly: feo umbrella: paraguas uncle: to underground: metro vacation: vacaciones vegetable: verdura village: pueblo wait: esperar

walk: pasear, paseo wall: pared want: querer warm: clido wash: lavar watch: mirar, ver water: agua weather: tiempo wedding: boda weekend: fin de semana wife: esposa, mujer window: ventana woman: mujer work: trabajar world: mundo year: ao young: joven

256

Ingls bsico

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