Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 50
PresentationPresentation OnOn DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology BIRENDRA KUMAR (CTSM) BARAUNI REFINERY
PresentationPresentation OnOn DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology BIRENDRA KUMAR (CTSM) BARAUNI REFINERY
PresentationPresentation OnOn DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology BIRENDRA KUMAR (CTSM) BARAUNI REFINERY
PresentationPresentation OnOn DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology BIRENDRA KUMAR (CTSM) BARAUNI REFINERY
PresentationPresentation
OnOn
DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology
BIRENDRA KUMAR (CTSM)
BARAUNI REFINERY

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Topics Topics of of Discussion Discussion • • Thermal Thermal Cracking
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Topics Topics of of Discussion Discussion • • Thermal Thermal Cracking

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

TopicsTopics ofof DiscussionDiscussion

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking

BriefBrief OverviewOverview ofof DelayedDelayed CokerCoker

FeedstockFeedstock

OperatingOperating variablesvariables

CokingCoking reactionsreactions

ProductsProducts

CokeCoke formationformation andand typetype ofof coke.coke.

CokeCoke DrumDrum CycleCycle

SafetySafety HazardsHazards

ModernModern DelayedDelayed CokerCoker DesignDesign FeaturesFeatures

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

Modern Modern Delayed Delayed Coker Coker Design Design Features Features Barauni Refinery – In harmony with
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony with

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ProcessProcess

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Requirement Requirement of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Residual
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Requirement Requirement of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Residual

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Requirement Requirement of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Residual Residual

RequirementRequirement ofof ThermalThermal CrackingCracking

ResidualResidual fractionsfractions (Bottom(Bottom ofof BaBarrel)rrel) areare thethe leastleast valuablevaluable strstreamseams ofof aa refinery.refinery.

NearlyNearly

45%45%

--

50%50%

ofof thethe

typicaltypical crudecrude oiloil processedprocessed inin IndianIndian

RefineriesRefineries containcontain 370370 °°C+C+ fractions.fractions.

WorldwideWorldwide limitedlimited reservereserve ofof sweetsweet crudescrudes

DisposalDisposal problemsproblems duedue toto stringentstringent environmentalenvironmental norms.norms.

DecreasingDecreasing demanddemand ofof fuelfuel oil.oil.

GraduallyGradually increasingincreasing demademandnd ofof middlemiddle distillates.distillates.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Advantages Advantages of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Thermal
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Advantages Advantages of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Thermal

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Advantages Advantages of of Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking • • Thermal Thermal

AdvantagesAdvantages ofof ThermalThermal CrackingCracking

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ItIt isis simplesimple andand costcost eeffectiveffective process.process. However,However, rapidrapid uncontrolleduncontrolled thermalthermal crackingcracking producesproduces undesirableundesirable productproductss likelike gasgas andand coke.coke.

LimitationsLimitations ofof CatalyticCatalytic CrackingCracking forfor ResidResid ProcessingProcessing

InIn residresid feedstockfeedstock presencepresence ofof highhigh molecularmolecular weightweight compoundscompounds likelike resins,resins, asphaltenesasphaltenes andand metalsmetals makemake itit unsuitableunsuitable forfor catalyticcatalytic cracking.cracking. RFCCRFCC cancan processprocess residresid feedfeed onlyonly uptoupto aa certaincertain limit.limit.

MetalsMetals andand sulphursulphur compoundscompounds presentpresent inin residresid feedstockfeedstock actact asas catalystcatalyst poison.poison.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Various Various Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Processes Processes • •
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Various Various Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Processes Processes • •

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Various Various Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Processes Processes • •

VariousVarious ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ProcessesProcesses

VISBREAKINGVISBREAKING ItIt isis aa thermalthermal crackingcracking proceprocessss producingproducing gas,gas, distillatesdistillates andand visbrokenvisbroken residueresidue (FO).(FO).

DELAYEDDELAYED COKINGCOKING ContinuousContinuous thermalthermal crackingcracking procprocessess whichwhich generatesgenerates cokecoke andand proproducesduces variousvarious distillatesdistillates inin fractionatorfractionator fromfrom vacuumvacuum residue.residue. CokeCoke drumdrum temperaturetemperature remainsremains aroundaround 415415 °°CC 450450 °°C.C.

FLUIDFLUID COKINGCOKING ContinuousContinuous cokingcoking processprocess wherwheree residuumresiduum isis sprayedsprayed onon toto fludisedfludised bedbed ofof hothot cokecoke particles.particles. HereHere crackingcracking tatakeskes placeplace atat muchmuch higherhigher temperatemperatureture thanthan delayeddelayed cokingcoking (temperature(temperature uptoupto 565565 °°C).C).

FLEXIFLEXI COKINGCOKING ContinuousContinuous cokingcoking processprocess likelike FlFluiduid CokingCoking whichwhich includesincludes aa gasgasificationification sectionsection ofof cokecoke producedproduced inin FluidFluid CokingCoking Operation.Operation.

AmongAmong thethe aboveabove processesprocesses DelaDelayedyed CokingCoking isis mostmost popular.popular.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ReactionsReactions

ThermalThermal crackingcracking reactionsreactions taketake placeplace duedue toto applicationapplication ofof heatheat DuringDuring thethe crackingcracking process,process, lalargerge moleculesmolecules decomposedecompose andand formform smallersmaller (lighter)(lighter) molecules.molecules.

InIn thermalthermal crackingcracking generallygenerally twtwoo typestypes ofof reactionsreactions taketake placplacee

PrimaryPrimary reactionsreactions byby decompositionsdecompositions ofof largelarge moleculesmolecules toto smallsmallerer molecules.molecules.

SecondarySecondary reactionsreactions byby whichwhich acactivetive productsproducts fromfrom primaryprimary crackingcracking reactionsreactions furtherfurther crackcrack oror reactreact toto formform otherother moleculemoleculess oror polymerizepolymerize toto generategenerate heavyheavy productsproducts (coke).(coke).

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Thermal Thermal cracking

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ReactionsReactions

ThermalThermal crackingcracking ofof longlong chainchain oiloil moleculesmolecules intointo shortershorter chainschains proceedsproceeds throughthrough aa freefree radicalradical mechanismmechanism --

CC nn HH 2n+22n+2

InitiallyInitially

C C n n - - 2 2 H H 2n 2n - - 3 CC nn--22 HH 2n2n--33 ++ CC 22 HH 55

formedformed

freefree

radicalsradicals

readilyreadily

combinecombine

withwith

otherother

hydrocarbons/freehydrocarbons/free radicals/decomposedradicals/decomposed toto formform olefins.olefins.

CC

CC

CC

CC

CC

22 HH 55 ++ CC nn HH 2n+22n+2

nn HH 2n+12n+1

nn HH 2n+12n+1

nn--22 HH 2n2n--33 ++ HH

nn--22 HH 2n2n--33

2n - - 3 3 + + H H n n - - 2 2 H
2n - - 3 3 + + H H n n - - 2 2 H
2n - - 3 3 + + H H n n - - 2 2 H
2n - - 3 3 + + H H n n - - 2 2 H
2n - - 3 3 + + H H n n - - 2 2 H

C C n n H H 2n+1 2n+1 + + C C 2 2 H CC nn HH 2n+12n+1 ++ CC 22 HH 66

n n H H 2n+1 2n+1 + + C C 2 2 H H 6 6
n n H H 2n+1 2n+1 + + C C 2 2 H H 6 6

C C n n - - 1 1 H H 2n 2n - - 2 CC nn--11 HH 2n2n--22 ++ CHCH 33

C C n n H H 2n 2n + + H H CC nn HH 2n2n ++ HH

C C CC

nn--22 HH 2n2n--22

2n 2n + + H H C C n n - - 2 2 H H

C C (n (n - - 2)/2 2)/2 H H n n - - 2 CC (n(n--2)/22)/2 HH nn--22 ++ CC (n(n--2)/22)/2 HH nn--11

H H n n - - 2 2 + + C C (n (n - -

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Aromatics Aromatics &
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Aromatics Aromatics &

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Thermal Thermal Cracking Cracking Reactions Reactions • • Aromatics Aromatics &

ThermalThermal CrackingCracking ReactionsReactions

AromaticsAromatics && polyneuclearpolyneuclear aromaticsaromatics undergoundergo condensationcondensation reactionreaction withwith thethe formationformation ofof AsphaltenicAsphaltenic compoundscompounds (coke(coke formingforming compounds).compounds). SomeSome typicaltypical reactionsreactions areare

++ ++ HH 22 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 ++ ++ HH
++
++ HH 22
CH 3
CH 3
CH 3 CH 3
++
++ HH 22
– – ++ ++ HH 22 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 ++ ++

++ 2H2H 22

HH 22 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 ++ ++ HH 22 + +

++ 2H2H 22

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Technology Technology Barauni Refinery – In harmony
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Technology Technology Barauni Refinery – In harmony

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Technology Technology Barauni Refinery – In harmony with

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking TechnologyTechnology

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Delayed Delayed Coking Coking is is the the most
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Delayed Delayed Coking Coking is is the the most

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Delayed Delayed Coking Coking is is the the most most

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking isis thethe mostmost commocommonlynly usedused carboncarbon rejectionrejection procesprocesss thatthat upgradesupgrades residuesresidues toto aa widewide rangerange ofof lighterlighter hydrocarbonhydrocarbon gagasesses andand distillatesdistillates throughthrough thermalthermal cracking.cracking.

TheThe byproductbyproduct ofof delayeddelayed cokingcoking processprocess isis petroleumpetroleum coke.coke.

TheThe goalgoal forfor delayeddelayed cokercoker operationoperation isis toto maximisemaximise thethe yieldyield ofof cleanclean distillatesdistillates andand minimiseminimise thethe yieldyield ofof coke.coke.

DelayedDelayed cokingcoking technologytechnology isis preferredpreferred forfor upgradingupgrading heavierheavier residuesresidues duedue toto itsits inherentinherent flexflexibilityibility toto handlehandle eveneven thethe heavheaviestiest residuesresidues whilewhile producingproducing cleanclean liquidliquid products.products.

TheThe mainmain productsproducts ofof delayeddelayed cokercoker operationoperation isis offoff--gasgas (from(from whichwhich LPGLPG isis recovered),recovered), naphtha,naphtha, LighLightt GasGas OilOil (LCGO)(LCGO) andand HeavyHeavy GasGas OOilil (HCGO).(HCGO). LCGOLCGO isis sentsent toto HydrotreaterHydrotreater forfor productionproduction ofof GasGas OilOil andand HCGOHCGO toto refineryrefinery FOFO Pool/Pool/ RFCCRFCC feedstock/feedstock/ OHCUOHCU feedstock.feedstock.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • The The yield yield slate slate for for a
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • The The yield yield slate slate for for a

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • The The yield yield slate slate for for a a

TheThe yieldyield slateslate forfor aa DelayedDelayed CokerCoker cancan bebe variedvaried toto meetmeet aa refirefinernerss objectiveobjective throughthrough thethe selectionselection ofof operatingoperating parameters.parameters.

ThreeThree operatingoperating parametersparameters governgovern thethe yieldyield patternpattern andand productproduct qualityquality ofof DelayedDelayed CokerCoker

TemperatureTemperature PressurePressure RecycleRecycle RatioRatio (RR)(RR)

IncreasingIncreasing cokingcoking temperaturetemperature decreasesdecreases cokecoke productionproduction andand incrincreaseseases liquidliquid yieldyield andand gasgas oiloil endpoint.endpoint. However,However, temperaturetemperature cancan bebe adjusteadjustedd onlyonly aa narrownarrow rangerange toto controlcontrol volatilitiesvolatilities leftleft inin coke.coke.

IncreasingIncreasing pressurepressure and/orand/or RecyRecyclecle RatioRatio (RR)(RR) increasesincreases gasgas andand cokecoke makemake andand decreasesdecreases liquidliquid yieldyield andand gagass oiloil endpoint.endpoint. RRRR cancan bebe varievariedd fromfrom 0%0% toto

120%.120%.

RecycleRecycle RatioRatio isis defineddefined asas

(Composite(Composite feedfeed toto CokerCoker Heater)/Heater)/ (Primary(Primary feedfeed toto FractionatorFractionator bottom)bottom)

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Modern Modern trend trend of of Delayed Delayed Coking
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Modern Modern trend trend of of Delayed Delayed Coking

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Modern Modern trend trend of of Delayed Delayed Coking Coking

ModernModern trendtrend ofof DelayedDelayed CokingCoking technologytechnology isis toto minimiseminimise thethe cokingcoking pressurepressure andand recyclerecycle ratioratio withwithinin thethe economiceconomic andand technicaltechnical constraintsconstraints forfor designingdesigning aa unitunit whilewhile producingproducing cleanclean HeavyHeavy CokCokerer GasGas OilOil (HCGO)(HCGO) productproduct withinwithin followingfollowing qualityquality

LowLow contaminantcontaminant levellevel ofof carboncarbon residue.residue. LowLow contaminantcontaminant levellevel ofof metal.metal. EndEnd pointpoint withinwithin acceptableacceptable level.level.

DelayedDelayed

CokerCoker

productsproducts

typicallytypically

requirerequire

furtherfurther

downstreamdownstream

hydroprocessinghydroprocessing

becausebecause

ofof

hydrogenhydrogen

deficiencydeficiency

andand

sulphursulphur

contamination.contamination.

FuelFuel gradegrade cokecoke isis aa lowlow valuevalue bybyproduct.product. HoweverHowever itit hashas signifisignificantcant demanddemand asas aa cleanclean andand economiceconomic fuel.fuel.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Feedstock Feedstock – – • • Delayed
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Feedstock Feedstock – – • • Delayed

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking FeedstockFeedstock

Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Feedstock Feedstock – – • • Delayed Delayed Coker Coker can can

DelayedDelayed CokerCoker cancan processprocess aa widewide varietyvariety ofof feedstocksfeedstocks ::--

FeedstockFeedstock cancan havehave considerableconsiderable amountamount ofof metalmetal (Ni(Ni ++ V),V), SulphurSulphur,, ResinsResins andand AsphaltenesAsphaltenes ContaminantsContaminants presentpresent inin feedstockfeedstock mostlymostly getsgets eliminatedeliminated withwith ccoke.oke.

MostMost typicaltypical feedstockfeedstock isis VacuumVacuum ResidueResidue (530(530 °°CC +).+). ItIt cancan alsoalso processprocess refineryrefinery slopslop oil/oil/ sludge.sludge.

AtmosphericAtmospheric residueresidue isis alsoalso occasionallyoccasionally processed.processed.

TypicalTypical feedfeed compositioncomposition SulphurSulphur 55 toto 66 %% wtwt MetalsMetals 10001000 ppmwppmw CCRCCR 2020 TOTO 3030 %% wt.wt.

PropertiesProperties ofof cokecoke mostlymostly dependsdepends onon feedfeed quality.quality.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process Barauni Refinery – In harmony with

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking ProcessProcess

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions – – •
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions – – •

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions – – • •

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking ChemicalChemical ReactionsReactions

CarbonizationCarbonization isis thethe thermalthermal convconversionersion ofof organicorganic materialsmaterials toto carbon/carbon/ coke.coke.

CarbonizationCarbonization involvesinvolves aa complexcomplex seriesseries ofof chemicalchemical reactionsreactions anandd diffusiondiffusion processesprocesses inin bothboth liquidliquid andand solidsolid state.state. TheThe reactionreaction sequencesequence consistsconsists ofof thethe eliminationelimination ofof substituentsubstituent atomsatoms andand groupsgroups fromfrom thethe organicorganic moleculemolecule andand subsequentsubsequent polymerisationpolymerisation toto aa largelarge aromaticaromatic carboncarbon framework.framework.

PetroleumPetroleum cokecoke mainlymainly formedformed byby twotwo differentdifferent mechanismsmechanisms

HighHigh molecularmolecular weightweight compounds,compounds, suchsuch asas asphaltenesasphaltenes andand resins,resins, tendtend toto dealkylatedealkylate toto straightstraight chainchain compoundscompounds andand CH2CH2 groupsgroups whenwhen subjectedsubjected toto highhigh temperature.temperature. InIn thisthis processprocess aa residueresidue ofof carbcarbonon ((i.ei.e coke)coke) isis leftleft behind.behind.

DehydrogenationDehydrogenation

ofof

heavyheavy

oilsoils

followedfollowed

byby

polymerisationpolymerisation

andand

condensationcondensation ofof freefree radicalsradicals frfromom highhigh molecularmolecular weightweight compouncompoundsds

(mainly(mainly aromaticaromatic hydrocarbon)hydrocarbon) leadlead toto formationformation ofof coke.coke.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions of of Carbonization Carbonization – – •
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions of of Carbonization Carbonization – – •

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Chemical Chemical Reactions Reactions of of Carbonization Carbonization – – • •

ChemicalChemical ReactionsReactions ofof CarbonizationCarbonization

ThereThere areare threethree typestypes ofof chemicalchemical reactionreaction processesprocesses whichwhich occuroccur continuouslycontinuously withoutwithout anyany distinctdistinct stepssteps inin thethe cokingcoking processprocess

DehydrogenationDehydrogenation TheThe initialinitial reactionreaction inin carbcarbonizationonization involvesinvolves thethe lossloss ofof hydrogenhydrogen atomatom fromfrom anan aromaticaromatic hydrocarbonhydrocarbon andand formationformation ofof aromaticaromatic freefree radicalradical intermediate.intermediate.

RearrangementRearrangement ReactionsReactions ThermalThermal rearrangementrearrangement usuallyusually leadsleads toto formationformation ofof moremore stabilisedstabilised aromaticaromatic ringring systemsystem whichwhich formsforms buildingbuilding blockblock ofof graphitegraphite growth.growth.

PolymerisationPolymerisation

ofof

aromaticaromatic

radicalsradicals

AromaticAromatic

freefree

radicalsradicals

getget

polymerisedpolymerised inin thethe processprocess ofof cokingcoking reactireaction.on. ThisThis processprocess isis initiatedinitiated inin thethe liquidliquid phasephase andand continuedcontinued inin differentdifferent steps.steps.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process – – • • Delayed
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process – – • • Delayed

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking ProcessProcess

Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Process Process – – • • Delayed Delayed Coking Coking is is

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking isis aa batchbatch cumcum continuouscontinuous processprocess --

FlowFlow throughthrough thethe furnacefurnace coilcoil isis continuous.continuous. FeedFeed isis switchedswitched betweenbetween twotwo oror moremore drumsdrums inin batchwisebatchwise fashion.fashion.

DelayedDelayed cokercoker drumdrum cyclecycle lengthlength variesvaries frfromom unitunit toto unit.unit. However,However, typicallytypically itit isis keptkept wiwithinthin 1616 toto 2424 hours.hours.

AdequateAdequate timetime shouldshould bebe givengiven forfor cokecoke drumdrum coolingcooling // heatingheating ttoo avoidavoid anyany thermalthermal shock/shock/ degraddegradationation ofof cokecoke drumdrum metallurgy.metallurgy.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER 410 O C QUEN CH COL n 420 O C 405

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER 410 O C QUEN CH COL n 420 O C 405 O
410 O C QUEN CH COL n 420 O C 405 O C LDO /
410
O C
QUEN
CH
COL n
420
O C
405 O C
LDO / SLOP
QUENCH
BFW
MP
STEAM
MP STEAM
REAC
REAC
BFW
BFW
TOR
TOR
95
O C
RFO
FLUE GAS
485
O C
485
O C
FURNACE
PETRO
COKE
502
O C

115

O C

1.8 kg/cm 2 g

OFFGAS

PETRO COKE 502 O C 115 O C 1.8 kg/cm 2 g OFFGAS SOUR WATER NAPHTHA

SOUR WATER

NAPHTHA

MAIN

FRACTI

ONATOR

200 O C 45 O C 45 O C 45 O C IR 280 O
200
O C
45
O C
45 O C
45
O C
IR
280
O C
CR
95
O C
MP
330
O C
STEAM
BFW
FO IR
BFW
O C

340

FRESH FEED

LCGO - I

MP STEAM

LCGO - II

BFW

MP STEAM

HCGO

BFW

240 O C

340

O C

BOTTOM PUMP

DCU FLOW DIAGRAM

BOTTOM PUMP

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Typical Typical Drum Drum Cycle Cycle Time Time – – Drum
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Typical Typical Drum Drum Cycle Cycle Time Time – – Drum

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

TypicalTypical DrumDrum CycleCycle TimeTime

Typical Typical Drum Drum Cycle Cycle Time Time – – Drum Cycle Hours Steam to Fractionator

Drum Cycle

Hours

Steam to Fractionator

0.5

Steam to Blowdown

1.5

Low range cooling & water quench

4.5

Depressurisation & Drain

2.0

Unheading top and bottom cover

1.0

Coke Cutting

3.0

Reheading/ steam testing/ purge

1.0

Drum warm-up/ Vapour heating

4.0

Change-over / Drum Switch

0.5

Total

18.0

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER CYCLIC PROCESS OF DELAYED COKING LITTLE STEAM BIG STEAM LITTLE WATER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER CYCLIC PROCESS OF DELAYED COKING LITTLE STEAM BIG STEAM LITTLE WATER BIG
CYCLIC PROCESS OF DELAYED COKING LITTLE STEAM BIG STEAM LITTLE WATER BIG WATER WATER DRAIN
CYCLIC PROCESS OF
DELAYED COKING
LITTLE STEAM
BIG STEAM
LITTLE WATER
BIG WATER
WATER DRAIN
COKING CYCLE
OF A COKE DRUM
DECOKING CYCLE
OF A COKE DRUM
COKE DRUM
UNHEADING
COKING
HYDRAULIC
COKE DRUM PREHEAT
DECOKING
COKE DRUM STEAM PR. TEST
COKE DRUM
HEADING
COKE DRUM STEAM PURGE

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Coke Coke Drum Drum Warm Warm - - up up –
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Coke Coke Drum Drum Warm Warm - - up up –

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

CokeCoke DrumDrum WarmWarm--upup

COKER Coke Coke Drum Drum Warm Warm - - up up – – • • To

ToTo prepareprepare thethe emptyempty cokecoke drumdrum forfor receivingreceiving feedstockfeedstock exex procesprocesss heater,heater, hothot vaporsvapors fromfrom onlineonline drumdrum areare circulcirculatedated intointo thethe emptyempty drumdrum forfor ppreheatingreheating ofof cokecoke drum.drum.

TheThe hothot vapoursvapours (at(at aroundaround 415415 °°C)C) condensescondenses insideinside thethe coldcold vapourvapour drum,drum, heatingheating thethe drumdrum toto aa targettarget temperaturetemperature ofof aroundaround 340340 °°C.C.

CondenserCondenser vapoursvapours areare continuouslycontinuously draineddrained outout ofof thethe drumdrum initiallyinitially throughthrough thethe blowdownblowdown circuitcircuit andand laterlater toto mainmain fractionatorfractionator

AfterAfter vapourvapour heatingheating thethe drumdrum forfor fewfew hours,hours, hothot oiloil (RCO/(RCO/ VR)VR) exex furnacefurnace (a(att aroundaround 485485 °°C)C) isis switchedswitched toto drum.drum.

MostMost ofof thethe vapourvapour condensescondenses onon thethe coldercolder wallwall ofof thethe drumdrum ,, liquidliquid remainingremaining asas boilingboiling poolpool ofof oiloil atat thethe bottom.bottom.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

Steam Steam Stripping Stripping – – PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Steam Steam must
Steam Steam Stripping Stripping – – PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Steam Steam must

SteamSteam StrippingStripping

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

Stripping Stripping – – PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER • • Steam Steam must must be be

SteamSteam mustmust bebe flowingflowing beforebefore thethe switchswitch andand immediatelyimmediately afterafter ththee switchswitch andand immediatelyimmediately afterafter thethe switchswitch otherwiseotherwise thethe neatneat unconvertedunconverted feedfeedstockstock onon thethe toptop ofof cokecoke beadbead willwill runrun downdown thethe channelschannels whichwhich willwill solidifysolidify andand plugplug thethe channels.channels.

ThisThis willwill leadlead toto isolationisolation // plpluggingugging ofof thethe cokedcoked portionportion fromfrom steamsteam andand coolingcooling waterwater resultingresulting inin formationformation ofof hothot spots.spots.

TheseThese hothot spotsspots maymay resultresult inin dadangerousngerous steamsteam eruptioneruption duringduring cucuttingtting ofof cokecoke whichwhich isis aa potentialpotential safetysafety hazard.hazard.

SteamSteam strippingstripping alsoalso servesserves toto transfertransfer heatheat fromfrom thethe hothot bottombottom portionportion ofof thethe cokecoke bedbed toto unconvertedunconverted liquidliquid presentpresent atat thethe toptop ofof thethe cokecoke drdrum.um.

AdequateAdequate steamsteam strippingstripping increasesincreases thethe quantityquantity ofof recoveredrecovered gasgas oiloil asas wellwell asas reducereduce thethe amountamount ofof volatilevolatile mattermatter presentpresent inin thethe bottombottom sectisectionon ofof thethe cokecoke drum.drum.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Products Products Barauni Refinery – In harmony
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Products Products Barauni Refinery – In harmony

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Delayed Delayed Coking Coking Products Products Barauni Refinery – In harmony with

DelayedDelayed CokingCoking ProductsProducts

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Products Products of of Delayed Delayed Coking Coking – – •
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Products Products of of Delayed Delayed Coking Coking – – •

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

ProductsProducts ofof DelayedDelayed CokingCoking

Products of of Delayed Delayed Coking Coking – – • • Delayed Delayed coker coker produces

DelayedDelayed cokercoker producesproduces desirabledesirable liquidliquid productsproducts (naphtha(naphtha andand gasgas oil)oil) andand byproductsbyproducts cokercoker gasgas andand solidsolid coke.coke.

CokerCoker offoff--gasgas goesgoes toto thethe gasgas plantplant wherewhere C3C3 andand C4C4 isis recoveredrecovered asas LPGLPG andand thethe lighterlighter endend cancan bebe usedused asas fuelfuel gasgas inin thethe refineryrefinery

NaphthaNaphtha exex cokercoker unitunit containscontains highhigh olefinolefin contentcontent andand thisthis streamstream isis usuallyusually sentsent toto hydrotreaterhydrotreater forfor stabilisationstabilisation

LightLight CokerCoker GasGas OOilil (LCGO)(LCGO) isis sentsent toto dieseldiesel hydrotreaterhydrotreater forfor productionproduction ofof diesel.diesel. TypicalTypical endend pointpoint ofof thisthis streamstream isis aroundaround 370370 °°C.C.

HeavyHeavy CokerCoker GasGas OilOil (HCGO)(HCGO) isis sentsent toto FCC/FCC/ RFCCRFCC forfor productionproduction ooff valuablevaluable distillatedistillate products.products. TypicalTypical endend pointpoint ofof thisthis streamstream iiss aroundaround 538538 °°C.C.

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Typical Typical Yield Yield Pattern Pattern of of Delayed Delayed Coking
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Typical Typical Yield Yield Pattern Pattern of of Delayed Delayed Coking

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Typical Typical Yield Yield Pattern Pattern of of Delayed Delayed Coking Coking

TypicalTypical YieldYield PatternPattern ofof DelayedDelayed CokingCoking

PARTICULARS

PR

BR

Feed Quality :-

   

Feed CCR, % wt

22

11

Feed “S”, % wt

4.8

1.2

Yield Pattern (% wt) : -

   

Gas + H 2 S

5.0

8.0

LPG

3.0

4.0

Light Naphtha

6.0

8.0

Heavy Naphtha

5.0

-

LCGO

32.0

40

HCGO

19.0

15

Coke

30.0

25

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Type Type of of Coke Coke – – Coke Coke formed
PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Type Type of of Coke Coke – – Coke Coke formed

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER

PRESENTATION ON DELAYED COKER Type Type of of Coke Coke – – Coke Coke formed formed

TypeType ofof CokeCoke

CokeCoke formedformed inin DelayedDelayed CokerCoker UnitUnit cancan bebe classifiedclassified intointo threethree differentdifferent typestypes

SpongeSponge CokeCoke

NeedleNeedle CokeCoke

ShotShot CokeCoke

Barauni Refinery – In harmony with nature