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Coexistence Education

NATURE OF COEXISTENCE Coexistence refers to a state in intergroup relations that comes after lasting negative relations which involve negation of at least one side, de-legitimization, violence or other negative lines of behaviors that have serious consequences on at least one of the groups involved (Weiner, 199 a!" #t is defined as recognition in the right of the other group to exist peacefully with its differences, acceptance of the other group as a legitimate and an equal partner with whom disagreements have to be resolved in nonviolent ways. $his phase in intergroup relations is the fundamental prerequisite for the evolvement of advanced harmonious intergroup relations such as reconciliation" $he case of d%tente between &oviet 'nion and '&( in the 19)*s is one of the most +nown cases of coexistence (,arthoff, 199-!" #t is important to realize that the process of establishing coexistence begins at the lowest point of the negative intergroup relations (.ar-$al, /***!" $hese negative relations ma0 have at least two origins which are not mutabl0 exclusive" $he first origin derives from central beliefs and often ideolog0 about possessing race, characteristics, traits, religion, heritage, or culture that ma+e one group superior (1e2ine 3 Campbell, 19)/4 &umner, 19*5!" $hese central ethnocentric beliefs not onl0 underlie attitudes of pre6udice, the0 also often lead to behaviors of exploitation, discrimination, and mass +illings and even to ethnic cleansing and genocide (&taub 3 .ar-$al, /**7!" $his was the case in 8azi ,erman0, &outh (frica during the (partheid or in '&( during the segregation" $he second origin pertains to intractable conflicts that go on for man0 0ears, are intense and violent, and thus necessaril0 lead to deep animosit0 between groups or societies and even atrocities and genocide (.ar-$al, in press4 9riesberg, 8orthrup, 3 $horson, 19 9!" (n example of this +ind of conflicts has been the #sraeli-(rab conflict, 9ashmir conflict or Chechn0a conflict" :f importance is the fact that the negative intergroup relations in both cases are grounded in a widel0 shared sociops0chological repertoire among societ0 members, have a cultural basis and in man0 cases are also supported b0 political, economic and sometimes even 6udiciar0 institutions" (fter the severe negative relations, coexistence not onl0 implies that leaders changed their minds, that there is contact between the two sides, and that there is readiness to negotiate a new status of intergroup relations, but it indicates that large and influential segments of the societ0 must also change their repertoire and support the new nature of the intergroup relations and that different groups, organizations, and institutions see the achievement of coexistence as an important societal ob6ective (Cha0es, 3 ;inow, /**74 Weiner, 199 b!" $he main components of coexistence are< =>C:,8#$#:8 #8 $?> 1>,#;#$($> >@#&$(8C> :A $?> :$?>= ,=:'B Coexistence means recognition in the existence of the other group with its differences, which ma0 be in the realm of goals, values, ideolog0, religion, race, nationalit0, ethnicit0, culture, and other domains" $his recognition implies that the groups have the same right to exist and live in peace and ac+nowledges the legitimac0 of the differences between them" ;oreover, there is also recognition in the legitimac0 of the groups to raise contentions and grievances that are then resolved in nonviolent wa0s" >ach group is read0 to deal with them as causes to the deterioration of their intergroup relations" Personalization Coexistence implies personalization of the members of the other group-that is, viewing them as humane individuals with legitimate needs, aspirations and goals" Equal partnership. Coexistence requires recognition in the principle of equal status and treatment of the other group(s!, without superiorit0" $his principle applies to negotiations as well as to other t0pes of contacts" Nonviolence C 2008 Encyclopedia of Peace Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. http !!""".tc.edu!centers!epe!

Coexistence implies that although conflict and disagreement ma0 still be intact, the involved groups have decided to abandon violent wa0s of confrontation and choose peaceful means to achieve their goals" #t means that the groups are read0 to establish mechanisms of negotiation to deal with the list of contentions in order to resolve them" Coexistence does not involve onl0 acts that are implied b0 the described requirements" .ut the core of coexistence refers to a state of mind shared b0 the members of the societ0" #n this sense coexistence is primaril0 a formative process of the socio-ps0chological repertoire of societ0 members" #t should be seen as a first, crucial step and a necessar0 condition for the continuation of the process of improving intergroup relations (9riesberg, 199 4 1ederach, 199)!" :nl0 after cementing this phase of coexistence is it possible to move graduall0 to further steps of constructing more harmonious and peaceful intergroup relations and of even achieving reconciliation (.ar-&iman-$ov, /**-4 .loomfield, .arnes, 3 ?u0se, /**74 =othstein, 19994 Whitta+er, 1999!" >D'C($#:8 A:= C:>@#&$>8C> >ducation for coexistence refers to the process through which societ0 members are supposed to acquire the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that are in line with the ideas of coexistence" $his is usuall0 a process of societal change because education for coexistence is t0picall0 launched when societ0 members hold ideas that contradict the principles of coexistence (?ertz-1azarowitz, Eelni+er, &tephan, 3 &tephan, /**-!" $he0 hold a socio-ps0chological repertoire that supports conflict, discrimination, or exploitation, and in order to move to coexistence, as a new state of intergroup relations, there is a need to change this repertoire also via education (&alomon, /**-!" #n this context, two approaches to education for coexistence are suggested< a narrow approach (school approach! and a broad approach (societal approach!" School approach. $he school approach focuses on education for coexistence within the school s0stem" #t views the school s0stem as a ma6or agent of socialization (?immelweit 3 &wift, 1959! and concentrates on its use to change the nature of intergroup relations within societ0" #t recognizes the limitations of persuading the whole societ0 of the importance of coexistence ideas and, therefore, focuses on one agent, assuming that it has the greatest power of influence" $he s0stematic school approach refers to the planned and implemented polic0 of central educational authorities to institute education for coexistence as a mandator0 program that reaches out to all school-age children and adolescents" $hus, education for coexistence in this form is intentional, planned, controlled, mandator0, and inclusive" $he ob6ectives of education for coexistence are to form values, motivations, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and behavior patterns among children and adolescents that are conducive to coexistence" $his repertoire comes to support coexistence as the new form of intergroup relations and prepares the 0oung generation to live in these relations" :n a practical level, education for coexistence requires transmission of +nowledge, creation of experiences, and development of s+ills which can help to develop the ps0chological repertoire that accepts, recognizes, respects, legitimizes, humanizes, and personalizes the rival or discriminated group" $o achieve this ob6ective, the educational s0stem needs to ma+e ma6or preparations" #t is not enough onl0 to declare the new educational polic0 which supports coexistence, but it is necessar0 to ta+e active steps to implement it" Curricula must be developed, textboo+s written, teachers trained, experiential programs constructed, proper learning climates created, and so on" Societal approach $he societal approach of education for coexistence does not limit itself to the school s0stem, but envisages changing the socio-ps0chological repertoire of societ0 at large" $he assumption is that there is a need for political, social, and cultural change in the whole of societ0 since education for coexistence cannot succeed if it is not activated on a broad societal scale" &chools can pla0 an important role in bringing about such change, but the0 constitute onl0 one agent, and a ma6or societal change requires the participation of political, societal, and cultural institutions, mass communication, leadership, and elites"

>ducation for coexistence in its broad, societal sense has the following features< (1! #t consists of formal and planned processes (for example in schools! as well as of informal processes (for example via mass media!4 (/! it involves participation of the societ0Fs political, social, cultural, religious, and educational leaders on the national and communit0 levels to disseminate the ideas of coexistence4 (7! it ta+es place in all the institutions of the societ0political, social, cultural, educational, economic, and religious-such as schools, religious centers, or the arm04 (-! it has to be reflected in all the societal channels of communication from advertising or films to $2 programs and school textboo+s4 (G! it requires the creation of supportive, new norms that will be informall0 enforced via social sanctions4 and (5! it requires the support of legislation against racism, discrimination, and exploitation in order to enforce new values of coexistence" #t is important to note that education for coexistence following intractable conflict between two societies that live or will live in two separate political s0stems is more viable than education for coexistence that pertains to groups that are supposed to live in one s0stem" $he principles of coexistence are more appropriate to a situation characterized b0 two geo-politicall0 separate groups since separate states can have normativel0 different t0pes of acceptable relations that range from coexistence to stable peaceful relations" When the groups are supposed to live together in one political s0stem, one state, the basic principles of coexistence do not guarantee the equalit0, freedom, and full political, social, and economic integration that are required for a democrac0" Coexistence is onl0 a first stage that necessaril0 has to be followed b0 more progressive steps of equal integration on the wa0 to constructing a multicultural societ0" #n fact, in man0 cases (e"g", in &outh (frica or 8icaragua!, coexistence was not even formall0 set as a goal and the societies moved immediatel0 towards full integration" #n other cases, as in #srael or 8orthern #reland, principles of coexistence have been used as an intermediate phase on the wa0 to full integration" .ut the longer the phase of coexistence lasts without further significant steps toward full equal integration, the more it is discredited" $his is the case with #srael where the (rab minorit0 considers coexistence as a wa0 to eternalize Hewish dominance and to continue discrimination against the (rab population (e"g", see ;aoz, /***!" =>A>=>8C>& .ar-&iman-$ov, I" (>d"!, (/**-!" rom conflict resolution to reconciliation" :xford< :xford 'niversit0 Bress .ar-$al, D" (/***!" Arom intractable conflict through conflict resolution to reconciliation< Bs0chological anal0sis" Political Psychology, !", 7G1-75G" .ar-$al, D" (in press!" &ocio-ps0chological foundations of intractable conflicts" #merican $ehavioral Scientist. .loomfield, D", .arnes, $", 3 ?u0se, 1" (>ds"! (/**7!" %econciliation after violent conflict& # handboo'" &toc+holm< #nternational #D>(" Cha0es, (", 3 ;inow, ;" 1" (>ds"!, (/**7!" (magine coexistence& %estoring humanity after violent conflict. &an Arancisco< Hosse0-.ass" ,arthoff, =" 1" (199-!" )*tente and confrontation& #merican+Soviet relations from Nixon to %eagan. (=evised" edition!" Washington , D"C"< $he .roo+ings #nstitute Bress" ?ertz-1azarowitz, =", Eelni+er, $", &tephan, C" W", 3 &tephan, W" ," (/**-!" (rab-Hewish coexistence programs" ,ournal of Social (ssues, -hole issue No !. ?immelweit, ?" $", 3 &wift, ." (1959!" ( model for the understanding of school as a socializing agent" #n B" ?" ;ussen, H" 1anger, 3 ;" Covington (>ds"!, .rends and issues in developmental psychology (pp" 1G--1 *!" 8ew Ior+< ?olt, =inehart, and Winston" 9riesberg 1" (199 !" Coexistence and the reconciliation of communal conflicts" #n >" Weiner (>d"!, .he handboo' of interethnic existence (pp" 1 /-19 !" 8ew Ior+4 Continuum" 9riesberg, 1", 8orthrup, $" =", 3 $horson, &" H" (>ds"!" (19 9!" (ntractable conflicts and their transformation" &0racuse< &0racuse 'niversit0 Bress" 1ederach, H" B" (199)!" $uilding peace& Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, D"C"< 'nited &tates #nstitute of Beace Bress" 1e2ine, =" (", 3 Campbell, D" $" (19)/!" Ethnocentrism& .heories of conflict, attitude, and group behavior" 8ew Ior+< Hohn Wile0" ;aoz, #" (/***!" Bower relations in intergroup encounters< ( case stud0 of Hewish-(rab encounters in #srael" (nternational ,ournal of (ntercultural %elations, !/ , /G9-/))"

=othstein, ="1" (>d"!" (1999!" #fter the peace& %esistance and reconciliation. .oulder< 10nne =ienner Bublishers" &alomon, ," (/**-!" ( narrative-based view of coexistence education" ,ournal of Social (ssues, 012!3, /)7-/ )" &taub, >", 3 .ar-$al, D" (/**7!" ,enocide and intractable conflict< =oots, evolution, prevention and reconciliation" #n D" :" &ears, 1" ?udd0, 3 =" Hervis" (>ds!, 4xford handboo' of political psychology (pp")1*-)G1!" :xford< :xford 'niversit0 Bress" &umner, W" ," (19*5! ol'ways" 8ew Ior+< ;entor .oo+s Weiner, >" (>d"!" (199 a!, .he handboo' of interethnic coexistence" 8ew Ior+4 Continuum" Weiner, >" (199 b!" Coexistence wor+< ( new profession" #n >" Weiner (>d"!, .he handboo' of interethnic existence (pp" 17-/-!" 8ew Ior+4 Continuum" Whitta+er, D"H" (1999!" 5onflict and reconciliation in the contemporary world " 1ondon< =outledge"