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Nurhidayah*), Nurul Ilmi Lukman, Zainal Bakri. Modern Physics Laboratory of Physics Departement of FMIPA State University of Makassar
Abstract. After done measurement intensity of black body radiation as temperature function (StefanBoltzmanns Law). Objectives of this experiment are measure intensity of black body radiation in interval 300 oC to 700oC by thermopile moll and determine relation between radiation intensity with absolute temperature (Stefan-Boltzmanns law). To collect data from apparatus will do by CASSY program . Function of CASSY program is recording data about temperature of electric oven and voltage as output of thermopile moll as measurement device to measure intensity of black body radiation from 450oC to 60oC. Result of this experiment is relation between intensity of black body radiation to absolute temperature is intensity of black body radiation proporsional to absolute temperature power . Result of calculating analysis by Newtons Cooling Law gives the number of cooling contanta number of cooling contanta . s-1. Result of graph analysis gives the

KEYWORD: radiation of black body, power of T and cooling constanta INTRODUCTION In this experiment measuring intensity of black body radiation as temperature function (Stefen-Boltzmanns Law), will answer about the relation between intensity of black body radiation by thermopile Moll. Black body radiation is one of the great puzzles of physics that triggered the revolution in physics. This revolution gave birth to quantum physics. Research on black body radiation involves a lot of scientists. One of them is Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff found that the spectral intensity of the meeting, is the intensity per wavelength and per unit of solid angle, from a black body is a function of wavelength and temperature but does not depend on the dimensions of the black body. In his writings, Kirchhoff stresses the importance of finding the form of the function. Spectral density of black-body radiation intensity has a simple relationship with the spectral power density in the cavity black body radiation. However, to prove it is necessary to measure the intensity of the spectral density, but at the moment it can not be done. These new measurements can be carried out 20 years later. At the time physicists can measure the intensity of the whole spectrum without knowing that the intensity of this spectrum depends on the wavelength. Josef Stefan was the one who first discovered that the meeting of the whole spectrum of energy is proportional to the fourth power of the black body temperature. Five years later, Ludwig Boltzmann showed that Stefan empirical equations can be derived theoretically from the second law of thermodynamics. Stefen and Boltzmann were the ones who first discovered the function of Kirchhoff. Objectivities of this experiment are measuring intensity of black body radiation at temperature 300oC 700oC by thermopile Moll and determine the relation between intensity of radioation with absolute temperature (Stefen-Boltzmanns Law).


The theoretical analysis of the emission of thermal radiation from an arbitrary object is extremely complicated. It depends on details of the surface properties of the object, and it also depends on how much radiation the object reflects from its surroundings. To simplify our analysis, we consider a special type of object called a blackbody, which absorbs all radiation incident on it and reflects none of the incident radiation. To simplify further, we consider a special type of blackbody: a hole in a hollow metal box whose walls are in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. The box is filled

with electromagnetic radiation that is emitted and reflected by the walls. A small hole in one wall of the box allows some of the radiation to escape (Figure 1). It is the hole, and not the box itself, that is the blackbody. Radiation from outside that is incident on the hole gets lost inside the box and has a negligible chance of reemerging from the hole; thus no reflections occur from the blackbody (the hole). The radiation that emerges from the hole is just a sample of the radiation inside the box, so understanding the nature of the radiation inside the box allows us to understand the radiation that leaves through the hole.

Fig. 2 The failure of the classical Rayleigh-Jeans formula to fit the observed intensity. At long wavelengths the theory approaches the data, but at short wavelengths the classical formula fails miserably.. hole A cavity filled with electromagnetic radiation in thermal equilibrium with its walls at temperature T. Some radiation escapes through the hole, which represents an ideal blackbody.

Fig. 1. hole A cavity filled with electromagnetic radiation in thermal equilibrium with its walls at temperature T. Some radiation escapes through the hole, which represents an ideal blackbody.

Based firmly on the classical theories of electromagnetism and thermodynamics, it represents our best attempt to apply classical physics to understanding the problem of blackbody radiation. In Figure 2 the intensity calculated from the Rayleigh-Jeans formula is compared with typical experimental results. The failure of the Rayleigh-Jeans formula at short wavelengths is known as the ultraviolet catastrophe and represents a serious problem for classical physics, because the theories of thermodynamics and electromagnetism on which the Rayleigh-Jeans formula is based have been carefully tested in many other circumstances and found to give extremely good agreement with experiment. It is apparent in the case of blackbody radiation that the classical theories do not work, and that a new kind of physical theory is needed.

The new physics that gave the correct interpretation of thermal radiation was proposed by the German physicist Max Planck in 1900. The ultraviolet catastrophe occurs because the Rayleigh-Jeans formula predicts too much intensity at short wavelengths (or equivalently at high frequencies). What is needed is a way to make u 0 as 0, or as f . Again considering the electromagnetic standing waves to result from the oscillations of atoms in the walls of the cavity, Planck tried to find a way to reduce the number of high-frequency standing waves by reducing the number of high-frequency oscillators. He did this by a bold assumption that formed the cornerstone of a new physical theory, quantum physics. Associated with this theory is a new version of mechanics, known as wave mechanics or quantum mechanics. We discuss the methods of wave mechanics in Chapter 5; for now we show how Plancks theory provided the correct interpretation of the emission spectrum of thermal radiation. Planck suggested that an oscillating atom can absorb or emit energy only in discrete bundles. This bold suggestion was necessary to keep the average energy of a low-frequency (long-wavelength) oscillator equal to kT (in agreement with the RayleighJeans law at long wavelength), but it also made the average energy of a high-frequency (lowwavelength) oscillator approach zero. Lets see how Planck managed this remarkable feat. In Plancks theory, each oscillator can emit or absorb energy only in quantities

that are integer multiples of a certain basic quantity of energy , En = n n = 1, 2, 3, . . . (1) where n is the number of quanta. Furthermore, the energy of each of the quanta is determined by the frequency Max Planck (18581947, Germany). His work on the spectral distribution of radiation, which led to the quantum theory, was honored with the 1918 Nobel Prize. In his later years, he wrote extensively on religious and philosophical topics. = hf ..(2) where h is the constant of proportionality, now known as Plancks constant. From the mathematical standpoint, the difference between Plancks calculation and the classical calculation using Maxwell Boltzmann statistics is that the energy of an oscillator at a certain wavelength or frequency is no longer a continuous variableit is a discrete variable that takes only the values given by Eq. 1. The integrals in the classical calculation are then replaced by sums, and the number of oscillators with energy En is then Nn = N(1 e/kT )en/kT.(3)

Fig.3 Plancks function fits the observed data perfectly.

By determining the value of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant from the intensity data available in 1900, Planck was able to determine a value of the constant h : which agrees very well with the value of h that Millikan deduced 15 years later based on the analysis of data from the photoelectric effect. The good agreement of these two values is remarkable, because they are derived from very different kinds of experimentsone involves the emission and the other the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. This suggests that the quantization property is not an accident arising from the analysis of one particular experiment, but is instead a property

of the electromagnetic field itself. Along with many other scientists of his era, Planck was slow to accept this interpretation. However, later experimental evidence (including the Compton effect) proved to be so compelling that it left no doubt about Einsteins photon theory and the particlelike structure of the electromagnetic field. Plancks formula still finds important applications today in the measurement of temperature. By measuring the intensity of radiation emitted by an object at a particular wavelength (or, as in actual experiments, in a small interval of wavelengths), can be used to deduce the temperature of the object. Note that only one measurement, at any wavelength, is all that is required to obtain the temperature. A radiometer is a device for measuring the intensity of thermal radiation at selected wavelengths, enabling a determination of temperature. Radiometers in orbiting satellites are used to measure the temperature of the land and sea areas of the Earth and of the upper surface of clouds. Other orbiting radiometers have been aimed toward empty space to measure the temperature of the radiation from the early history of the universe (Figure 4 ). For a stationary state of the cavity radiation the ra-diation power emitted by the walls must equal that absorbed by them for all frequencies of the radia-tion (otherwise the radiation field would change in time). This means .. (1) For such a stationary state we define the tempera-ture T of the radiation field by the temperature of the cavity walls. The radiation field has the following characteristics. 1. The cavity radiation field is isotropic, which means that the spectral radiation density Sv* (this is the radiation power per frequency interval d = 1s-1 radiated into the solid angle d = 1 Sterad) is independent of the direction at every point of the cavity. If this wasnt the case, one could insert a black disc with surface area dA into the radiation field and ori-ent it in such a way that its surface normal would point into the direction of maximum radiation den-sity (Fig. 5). The disc would then absorb more energy than it emits and would be heated above the

Fig. 5. A body in the cavity is at thermal equilibrium with the thermal isotropic radiation inside the cavity


temperature T of its surrounding. This, however, contradicts the second law of thermodynamics. The cavity radiation is homogeneous, i.e., its energy density is independent of a special point inside the cavity. Otherwise a similar argument would hold as in the previous paragraph and a perpetual motion machine of the second kind could be constructed.

When a body is placed inside the cavity radiation field, its surface element absorbs the power (2) from the radiation with spectral radiation power density within the frequency interval d incident on d A within the solid angle d . The constant is the spectral absorbance of the body. The surface element dA emits, on the other hand, the power (3) into the solid angle d within the frequency interval d. For thermal equilibrium conditions both quantities must be equal. Since the cavity radiation is isotropic and homogeneous, this must be valid for every direction (,) and for every location inside the cavity. Therefore we obtain Kirchhoffs law: (4) For all bodies in thermal equilibrium with the ca-vity radiation the ratio of spectral emittance and absorbance equals the spectral radiation density of the cavity radiation, which itself depends on the temperature T. For a black body is 1 for all frequencies .We therefore conclude from (4):

The spectral emittance of a blackbody equals the spectral radiation density of the cavity radiation. Our next task is now to determine the spectral de-pendence of , which equals the spectral intensity distribution () of the blackbody radiation. Stefan-boltzmans law suggests that total radiation of body is radiated proportional to absolute temp power four. Example radiate the radiation from a surface is M (power of radiation total), so amount of radiate the radiation is formulated as below (5) With = 5,67 .10-8W/m2K4 (Stefan-Boltzman constanta) At the same time black body also absorb radiation from environment. So the measure isnt M but M is absorbed radiation from environment. Radiation that radiate by environment written as, .. (6) So .. (7) In this experiment, a electric oven complete black body as black body ideal. Temp sensor use termocouple NiCr-Ni that connected to logger data CASSY to PC. Termal radiation is measured by termopile moll that connected to CASSY on V box. METHOD OF EXPERIMENT Apparatus of this experiment consist of: 1. A set of experiment tools by production of leybold GmBH, consist of: a. Electric oven 230 volt b. Black body c. Safety connection box with ground d. CASSY sensor e. NiCr-Ni adaptor f. Temp sensor NiCr-Ni 1,5 mm g. V box h. termopile moll i. shortrod j. V shaped buffer, 28 cm k. Multiclamp leybold l. General clamp m.Pair wire 100cm, red/blue 2. Added : a set PC with windows 98 or higher. 3. Another set : a. A immersion pump 12 V b. A low-voltage power supply c. A silicone tubing, 7 mm d. A laboratory bucket, 10 L

When temperature of electric oven reached about 500oC, turned off the electric oven and started to record data by click measurement on CASSY program or used F9 and waited it till temperature of electric oven was 50oC and stopped record data by click stop or used F2. Copied all data in CASSY program in to excel to done analysis.

Fig. 6. Setting of apparatus for this experiment

Method of this experiment is begun from made sure all of component had been set on their place. It can be seen on figure 4. After that, connected all of component to voltage source, included PC. After plug in PC to the voltage source, turn on PC and monitor. Before turned on the electric oven, turned on water pump about 2 minutes. It was done for made sure electric oven didnt get thermal radiation too much because outer part of electric oven is thin iron. In high temperature could make it broke. Turned on the electric oven and let temperature of electric oven was about 500oC. To know temperature of electric oven, opened CASSI program in the left side of wallpaper. Set CASSI program by change the range of temperature into 0oC to 1200oC and range of voltage into -3mV into 3mV. It used these range of temperature of electric oven and voltage was caused we measured temperature about 500oC so the range that can be measure by censor temperature NiCr-Ni is there on it an so on. Voltage that shown on CASSI program was result of measurement of radiation intensity by thermocopel moll.

RESULT OF EXPERIMENT AND DATA ANALYSIS For this experiment, we got data in graphic that shown on below

Fig. 8. Graphic relation between log V and log T

From this graph, we got equation for relation between Log T and Log V is and R2 = 0,966 So The Degree of Certainty (DC) is DC = 96,6 % And Relative Uncertanty (RU) is RU = 3,4 % Where


Fig. 7. View of CASSY program

The second analysis, determining the constanta from the Newtons Cooling Law and comparing that with constanta from graph.

Graph We can got contanta by calculating

Table 2. Result comparison between calculation and graphic analysis of cooling constanta (k)

Cooling constanta Average Graph After done radiation of black body as temp function experiment, we got power of T from graphic analysis by relate Log V and Log T as linier function and number of power of T from graphic analysis is about and depend on theory number of power of T is 4. It shows that number of T that we got from experiment is really different with number of power of T theory. it can be caused by measuring of T is not started from 500oC but only start from 450oC and it finish at about 60oC not 50oC. By a small range on measuring temp can make the number of T from graphic analysis is about . When we reach temp is about 50oC, we need more time to make it cool and time that we need to make it cool as much as time we need to make it cool from 300oC to 60oC. So, we will get graphic that has more data in it. With more data, may be data can give a number of power of T closes to theory of T theory. Based on the Newtons Cooling Law, we got contanta by devide between the absolute temperature and the highest temperature in result observation. Then, we make Ln from the result and devide it by time. From 7004 data, we make the average of constanta , and we got . It is so different with the constanta of based on the graph is , and if we make the interval for contanta based on the graph and based on the Newtons Cooling Law that shown below. 8,79 . 1,07 10-3s-1 (average) 10,6 9 10-4s-1 (graph) 1,11

Fig. 8. Graphic relation between absolute temperature (T) to time(s)

From this graphic, equation for relation between absolute temp (K) and time (s) is and So, from that equation For and Where So,

The contanta got of is

by calculating the average, we and standard deviation , so

And we get
Table 1. Result comparison between theory and observation of power of T


Power of T 4

It shown that the constanta from the graph analysis is not on range of constanta from calculating analysis by Newtons Cooling Law. So, the result of contanta from the graph is not in accordance with the result of constanta from the calculating analysis by

Newtons Cooling Law. The case that caused occur transient zona in initial cooling. CONCLUSION After done this experiment, we got relation between intensity of black body radiation to absolute temperature is intensity of black body radiation propostional to absolute temperature power . by measuring the intensity of radiation ( relative ) a black object in the range of 300C to 700C. It shows that the number of T that we gor from experiment is really different with the number of power of T from theory. The number of cooling contanta is by Newtons Cooling Law and the number of cooling contanta is by the graph. It shown that the constanta from the graph analysis is not on range of constanta from calculating analysis by Newtons Cooling Law.

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