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Energy production from agricultural and forestry biomass by gasification

Dr. Tanaka + , Mr. Yakushido +

&

Dr. Murakami ++ , Dr. Sakai ++

+: National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region ++: Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science

BIOMASS UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED IN JAPAN

EU

• Primary demand is for heat output

• Comparatively easy to obtain biomass resources

• Comparatively easy to obtain biomass resources Conventional technology can be applied. Japan •
Conventional technology can be applied.

Conventional technology can be applied.

Conventional technology can be applied.

Japan

• Primary demand is for electric power, and liquid and gas fuel

• Mountainous topology limits availability of biomass resources

topology limits availability of biomass resources New technology is required for conversion to high-quality
New technology is required for conversion to high-quality energy on a small scale.
New technology is
required for conversion to
high-quality energy on a
small scale.

Determination of Biomass Vision in Community

Biomass Production, Excessive& transportable Amount
Biomass
Production, Excessive&
transportable Amount
Renewable resources Demand of Bio- products&Energy
Renewable resources
Demand of Bio-
products&Energy
Technology Specification of each technology
Technology
Specification of each
technology
Diagnostic check of a target area by material flow Assessment of new material flow system
Diagnostic check of a target area by material flow
Assessment of new material flow system
・Approach from Economical & LCA
No
Community
Agreement
Yes

Identify the amount for RE along sustainable agric. productions

R&D for High efficien cost

Re-examination

technology, target area, administration, etc.

Biomass Recycling and Utilization Vision in Community

Biomass Feed Materials for livestock bedding Low utility value biomass High utility value biomass Composting
Biomass Feed Materials for livestock bedding
Biomass
Feed
Materials for
livestock bedding

Low utility value biomass

High utility value biomass

Composting Methane fermentation Biomass energy Gasification ETC.
Composting
Methane fermentation
Biomass
energy
Gasification
ETC.
“ Ministry of Agriculture Biomass Unit 2” Target : Livestock excretion Dual-fuel Engine-Driven Power Generation
“ Ministry of Agriculture
Biomass Unit 2”
Target : Livestock excretion
Dual-fuel Engine-Driven Power
Generation

Material recycling system in local community

Food Residue etc. Livestock Excrement Food industry in Local area Co-generation System -High energy efficiency
Food Residue etc.
Livestock Excrement
Food industry in
Local area
Co-generation System
-High energy efficiency by combinations of
carbonization, gasification and heat
recovering systems
-Electronic power generation and feed and
fertilizer productions
Household
Electronic Power
Fertilizer
Feed
Promote utilizations of un-used biomass in local community
Biomass need to be collected to the facility from surrounding areas, but it is a hard task & costly.
Recycling system should be materialized within the local community to save transportation fees and
Material flow in Actual Scale Co-generation System
Material flow in Actual Scale Co-generation System

(Actual scale)

Electric powe

4,000kWh/day Scale Co-generation System (Actual scale) Electric powe Surplus Power 3,000kW/day Feed 1.6 t/day 500 head Swine

Surplus Power

3,000kW/day

scale) Electric powe 4,000kWh/day Surplus Power 3,000kW/day Feed 1.6 t/day 500 head Swine Fertilizer 1.4 t/day

Feed

1.6 t/day

500 head Swine

Surplus Power 3,000kW/day Feed 1.6 t/day 500 head Swine Fertilizer 1.4 t/day superphosphate Livestock Excrement

Fertilizer

1.4 t/day

superphosphate

1.6 t/day 500 head Swine Fertilizer 1.4 t/day superphosphate Livestock Excrement (34t/day) (1300 head beef cattle)

Livestock Excrement

(34t/day)

Livestock Excrement (34t/day)

(1300 head beef cattle)

Co-generation System consisted of Multistage Carbonization & Gasification High efficiency power generation &
Co-generation System
consisted of Multistage
Carbonization & Gasification
High efficiency power generation
& heat recovering system
efficiency power generation & heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power
efficiency power generation & heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power
efficiency power generation & heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power
efficiency power generation & heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power
efficiency power generation & heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power

Food Residue (7 t/day)

& heat recovering system Food Residue (7 t/day) - Energy efficiency=70% by power generation & heat

-Energy efficiency=70% by power generation & heat recovering -Feed Production by drying food residue using waste heat -Effective uses of ash by gasification as fertilizer

Biomass Flow in Co-generation System High NH 3 , Sulfur, Chlorine, Tar Contents → NO

Biomass Flow in Co-generation System

High NH 3 , Sulfur, Chlorine, Tar Contents NO X , SO X , Hydrogen Chloride, Dioxin

Carbonization

X , SO X , Hydrogen Chloride, Dioxin Carbonization (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)
X , SO X , Hydrogen Chloride, Dioxin Carbonization (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)
X , SO X , Hydrogen Chloride, Dioxin Carbonization (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)
X , SO X , Hydrogen Chloride, Dioxin Carbonization (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)

(Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)

pulverizing

Pretreatment

(Drying)

3 ,H 2 S etc.) pulverizing Pretreatment (Drying) Direct fired deodorization Power Generation Heat

Direct fired deodorization

Power

Generation

Heat

Gasification

fired deodorization Power Generation Heat Gasification Feed production from food waste, etc. Electricity Ash High
fired deodorization Power Generation Heat Gasification Feed production from food waste, etc. Electricity Ash High
fired deodorization Power Generation Heat Gasification Feed production from food waste, etc. Electricity Ash High

Feed production from food waste, etc.

Electricity

Ash
Ash

High Contents of Phosphorus, Calcium, Potassium Utilization of Ash as Fertilizer

:Material flow :Heat :Gas
:Material flow :Heat :Gas :Heat
:Gas:Material flow :Heat

Pre-treatment (Drying biomass

Water contents of most of biomass are high (Energy density based on weight is low)

Biomass

Livestock excrement & forestry biomass

Water content

60–70%

Biomass=34t

forestry biomass Water content 60–70% Biomass= 34t Biomass needs to be dried by low cost treatment.

Biomass needs to be dried by low cost treatment.

Trapped by biomass, and is utilized as fertilizer

NH 3
NH 3
2WK
2WK
5 – 14 D
5 – 14 D

Fermentation with FA

Efficiency using microorganism is 20- 30 times higher than using fossil fuel

40-45%, 17t

Drying in Green House

25%, 12.5t

Carbonization

Biomass
Biomass

Forced draft drier

Drying in Green House 25%, 12.5t Carbonization Biomass Forced draft drier 0%, 10t Exhaust Heat from

0%, 10t

Exhaust Heat from carbonization, 230C

Carbonization
Carbonization

Carbide

Carbonization Carbide Deodorization equipment Forced Forced draft draft drier drier (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S

Deodorization equipment

Carbonization Carbide Deodorization equipment Forced Forced draft draft drier drier (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S

Forced Forced draft draft drier drier

equipment Forced Forced draft draft drier drier (Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.) Exhaust gas

(Tar, NH 3 ,H 2 S etc.)

Exhaust gas Pre-carbonization Pre-carbonization furnace furnace Carbonization furnace Carbonization furnace
Exhaust gas
Pre-carbonization Pre-carbonization furnace furnace
Carbonization furnace
Carbonization furnace

Exhaust gas

Heat from Direct fired deodorizing equipment

Boiler Boiler burner 燃焼バーナー ボイラー ボイラー burner 燃焼バーナー
Boiler Boiler
burner
燃焼バーナー
ボイラー ボイラー
burner
燃焼バーナー

スーパーヒーター

Super heater

スーパーヒーター

Super heater

Pulverizer Pulverizer

Super heater Pulverizer Pulverizer Gasification Gasification Furnace Furnace Super steam
Gasification Gasification Furnace Furnace
Gasification Gasification
Furnace Furnace

Super steam

Gasification Gasification Furnace Furnace Super steam Direct Direct fired fired deodorizing deodorizing

Direct Direct fired fired deodorizing deodorizing equipment equipment

Water Water

Super steam

Characteristic of Gasification Furnace

• Gasification using self combustion heat of biomass

• Gasification temperature800 – 1,000 C

• Combustion method to decomposes tar

• Biomass supply : Continuous

• Composition of combustible gas : CO, H 2 , CH 4 , N 2 , CO 2

• Heat quantity of gas : 800- 1,500 kcal/Nm 3

• Problem: Meltdown of potassium, sodium, and stick on surface of furnace

of gas : 800- 1,500 kcal/Nm 3 • Problem: Meltdown of potassium, sodium, and stick on

Gasifier

Left : Direct fired deodorizing equipment Right : Multistage carbonization

Left : Direct fired deodorizing equipment Right : Multistage carbonization

Dual-fuel (heavy oil and syngas)Type Electric Power Generator

Dual-fuel (heavy oil and syngas)Type Electric Power Generator

“ Ministry of Agriculture Biomass Unit 3” Target : Forestry Biomass Gas Engine-Driven Power Generation
“ Ministry of Agriculture
Biomass Unit 3”
Target : Forestry Biomass
Gas Engine-Driven Power Generation

Target biomass for the unit 3

Rice Straw
Rice Straw
Mulberry Leaves
Mulberry Leaves
Powdered Cedar Wood
Powdered Cedar Wood

Biomass such as rice husks, rice straw, sugarcane (bagasse, trash) & forestry biomass, etc.

Water content of most of biomass is high, so the biomass need be dried, <30%.

BiomassBiomass isis pulverizedpulverized intointo particlesparticles measuringmeasuring aboutabout 1~2mm.1~2mm.

HIGH-CALORIE GASIFICATION

Output

Fuel Cell Electricity Air Dehydration Equipment Reaction Gas Engine Electricity Water Heat Gas Tank Fuel
Fuel Cell
Electricity
Air
Dehydration
Equipment
Reaction
Gas Engine
Electricity
Water
Heat
Gas
Tank
Fuel Gas
Exhaust
Flue Gas
Methanol
Gasifier
Methanol
Synthesis
Pulverizer
Powder

Chips

Hot Gas Generation Furnace

Biomass
Biomass
High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h
High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h
High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h
High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h

High-calorie gas

Fuel Cell (Electricity)

High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h a

Methanol

High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h a

Fuel Gas

High-calorie gas Fuel Cell (Electricity) Methanol Fuel Gas Gas Engine (Electricity) M e t h a

Gas Engine (Electricity)

Methanol Synthesis

Possible output of High calorie gas

SUSPENSION/EXTERNAL HEAT TYPE HIGH- CALORIE GASIFICATION; ENLARGED VIEW

[Conventional Technology] Partial Combustion Gasification Using O 2 and Steam

H C Organic Substance Biomass
H
C
Organic
Substance
Biomass
O 2 High Temp. Heat Release + Steam (H 2 O) Low Temp. Heat Absorption
O
2
High Temp.
Heat Release
Steam
(H 2 O)
Low Temp.
Heat Absorption
Gasifying Agent

CO 2

H 2 O

CO

H 2

Heat Absorption Gasifying Agent CO 2 H 2 O CO H 2 Ineffective Gas Effective Gas
Heat Absorption Gasifying Agent CO 2 H 2 O CO H 2 Ineffective Gas Effective Gas

Ineffective Gas

Effective Gas

[New Technology] Suspension/External Heat Type Gasification Using Steam

H C Organic Substance
H
C
Organic
Substance

Biomass

Steam (H 2 O) Gasifying Agent
Steam
(H 2 O)
Gasifying Agent

External Heat

Biomass Steam (H 2 O) Gasifying Agent External Heat External heat is required, although it comes
Biomass Steam (H 2 O) Gasifying Agent External Heat External heat is required, although it comes

External heat is required, although it comes high calorie gas

800~1000℃
800~1000℃
is required, although it comes high calorie gas 800~1000℃ CO Effective Gas H 2 N 2

CO

Effective Gas

H 2

N 2 Free clean & High calorie gas

Requited Heat Input

100

90 C 2 ~ 80 CH 4 CO 2 70 60 CO 50 40 30
90
C 2 ~
80
CH 4
CO 2
70
60
CO
50
40
30
20
H 2
10
0
Unit 3
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
Oxygen Ratio [O 2 ]/[C]
H 2 ,CO,CH 4 ,C 2 ~,CO 2 (vol%)
External Heat Surplus Heat
External Heat
Surplus Heat

1.00

SUSPENSION/EXTERNAL HEAT TYPE HIGH- CALORIE GASIFICATION; ENLARGED VIEW

Biomass (Powder) Clean High- Calorie Gas Reaction Water To Water Removal and Power Generation Processes
Biomass
(Powder)
Clean High-
Calorie Gas
Reaction Water
To Water
Removal and
Power
Generation
Processes
Exhaust
Gas
Heat
Recovery
Biomass
Combustion
Flue Gas
Reaction Water
Evaporizer
950~1000℃
Ash
Reduction of Tar and Soot

Secondary

Gasification Breakdown of Tar and Soot
Gasification
Breakdown of
Tar and Soot
Primary Gasification

Primary

Gasification

Primary Gasification
Breakdown of Tar and Soot Primary Gasification Total Reaction Time = 2- 3 S Thermal Radiation

Total Reaction Time = 2- 3 S

Primary Gasification Total Reaction Time = 2- 3 S Thermal Radiation Reaction Tube (Metal Temp. of

Thermal

Radiation

Thermal Radiation
Total Reaction Time = 2- 3 S Thermal Radiation Reaction Tube (Metal Temp. of 850 ℃
Total Reaction Time = 2- 3 S Thermal Radiation Reaction Tube (Metal Temp. of 850 ℃

Reaction Tube

(Metal Temp. of 850

High Temp.

Gas Heating

(950~1000)

Raw Material of Powdered Biomass

Biomass Powder is Gasified Due to Partial Combustion

Superheated steam

(800)

Schematic Gasifying Phenomena

Powdered biomass is heated by an external source, and reacts with

Chip Feeder

Evaporator

Combustor

Heat exchanger

Powder Feeder

Gasifier Furnace

Syngas Tank

COMPOSITIONAL EXAMPLE OF THE MAJOR GASES PRODUCED

H

2

50.0

vol%

CO

25.5 vol%

CH 4

6.5

vol%

C

2 ~

1.0

vol%

CO 2

17.0

vol%

Total

100 vol%

~ 1.0 vol% CO 2 17.0 vol% Total 100 vol% Gasified gas from biomass burns with

Gasified gas from biomass burns with a clean flame.

High Heating Value (MJ/Nm 3 )

C 1.3 H 2 O 0.9 + 0.4H 2 O Steam H 2 , CO,
C 1.3 H 2 O 0.9 +
0.4H 2 O
Steam
H 2 , CO, CH 4 ,CO 2
Biomass
No Formation of Tar or Soot Volume Ratio of Steam/Biomass = 2 (4061kcal/ Nm 3
No Formation of Tar or Soot
Volume Ratio of Steam/Biomass = 2
(4061kcal/ Nm 3 )
2.8 – 3.4 times greater
(3344kcal/ Nm 3 )
CO
2
100
C
2+
CH
80
4
CO
H
60
2
40
N
2
20
Direct
Combustion
0
800℃
900℃
1000℃
Comparison:
Composition (dry vol.%)

20

16

12

Composition and HHV of Product Gas

Conventional Gasification (5MJ/Nm 3 , 1194kcal/ Nm 3 )

AllAll organicorganic matter,matter, withwith thethe exceptionexception ofof ash,ash, isis convertedconverted toto ggas.as.

Insulated Theoretical Temperature (25˚C Air Combustion)

Methane (CH 4 ) Gasoline Propane Carbon (C) Gasified Gas Biomass Hydrogen (H 2 ) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Methanol Ethanol

1921 1961 1963 1990 2013 2056 2080 2084 1850 1895 1800 1900 2000 2100
1921
1961
1963
1990
2013
2056
2080
2084
1850
1895
1800 1900
2000
2100

Theoretical Temperature (C)

asified gas from biomass features a higher theoretical temperature than asoline, Methane and Propane, so the gas also can be applied to gas engine & as turbine.

Gas Engine-Driven Power Generation System

Wood Grass Waste Straw
Wood
Grass
Waste
Straw
Water Steam Reformer ※Steam
Water
Steam Reformer
※Steam
Wood Grass Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack

Fuel Gas

Grass Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust
Grass Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust
Grass Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust
Grass Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust

Powder

Waste Straw Water Steam Reformer ※Steam Fuel Gas Powder Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust Gas
Hopper ※Steam Chips Air
Hopper
※Steam
Chips
Air

Smokestack

Exhaust Gas Output

Hopper ※Steam Chips Air Smokestack Exhaust Gas Output Crashing Boiler Heat Electric Power Gas Engine Fuel

Crashing

Boiler Heat Electric Power Gas Engine Fuel Gas
Boiler
Heat
Electric
Power
Gas Engine
Fuel Gas
Air Smokestack Exhaust Gas Output Crashing Boiler Heat Electric Power Gas Engine Fuel Gas Combustor Fuel

Combustor

Fuel Gas Tank

Light Output
Light Output

50kW Gas Engine

Exhaust air to atmosphere
Exhaust air to atmosphere

Syngas fire (Bamboo)

Dr. Sakai

Gas Gas Engine-Driven Engine-Driven Power Power Generation Generation System System

Main Main Specification Specification

Power Output50kW

Engine Efficiency

30%

Gasification Efficiency: 75%

Total Efficiency : 21%

Biomass Powder Feed Rate31kg/h

Wood Chips Feed Rate20kg/h

Gasifying Agency H 2 O

113kg/h (H 2 O : Biomass= 2 : 1)

Syngas Products 45.6m 3 /h

EFFICIENCY COMPARISON OF HIGH-CALORIE GASIFICATION ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND CONVENTIONAL (DIRECT COMBUSTION) GENERATION

Biomass (ton/year)

60 600 6,000 60,000 600,000 40 Small Scale Plant The system has the highest Power
60
600
6,000
60,000
600,000
40
Small Scale Plant
The system has the highest
Power Generation
by Biomass Gasification
30
efficiency in the world.
Direct Combustion/Steam
Power Generation
20
Pilot plant
50kW, 21%
Data From References
10
Woody Material
(Thailand)
Woody Material
(Japan)
0
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Electric Power Efficiency (%)

Plant Capacity of Power Generation (kW)

ParticularlyParticularly inin Japan,Japan, wherewhere bibiomassomass resourcesresources areare dispersed,dispersed, smallsmall--scalescale installationsinstallations wouldwould bebe highlyhighly effective.effective.

HIGH EFFICIENCY ENERGY CONVERSION AND CO-GENERATION UTILIZATION

Electricity

Heat

Utilization

Total Efficiency ( Q + Q ) = (3 ~ 4) Q e th e
Total Efficiency
( Q
+
Q ) = (3 ~ 4) Q
e
th
e
3 100 80 2 60 40 Q th Q e 20 0 0 10 20
3
100
80
2
60
40
Q
th Q
e
20
0
0
10
20
30
Total Efficiency (%)

Biomass

th Q e 20 0 0 10 20 30 Total Efficiency (%) Biomass Q e Q

Q

e

Q th

Waste

Heat

Biomass energy is converted into electricity and heat. Generally, the ratio of heat to electricity is

Q th Q e
Q
th Q
e

= 2~3

Generating Efficiency (%)

Generating Efficiency Generated Energy/Biomass Energy Input x100

With generating efficiency of over 25%, total thermal efficiency of 80% can be achieved.

High Calorie Gasification using manure, Lab. test

Dried biomass

Carbonization

Specification of carbonized excretion

Carbonization Temp. 580 C Supply speed 90 kg/h Volatile component 19.05 % Fixed carbon 44.28
Carbonization Temp.
580
C
Supply speed
90 kg/h
Volatile component
19.05
%
Fixed carbon
44.28
%
Ash content
36.67
%
Milling
Carbide
Water content
2.1
%
Composition of produced gas
Combustion Temp.
1000
C
H 2 O/Biomass Ratio
2
-
Produced gas
H 2
63.0
%
Gasification
CO
14.4
%
CO 2
20.5
%
CH 4
2.1
%
C 2 H 4
0.01
%

Gasification flow for biomass in Asia, proposal

Low Rice husks, Rice straw Effectual utilization system of heat water Heat content biomass Sugarcane
Low
Rice husks, Rice straw
Effectual utilization
system of heat
water
Heat
content
biomass
Sugarcane
(bagasse, trash)
High
Milling
water
Drying by
Fermentation
or/and Heat
High-Calorie
Gasification
content
Sand separation
biomass
Unit 3
Carbonization
Gas
Livestock
excretion
Coconut & Palm
residue
–Electricity
–Fuel gas
Empty fruit bunch
Unit 2
–Liquid fuel