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Title: TEACHING VALUES AND IMPLEMENTING PHILOSOPHIES: DILEMMAS OF THE YOUTH SPORT COACH , 2y> ?c1allister, 'arah :.

, 2linde, ;laine ?., <eiss, <indee ?., 9hysical ;ducator, $$*1/./1, -ate <inter2$$$, (ol. +!, Issue 1 Database: Academic Search Elite

TEACHING VALUES AND IMPLEMENTING PHILOSOPHIES: DILEMMAS OF THE YOUTH SPORT COACH

Co te ts ?ethods )esults 8iscussion );7;);@1;' Ta#le 1

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the values and life skills that coaches deem important and the manner in which coaches claim to teach these desired outcomes, and (2) examine the philosophies of youth sport coaches and the degree to which coaches implement such philosophies. In order to address these two areas, in depth interviews averaging !" minutes in length were conducted with 22 youth sport #ase#all and soft#all coaches (1$ women and 12 men). %nalysis of the responses of these individuals revealed that coaches generally recogni&ed the importance of teaching a wide range of values and life skills to youth sport participants, yet struggled in articulating how they attempt to teach youngsters these outcomes. 'econdly, inconsistencies were noted #etween the stated coaching philosophies of the coaches and the actual implementation of these philosophies. (arious factors were identified that may contri#ute to these two main findings. )ecogni&ing that approximately *+ million children #etween the ages of , and 1, are involved in youth sport activities (-eonard, 1../), it goes without 0uestion that youth sports occupy a prominent place in the lives of many youngsters. 1hildhood and adolescence are critical periods for the learning of socially appropriate values and life skills that provide the foundation for adulthood. 2ecause youth sport participation takes place during an influential time in an individual3s life, it is imperative that the social, emotional, and physical development outcomes of participation #e closely monitored. 4outh sport programs fre0uently have #een identified as a positive sociali&ing agency for children and adolescents (2ar#er, 1./25 )o#erts 6 Treasure, 1..2). Through participation in sport youngsters formulate values and explore #ehaviors assumed to #e important for functioning in the larger society. % variety of values and life skills have #een targeted as possi#le outcomes of youth sport participation. 7or example, outcomes such as fair play, respect for others, cooperation, decision making, working with others, skill development, leadership, and moral development have #een associated with participation in youth sports (2arnett, 'moll, 6 'mith, 1..25 8ecker 6 -asley, 1..+5 9aulson, 1./$5 )o#erts 6 Treasure, 1..25 'eidel 6 )eppucci, 1..*5 'iegenthaler 6 :on&ale&, 1..!5 'mith 6 'moll, 1..1). 8espite the commonly cited positive outcomes of youth sport participation, some research findings as well as general commentaries on youth sports have #rought into 0uestion the type of outcomes and social learning derived from participation in this context (2redemeier, 1.//5 ;it&en, 1./"a5 'eidel 6 )eppucci, 1..*5 <eiss 6 =ayashi, 1..,). These works often challenge whether the structure and value climate of youth sport programs actually promote the development of positive social values and #ehaviors. ;xamples of outcomes resulting from participation include undue stress and tension, low

levels of moral reasoning, overemphasis on winning, poor self esteem, cheating, internali&ation of adult norms, disregard for opponent, and lack of respect for others (%dler 6 %dler, 1.."5 2redemeier, 1.//5 8ecker 6 -asley, 1..+5 'age, 1../5 'iegenthaler 6 :on&ale&, 1..!). The nature of what children and adolescents learn through their participation in youth sports depends on many factors. 4oungsters are constantly o#serving their environment and the actions of others within this context. %lthough a variety of individuals impact the social learning emanating from youth sport participation, the coach occupies a key position in terms of this experience (9etlichkoff, 1..*). The youth sport coach may in fact #e the most significant individual in determining the values and life skills that children learn through participation ('teelman, 1..+). ?uch of the learning that occurs in this context is dependent on the coach and the environment this individual constructs. 'mith and 'moll (1..1) concluded that youngsters are very accurate in their perception of coaching #ehaviors and readily internali&e these perceptions. 2ecause coaches are in positions of authority and influence, their values and philosophies regarding the sport experience may directly impact the participatory experience for the youngsters in their charge ('teelman, 1..+). %lthough much has #een written regarding the youth sport context, little of this work specifically focuses on the thoughts and perceptions of the coaches who work in this environment. <hen youth sport coaches have #een the focus of research, 0uestionnaires and o#servational techni0ues often have #een utili&ed to learn a#out coaching #ehaviors and effectiveness (8u#ois, 1./15 'mith 6 'moll, 1..$5 'mith, 'moll, 6 1urtis, 1.!.5 'mith, 'moll, 6 =unt, 1.!!5 'mith, Aane, 'moll, 6 1oppel, 1./*). )arely has this information gathering used in depth interviews to ascertain what coaches are actually thinking and teaching in the youth sport program. %s the coach is a central figure in the youth sport experience, knowing more a#out the thoughts and perceptions of coaches as to what occurs in this context might #e useful in improving youth sports. %n important determinant of the values and life skills that youngsters learn from youth sport participation relates to the a#ility of coaches to identify and teach desira#le values and #ehaviors. 9articipants are unlikely to learn selected values and life skills unless the environment is structured in such a manner #y the coach to promote these outcomes (2redemeier, 1.//5 =orrocks, 1./$5 9aulson, 1./$). ?oreover, the philosophies of coaches and their a#ility to implement these philosophies are crucial in influencing the type of learning that takes place in the sport context. 7or example, the extent to which coaches can articulate their philosophies and the degree to which their #ehavior parallels those philosophies are important in determining the nature of the participant3s experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) identify the values and life skills that coaches deem important and the manner in which these desired outcomes are taught, and (2) examine the philosophies of youth sport coaches and the degree to which coaches implement such philosophies. 7or example, what values and life skills do coaches attempt to teach participantsB =ow do coaches teach such values and life skillsB <hat general philosophy guides the actions of coachesB %nd to what extent are youth sport coaches a#le to implement their stated philosophiesB In order to gain insight into these 0uestions, in depth interviews were conducted with youth sport coaches. Interview 0uestions focused on issues related to the identification and teaching of values and life skills as well as the a#ility of coaches to articulate and implement coaching philosophies. 2y talking to youth sport coaches we can gain insight into factors that may either enhance or detract from the 0uality of the youth sport experience for participants.

Met!o"s

'ample 1oaches from two neigh#oring communities involved in youth sport soft#all and #ase#all programs (designed for ages ! 12) were recruited to participate in this study. 2oth of these communities were located in the southern region of Illinois and had populations under *$,$$$. The youth sports of #ase#all and soft#all were identified as #eing representative of traditional youth sport programs commonly found in many communities. %lso, narrowing the selection of sports to only #ase#all and soft#all tended to standardi&e the sport context in which the coaches were involved. 'election of the ! 12 age group was due to the desire to use a group that was still in the learning stage of sport, yet one that was involved in a competitive sport format. %ccording to the administrators of the youth sport programs, #oth communities utili&ed similar governing philosophies in the operation of their respective programs. In general, #oth programs were organi&ed according to age group and were considered to #e instructional in nature. ?inor participation fees were charged to all youngsters in the program. -ists of coaches in these two programs were o#tained from the program administrators. To control for any possi#le interaction effects of gender of coach and gender of participants, only men who were coaching #oys (n C ",) and women who were coaching girls (n C 12) were considered for inclusion in the final sample. % final sample si&e of approximately 2$ 2+ coaches was deemed appropriate given the interview design of the study. 'ince ade0uate num#ers of #oth men and women were desired for the final sample, all availa#le women and a random sample of *$ male coaches were sent a mailing descri#ing the study. 1oaches interested in participating returned an informed consent form. Telephone contacts were then made with the coaches who responded in order to set up a time, date, and location for the interview. =uman 'u#Dects approval was o#tained for the procedures utili&ed throughout the study. The final sample of coaches interviewed included 1$ women and 12 men who were currently coaching youth sport soft#all or #ase#all. The mean age of participants was *!." years with a range in age of 21 "/ years. )elative to coaching involvement at the youth sport level, these 22 individuals averaged 11 years of experience. ;ighteen of these coaches had participated in youth sports as a youngster and nineteen had #een involved in organi&ed sports at the Dunior or senior high school levels. Interestingly, 1/ of the coaches reported having a child currently participating in youth sports. Interview :uide % set of interview 0uestions was developed #y the researchers to explore various aspects of the coaching experience of youth sport coaches. Those 0uestions utili&ed in the current paper focused on the following two general areas> (1) values and life skills deemed important to teach #y youth sport coaches, and (2) coaching philosophies of youth sport coaches. Euestions related to values and life skills focused on such areas as the specific values and life skills identified #y the coach as important to teach to team mem#ers, methods used #y coaches to teach values and life skills, and importance that coaches placed on specific values or life skills identified #y the interviewer (e.g., winning, fair play, participation, fun, respect, decision making). )elative to 0uestions exploring the philosophies of youth sport coaches, specific items asked coaches a#out their general coaching philosophies, how coaches implement their philosophies, positive and negative aspects of youth sport programs, and similaritiesFdifferences of their philosophy with that of other coaches. 'ample 0uestions from the interview schedule are provided in Ta#le 1. 8ata 1ollection and %nalysis Interviews were conducted #y two individuals experienced with interviewing techni0ues.

The large maDority of interviews took place in a research la#oratory on a university campus. Interviews were tape recorded and averaged approximately !" minutes in length. Interviews were transcri#ed into text and then proofed for accuracy. In order to identify general themes emanating from the responses of coaches, three individuals independently performed a content analysis. These individuals carefully read the 22 transcriptions and then identified common patterns and trends in the responses of coaches. )esults from this content analysis were compared and discussed prior to determining the final coding categories. 'ummary sheets containing an overview of the coaches3 responses were developed for each coding category. In addition, each researcher identified actual 0uotes from the coaches that illustrated the various patterns and trends.

Res#lts
%nalysis of the interview responses focused on the following two areas> (a) identification of values, life skills, and philosophies deemed important #y coaches, and (#) a#ility of coaches to teach these values and life skills and to implement their philosophies. The responses of coaches are summari&ed and direct comments from the coaches are used to illustrate the various patterns that emerged. Identification of (alues, -ife 'kills, and 9hilosophies In general, these youth sport coaches were in agreement when asked to identify values and life skills that need to #e taught and reinforced in youth sport programs. %lso, similar coaching philosophies were noted in the responses of coaches. The values, life skills, and philosophies espoused #y these coaches were consistent with functionalist3s views of sport that generally highlight the positive and socially desira#le outcomes of sport participation (1oakley, 1..*). <hen these youth sport coaches were initially asked to identify the values and life skills they taught in their youth sport programs, responses were generally limited in scope and somewhat gender specific. The most commonly identified value or life skill these coaches claimed to teach related to various elements of sportsmanship. This response was particularly common with the male coaches. % num#er of coaches viewed good sportsmanship as Gnot showing up the opposing team after a win,G or #eing sure to shake hands and say Ggood game,G even after a loss. Hthers discussed dimensions of sportsmanship such as honesty and playing #y the rules. 'everal of the coaches responded to this same 0uestion #y discussing the value of support and encouragement for teammates. This response was more common among the female coaches. 7or example, coaches discussed values related to supporting others regardless of a#ility, encouraging teammates despite mistakes, respect for teammates and opponents, and the importance of teamwork. -ater in the interview, coaches were asked to respond to a list of specific values and life skills presented #y the interviewer (e.g., winning, fair play, participation, fun, respect, decision making). 1oaches were encouraged to discuss the importance they placed on these values and life skills, and how they taught them. %lthough few of these values were mentioned when coaches were initially asked what values they try to teach, nearly all the coaches indicated that they thought these values were important. In particular, coaches felt these were values that they tried to incorporate into their youth sport program. 'imilarities also were noted in the coaching philosophies of these individuals. %lthough several coaches struggled in terms of articulating their coaching philosophy, most

discussed components consistent with the youth sport programs in which they were involved. The two areas discussed most often when coaches were asked a#out their philosophies related to the importance of youngsters learning skills and having fun. @oticea#ly limited were remarks regarding the value of participation, importance of competition, and the relative emphasis placed on winning and losing. These components of their philosophies #ecame apparent only when the interviewer specifically asked coaches to discuss these areas. In general, these youth sport coaches felt that all children should get to participate regardless of a#ility and that participating in youth sports provided the opportunity for youngsters to develop their physical skills. They also felt that the emphasis placed on competition and winning should #e decreased. Teaching (alues and -ife 'kills and Implementing 9hilosophies 'everal 0uestions in the interview explored the extent to which coaches teach the values and life skills they identified as important, as well as implementing the philosophies that they discussed during the interview. In general, coaches thought they were successful in teaching the values and life skills they felt were important. =owever, when asked to specifically descri#e how they taught these values and life skills, many coaches straggled in their explanations. In a similar manner, contradictions were sometimes noted #etween the coaching philosophies espoused #y coaches and their actual actions or #ehaviors as coaches. )elative to the teaching of values, many coaches experienced difficulty explaining how they attempt to teach the values and life skills they deemed important. )esponses were somewhat evasive and often did not focus on the actual teaching itself. )ather than discussing the steps used or the points emphasi&ed in teaching a particular value or life skill, most coaches focused on their own specific coaching #ehaviors when talking a#out the teaching process. 7or example, several coaches used negative reinforcement, including actions such as #enching an athlete or making the players run, as a response to correct inappropriate #ehavior. Hne #ase#all coach indicated he attempts to teach various aspects of sportsmanship to his players (e.g., no cussing, no negative talk) #y punishing negative #ehaviors with having the players run laps or do pushups. Hther coaches assumed that leading #y example was sufficient in the teaching of values and life skills. 7or example, one #ase#all coach indicated the main value he tried to teach was sportsmanship. <hen asked how he taught this value, the coach stated GI try to serve as a role model.G ?oreover, rather than structuring the sport environment to promote the learning of specific values or life skills, many coaches assumed that merely talking a#out a value or telling youngsters how to respond in a situation was an effective means of teaching. 7or example, one coach indicated that she emphasi&es the values of honesty, hard work, and trying your #est. <hen asked how she promotes such values, this coach responded, GI talk a#out 3em. I tell them what I expect of them ... other than Dust telling them and talking to 3em I really don3t promote it in any other way.G %#sent in the remarks of these youth sport coaches were discussions a#out modifying the environment to facilitate the active learning of values or utili&ing developmental teaching progressions to reinforce learning. %lthough coaches did cite examples of inappropriate #ehavior #y their players and how they personally handled these incidents, their explanations rarely focused on allowing youngsters to review the inappropriate #ehavior and learn from the situation. The teacha#le moment of allowing the youngsters to proceed through the steps of pro#lem solving was missed. In terms of implementing coaching philosophies, there were some indications of inconsistency #etween the stated philosophy of coaches and comments a#out their coaching practices and #ehaviors. These inconsistencies were evident as coaches provided specific examples and stories a#out their coaching experiences when

responding to other 0uestions throughout the interview. In general, these inconsistencies most often emerged in the areas related to the importance of winning and the importance of participation. Hn the other hand, few examples of inconsistency were noted in the two areas coaches originally identified when asked to discuss their coaching philosophy importance of teaching skills and making the participation experience fun. Through the comments made #y these youth sport coaches, it was o#vious that many coaches descri#ed #ehaviors that were contrary to their coaching philosophies. %nd, in some situations, coaches provided a rationale for their #ehavior that may have #een inconsistent with their general philosophy. ;xamples are provided from the interviews to illustrate these inconsistencies. 'everal coaches discussed the importance of providing an opportunity for all youngsters to participate in games. 'uch a #elief is consistent with most youth sport programs that are instructionally #ased. 4et this #elief was not always #ased on the important #enefits that an individual can gain from participation. <hen talking a#out why it is important for everyone to participate, one coach commented Git3s very important, they have all paid their money.G %nother coach commented Gif you pay your I2+.$$, they should have the right to play.G 'everal coaches related the right of participation to the financial investment #y parents. %nother area of inconsistency emerged when the coaches were discussing the emphasis placed on winning. The maDority of the coaches reported that their coaching philosophy tried to emphasi&e Gplaying to the #est of your a#ilityG, Git3s okay to lose as long as you tried your #estG, Ghaving funG, and keeping the competition in perspective #ecause Git3s Dust a game.G =owever, a num#er of examples of coaching #ehaviors contrary to these philosophies were discovered through further discussions with the coaches. %n area of conflict sometimes surfaced #etween the areas of winning and having fun. %lthough some coaches made it clear that having fun was a main priority, there was a tendency to assume that having fun was the result of winning. 7or example, a #ase#all coach was discussing #eing a role model to his team and what that entailed when he commented, GI try not to place too much of an emphasis on winning. %lthough I do tell them that, you know, if you want to have fun out here, the most fun is winning.G 'ome coaches would start out with good intentions of keeping the competition in check and maintaining a healthy playing environment. =owever, as the game would get more serious, some of the youth sport coaches would experience a lapse of philosophy where the win win attitude would appear. 7or example, a soft#all coach was discussing how she tries to put personal and team improvement a#ove winning. =owever, she followed this statement with the comment, G2ut don3t get me wrong, if I3m in a game in a tight situation, I3m gonna do what I can to win a game, #ut that3s pro#a#ly competitiveness.G Hr, as noted in the response of a #ase#all coach, there was an apparent conflict #etween winning and his previous comment that GI try to play every kid an e0ual amount of time.G This coach commented> There are times if you have a close game, it is more fun to win than it is to lose. %nd the kids enDoy it more when you win. %nd there are times at the end of the game when you have to make certain personnel moves to try to win the #all game ... 4ou might stick a kid in right field #ut at least he3s playing. <inning also was used as the rationale as to why a soft#all coach felt she had #een successful in teaching particular values to her athletes. <hen asked if she felt she had #een successful in teaching the values of honesty, hard work, and trying your #est, the coach went on to say she felt successful #ecause her team improved from a 2 11 winFloss record to a 1* 1 season the following year. %nother contradictory example #etween the stated coaching philosophy and comments

descri#ing coaching #ehaviors related to the practice of using team meetings after the conclusion of a game as a means to put the contest into perspective. %lthough most coaches indicated that their coaching philosophy stressed reducing the importance of competition and winning, team meetings were generally held only after a loss. 1oaches indicated that this meeting was held with the intent to inform the youngsters that Gwinning isn3t everythingG and Gyou tried hard and that3s what3s importantG. 4et it appeared that these meetings were an opportunity for coaches to criti0ue performance with the emphasis #eing placed on mistakes. %s one coach explained, Gthey need to know what they did wrong so they won3t make that mistake again.G The underlying message to youngsters may #e that losing is important (despite what the coach may say) since team meetings only take place after a loss. 8espite #eing a#le to identify or discuss components of a coaching philosophy that would generally #e consistent with that espoused #y youth sport programs, coaches struggled at times with incorporating this philosophy into their actual coaching #ehaviors. %nd, in the maDority of these situations, it was apparent that coaches were unaware of this contradiction.

Disc#ssio
The coach o#viously occupies a critical role in determining the values and life skills that youngsters learn in a youth sport program as well as the nature of the experiences that participants are provided. The degree to which a coach is a#le to teach and reinforce values and life skills and implement an educationally sound coaching philosophy significantly impacts the social learning of the youth sport participant. %nd as suggested #y 9etlichkoff (1..*) and 'affici (1..,), the nature of coach and athlete interactions and the positiveFnegative features of this experience also impacts the likelihood of whether an individual will continue involvement in the sport context. %s previously reported, the coaches in this sample recogni&ed the importance of teaching a wide range of values and life skills to youth sport participants #ut struggled in articulating how they attempted to teach these desired outcomes in their own program. 'everal factors related to the personal demographics of the coaches themselves are important to consider when explaining these findings. The coaches represented in the present sample undou#tedly parallel youth sport coaches in many programs across the Jnited 'tates. 7irst, it is important to remem#er that all of these coaches were volunteers and none were reim#ursed for their coaching duties. 'econd, according to the coaches interviewed, the most important reason for entering the role of coach related to having a child (or children) who was participating in the youth sport program. Third, several coaches indicated that their selection as coach of the team was #y default since no one else was interested in the position. These three factors taken together suggest that prere0uisites for the role of youth sport coach are minimal. In addition to the selection process, it is important to look at the degree of preparation and training coaches have for this role. In the present sample, 1! of the 22 coaches interviewed felt they were ade0uately prepared to coach when they first entered this role. 7actors such as playing experience in the sport (ranging from #ackyard #all to minor league #ase#all) or watching professional #ase#all led to perceptions of #eing prepared, as well as the assumption on the part of many respondents that coaching at the youth sport level re0uired minimal knowledge or preparation. Interestingly, when asked to discuss their training for coaching, none of the 22 coaches reported any structured or systematic preparation. 1om#ining the dynamics of how coaches are selected and their lack of preparation for the role, it is not surprising that coaches struggled when asked to descri#e how they taught

various values and life skills. %lthough coaches reali&e that youth sports can #e an important learning context for youngsters and ver#ally support the importance of teaching values and life skills, most youth sport coaches have not #een trained in how to structure a learning environment to promote desired outcomes. 'tructured activities that provide youngsters with the opportunity to practice Kvalued3 #ehaviors and receive positive feed#ack regarding their actions are necessary to ensure that this learning is taking place. %t times it appeared that the common perception of these coaches was that these desired values and life skills would automatically occur through participation in youth sports. This social learning is certainly not automatic and typically is not ac0uired only through talking or role modeling. %nd, as was o#vious in the discussion a#out contradictions in implementing philosophy, the #ehaviors and actions that coaches display (and thus the #ehavior #eing modeled) may not #e consistent with what is socially desira#le. %s argued #y ;it&en (1./"#), coaches sometimes display #ehaviors that we do not want our youngsters to model (e.g., cheating, demeaning individuals). The second maDor finding of the study related to the inconsistencies #etween coaching philosophies and actual coaching #ehaviors. 'uch inconsistencies are important #ecause those involved in a sport program are much more likely to remem#er what was done rather than what was said ('tewart, 1..*). 'everal factors may help in explaining these inconsistencies, not only in our present sample, #ut in youth sport programs across the country. 7irst, there is little dou#t that most youth sport coaches can recogni&e (and in some cases articulate) components of an educationally sound philosophy for youth sport programs. These images are often formulated #ased on what coaches were told as participants in sport, society3s ideali&ed vision of the positive value of sport participation, and through exposure to youth sport program guidelines or mission statements. This is consistent with 'tewart3s (1..*) #elief that most coaches are effective at GtalkingG a good philosophy. 8espite this sensitivity to the goals of youth sport programs, most coaches encounter other forces that compete with their a#ility to actually implement their philosophy. 1oaching #ehavior is o#viously the #est indicator of coaching philosophy ('tewart, 1..*). ?ost coaches in our sample had previous participation experience in organi&ed sport. ;ighteen coaches had participated in youth sport programs as a child and 1. individuals had #een involved in organi&ed sport at either the Dunior high or high school level. %s noted #y numerous coaches throughout the interviews, these past experiences in sport had exposed them to a variety of coaches and thus influenced their own approach to coaching. 'ince many of their more recent experiences occurred in the formally organi&ed and competitive sport programs found at the high school level (or in some cases college level), it was not surprising that several coaches #rought remnants of this philosophy to the youth sport context. In addition, it was apparent that many of these youth sport coaches were extremely competitive individuals, a 0uality many cited as having learned through their own sport participation. Thus, implementing the espoused philosophy of youth sport programs often #ecame difficult when considering the previous experiences of coaches in the realm of sport. %nother force that appeared to lead some coaches to drift from their stated coaching philosophy was the influence of parents. ;xpectations from parents often put pressures on coaches that ran counter to the stated goals of youth sport participation. 'ome parents were very focused on winning and playing the #est athletes, and thus did not see the youth sport context as one that emphasi&ed learning or instruction. Hften times these youth sport coaches succum#ed to peer pressure from parents thus resulting in situations where some coaches Gplayed for the winG or deviated from their philosophy that everyone should play an e0ual amount of the time. Hne final force that may have #een operating in this context relates to the influence of the

professionali&ed sport model found at many higher competitive levels in the Jnited 'tates. The influence of this sport model, which promotes winning and #eing the #est, is difficult to escape. 1oaches are undou#tedly influenced #y its presence and at times youth sport programs #egin to resem#le miniature models of professional sport. %lthough most coaches did not talk a#out such an orientation in terms of their own #ehavior, many cited instances where opposing coaches utili&ed such an approach to coaching. In situations where youth sport coaches move to more professionali&ed orientations in their approach to sport, there is an increased risk that a mismatch will exist #etween the orientation of the coach and that of the participant. )esearch still supports the notion that most children participate in sport to have fun, to #e with friends, and to learn new skills, and that children will continue to participate in sport if their needs are #eing met (9etlichkoff, 1..*). If coaches overemphasi&e winning or only play the #est players, outcomes may not #e as positive for youngsters and may even lead to dropping out of sport (9etlichkoff, 1..*) In summary, these youth sport coaches appeared to have good intentions in terms of providing a 0uality experience for the participants in their program. 8espite these intentions, however, coaches often were not ade0uately prepared to structure the youth sport context as a via#le learning environment. In addition, competing external pressures made it difficult to keep coaches Gon trackG in terms of implementing the desired philosophy of youth sport programs. Thus, it is apparent that in order to enhance the value of sport programs for our youth, greater attention needs to #e given to the selection, monitoring, and professional development of individuals in the role of youth sport coach.

Table $
! C"#ld $"# %lea&e de&cri'e $"#r %hil"&"%h$ "( c"achi)* 'a&e'all+&"(t'all ,he) $"# (ir&t &tarted c"achi)* at thi& le-el. Ha& $"#r %hil"&"%h$ cha)*ed "-er time. /! C"#ld $"# %lea&e de&cri'e ,hat $"# d" a& a c"ach t" %#t $"#r %re&e)t %hil"&"%h$ i)t" %ractice. 0! 1hat t$%e& "( -al#e& d" $"# em%ha&i2e ("r the $"#)*&ter& ") $"#r 'a&e'all+&"(t'all team. 1hat d" $"# d" a& a c"ach t" %r"m"te the de-el"%me)t "( the&e -al#e&. D" $"# (eel &#cce&&(#l i) the&e e(("rt&. 3! H", im%"rta)t i& ,i))i)* i) the t"tal realm "( $"#r c"achi)*. 1hat t$%e& "( thi)*& d" $"# d" a& a 'a&e'all+&"(t'all c"ach that re(lect $"#r -ie,& a'"#t the im%"rta)ce "( ,i))i)*. 4! H", im%"rta)t i& letti)* all childre) %artici%ate i) the t"tal realm "( $"#r c"achi)*. 1hat t$%e& "( thi)*& d" $"# d" a& a 'a&e'all+&"(t'all c"ach that re(lect $"#r -ie,& a'"#t letti)* all childre) %artici%ate. 5! D" $"# tr$ t" de-el"% a)$ ("rm "( deci&i")6ma7i)* "r leader&hi% &7ill& i) the i)di-id#al& $"# c"ach. 8! D" $"# (eel $"#r %hil"&"%h$ i& &imilar t" the "ther c"ache& $"# e)c"#)ter i) $"#r c"achi)* acti-itie&. 9! I) *e)eral: ,hat im%act d" $"# thi)7 %artici%ati") i) $"#r $"#th &%"rt %r"*ram ha& ") the $"#)*&ter& $"# c"ach. ;! L""7i)* at $"#th &%"rt& i) *e)eral: ,hat d" $"# &ee a& &"me "( the )e*ati-e -al#e& 'ei)* lear)ed '$ %artici%a)t&. <! L""7i)* at $"#th &%"rt& i) *e)eral: ,hat d" $"# &ee a& &"me "( the %"&iti-e -al#e& 'ei)* lear)ed '$ %artici%a)t&.

REFERENCES
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2y 'arah :. ?c1allister5 ;laine ?. 2linde and <indee ?. <eiss 8r. 'arah :. ?c1allister, 8r. ;laine ?. 2linde and <indee ?. <eiss are in the 8epartment of Physical ;ducation at 'outhern Illinois Jniversity at 1ar#ondale 1opyright of P!%sical E"#cator is the property of 9hi ;psilon Mappa 7raternity. 1opyright of 9J2-I1%TIH@ is the property of 9J2-I'=;). The copyright in an individual article may #e maintained #y the author in certain cases. 1ontent may not #e copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder3s express written permission. =owever, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. So#rce: 9hysical ;ducator, -ate <inter2$$$, (ol. +! Issue 1, p*+, 11p Ite&: 2.1+,$"