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Atomic Energy of Canada Limited




Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario October 1973 AECL-4653


by P . L . Ko

ABSTRACT Impact fretting of heat exchanger tube and baffle materials has been studied in a i r and in demineralised water, The excitation frequency, amplitude, ratio of major-axis (Ymax) to minor-axis (Xjnax) of an e l l i p t i c o r b i t (X-Y plot) of the unrestrained tube movement, clearance between tube and baffle and number of cycles were varied, The ratio of Ymax to Xmax governs the amount of normal impact and sliding motion. Electrical contact resistances between the impacting materials were monitored and the signals correlated with weight losses. The results show that the amount of wear per million cycles increases exponentially with excitation frequency, and increases with amplitude and diametral clearance. The amount of wear also varies with the r a t i o of Ymax to Xmax ( Y >. X) of the excitation amplitude; a peak is reached when the r a t i o is between 2 and 3. In the dry cases, oxidised wear debris was found on the surfaces; the wear rate decreased with time during the early stages of the t e s t and then became almost constant. In the wet cases, the worn surfaces were shiny in appearance, and the wear r a t e remained almost constant throughout the tes ts .

Engineering Research Branch Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario October 1973


Usure par frottement d'impact des tubes d'ehangeur thermique par P . L. Ko Rsum On a tudi, dans l'air et dans l'eau dminralise l'usure par frottement d'impact des tubes et des chicanes d'changeur thermique. On a fait varier

la frquence d'excitation, l'amplitude, le rapport entre l'axe majeur (Y elliptique ) et l'axe mineur (X ) d'une orbite max max (trac X-Y) du mouvement non restreint du entre le tube et la chicane et le Le rapport entre Y max et X max contrle

tube, l'intervalle nombre de cycles.

la quantit d'impact normal et le mouvement de glissement. On a contrl les rsistances des contacts lectriques entre les matriaux d'impact et on a mis en corrlation les signaux avec les pertes de poids. Les rsultats

montrent que la quantit d'usure par million de cycles augmente exponentiellement par rapport a la frquence d'excitation ainsi que par rapport a l'amplitude et l'intervalle diamtral. La quantit d'usure ^arie, par ailleurs, en fonction du rapport entre Y et X max max > (.-X) de l'amplitude d'excitation; un sommet est atteint lorsque ce rapport est situ entre 2 et 3. Lors des d'usure essais a sec on a observ des parcelles oxydes

sur les surfaces; le taux d'usure dcroissait dans le temps au cours des premiers stades des essais et ensuite il devenait presque constant. Lors des essais humides, les surfaces uses taient d'apparence brillante et le taux d'usure restait presque constant tout au long des essais. L'Energie Atomique du Canada, Limite Laboratoires -Nuclaires de Chalk River Chalk River, Ontario Octobre 1973 AECL-46-5 3



1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


1 4 6 6 6 7 9 9 11 12 13 - 26

6. 7. 8.




Test Apparatus Diagram of Vibration Generator Curves of Contact Duration Versus Time Curves of Total Contact Duration Versus Weight Loss Variation in Contact Levels during Vibration Electrical Contact Resistance Versus Time during Vibration Curves of Weight Loss Versus Excitation Frequency (Dry) /X max max Curves of Weight Loss Versus Diametral Clearance Curve of Weight Loss Versus Time (Dry) Curves of Wei it Loss Versus Maximum Excitation Amplitude Photo^ioropranhs of Worn Surfaces Curves of Weight Loss Versus Excitation Frequency (Wet) Curve of Weight Loss Versus Time (Wet) Curves of Weight Loss Versus Y



INTRODUCTION In design and manufacturing practices, a clearance between the tube and tube supporting device in steam generators and heat exchangers is required. Vibration of these tubes will make them susceptible to impacting and rubbing with the supporting device or the adjacent tubes causing local wear damage. The tube vibration may be excited by cross-flow perpendicular to the cube centreline and/or longitudinal flow along the tube or tubes. However, the actual flows in most practical situations are mixed; therefore, the tube will oscillate multi-directionally resulting in some form of combined sliding and impact motion between tube and supporting device, and possibly between adjacent tubes. Owing to the vibratory nature of these impact and rubbing motions, the damage is often considered as being a result of fretting; although, fretting, in its ordinary sense, is characterised by minute reciprocating motion between the wear materials held together by a normal force. In the case of tube fretting, the mating materials are not held together by a normal force, rather, there is a certain clearance between them. Depending on the motion of the tube, the resultant movement between the tube and its supporting device may resemble one or a combination of the following motions: namely, normal impact only, combined normal impact and sliding, sliding cnly due to whirling of the tube, longitudinal sliding, and oscillating impact, i.e. a secondary reciprocating type rubbing movement du .ing each contact interval. This last form of impact fretting, if it happens, may initiate fatigue cracks. The mechanism of fretting has been discussed by Uhlig , Waterhouse2, Halliday and Hirst3 and many others. Originally, fretting was known as fretting corrosion ; its mechanism was thought to include a chemical factor, oxidation, and a mechanical factor, welding and shearing of metal asperities. But, it has been shown that a corrosive atmosphere is not necessary for fretting to occur and that some materials which do not oxidise do fret". Waterhouse and others 2 have suggested three mechanisms by which fretting corrosion can arise:

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The removal of metallic particles by grinding or by the formation of welds at the points of contact followed by tearing. Subsequent oxidation of the particles is supposed to play no part in causing wear. The removal of metal particles which subsequently oxidised form an abrasive powder. The abrasive action is then regarded as being the more severe cause of wear. The direct oxidation of the metal and the continuous removal of this oxide layer by the scraping of one surface over the other.



In a recent review of the mechanism of fretting, Hurricks 5 suggests that fretting is a three stage process. Initially, a surface formed oxide film prevents metallic contact; this becomes dispersed by the oscillatory movement; adhesion, plastic deformation and metal transfer then occur. The transferred particles may become oxidised and dislodged to become discrete wear particles; or the transferred particles may build into the surface forming an intermediate zone, the partially oxidized surface zone resisting further transfer, the fretting action then producing loose wear particles. Finally a steady state is reached which is characterised by a general disintegration and dispersal of the zones affected by the early stages. In short, the three stages are adhesion and metal transfer, production of oxidised debris and finally attainment of a steady wear rate. Damage due to fretting may vary from only a discoloration of the mating surfaces to the wearing away of large quantities of materials. The frequency, total number of cycles, amplitude of motion, normal pressure, physical characteristics of the mating materials and environmental conditions all contribute to the results. The slip amplitude is generally regarded as one of the major parameters influencing fretting. It has been shown that the wear rate increases as the amplitude of slip is increased. On the other hand, there are contradictory results regarding the influence of normal pressure and vibration frequency on the amount of wear damage. Some workers report that the wear rate decreases with increasing frequency 6 while others that the wear rate increases with increasing frequency 7 . It would appear that the mechanical properties of the materials tested and the amplitude of slip influence the wear

- 3 rate-frequency relationship. Vaessen et al.7 find that the fretting wear between Cu-Nl-Al alloy and SAE 1045 carbon steel in air is adhesive by nature and that the wear rate increases linearly with frequency and increases with amplitude following an S-shape. Feng, Uhlig* and Wright also find that under unlubricated conditions, wear varies with amplitude and frequency according to a linear relationship. In general, many investigators have observed the existence of a critical amplitude below which very little or no fretting damage takes place. This is explained as being due to the fact that at small amplitude of oscillation, all tangential relative motion is absorbed by elastic deformation of the asperities. Adhesive weld formation and metal transfer can only take place if the asperities of the contacting surfaces are plastically sheared. Uhlig1 finds that fretting wear damage is greater in dry air than in moist air. He suggests that moisture decreases abrasive wear of the oxide debris by hydrating the debris. On the other hand, adsorbed water also could be considered to form a film of lubricant between the contacting surfaces over which asperities could move without mechanically activating the reaction between adsorbed oxygen and metal. Very little is known about the mechanism of impact fretting. Davis and Read9 have investigated the effects of rubbing action and impact action (they call the latter chattering) separately on fretting damage of Zircaloy-2 pressure tube specimens. They find that a stainless steel grid impacting on a Zr-2 tube specimen causes less damage than a Zr-2 grid impacting on a tube specimen of the same material, although the stainless steel is harder than the Zr-2. They attribute this to the fact that adhesion between stainless steel and Zr-2 is more difficult. DeGee et al.1 have investigated the wear of sintered aluminum powder under conditions of vibrational contact, and find that for an appreciable wear to occur, welds which may form between the surfaces must be subjected to shear in the plane of contact and the removal of loose wear debris must be stimulated. While normal oscillating force alone would stimulate the removal of wear debris, it was only when both normal and torsional oscillations were superimposed then the wear rate became high. They also observed that wear increased exponentially with increasing values of the sinusoidally changing normal load.

- 4The significance of tangential force on impact fretting may be explained also by the adhesion theory 11 . Courtney-Pratt and Eisner 12 and Tabor 13 have shown that tangential forces serve to increase the real area of contact between asperities. O'Connor and Johnson have confirmed this process and shown that in many engineering problems the growth in real contact is most marked in the micro-slip region. Further, after a number of cycles of oscillating slip, due to some form of self-cleaning action, the adhesion between the asperities in the contact region is increased, resulting in further increase in true contact area. In the present work, the influence of excitation frequency, amplitude, tube-baffle clearance and the ratio of tangential to normal components of the excitation force under both dry and wet conditions on the fretting wear of Monel 400 tube against plain carbon steel ring was s tudied. 2. APPARATUS The test apparatus, which consists of a vibration generator, tube and baffle test specimens, transducer platforms, and top and bottom supporting plates, is shown in Figure 1. The apparatus was designed to provide combined impact and sliding. The magnitude and direction of the excitation force can be easily calculated, and the oscillating unit can produce unidirectional oscillations or multi-directional oscillations, the latter generating some form of sliding impact motion. In most fretting apparatuses, vibration is introduced by a cam type mechanical drive or by an electromagnetic type device. The present vibration generator employs two small stepping motors each driving an out-ofbalance mass to provide the vibration required. The motors, out-of-balance weights and motor housing are all built into a compact unit weighing only 1.5 lb. It can be easily attached to any tubes or bars to be tes ted. The arrangement of the motors is shown in Figure 2. The speed of the stepping motor is controlled by an actuator circuit and a frequency generator. Since the stepping motor speed is controlled by varying the input frequency instead o f varying the input voltage as in the case of a d.c. motor, its speed can be accurately

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controlled. For instance, a 16-step stepping motor will turn 22.5 (360/16) for every input pulse, thus an input frequency of 160 cps will rotate the motor at a speed of 10 rev/sec or 600 rpj. The stepping motors used in this apparatus have a speed range up to 2,640 rpm and can be set for 22.5 or 45 degree stepping angles, i.e. 16 stepsor 8 stepsper revolution. The two stepping motors were connected in parallel to the actuator control unit, thus ensuring a synchronized motor movement which is important in controlling the direction and magnitude of the resultant excitation force. By utilizing two out-of-balance masses rotating in opposite directions, and by pre-setting the starting angles of these masses, vibrations of different amplitude and direction can be generated. The out-of-balance masses are made of lead, weighing up to 6 g. They can be placed at radii of 0.5 inches or 0.6875 inches. The motors are housed in two circular holes drilled out of a circular aluminum block. Voids were drilled out of this block to reduce the mass of the unit as well as to create more surface area for dissipating heat generated from the motors. Tubes can be attached either to one end of the oscillating unit to form a cantilever type configuration or to both ends of the unit to form a fixed-simply supported end configuration as illustrated in Figure 1. The tube is mounted on the top plate by means of a tapered plug which is made from bakelite material and is slit open longitudinally. When the plug together with the tube is pressed down into the tapered hole in the top plate, the tube is firmly locked in. When a fixed-simply supported end configuration is chosen, a second tube is attached to the oscillating unit and the other end of this lower tube is held on the bottom plaf.e by means of two rubber '0' rings. This arrangement allows longitudinal movement of the tube assembly during vibration. The specimen ring is press-fitted to a bakelite holder which I F attached to one of two mounting platforms. These platforms can be slid up and down to any designated positions along four columns whose ends are fixed to the massive top and bottom plates forming a rigid structure. When these platforms are tightened to the four columns they also provide added reinforcement to the assembly.

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INSTRUMENTATION Two induction type displacement transducers which are mounted at right angles on the mounting platform are used for positioning the ring to ensure that it is concentric with the tube. They are also used for monitoring the x-y movement of the tube during vibration. Strain gauges cemented longitudinally along the tube length are used to determine the vibration mode. A biaxial accelerometer is inserted inside the tube and positioned behind the impact area for vibration analysis. Since both the tube and ring are insulated from the rest of the apparatus, electrical contact resistance between the tube and ring can be monitored during tests. These contact signals are normally recorded on magnetic tape at regular intervals throughout the test and are ciigitised and analysed by computer. TEST SPECIMENS Monel 400 is a nicke1-copper alloy composed of 63-70% Ni and 25-32% Cu and Fe, Mn, Si and C in small quantities. A tube specimen one inch long weighing approximately 10 g is placed on the master tube. The ring specimen is made from plain carbon steel and is 1/4 inch high. These specimens are cleaned in a boiling Alconox solution before and after each test and are weighed in a microbalance having a resolution of 1 microgram.


RESULTS Two series of tests, one in air and one in demineralised water, have been performed to investigate the effect of various parameters on impact-fretting. These parameters were excitation frequency, excitation amplitude, ratio of maximum Y-component to maximum X-coinponent of the excitation amplitude (Y X ) , clearance between the impact pairs, and time (or number of cycles). The majority of tests were performed in air to form a 6x6 Latin-squares for the excitation frequency and v max/ ratio. The other parameters: clearance, time and amplitude were investigated individually. A smaller series of tests was performed in a wet environment in which a continuous flow of demineralised water was directed through the clearance between the specimens.

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5. 1 i)

Dry Tests Electrical Contact Resistance Measurements During the majority of tests, the electrical resistances of contacts were recorded on magnetic tape at half-hour intervals of 20 seconds each throughout the test. These recordings were later digitised in a computer to obtain the total duration of contacts at various resistance levels, namely, below 0.11 ohms, 0.11-0.6 ohms, 0.6-3.5 ohms, 3.5-6.5 ohms, 6.5-20 ohms, and 20 ohms and above. The total duration of contact for each resistance level was then expressed as a percentage of the scanning time, i.e. 20 seconds in the present case. In general, the contact resistances were low during the early stage of the test. The percentage of these low resistance contacts decreased rapidly with time, and after about three hours, only few contacts with resistance below 0.6 ohms were recorded. On the other hand, the higher level bands fluctuate slightly in a decreasing pattern indicating occasional breakthrough of the oxidised debris. Towards the end of a 16 hour test, the majority of contacts were of 20 ohms or higher. Three sets of these contact resistances versus time plots are shown in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows a series of plots of total duration of contacts versus weight losses. The total duration of contacts were obtained by integrating the curves of Figure 3. With the exception of one low resistance band, they appeared to have increased fairly linearly with weight losses. The low resistance band did not vary in a consistent pattern and remained at a low percentage level. In Fifure 5, the contact resistance is plotted against the itstantaneous tube location in polar coordinates. The geometry of the baffle hole which is circular and concentric with the tube was later superimposed on the plot. It can be readily seen that where there is no contact, an infinitely high resistance is indicated; while at other spots where contact is heavy a low resistance is shown. This technique is useful for estimating the impact force, around a circumference where force transducers cannot fit in. Figure 6 shows these contact resistances displayed on a time base.. It appears that during each impact there are several contacts with durations lasting between 0.7 and 1.5 msec. However, the resistance levels of these higher frequency contacts seem to indicate that the two surfaces never break off completely during each impact.

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i i)

Effect of Excitation Frequency Figure 7 shows a series of curves of weight loss versus excitation frequency which covers a range from 15 to 35 Hz. The weight losses are expressed in units of milligramsper million cycles. Each curve represents one set of parameters, namely, diametral clearance, maximum excitation amplitude (the major axis of an elliptic plot during unrestrained vibration at the frequency tested), and the ratio of maximum Y to maximum X components of the excitation amplitude. A high ratio of Y/X implies that the motion is mainly of normal impact with very little sliding contact around the circumference of the baffle hole; whereas a Y/X ratio of unity would cause the tube to whirl having little or no impact. The results show that within the frequency range investigated, the weight loss increases exponentially with the excitation frequency and has the relationship W = k e a w , where k and a are constants depending on the ratio of Y/X, t o is the excitation frequency in Hz, and W the weight loss in milligram s/10 6 cycles. In Figure 7 is also shown a frequency-time curve which illustrates that when d) > 0, t + ; hence weight loss in a finite time would amount to '.ero.

i i i)

Effect of Ratio of Maximum Y-Component to Maximum X-Component of the Unrestrained Excitation Amplitude The results, Figure 8, show that the weight loss increases as the Y/X ratio is decreased; a peak is reached when the ratio is between two and three, then the weight loss decreases slightly as the ratio is further decreased. The variation appears to be more pronounced at high frequencies.


Effect of Tube-Baffle Clearance Diametral clearances ranged from 0.005 inches to 0.02 inches have been tested. Figure 9 shows three curves from three sets of parameters. They all show an increase in weight loss with increasing clearance as long as contact is maintained between the tube and the baffle. In each curve, the excitation amplitude is constant. The weight loss of the plai,n carbon steel ring, although not shown here, also increases with increasing clearance.

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Effect of Time Only one set of parameters was chosen to investigate the change in weight loss with time. It is found that in air the rate of weight loss decreases with time, Figure 10, until a steady state is reached, then the rate of weight loss becomes more or less constant and the weight loss increases almost linearly with time. Using the steady state wear rate of 35 yg/h at 22.5 Hz, the life span of a 0.05 inche thick, 0.5 inche OD tube worn through uniformly around a ]/4 inch wideband is estimated to be 9 years.


Effect of Excitation Amplitude The excitation amplitude is the maximum amplitude of the tube at the contact region during unrestrained vibration at the test frequency. It is expressed as a multiple of the radial clearance. Although only a few tests have been made to investigate this effect, they all show an increase in the amount of wear with increasing excitation amplitude, Figure 11.


Wet Tests The electrical contact resistances of the wet tests do not increase with time as ia the case of dry tests; rather, they remain at a low level throughout the test, The appearance of the worn surfaces also differs from those of the dry tests. The surfaces of wet test specimens have a shiny and polished appearance whereas those of the dry tests have a dull and porous appearance as illustrated in Figure 12. The results of the wet tests show that the amount of wear also increases exponentially with the excitation frequency, although the rate of increase is not as rapid as that of the dry case, Figure 13. Weight losses at frequencies below 25 Hz are in the same order of magnitude as those of the dry case; however, it differs from the dry case in that it increases fairly linearly with time,, (Figure 14).


DISCUSSION The curves of Figure 3 show that the percentage of low and medium resistance level contact durations decrease rapidly with time suggesting that a layer of oxidised

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wear debris probably forms on the surfaces soon after the test has begun. At higher excitation frequencies which correspond to higher excitation forces, some of this oxidised wear debris is being dispersed more readily and the decrease in low and medium level contact durations become less rapid. These results appear to be in good agreement with the weight losstime curve of Figure 10, in which the weight loss rate decreases with time until a steady state is reached. Evidently, the layer of oxidised wear debris grows with time during the early stage; hence both the wear rate and the percentage of contact duration of low and medium resistance levels decrease with time. The linear variation of weight loss with total contact duration at various resistance levels, except the very low resistance one, suggests that this technique may be useful for estimating weight losses where the test specimens are too heavy to be weighed in a sensitive balance. It is interesting to note that all curves of Figure 4 intercept the vertical axis (resistance axis) at points slightly above the zero. Perhaps, initially, for a very short duration, contacts are made without causing damage to the surfaces; the action merely removes the surface film and prepares the surfaces for the subsequent metal removal. The results seem to indicate that the mechanism of impact fretting is similar to the one suggested by Hurrick5 for fretting wear: the dispersion of the surface film by the oscillating movement; then adhesion, plastic deformation and metal transfer; the wear particles then become oxidised and form an intermediate zone; the fretting action then produces loose wear particles; and finally reaches a steady state. In impact fretting, the dispersion of this intermediate zone of partially oxidised wear debris is further stimulated by the action of normal impact. The combined effect of sliding and normal components during impact fretting would promote the shearing of welds formed between the surfaces, and the removal of loose wear debris. However, if there is only normal impact, no shear occurs; on the other hand, if there is only sliding, the removal of wear debris is hampered and the mechanism would become that of sliding wear. The results of Figure 8 support this explanation. The weight loss reaches a peak when the ratio of maximum Y-component to maximum X-component of the excitation amplitude is decreased to approximately two (Y _ > .x ) Further decrease of this ratio results in a slight decrease of weight loss. It can be assumed that the

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weight loss would equal the weight loss wear when the r a t i o i s reduced to one.

due to


A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n for the i n c r e a s i n g weight loss with i n c r e a s i n g d i a m e t r a l c l e a r a n c e as shown in Figure 9 i s t h a t the energy at impact which i n c r e a s e s with d e c r e a s i n g c l e a r a n c e for a given e x c i t a t i o n amplitude is absorbed not i n t o the surface a s p e r i t i e s but i n t o the bulk of the tube causing a p o s s i b l e change in mode shape. I t can also be v i s u a l i s e d t h a t for the same u n r e s t r a i n e d e x c i t a t i o n amplitude the s m a l l e r the clearance the h i g h e r w i l l be the r a t i o of normal to s l i d i n g components, hence lower weight l o s s . From the curves of Figure 9, a s e r i e s of curves r e l a t i n g the p e r c e n t a g e of p e n e t r a t i o n of the tube wall to the expected l i f e span of the tube can be developed (Appendix 1) These curves p r o v i d e an e s t i m a t e of the h y p o t h e t i c a l l i f e span of a worn tube from p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n s of the depth of wear.


CONCLUSION A t e s t i n g apparatus has been developed to aid in the study of f r e t t i n g wear between tubes and tube supporting devices. In t h i s apparatus, the tube is excited by means of a compactly b u i l t v i b r a t i o n generator employing stepping motors and out-of-balance rotating masses. This arrangement facil i t a t e s a study of the importance of sliding component in tube f r e t t i n g wear. The r e s u l t s have shown that the amount of wear increases exponentially with e x c i t a t i o n frequency following the r e l a t i o n s h i p W = KeaU), and increases with e x c i t a t i o n amplitude and diametral c l e a r a n c e . I t has also been found that the amount of wear v a r i e s with the r a t i o of Ymax to Xmax of the e x c i t a t i o n amplitude, Y being the larger of the two compon e n t s ; a peak is reached when the r a t i o is between 2 and 3. In the dry c a s e s , the wear r a t e is found to be affected by the oxidised wear debris formed on the worn surfaces; the wear r a t e decreases with time during the early stages of the t e s t and then a steady s t a t e is reached when the wear r a t e becomes almost constant. In the wet cases, the worn surfaces are shiny in appearance, and the wear r a t e remains almost constant throughout the t e s t .

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8. (1)

REFERENCES Uhlig, H.H., Mechanism of Fretting Corrosion, J. of App. Mech. Trans. ASME, Vol. 21, pp.401-407, 1954. Waterhouse, R.B., Fretting Corrosion, Proc. I. Mech. E, (London), Vol. 169, p.1157, 1955. Halliday, J.S. and Hirst, W., The Fretting Corrosion of Mild Steel, Proc. of Roy. S o c , London, Vol. 236A, p.411-425, 1956. Godfrey, D. and Bailey, J.M., Early Stages of Fretting of Copper, Iron and Steel, Lubrication Engineering, 10, p.155, 1954. Hurricks, P.L., The Mechanism of Fretting - A Review, Wear, Vol. 15, pp.389-409, 1970. Feng, I-Ming and Uhlig, H.H., Fretting Corrosion of Mild Steel in Air and in Nitrogen, J. App. Mech., Vol. 21, pp.395-400, 1954. Vaessen, G.H.G., Commissaris, C.P.L. and deGee, A.W.J., Fretting Corrosion of Cu-Ni-Al Against Plain Carbon Steel, Proc. I.M.E., Vol. 183 Pt3P, 125-128, 1968. Wright, K.H.R., Fretting Corrosion of Cast Iron, Proc. of the Conference on Lubrication and Wear, Institution of Mech. Eng., pp. 628-634, 1957. Davis, S.M. and Read, D.T., Information. Unpublished








(9) (10)

deGee, A.W.J., Commissaris, C.P.L. and Zaat, J.H., The Wear of Sintered Aluminum Powder (SAP) Under Conditions of Vibrational Contact, Wear, Vol. 7, 535-550, 1964. Bowden, F.P. and Tabor, D., The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Oxford Press. Courtney-Pratt, J.S. and Eisner, E., The Effect of a Tangential Force on the Contact of Metallic Bodied, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A Vol. 238, pp. 529-550. Tabor, D., Junction Growth in Metallic Friction - The Role of Combined Stresses and Surface Contamination, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A Vol. 251, pp.378-393, 1959. O'Connor, J.J. and Johnson, K.L., The Role of Surface Asperities in Transmitting Tangential Forces Between Metals, Wear, Vol. 6, pp.118-139, 1963.





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ROTATING DISCS FIGURE 2: Diagram of Vibration Generator


o a

o c


0) O


16 -

3.0 2 2-5 Hz Ymax = 21 X max


in O



(J !

J_ 10 20

30 Time

40 I

50 Hour




Curves of Total Contact Duration Versus Weight Loss

17 -

10 Hi


Electrical Contact Resistance

Tube Orbit (x-y displacement plot)

9 Hz

1 2 . 5 Hz


Variation in Contact Levels during Vibration

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f 5

V rV

*\ s

Beginning of test

After 16 hours FIGURE 6: Electrical Contact Resistance Versus Time during Vibration

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100 90 60 70 60 50 40 30


10 8

W - K e a(i; (ORY)
0.1149 0.1541 0.1441 0.1404 0.1348 A a o

7 6




Curves of Weight Loss Versus Excitation Frequency (Dry)



u >







25 HZ



Curves of Weight Loss V e r s u s Y /X max max

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3 9 6




10 15



1000 FIGURE 9:

Curves of Weight Loss Versus Diametral Clearance


i '\

\ WEIGHT LOSS = 12 mg EISHI LOSS J 4 n IE I CHI LOSS t 5.5 rag




4 i

1 , 1 . 1



. 1 . 1 , 1 . ,
i i IO

12 u o 1

I t

I 1

I 11




hr FIGURE 10: Curve

TIME t, of

hr Loss Versus Time

TIME t . ft r


23 -




Y / X
3 3





Curves of Weight Loss Versus Maximum E x c i t a t i o n Amplitude




Wet FIGURE 12: Photomicrographs of Worn Surfaces


- 25 10 8

u u


0 . 8 0 . 6


W = KeaUJ




A O D X-0.2142 0.211 0.184 0.2015

0.0705 0.0635 0.0551 0.0646



3.0 9.0



0 . 1
20 30 40 50





Curves of Weight Loss Versus Excitation Frequency (Wet)

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22.5 Hz
' mox

= 2.i




o /

ii UJ

2.0 o
/ O

/ o


1 1 1 1 1 1

i'lGURE 14


30 40 50 60 TIME t , HOURS


Curve of Weight Loss Versus Time (Wet)

ESTIMATE OF TUBE LIFE SPAN The curves of Figure 9 show that the wear rate is a function of diametral clearance. If a linear relationship is assumed, then it can be written as dW dt = a C+ 3 (1)

W e a l s o h a v e , assuming the around i t s circumference, C = C + (D -D) o o or D = (C o +D o ) C






where C and D are respectively the initial diametral clearance and Initial outside diameter of the tube, C and D are respectively the diametral clearance and outside diameter of the tube at time t. Weight loss W at time t = 1/4 I T (D2 -D )pe (3)

where p is the density and e the thickness of the baffle plate. Substitution of equations (2) and (3) to equation (1) yields
1/4 T T pe [ 2 ( C O + D Q ) - 2C] dC = (a C+8) dt

(C +D ) - C

aC + 3






Integrating both sides C +D Cg 2

In (aC+g) - - + An (ac+3) + K. = t a a2 fvpe

when t = 0, C = C +D 3 C

Hence C +D 3 a(D -D.)R+aC +3 __^ + ., o 1 o j } ^n [ a a aC Q + 3 J (D -D,)R o i a 2 TTpe

where D
R =

is the internal diameter of the tube, and

S .

is the ratio of depth of wear to original

V i
thickness of the tube.

Figure 15 shows two curves obtained by applying the results of Figure 9 to equation (5). A third curve having constant wear rate is also shown in the same graph.


lOOp 9080am

O h70


E 60

dW dt


a 50




^ Z














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