Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 62

Biomelioration:

Harnessing Biomethanation for Energy Generation & Environment Protection:

Organic Waste

Bio-Gas Plant

Methane + Soil Amen ment

1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Table of Contents:
Biomelioration:..................................................................................................................1 Harnessing Biomethanation for Energy eneration ! En"ironment #rotection:...........1 Strains of $ethanogens:................................................................................................%1 5.4 Thermophillic Digesters:.....................................................................................32 The gases methane& hydrogen& and carbon mono'ide ()*+ can be combusted or o'idi,ed with o'ygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating -ur-ose& such as coo.ing. /t can also be used in anaerobic digesters where it is ty-ically used in a gas engine to con"ert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be com-ressed& much li.e natural gas& and used to -ower motor "ehicles. /n the 0K& for e'am-le& biogas is estimated to ha"e the -otential to re-lace around 112 of "ehicle fuel. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it 3ualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some -arts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and u-graded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane. ..................................................................................................%% 0nited 4ations 5e"elo-ment #rogram as one of the most useful decentrali,ed sources of energy su--ly& as they are less ca-ital-intensi"e than large -ower -lants. 6ith increased focus on climate change mitigation& the re-use of waste as a resource and new technological a--roaches which ha"e lowered ca-ital costs& anaerobic digestion has in recent years recei"ed increased attention among go"ernments in a number of countries ........................................................................................................................%% Methane production is usuall e!pressed in terms of cubic feet of gas generated per pound of "olatile solids destro ed. #olatile solids are the organic portion of li"estoc$ %aste& about '( percent of the manure solids are "olatile. ) gallon of li*uid manure containing ' percent solids potentiall can pro"ide about 3 3+4 cubic feet of digester gas, or 2 1+2 cubic feet of methane -.oughl 1(/13 cubic feet of gas can be produced per pound of "olatile solids destro ed in a properl / operating digester. 0ince about half of the "olatile solids added can be destro ed and half to three/fourths of the gas produced %ill be methane, about 5 cubic feet of digester gas -3 cubic feet of methane1 can be produced per pound of total manure solids added. 2n terms of digester si3e, it is possible to produce 3+4 to 2 1+2 cubic feet of gas -1+2 to 1 1+2 cubic feet of methane1 per cubic foot of digester "olume. The gas production e!pected from "arious li"estoc$ species is sho%n belo%: ...........................................................................................................34 5.5.1Dail 4aste and Methane 5roduction b Dair , Beef per 1,((( 5ounds of )nimal 4eight. .......................................................................................................34 5.5.3 De"eloping Technologies:.................................................................................35 7.8Safety:.......................................................................................................................%7 7.1)om-osition:.............................................................................................................%7 7.9 :ertili,er and Soil )onditioner:...............................................................................%8 The solid, fibrous component of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to increase the organic content of soils. Digester li*uor can be used as a fertili3er to suppl "ital nutrients to soils instead of chemical fertili3ers that re*uire large amounts of energ to produce and transport. The use of manufactured fertili3ers is, therefore, more carbon/intensi"e than the use of

; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

anaerobic digester li*uor fertili3ers. The notable ad"antage of using a bio/ digester is the sludge %hich is a rich organic manure called digestate...............36 7.1;<lternati"e Biological #roduction routes:..............................................................%1 6.7eneration 5rocess: .....................................................................................................38 8.= 5igester )onstruction >e3uirements: .....................................................................=1 8.75igester /nno"ations: ...............................................................................................=; 6.5.1Corn Cob Digesters............................................................................................42 1(. Determining the 9easibilit of Methane 5roduction:.............................................6(

Table of Tables:
Table 1: 0e%age Capacit .................................................................................................4 Table 2: :istor of Methane.............................................................................................5 Table 3: .easons of 9ailure..............................................................................................6 Table 4: 4hat;s Different <o%=.......................................................................................6 Table 5:)d"antages...........................................................................................................8 Table 6: Disad"antages......................................................................................................' Table 8: 0e%age 0tatistics.................................................................................................> Table ': ?i*uid 4aste 0ources.......................................................................................1( Table >: 9ood 7roup Disposal "ia 0in$+ 0e%er............................................................11 Table 1(: ?eather 2ndustr @ffluent )nal sis..............................................................12 Table 11: 2ndustrial :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste Categories..........................................12 Table 12: 2ndustrial 4aste Constituents.......................................................................12 Table 13: @!plosi"es 4aste Constituents......................................................................15 Table 14: @!plosi"es 4aste Degradation 5roducts......................................................16 Table 15: Bioaugmentation Treatment Materials........................................................16 Table 16:5roposed Bioremediation 5rocess..................................................................18 Table 18: Compounds 5roposed for Degradation........................................................1> Table 1': MaAor @!creta .elated Diseases....................................................................21 Table 1>: @!creta .elated Diseases B Characteristics................................................21 Table 2(:5athogen 0ur"i"al Times b Disposal+ Treatment.......................................22 Table 21: Best )"ailable Control Technolog -B)CT1 3.s........................................23 Table 22: C"erarching 5rinciples..................................................................................23 Table 23: 0ustainabilit 5rinciples.................................................................................23 Table 24: Design 5hilosoph 2ndicators........................................................................28 Table 25: Technolog 2mperati"es.................................................................................28 Table 26: Conditions for :igh Dualit 4ater 5roduction..........................................28 Table 28:Methane Combustion 5rocess @*uations......................................................3( Table 2': Ese B Consumption of Biogas.......................................................................34 Table 2>: Dr Manure Methane 5roduction.................................................................34 Table 3(: 4aste Methane Contents B 5etrol @*ui"alents..........................................35 Table 31: Methane Composition B F...........................................................................35 Table 32: )mmonia Concentration @ffect on Methane 5roduction...........................4( Table 33:C:< .atios........................................................................................................4( Table 34: Crientation 9actors........................................................................................45 Table 35: @nerg Conser"ation......................................................................................45 Table 36: Current )dobe Construction Climatic )daptation )d"antages................48 Table 38: Current )dobe Construction Climatic )daptation Disad"antages...........48 % Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Table 3': 7edesic Dome Construction )d"antages.....................................................48 Table 3>: )d"antages of 5roposed Construction.........................................................4' Table 4(: Methane 5roduction .esidual 5roducts.......................................................53 Table 41: Digestate Composting )d"antages................................................................54 Table 42: 7as 5urification .easons...............................................................................58 Table 43: 5urification 5rocess........................................................................................5> Table 44: 50) 0crubbing )d"antages...........................................................................6(

Table of 9igures:
9igure 17as 0treet ?amp..................................................................................................6 9igure 2 7eodesic Digesters..............................................................................................8 9igure 3 7reen :ouse 7asses...........................................................................................' 9igure 4 ?i*uid 4aste.......................................................................................................> 9igure 5 0e%erage 0 stems Components......................................................................11 9igure 6 Treatment 5erspecti"e.....................................................................................1> 9igure 8 0ustainable .esource 2nitiati"e.......................................................................26 9igure ' 4aste%ater Treatment 0tages........................................................................2> 9igure > Biochemical 5rocess.........................................................................................36 9igure 1(: p: @ffects.......................................................................................................3> 9igure 11: 0tirrer.............................................................................................................42 9igure 12: 7eodesic Dome Bamboo 9rame...................................................................43 9igure 13: 0i3ing a Digester............................................................................................51 9igure 14: 9lo% Chart 4aste Disposal..........................................................................52 9igure 15: ?arge 0cale Composting...............................................................................54 9igure 16: Digester 7as Contents..................................................................................55 9igure 18: 4et 0crubbing...............................................................................................5' 9igure 1': 50) C cle.......................................................................................................5' 9igure 1>: 50).................................................................................................................5> 9igure 2(: Mo"ing To%ards the 9uture........................................................................62 2ntroduction: Sewage infiltration into groundwater has made most of the world?s -otable water undrin.able& unless immediate and emergency measures are ta.en to restore the en"ironment and sto- -ollution& we will be unable to meet #a.istan?s water demands in the near future. /t is estimated that a community of 1@&@@@ -eo-le generate =@-acre inches of sewage effluent -er day which is e3ui"alent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. The -rime obAecti"e of this -resentation is to -romote sustainable Bi3uid 6aste $anagement Systems that su--ort reen House as ( H + emission reduction through The )lean 5e"elo-ment $echanism ()5$+.
Table 1: 0e%age Capacit

G <umbers @ffluent 1 1 -erson 1@@ gallons -dC 1.=8 acre inches -a ; ;7 -ersons ;&7@@ gallons -d % $anure of 1 cow /t ta.es ;.= .6hrs to light one 1@@ 6 bulb for ;= hrs. 1.1 Definitions:

@nerg 9 .6hrs -d % .6hrs -d

= Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

1.1.1 ?i*uid 4aste: 6aste water from the community& including faecal matter& urine& household and commercial waste water that contains human waste but does not include stormwater. i. 0e%age+ Blac$%ater: 6aste discharged from the human body into a toilet& and the water used for flushing the discharge. ii. 0ullage+ 7re %ater: 6astewater from a bath& basin& .itchen& laundry or shower. iii. ?i*uid Trade 4aste: <ll li3uid waste other than sewage of a domestic nature. i". :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste: 6aste material that& when im-ro-erly handled& can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the en"ironment. /t is generated -rimarily by chemical -roduction& manufacturing& and other industrial acti"ities. 1.1.2 Biomelioration: Biological amelioration or using Biological means to im-ro"e or rectify e'isting harmful conditions. 1.1.3 Bioen"ironmental Management: The attem-t to minimi,e the im-act on the en"ironment of 4atural >esource e'-loitation can be termed as Bioen"ironmental $anagement. 1.1.4 Bioremediation: < more cost effecti"e method of remediation as com-ared to incineration or -hysical and chemical remediation methods 1.1.5 Methanogenesis: *r Biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes .nown as methanogens. 1.1.6 Bioaugmentation: The addition of non-to'ic and non--athogenic microorganisms& s-ecies of li"e bacteria sus-ended in a li3uid medium that are non-offensi"e to humans& animals& -lants and all ty-es of a3uaculture. 1.1.8 5h toremediation: The use of -lants to remo"e en"ironmental -ollutants from sites contaminated with inorganic and organic wastes. < form of ecological engineering that has -ro"en effecti"e as well as relati"ely ine'-ensi"e and holds great -romise as a low-cost remedial a--roach. 1.1.' Bio/C!idation: The -rocess of agitation or "ertical dro- of water to induce o'idation through aeration. 1.1.> Composting: #rocess by which organic materials are biodegraded by microorganisms& resulting in the -roduction of inorganicCorganic by-roducts and energy in the form of heat& carbon-dio'ide and water. 1.2 The :istor of Methane:
Table 2: :istor of Methane

1@th )entury B) 18th )entury 11th )entury 1118-1119

19@9

0sed to heat water in <ssyria 0sed to heat water in #ersia :lammable gases found to be emitted from decaying organic matter $ethane disco"ered and isolated by <lessandro Dolta. >elationshi- between the amount of decaying organic matter and the amount of flammable gas -roduced demonstrated. $ethane -roduced "ia controlled anaerobic digestion of cattle

7 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

197E 19E7

1E@=

1E1@s 1E1@s - 9@s

manure :irst digestion -lant built in Bombay Biogas reco"ered from a sewage treatment -lant in England fueled street lam-s. The technology was de"elo-ed in E'eter& where a se-tic tan. was used to generate gas for the sewer destructor lam-& a ty-e of gas lighting. The first dual--ur-ose tan. for both sedimentation and sludge treatment was installed in Ham-ton& England. 1E%@s 5e"elo-ments in microbiology identified the anaerobic bacteria and conditions needed to -romote methane -roduction Energy crisis renewed interest in <5 Bac. of understanding and o"erconfidence resulted in numerous failures )hina& /ndia and Thailand re-orted 7@2 failure rates :ailures of farm digesters in 0.S. a--roached 9@2

9igure 17as 0treet ?amp

1.3 .easons for 9ailures:


Table 3: .easons of 9ailure

1 /nade3uate o-erator training. ; $anagement failures. % Benefits o"ersold. = *-erations too small to Austify digester. 7 High costs of /nfrastructure. 8 E'cessi"e o-erating costs. 1 0nreliable mar.et for biogas. 9 /m-urity of as -roduced. E Bac. of a--ro-riate microbial inoculation. 1@ #re"ailing )ontractor System. 1.5 4hatHs Different <o%I
Table 4: 4hat;s Different <o%=

/m-ro"ed designs and better understanding of *!$ re3uirements.

8 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

; % = 7 8 1 ' E

)ogeneration to raise "olume of $ethane ca-tured. High -rices for li3uid fuel ! natural gas. $ar.et e"ol"ing for biogas energy. $icrobe culture in Baboratories. $ethods of scrubbing gas -roduced along-with "aluable by--roducts e"ol"ed. #ossibility of de-loying $ulti-0se& /ntegrated #lant to address different -roblems simultaneously. .e"olutionar & <e%& ?o%/cost& ?o%/Carbon& 0uper/2nsulated& Disaster/5roof Construction de"eloped in 5a$istan. System of )5$C )arbon )redits created.

9igure 2 7eodesic Digesters

)naerobic Digester:

)erobic Digester:

1.5 )d"antages B Disad"antages: 1.5.1 )d"antages:


Table 5:)d"antages

G 1 ; % =

7 8

2T@M The odor -otential of a well digested waste is considerably reduced. Sanitary <s-ects: The breeding of flies and mos3uitoes is eliminated as the digestion -roceeds in the absence of o'ygen. Efficient 0se of 6aste $aterial: >efuse& that is otherwise a -roblem to dis-ose& is -ut to highly economic use. <naerobic digestion reduces loss of nitrogen from 19.7 2 to 1.@ 2 when com-ared to the con"entional handling of farmyard manure. )arbon loss is reduced from %% 2 to 1.% 2. #hos-horus& -otassium and calcium are not lost at all. 5igested waste has slightly less fertili,er "alue than non-digested waste& but it is more readily a"ailable to -lants. /t is sim-ly con"erted to a more useful form. /f concentrated and com-ressed& it can also be used in "ehicle trans-ortation. )om-ressed biogas is becoming widely used in Sweden& Swit,erland& and ermany.

1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

< biogas--owered train has been in ser"ice in Sweden since ;@@7. Biogas also -owers automobiles& in ;@@1& an estimated 1;&@@@ "ehicles were being fueled with u-graded biogas worldwide& mostly in Euro-e. 1.5.2 Disad"antages.
Table 6: Disad"antages

G 1

; %

7 8

2T@M < methane digester is large and e'-ensi"e. The e'-ense stems from the fact that it must be well-insulated& air-tight and su--lied a source of heat. The si,e of a con"entional digester is e3ual to 17-;@ times the daily waste "olume -roduced& or more if the waste is diluted before digestion. The "olume of waste that must be dis-osed of increases accordingly if dilution water is used. < "ery high le"el of management is re3uired. < methane digester can be e'tremely sensiti"e to en"ironmental changes& and a biological u-set may ta.e months to correct. $ethane generation ceases or is "ery low during an u-set. Start-u---usually the most critical -hase of methane generation-is difficult. $ethane--roducing bacteria are "ery slow-growing& and se"eral wee.s are re3uired to establish a large bacterial -o-ulation. $ethane -roduced is mi'ed with corrosi"e gasses that increase wear and tear of machinery. $ethane is difficult to store& since at normal tem-eratures the gas can be com-ressed but not li3uefied without s-ecial& "ery e'-ensi"e e3ui-ment. $ethane is e'tremely e'-losi"e when mi'ed with air at the -ro-ortions of 8-17 -ercent methane. 5igester gas is hea"ier than air and settles to the ground& dis-lacing o'ygen. /f hydrogen sulfide is -resent& the digester gas can be a deadly -oison. The decom-osition of Bi3uid and Biodegradable Solid waste in the o-en releases two main gases that cause global climate change: nitrogen dio'ide and methane. 4itrogen dio'ide (4*;+ warms the atmos-here %1@ times more than carbon dio'ide and methane ;1 times more than carbon dio'ide reen House asses ( H +.

9igure 3 7reen :ouse 7asses

9 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

?andfill+ 0e%er gas: Sewer gases may include hydrogen sulfide& ammonia& methane& carbon dio'ide& sulfur dio'ide& and nitrogen o'ides. /m-ro-er dis-osal of -etroleum -roducts such as gasoline and mineral s-irits contribute to sewer gas ha,ards. Sewer gases are of concern due to their odor& health effects& and -otential for creating fire or e'-losions. 2. ?i*uid 4aste:

9igure 4 ?i*uid 4aste

<3uifer -ollution is a main concern in #a.istan. The source is from both munici-al and industrial uses& with only about 12 of wastewater treated before dis-osal this has become one of the largest en"ironmental -roblems in #a.istan. The 3uality of surface water has also been identified as the maAor issue of water resources. 0ntreated waste discharged from factories& industrial units& residential areas and munici-al waste are the -rime cul-rits which are -olluting sources of surface water. /ndustrial estates re"ealed some frightening figures that indicated serious threats to the a3uatic& terrestrial& atmos-heric ecosystems and to the well-being of human& -lant and animal life. Sewage is allowed to mi' with storm water as there is no se-arate sewage dis-osal. 6e must F.emember the drain is Aust for rainG. <dditionally the discharge of leachate from *-en <ir 5um-ing sites into nearby water bodies has caused water -ollution concentrations e'ceeding standard "alues& for items such as 4H%& $n& and H;S. <nalysis of well water found "alues abo"e the standards for :ecal )oliforms and 4itrates. 6ith the e'ce-tion of a few big cities& sewerage ser"ice is almost non-e'istentH where -resent it is used for -eri-urban horticulture or merely dum-ed into nearby water bodies& causing serious -ublic health -roblems. 4early =7 2 of all #a.istani households do not ha"e access to a latrine. :urthermore& only 71 2 of all households are connected to any form of drainage (%7 2 to o-en drain and 18 2 to underground sewers or co"ered drains+. *f -articular reference to #a.istan are the two indicators related to -ro"ision of safe drin.ing water and sanitation co"erage. They ha"e direct lin.ages with health and therefore the -roducti"ity of the society and its future generations. < high Biological *'ygen demand (B*5+ indicates the -resence of e'cess amounts of organic carbon. *'ygen de-letion is a conse3uence of adding wastes with high B*5 "alues to a3uatic ecosystems. The higher the B*5 of a source of waste& the higher it?s -olluting -ower. B*5Is of certain wastes are listed in the table below.
Table 8: 0e%age 0tatistics

E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

T pe of 4aste 5omestic Sewage Slaughterhouse 6astes )attle Shed Effluents Degetable #rocessing

BCD-mg+?1 ;@@-8@@ 1&@@@-=&@@@ ;@&@@@ ;@@-7&@@@

E"ery year& millions of -eo-le& most of them children& die from diseases associated with inade3uate water su--ly& sanitation and hygiene. Each and e"ery day& some 8&@@@ children in de"elo-ing and emerging countries die for want of clean water and sanitation. 6ater scarcity& -oor water 3uality& and inade3uate sanitation negati"ely im-act food security& li"elihood choices& and educational o--ortunities for -oor families across the de"elo-ing world. Jet& although far more -eo-le suffer the ill effects of -oor water and sanitation ser"ices than are affected by headline-grabbing to-ics li.e war& terrorism& and wea-ons of mass destruction& those issues ca-ture the -ublic imagination K as well as -ublic resources K in a way that water and sanitation issues do not. 6hile agriculture is the .ey source of water -ollutants in the de"elo-ed world& human waste ta.es center stage in many de"elo-ing countries& where E@ -ercent of sewage is dum-ed& untreated& into water systems. The net result is a serious reduction in both freshwater 3uantity and 3uality. E"en sewerage systems that Fsol"eG en"ironmental -roblems and a"ert health crises in one area often create en"ironmental -roblems elsewhere by dum-ing the untreated sewage into another community?s water source or common -ro-erty resource (such as la.es& ri"ers& coastal ,one or the sea+. The immediate trade-offs between im-ro"ements in human health and the 3uality of life in an urban area and serious negati"e en"ironmental im-acts on the surrounding area re3uire careful consideration. The three -rinci-al li3uid waste sources within the sco-e of this -resentation are:
Table ': ?i*uid 4aste 0ources

G 0CE.C@ 1 Households. ; The $anufacturing /ndustry (Secondary /ndustry+. % Ser"ices /ndustry (Tertiary /ndustries+. Strict -re"ention of discharge of industrial effluent into natural streams is a serious issue to be addressed through incenti"es and -uniti"e measures& cou-led with cleaning of -olluted water streams. < -ro-er Sewerage System should ha"e the following com-onents:1

*#

1@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

9igure 5 0e%erage 0 stems Components

2.1 :ouseholds: Though the main li3uid waste is sewage& households also generate some other "olumes of li3uid waste (both ha,ardous and non-ha,ardous+. Ha,ardous waste li3uids are generated when dis-osing of household chemicals. $ost food waste is -utrescible and will generate li3uid as it decom-oses. The .ey food grou-s dis-osed "ia the sin. and sewer by households are:
Table >: 9ood 7roup Disposal "ia 0in$+ 0e%er

G 9ood 7roup 1 Soft 5rin.s. ; 5airy and eggs. % $eal scra-s. = )ondiments& sauces& herbs ! s-ices. 7 Sta-le foods. 8 $eat and fish. 1 #rocessed "egetables and salad. 2.2 0er"ice 2ndustries: Hos-itals& laboratories and "ehicle ser"icing generate ha,ardous industrial li3uid wastes. 2.3 Manufacturing 2ndustr : <ll of the manufacturing industry generates sewage for e'am-le in the Beather /ndustry: *ne ton of salted rawhide will -roduce with 7@ $% of Bi3uid Effluent. 11 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Table 1(: ?eather 2ndustr @ffluent )nal sis

G )nal sis 1 117 .gs of )*5. ; 8@ .gs B*5. % 1;7 .gs of SS. = 8 .g of )hromium. 7 71@ .gs of solids (trimmings and flesh+. < significant -ortion of all /ndustry will also generate ha,ardous li3uid wastes& the categories are as follows:
Table 11: 2ndustrial :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste Categories

2.3.1 G 1 ; % = 7 8 1 9 E 1@

G 4aste Categories 1 #lating ! heat treatment. ; <cids. % <l.alis. = /norganic chemicals. 7 >eacti"e chemicals. 8 #aints& resins& in.s& organic sludges. 1 *rganic sol"ents 9 #esticides E *ils 1@ #utrescibleCorganic waste 11 /ndustrial wash-water 1; *rganic chemicals 1% SoilCsludge 1= )linical ! -harmaceutical 4aste 0tream or 4astes ha"ing as Constituents: Constituents <cidic solutions or acids in solid form. <nimal effluent and residues (abattoir effluent& -oultry and fish -rocessing waste+. <ntimony& antimony com-ounds. <rsenic& arsenic com-ounds. <sbestos. Barium com-ounds (e'cluding barium sulfate+. Basic solutions or bases in solid form. Beryllium& beryllium com-ounds. Boron com-ounds. )admium& )admium com-ounds.

Table 12: 2ndustrial 4aste Constituents

1; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

11 1; 1% 1= 17 18 11 19 1E ;@ ;1 ;; ;% ;= ;7 ;8 ;1 ;9 ;E %@ %1 %; %% %= %7 %8 %1 %9 %E =@ =1 =; =% == =7 =8

)eramic-based fibers with -hysico-chemical characteristics similar to those of asbestos. )hlorates. )hromium com-ounds (he'a"alent and tri"alent+. )linical and related wastes. )obalt com-ounds. )ontainers which are contaminated with residues of substances referred to in this list. )o--er com-ounds. )yanides (inorganic+. )yanides (organic+. Enca-sulated& chemically-fi'ed& solidified or -olymeri,ed wastes. Ethers. :ilter ca.e. :ire debris and fire wash-waters. :ly ash. rease-tra- waste. Halogenated organic sol"ents. Highly odorous organic chemicals (including merca-tans and acrylates+. /norganic fluorine com-ounds e'cluding calcium fluoride. /norganic sulfides. /socyanate com-ounds. Bead& lead com-ounds. $ercury& mercury com-ounds. $etal carbonyls. 4ic.el com-ounds. 4on to'ic salts. *rganic -hos-horus com-ounds. *rganic sol"ents e'cluding halogenated sol"ents. *rganohalogen com-ounds - other than substances referred to in this list. #erchlorates. #henols& -henol com-ounds including chloro-henols. #hos-horus com-ounds e'cluding mineral -hos-hates. #olychlorinated diben,o-furan (any congener+. #olychlorinated diben,o---dio'in (any congener+. >esidues from industrial waste treatmentCdis-osal o-erations. Selenium& selenium com-ounds. Sewage sludge and residues including night-soil and se-tic tan. sludge.

1% Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Soils contaminated with a controlled waste. Surface acti"e agents (surfactants+& containing -rinci-ally organic constituents and which may contain metals and inorganic materials. =E Tannery wastes (including leather dust& ash& sludges and flours+. 7@ Tellurium& tellurium com-ounds. 71 Thallium& thallium com-ounds. 7; Triethylamine catalysts for setting foundry sands. 7% Tires. 7= Danadium com-ounds. 77 6aste chemical substances arising from research and de"elo-ment or teaching acti"ities including those which are not identified andCor are new and whose effects on human health andCor the en"ironment are not .nown. 78 6aste containing -ero'ides other than hydrogen -ero'ide. 71 6aste from heat treatment and tem-ering o-erations containing cyanides. 79 6aste from the manufacture& formulation and use of wood--reser"ing chemicals. 7E 6aste from the -roduction& formulation and use of biocides and -hyto-harmaceuticals. 8@ 6aste from the -roduction& formulation and use of in.s& dyes& -igments& -aints& lac3uers and "arnish. 81 6aste from the -roduction& formulation and use of organic sol"ents. 8; 6aste from the -roduction& formulation and use of -hotogra-hic chemicals and -rocessing materials. 8% 6aste from the -roduction& formulation and use of resins& late'& -lastici,ers& glues and adhesi"es. 8= 6aste from the -roduction and -re-aration of -harmaceutical -roducts. 87 6aste mineral oils unfit for their original intended use. 88 6aste oilCwater& hydrocarbonsCwater mi'tures or emulsions. 81 6aste -harmaceuticals& drugs and medicines. 89 6aste resulting from surface treatment of metals and -lastics. 8E 6aste tarry residues arising from refining& distillation& and any -yrolytic treatment. 1@ 6aste& substances and articles containing or contaminated with -olychlorinated bi-henyls (#)Bs+& -olychlorinated na-hthalenes (#)4s+& -olychlorinated ter-henyls (#)Ts+ andCor -olybrominated bi-henyls (#BBs+. 11 6aste of an e'-losi"e nature not subAect to other legislation. 1; 6ool scouring waste. 1% Linc com-ounds. 2.3.2 Cther :a3ardous 4aste 0treams: Some of the most -ersistent and harmful of all -ollutants are those created by necessary 5efense #roduction. 5ue to the sensiti"ity and need of such -roduction& s-ecial attention needs to be -aid to -ro-er and safe 1= Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

=1 =9

dis-osal. #resently& this is not the case and such ha,ardous li3uid waste is grossly -olluting our water bodies. 2.4 :a3ardous 4aste Management: Ha,ardous waste is any waste material that& when im-ro-erly handled& can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the en"ironment. Ha,ardous wastes can ta.e the form of solids& li3uids& sludge?s& or contained gases& and they are generated -rimarily by chemical -roduction& manufacturing& and other industrial acti"ities. They may cause damage during inade3uate storage& trans-ortation& treatment& or dis-osal o-erations. /m-ro-er waste storage or dis-osal fre3uently contaminates surface and groundwater su--lies. #eo-le li"ing in homes built near old and abandoned waste dis-osal sites may be in a -articularly "ulnerable -osition. /n an effort to remedy e'isting -roblems and to -re"ent future harm from ha,ardous wastes& go"ernments closely regulate the -ractice of ha,ardous-waste management. 2.4.1 :a3ardous 4aste Characteristics: Ha,ardous wastes are classified on the basis of their biological& chemical& and -hysical -ro-erties. These -ro-erties generate materials that are either& to'ic& reacti"e& ignitable& corrosi"e& infectious& or radioacti"e. To'ic wastes are -oisons& e"en in "ery small or trace amounts. They may ha"e acute effects& causing death or "iolent illness& or they may ha"e chronic effects& slowly causing irre-arable harm. Some are carcinogenic& causing cancer after many years of e'-osure. *thers are mutagenic& causing maAor biological changes in the offs-ring of e'-osed humans and wildlife. >eacti"e wastes are chemically unstable and react "iolently with air or water. They cause e'-losions or form to'ic "a-ors. /gnitable wastes burn at relati"ely low tem-eratures and may cause an immediate fire ha,ard. )orrosi"e wastes include strong acidic or al.aline substances. They destroy solid material and li"ing tissue u-on contact& by chemical reaction. /nfectious wastes include used bandages& hy-odermic needles& and other materials from hos-itals or biological research facilities. >adioacti"e wastes emit ioni,ing energy that can harm li"ing organisms. Because some radioacti"e materials can -ersist in the en"ironment for many thousands of years before fully decaying& there is much concern o"er the control of these wastes. Howe"er& the handling and dis-osal of radioacti"e material is not a res-onsibility of local munici-al go"ernment. *wing to the sco-e and com-le'ity of the -roblem& the management of radioacti"e waste (-articularly nuclear fission waste+ is usually considered to be a se-arate engineering tas. from other forms of ha,ardous-waste management and is discussed se-arately in nuclear The -rimary constituents of waste streams from e'-losi"es manufacturing o-erations that result in li3uid and soil contamination are nitroaromatics and nitramines including:
Table 13: @!plosi"es 4aste Constituents

G 1 ; % = 7 8

)cron m Compound <ame: T4T ;&=&8-trinitrotoluene. >5M He'ahydro-1&%&7-trinitro-1&%&7-tria,ine. H$M *ctahydro-1&%&7&1-tetranitro-1&%&7&1-tetra,ocine. Tetryl $ethyl-;&=&8-trinitro-henylnitramine. #icric <cid ;&=&8-trinitro-henol. #ET4 #entaerythritol tetranitrate.

17 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

1 T<TB Triaminotrinitroben,ene. The most fre3uently occurring im-urities and degradation -roducts from these include:
Table 14: @!plosi"es 4aste Degradation 5roducts

G 1 ; % = 7 8 1 9 2.4.2

)cron m Compound <ame: ;&=-54T ;&=-dinitrotoluene. ;&8-54T ;&8-dinitrotoluene. ;<-=&8-54T ;-amino-=&8-dinitrotoluene. =<-;&8-54T =-amino-;&8-dinitrotoluene. T4B 1&%&7-trinitroben,ene. 54B 1&%-dinitroben,ene. 4B 4itroben,ene. #icramic <cid ;-amino-=&8-dinitro-henol.

Bioaugmentation Treatment Materials: 0pent 9ermentation Media, Tablet3ing Binders and 0ol"ents #henols& ammonia& hydrogen sulfide& oils and greases #henols& cyanide& thiocyanate& ammonia and rolling oils Degetable tanning waste Surfactants& starches and organic dyes used in te'tile mills Sugars& tannins and alcohols Bi3uid sugars& high fructose corn syru- and fla"orings :ats and whey Sugar waste and chemicals )hloro and di-chloro -henol Surfactants and other com-onents of detergents #etroleum hydrocarbons& straight and branched al.anes& BTM B*5 reduction and odor control

Table 15: Bioaugmentation Treatment Materials

5harmaceuticals >efinery 6astes Steel $anufacturing Tanneries Te'tiles <lcohols Be"erages 5airy )onfectionery Halogenated <romatics 5etergent #etrochemicals #a-erC)ellulose

< study was carried out by myself in summer of ;@@7 for the #a.istan *rdnance :actories (#*:+ to -resent an <ction #lan for remediation of ha,ardous effluent fro their E'-losi"es :actory. /t was reali,ed that in order to arri"e at a -recise and dynamic <ction #lan the following ste-s had to be underta.en. a1 3/Tier )pproach. #reliminary #rocess Selection& BioKTreatability Testing and #rice Estimation. a. >e"iew all -rior written studies& analysis and site wor.. Brief >e"iew and #rofessional <--raisal carried out. b. /m-lement Bio-feasibility screening and 5ata /nter-retation. )arried out. Bio-treatability Studies and #rocess )onfirmation. a. Baboratory Studies.

b1

18 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

/n Situ& E' Situ (water& slurry+. >emedial 5esignC >emedial <ction (>5C><+ for: /n-Situ #ilot Scale Treatability Test *f $unici-al Bi3uidC Solid 6aste. 5hase 1: Biodegradation of the $unici-al Bi3uid Treatment Effluents (<erobic& <naerobic and :acultati"e+. 5hase 2: Biodegradation of $unici-al Solid 6aste through <naerobic )om-osting with Bioaugmentation. a. /n Situ& E' Situ (water& slurry+. >emedial 5esignC >emedial <ction (>5C><+ for: /n-Situ #ilot Scale Treatability Test *f Ha,ardous Bi3uidC Solid 6aste. 5hase 3: Biodegradation of Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste through Bio-o'idation and #hytoremediation. 5hase 4: Biodegradation of Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste through <naerobic Slurry 5ecom-osition with Bioaugmentation. Bioen"ironmental <ction #lan: >emedial 5esignC >emedial <ction (>5C><+ for: 2n/0itu 5ilot 0cale Treatabilit Test of ?i*uid+ 0olid 4aste Bio+ 5h toremediation of: 1: $i'ture of $ono& 5i and Tri-4itro Toulene& Tetryl and 4itrocellulose& Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste. ;: $unici-al Bi3uid 6aste. %: Ha,ardous Solid 6aste. =: $unici-al Solid 6aste.

b.

Table 16:5roposed Bioremediation 5rocess

5hase 2T@M #hase 1 Biodegradation of $unici-al Bi3uid 6aste #hase ; Biodegradation of $unici-al Solid 6aste #hase % Bio-o'idation of Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste #hase = #hytoremediation of Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste #hase 7 <naerobic Biodegradation of Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste Biological treatment or bioremediation is a de"elo-ing technology that uses microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants into less harmful com-ounds. #hytoremediation uses -lants to degrade and u-ta.e organic and inorganic contaminants. They are -ractical and ine'-ensi"e alternati"es to traditional methods such as incineration& which often -roduce to'ic secondary wastes or sim-ly lowering of -H. The sites this re-ort addresses are -otential sites for these ty-es of bioC -hytoremediation. *ur goal was to treat the $unici-al Bi3uid 6aste site is to use bioremediation as the -rimary treatment and anaerobic slurry decom-osition as secondary treatment. $unici-al biodegradable Solid 6aste was to be com-osted anaerobically along with bioaugmentation. :or the Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste bio-o'idation as -rimary and #hytoremediation or anaerobic slurry decom-osition as secondary treatments was -ro-osed. *ur aim was to reduce the ha,ardous -ro-erties of the target com-ounds through the -rocess of bio and -hytotransformation and offer as near com-lete return of 11 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

the com-ounds into the normal geochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles through minerali,ation. 0ites @"aluation Two Bi3uid and one Solid 6aste 5um- Sites were "isited by the Bioen"ironmental $anagement )onsultant. Solid 6aste 5um-ing round consisted of *-en <ir 5um-ing of untreated and non-segregated Solid 6aste. <s facilities for secondary segregation do not e'ist and are e'-ensi"e to install& the )onsultant recommended #rimary Segregation (Segregation on the -art of the -olluting agency into Biodegradable and 4on 5egradable Streams. The Biodegradable 6aste can then be effecti"ely anaerobically com-osted& using Bioaugmentation. This method is e'tremely effecti"e and ra-id a-art from being lowcost. :or 5emonstration -ur-oses as near -rimarily segregated biodegradable munici-al solid waste was to be anaerobically com-osted along with bioaugmentation. $unici-al Bi3uid 6aste Treatment #lant with inflow of = times the rated ca-acity (7@&@@@ -o-ulation+ has resulted in incom-lete digestion and discontinuation of anaerobic decom-osition in the facility that e'ists from o"er 1@@ years. /t is -ossible to increase the efficiency of decom-osition and thus ma.e ma'imum use of e'isting facilities. This would entail bioaugmentation with a range of -roducts to determine efficacy and ada-tation to local conditions. *n successful treatment the -roducts can be cultured locally either inde-endently or as Noint Denture with the manufacturer. Similarly& the anaerobic digester can be re-commissioned (subAect to structural soundness+. Ha,ardous Bi3uid 6aste Treatment is restricted to o-en air incineration& o'idation and regulation of -H to neutral "alue. <t the e'it -oint a combination of Hydraulic >am for raising the Bi3uid 6aste in order to access near by Ban. of 5hamrah Kas for -ur-oses of #hytoremediation trials will be re3uired. <s ca-acity of adAoining area and rate of -roduction of Bi3uid waste (= cusecs+ both do not match and also due to the re3uirement for demonstration for efficacy& a limited 3uantity of Bi3uid 6aste was to be introduced to the Beds. >emainder effluent will reAoin its original watercourse after bioo'idationC deioni,ation through the means of a created waterfall. This -rocess will be re-licated at the -oint where effluent subAected to -hytoremediation reAoins the 5hamrah Kas. <long with these treatments& it was -ro-osed to -i-e a -art of the effluent to the anaerobic digester situated in the $unici-al Bi3uid waste Treatment #lant. This would ser"e to show anaerobic decom-osition as a demonstration for e"aluation -ur-oses. Thus the Sites would be subAected to the following: Bioaugmentation: 5h toremediation: Bio/C!idation: )naerobic Bioslurr + Composting: Site 1: Bioaugmentation: Municipal Treatment 5lan:

19 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

)naerobic Digester:
9igure 6 Treatment 5erspecti"e

0ite 2: Composting: )naerobic Bioaugmentation: :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste #re-Treatment #lant: 5hase D: )naerobic Decomposition of :a3ardous 4aste: 0ite 3: 5hase ): : draulic .am. 5hase B: 4aterfall C!idation+ Deioni3ation. 5hase C: J.ed BedsK. 0ite 4: 4aterfall C!idation+ Deioni3ation.
Table 18: Compounds 5roposed for Degradation

G 1 ; % = 7 8 1 9 E 1@

Compounds to be Degraded: $ono& 5i and Tri-4itro Toluene 4itrocellulose (cellulose nitrate+ Tetryl Sulfate *il ! rease Sul-hide )hlorine )hloride Bead /ron

1E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

11 1; 1%

)admium )hromium 4itrocellulose (cellulose nitrate+

5hase 1. Biodegradation of the Municipal ?i*uid Treatment @ffluents -)erobic, )naerobic and 9acultati"e1. 5hase 2. Biodegradation of Municipal 0olid 4aste through )naerobic Composting %ith Bioaugmentation. 5hase 3. Biodegradation of :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste through Bio/o!idation and 5h toremediation. 5hase 4. Biodegradation of :a3ardous ?i*uid 4aste through )naerobic 0lurr Decomposition %ith Bioaugmentation. )pplication and 0ampling Methods: /nitially& sam-ling the site will in"ol"e sam-les from monitoring -oints -laced around the site. Sam-ling should be conducted to determine contaminant le"els as well as nutrient le"els in the effluents. Sam-ling of the water would also be im-ortant. /nformation on the nutrient le"els is im-ortant so that -ossible growth rates can be established. 9oreseeable 5roblems: The -roblems that can occur during the bioremediation of these e'-losi"e com-ounds could arise from the bacteria and fungi unable to ada-t to the e'treme anaerobic or anaerobic en"ironment for e'am-le the anaerobic fungi isolated from the rumen might not tolerate the conditions gi"en. 5ue to the assum-tion made& that this fungi will be able to degrade nitrocellulose in an ideal laboratories conditions may not necessary mimic the acti"ities in the en"ironment. *ther microorganisms& li.e the denitrifiers which grow relati"ely fast& might use u- the entire a"ailable nitrate and inhibit their own growth. :urthermore& the assum-tion that the ammonium ions and nitrate ions are in e3uilibrium might not hold due to an influ' of microbial acti"ities& which might inhibit denitrification. This inhibition of denitrification may occur due to tem-erature increase in the summer& nutrient le"els too low or too abundant. #roblems that might occur during biodegradation& or might already be occurring include the release of nitric o'ide& nitrous o'ide and nitrogen dio'ide into the en"ironment. This needs to be monitored& as both nitrogen dio'ide and nitric o'ide are to'ic to humans and to many other organisms. 4itrous o'ide is able to diffuse u- to the lower atmos-here and u- to the stratos-here where it reacts with the o,one causing -artial damage to the -rotecti"e layer (Boyd& 1E99+. 0D -enetration to the surface of the earth is further increased. Costs: The need for -re"ention of en"ironmental contamination from ha,ardous wastes is o"erwhelming. The cost for remediation of these contamination sites all o"er #a.istan is estimated at o"er 1@ <rab >u-ees& and e"en at this cost most sites would not be achie"e I-ristineI condition. $ost technologies currently considered for remediation are e'-ensi"e and often do not effecti"ely alle"iate the -ollution ha,ard. BioC ;@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

#hytoremediation is usually much chea-er than other clean-u- o-tions& and -ro"ides great ada-tability and tailorabilty to s-ecific en"ironments (6al.er and Ka-lan& 1EE;+. 3. :ealth 2ssues: 4. 3.1 MaAor @!creta .elated Diseases:
Table 1': MaAor @!creta .elated Diseases

Categor
:ecal *ral (4on Bacterial+

Disease
He-atitis < <moebic 5ysentery >ota"irus iardiasis )holera Salmonellosis Shigellosis $any forms 5iarrhea Hoo.worm >oundworm 6hi-worm Beef Ta-eworm #ort Ta-eworm Schistosomisis :ilariasis Some :ecal *ral 5iseases

Transmission Mechanism
#erson to #erson )ontact 5omestic )ontamination

:ecal *ral (Bacterial+

of

#erson to #erson )ontact 5omestic )ontamination 6ater )ontamination )ro- )ontamination )om-ound )ontamination )ommunal 5efecation <reas )ro- )ontamination )om-ound )ontamination :ield )ontamination :odder )ontamination 6ater )ontamination /nsects BreedingC :eeding in #oor Sanitation Sites

Soil Transmitted Helminths

Ta-eworms

6ater-Based Helminths E'creta Dectors >elated /nsect

3.2 @!creta .elated Diseases and their Characteristics:


Table 1>: @!creta .elated Diseases B Characteristics Disease 0pecific .eser"oir )gent
Hoo.worm (<nctlostomiasis+ 4ecator americanus <ncylostoma duodonale <ncylostoma ceylanicum <scarsis Bumbricoids Taenia saginata $an

Transmission

2ncubation 5eriod
:ew wee.s to se"eral months

:ecal contamination of the soilH eggs hatch& infecti"e lar"ae -enetrates the bare s.in& usually of the foot.

<scariasis (>oundworm+ Ta-eworm

$an

/ngestion of infecti"e eggs from contaminated soils& salads and other foods eaten raw& eating with contaminated hand. /ngestion of raw or -artially coo.ed meat containing infected lar"ae -assed through

Two months

$an

9 to 1= wee.s

;1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

feces. Entrobiasis (#inworm& Thread worm+ #oliomyelitis Entrobius "ermicularies #olio"irus ty-e 1&;&% Schistosoma haematobium Schistosoma mansoni Strongyloids stericolaris >ata"irus He-atitis < "irus Dibrio )holerae $an 5irect transfer of infected eggs by hand from anus to the mouthH indirect through contaminated fomites. 5irect contact with -haryngeal secretion or feces of infected -erson. E'-osure to infected water during bathing or wading. % to 8 wee.s

$an

)ommonly 1 to 1; days range from % to ;1 days $onths

Bilhar,iasis

$an

Strongyloidiasis Diral 5iarrhea /nfectious He-atitis < )holera

$an& -ossibly dogs #robably $an $an $an

/nfected soils in moist soil contaminated with feces -enetrates the s.in usually of the foot #robably fecal-*ral and -ossibly :ecal>es-iratory #erson to #erson by the :ecal-*ral route /ngestion of water contaminated with feces or "omitus of -atients& ingestion of food contaminated with dirty hand& fomites etc. 5irect or indirect :ecal-*ral transmission from -atient or carrier By food or water contaminated by feces or urine of a -atient or carrierH fruitsH "egetables har"ested from sewage contaminated area. /ngestion of cysts in feacally contaminated water or less often faecally contaminated food E-idemic outbrea.s result mainly from ingestion of faecally contaminated water containing amoebic cysts. Endemic s-read in"ol"es hand to mouth transfer of feces from contaminated raw "egetables& by flies or soiled hands of food "endors /ngestion of de"elo-ed eggs& which ha"e been de-osited with feces on to the ground

11 days <--ro'imately =9 hours :rom 17 K 7@ days de-ending on dose :rom a few hours to fi"e days *ne to se"en days& usually one to three days 0sually ranges from 1-% wee.s de-ending on dose 7-;7 days or longer& median is 1-1@ days :rom a few days to se"eral months or years. )ommonly ;-= wee.s

Shigellosis (Bacillary 5ysentery+ Ty-hoid and #araty-hoid

Shigella bacteria s-ecies Salmonella ty-hi

$an

$an both -atients and es-ecially carriers $an& -ossibly other wild or domestic animals $an

iardiaa lambliasis

iardia laambia

<moebiasis

Entmobeba Histolitica

Tricuriasis

Tricuruis Tricuria

$an

/ndefinite

3.3 0ur"i"al Time of pathogens in da s b Conditions.

different Disposal or Treatment


Protozoa 1@ 4ot .nown @ %@ 1 ;@ Helminthes (Ascaris) $any months 4ot .nown $any months $any months 1 ;@

Table 2(:5athogen 0ur"i"al Times b Disposal+ Treatment Conditions Bacteria Viruses Soil )ro-s 4ight Soil& feces& sludge ;@-%@O ) )om-osting (anaerobic at ambient tem-erature+ Thermo-hilic )om-osting (7@-8@O ) maintained for 1 days+ 6aste Stabili,ation #onds (>etention Time greater than ;@ days+ =@@ 7@ E@ 8@ 1 ;@ 117 8@ 1@@ 8@ 1 ;@

5.

Managing the Ese of 4ater:

;; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

5.1 B)CT: Best <"ailable )ontrol Technology (B<)T+ is based on o-timum ca-acity to -romote -ollution -re"ention using the %>s and >esource& >eco"ery and >esiduals $anagement e.g. for sewage discharges& -ollution -re"ention using the %>s means to:
Table 21: Best )"ailable Control Technolog -B)CT1 3.s

G 1 ; %

.esults >educe the to'ic contaminants discharging to sewers and ultimately in the effluentH >euse the munici-al sludge beneficially as a soil conditioner& fertili,er or for ma.ing to- soilH and >ecycle the effluent economically as irrigation or industrial -rocess water.

Secondary sewage treatment best meets these goals and will satisfy the to'icity -re"ention re3uirements of En"ironment #rotection. Secondary Treatment enables nutrients and water to be economically reco"ered and residuals to be beneficially managed. Tertiary treatment can be readily a--lied to reduce s-ecific contaminants when necessary. Secondary sludge and effluent can be routinely tested for to'icity and metals& and -ro"ide a good monitor on to'ic discharges to the sewer and the effecti"eness of source control -rograms. B<)T for sewage discharges has therefore been determined to be secondary treatment. 5.2 The 0ustainable .egion 2nitiati"e -0.221: This idea is deri"ed from )anadian ood o"ernance in $etro Dancou"er and has its framewor. for decision ma.ing as well as the mechanism by which sustainability im-erati"es are mo"ed from ideas into action. The S>/ has been dri"en by three o"erarching -rinci-les which state that decision ma.ing must cater for:
Table 22: C"erarching 5rinciples

G 1 ; %

5rinciples Ha"e regard for both local and global conse3uences& and long term im-actsH >ecogni,e and reflect the interconnectedness and interde-endence of systemsH Be collaborati"e. These -ro"ide the foundation for the three sets of sustainability -rinci-les.

Table 23: 0ustainabilit 5rinciples

G 1 ; %
;

0ustainabilit 5rinciples #rotect and enhance the natural en"ironment (conser"e and de"elo- natural ca-ital+H #ro"ide for ongoing -ros-erity (conser"e and de"elo- economic ca-ital+H Build community ca-acity and social cohesion (conser"e and de"elo- social ca-ital+.
$etro Dancou"er& )anada.

;% Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

The long-term "ision for li3uid waste management is that all elements of li3uid waste will be efficiently reco"ered as energy& nutrients& water or other usable material or else returned to the en"ironment as -art of the hydrological cycle in a way that -rotects -ublic health and the en"ironment. This "ision and the Sustainable >egion /nitiati"e are su--orted by three goals: 7oal 1: 5rotect 5ublic :ealth and the @n"ironment: #ublic health and the en"ironment are -rotected by managing sanitary sewage and stormwater at their sources& and -ro"iding wastewater collection and treatment ser"ices -rotecti"e of the en"ironment. 7oal 2: Ese ?i*uid 4aste as a .esource: Energy will be reco"ered from the heat in the sewage and from biogas generated in the treatment -rocess. $aterials which ha"e nutrient "alue will be reco"ered from wastewater treatment -lants. 6ater will be reco"ered from the wastewater treatment -rocess and stormwater will be .e-t se-arate from effluent. 7oal 3: @ffecti"e, )ffordable and Collaborati"e Management: $onitoring& maintaining and in"esting in li3uid waste infrastructure are essential to ensuring effecti"e system -erformance and -re"enting costlier re-airs. /nno"ati"e alternati"e a--roaches to traditional treatment systems will be e'-lored. *--ortunities for -ositi"e synergies with other utilities and regional management systems will be -ursued Psuch as integrated stormwater management -lans. Sources of ris. will be identified and mitigated. 4.2.2 2ntegrated .esource .eco"er : < conce-t and a--roach that integrates the management of water& wastewater& energy and solid waste ser"ices to reco"er resources and "alue and to hel- increase resiliency. />> -lanning and resource reco"ery actions in this -lan su--ort the )limate <ction #lan& the Energy #lan& and Bi"ing 6ater Smart. The @nerg 5lan: < Dision for )lean Energy Beadershi-: /n su--ort of the #ro"incial o"ernment?s "ision for Fclean energy leadershi-G and electricity self-sufficiency by ;@18& this -lan see.s to e'-and the -roduction of biogas from wastewater& and to reco"er heat energy from wastewater for use in district heating systems. The />> a--roach to integrating li3uid and solid waste management will also su--ort the Bio-Energy Strategy: rowing *ur 4atural Energy <d"antage. /n -artnershi- with $unici-alities and the #ri"ate Sector& initiati"es in these areas will reduce greenhouse gas emissions& di"ersify the region?s sources of energy& -ro"ide renewable energy and increase our energy inde-endence. 6ater Smart obAecti"es su--orted by this -lan include the re3uirements to com-lete and im-lement munici-al /ntegrated Stormwater $anagement #lans& su--ort rainwater har"esting and water reclamation actions& the de"elo-ment of an understanding of what ma.es streams healthy& watershed management -lanning in -riority areas& and hel-ing address the im-acts of climate change and climatic "ariability on local water resources. This will be su--orted by the ongoing wor. of a new o"erarching integrated utility management ad"isory committee. 4.2.2 Ese ?i*uid %aste as a .esource:

;= Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

The goal of using li3uid waste as a resource mar.s two im-ortant ad"ances in the thin.ing about li3uid waste in the conte't of $etro Dancou"er?s sustainability framewor.. The first is the recognition that the traditional and still "itally im-ortant functions of li3uid waste management to -rotect -ublic health and the en"ironment will ultimately be achie"ed most beneficially by con"erting li3uid waste into usable resources. Bi3uid waste is a source of green energy and nutrients and& in addition to stormwaterH it can -ro"ide alternati"e sources of water. Strategies are included in this -lan to address these o--ortunities. The second& which follows logically from the first& is the recognition that the o--ortunities for cost effecti"e resource reco"ery from li3uid waste are magnified when e'-lored in the conte't of integrated resource reco"ery from the whole range of urban management systems. This is essentially the im-lementation of the second Qo"erarching im-erati"e? of the S>/ framewor.: F>ecogni,e and reflect the interconnectedness and interde-endence of systemsG. < maAor challenge for $etro Dancou"er and its members will be to ada-t the legacy sewerage and stormwater infrastructure of the ;@th century to a more sustainable& integrated ;1st century system focused on integrated resource reco"ery. This will in"ol"e embracing new technologies and resha-ing communities and their infrastructure so that the resources and energy reco"ered can be used efficiently and effecti"ely: integrating a new .ind of li3uid waste infrastructure with building design& community and nature. This in"ol"es managing li3uid wastes as a resource& minimi,ing discharges& minimi,ing financial ris.s& and ma'imi,ing the 3uality of discharges.

;7 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

9igure 8 0ustainable .esource 2nitiati"e

4.3 4ater Treatment 5roAects Design 5hilosoph for De"eloping Countries: 6hat ty-e of technology isR ;8 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Table 24: Design 5hilosoph 2ndicators

G 2ndicators 1 <cce-tableR ; SustainableR % Easily o-erableR = >e-licableR 7 >e-laceable or maintainableR 8 Beneficial C not a liabilityR These are some of the 3uestions that must be clearly answered in order to ha"e "iable and sustainable community based sanitation. /n many cities& towns and rural areas of #a.istan today -eo-le li"e and raise their children in highly -olluted en"ironment. 0rban and -eri-urban areas are among the worst -olluted and disease ridden habitats. $uch of this -ollution& which leads to high rates of disease& malnutrition and death& is caused by lac. of ade3uate e'creta dis-osal facilities and inade3uate solid waste collection and dis-osal ser"ice. <s communities e'-and and -o-ulation increase& the situation will grow worse and the need for safe& sustainable and affordable sanitation technology or system will be e"en more critical. Secondly& the technology must:
Table 25: Technolog 2mperati"es

G Technolog 2mperati"es 1 #roduce reliable Treatment. ; Ensure easy #lant *-eration and maintenance. % $inimi,e /m-orted items. = >educe $echani,ation and /nstrumentation. 7 $a'imi,e local labor during construction and o-eration. 8 Bimit Energy demands. 1 0se local materials whene"er -ossible. 9 #ro"ide ade3uate fle'ibility. :or 6ater Treatment #roAects to -roduce high 3uality water se"eral conditions must be met:
Table 26: Conditions for :igh Dualit 4ater 5roduction

G 1 ; % =

Staff must understand the -rocess and e3ui-ment. $echanical and electrical e3ui-ment must be durable. S-are -arts and the a"ailability of local re-air and maintenance must e'ist. #rocess units that will -erform under "arying water 3ualities and forgi"e occasional o"ersight of o-erations -ersonnel must be -urchased. 7 >eliable su--liers of e3ui-ment with de-endable local agents must be a"ailable. 5. Biological Treatment: Biological treatment is the most economical of waste treatments a"ailable today. /n biological systems& the dynamics are biochemical as o--osed to chemical& and the acti"e agents are li"ing ;1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

entities. /n chemical treatment we ha"e to increase the 3uantity of chemical -ro-ortionally to deal with a higher load of reactant& in a biological system the biological additi"e can grow to hel- com-ensate for increased loadings. The se-tic system is a biological -rocess. Bi.e any li"ing thing& it has certain nutritional re3uirements to function -ro-erly and functions best in a suitable en"ironment. Howe"er& the best first ste- in o-timi,ing the -erformance of a se-tic system is to ha"e a com-lete ecosystem of the organisms re3uired for the most com-lete brea.down of the waste. Bacteria are ty-ically 1-; um wide and ;-;@ um long. 5ue to the small si,e& sha-e or mor-hology they can be e'amined only by using a high -ower microsco-e ('1@@@+ and staining techni3ues. The ram Stain is the basic criteria used to categori,e the grou-s of bacteria as either gram -ositi"e or gram negati"e& indicating a fundamental "ariation in cell-wall structure. 0se of o'ygen in degrading organic matter o uses o'ygen only -- aerobicH o can metaboli,e with or without o'ygen -- facultati"eH o does not use o'ygen K anaerobic. 0se of carbon sources organic -- heterotro-hicH carbon dio'ide -- autotro-hic *-timum growth at different tem-eratures o Thermo-hiles -- 77-17O ) o $eso-hiles -- %@-=7O ) o #sychro-hiles: *bligate -- 17-19O ) :acultati"e -- ;7-%@O) <erobic wastewater treatment systems o-erate in the tem-erature range of 1@-=@O ) and therefore contain mainly meso-hilic bacteria. These include both the gram -ositi"e ty-es& such as Bacillius& and the gram negati"e ty-es& such as #seudomonas Successful bioaugmentation re3uires total system management /f the microbiological -o-ulation can be "iewed as a wor.force& then the consultant or system manager is res-onsible for .ee-ing the wor.force -roducti"e. /f li3uid wastes are discharged into ri"ers& -onds& lands& etc.& without -ro-er treatment& the result is offensi"e odor and -ollution of water and air as they will emit gases li.e methane and )arbon 5io'ide. By ado-ting en"ironmental friendly technologies& these -roblems can be mitigated. These waste waters can be treated using numerous -rocesses de-ending on the ty-e and e'tent of contamination. < ty-ical wastewater treatment -lant includes -hysical& chemical and biological treatment -rocesses. $ethane is generated in landfills as waste decom-oses and in the treatment of wastewater. Sewer gas is a com-le' mi'ture of to'ic and nonto'ic gases -roduced and collected in sewage systems by the decom-osition of organic household or industrial wastes& ty-ical com-onents of sewage. Sewer gases may include hydrogen sulfide& ammonia& methane& carbon dio'ide& sulfur dio'ide& and nitrogen o'ides. /m-ro-er dis-osal of -etroleum -roducts such as gasoline and mineral s-irits contribute to sewer

;9 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

gas ha,ards. Sewer gases are of concern due to their odor& health effects& and -otential for creating fire or e'-losions. <naerobic digesters were originally designed for o-eration using sewage sludge and manures. Sewage and manure are notH howe"er& the material with the most -otential for anaerobic digestion& as the biodegradable material has already had much of the energy content ta.en out by the animals that -roduced it. Therefore& many digesters o-erate with co-digestion of two or more ty-es of feedstoc. which can increase energy out-ut tenfold for only three times the ca-ital cost& relati"e to a slurry-only system. 5.5 4aste%ater Treatment 5lants: 6astewater treatment facilities em-loy anaerobic digesters to brea. down sewage sludge and eliminate -athogens in wastewater. *ften& biogas is ca-tured from digesters and used to heat nearby facilities. Some munici-alities ha"e e"en begun to di"ert food waste from landfills to 66T#sH this relie"es waste burdens -laced on local landfills and allows for energy -roduction /t is estimated that 7== large 66T#s (those that -rocess more than fi"e million gallons of wastewater -er day+ currently utili,e anaerobic digesters to -roduce biogas. < 66T# digester that also -rocesses food waste will ha"e a -aybac. -eriod of around 8 months to % years $odern method of treating industrial waste water is by installing ad"anced anaerobic digestion -lants. $odern high rate reactors can reduce the )*5 of the waste water by 97-E72.

9igure ' 4aste%ater Treatment 0tages

5.2

Methane: $ethane is the sim-lest al.ane and a maAor com-onent of natural gas& about 912 by "olume. The maAor source of methane is e'traction from geological de-osits .nown as natural gas fields. $ethane is a chemical com-ound with the chemical formula )H=. /t is -robably the most abundant organic com-ound on earth. The relati"e abundance of methane ma.es it an attracti"e fuel. $ethane is a relati"ely -otent greenhouse gas. The concentration of methane in the EarthIs atmos-here in 1EE9& e'-ressed as a mole fraction& was 1&1=7 nmolCmol (-arts -er billion& --b+& u- from 1@@ nmolCmol in 117@. By ;@@9& howe"er& global methane le"els& which had stayed mostly flat since 1EE9& had risen to 1&9@@ nmolCmol. $ethane is a tetrahedral molecule with four e3ui"alent )-H bonds& its electronic structure is described by four bonding molecular orbitals ($*s+ <t room tem-erature and standard -ressure& methane is a colorless and odorless gas. The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is a safety measure achie"ed by the addition of an odorant. $ethane has a boiling -oint of S181 O) (S;71.9 O:+ at a -ressure of one atmos-here. <s a gas it is flammable only o"er a narrow range of concentrations (7K172+ in air. Bi.e other hydrocarbons& methane is a "ery wea. acid. /n the combustion of methane& multi-le ste-s are in"ol"ed. The following e3uations are -art of the -rocess& with the net result being: 5.2.1 )H= T ; *; U )*; T ; H;* (H V S9E1 .NCmol (at standard conditions++ ;E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Table 28:Methane Combustion 5rocess @*uations

G @*uation W 1 )H=T $ U )H% T H T $ ; )H= T *; U )H% T H*; % )H= T H*; U )H% T ; *H = )H= T *H U )H% T H;* 7 *; T H U * T *H 8 )H= T * U )H% T *H 1 )H% T *; U )H;* T *H 9 )H;* T * U )H* T *H E )H;* T *H U )H* T H;* 1@ )H;* T H U )H* T H; 11 )H* T * U )* T *H 1; )H* T *H U )* T H;* 1% )H* T H U )* T H; 1= H; T * U H T *H 17 H; T *H U H T H;* 18 )* T *H U )*; T H 11 H T *H T $ U H;* T $W 19 H T H T $ U H; T $W 1E H T *; T $ U H*; T $W The s-ecies $W signifies an energetic third body& from which energy is transferred during a molecular collision. $ethane in the EarthIs atmos-here is a significant greenhouse gas with a global warming -otential of ;7 com-ared to )*; o"er a 1@@-year -eriod (although acce-ted figures -robably re-resent an underestimate+. This means that a methane emission will ha"e ;7 times the effect on tem-erature of a carbon dio'ide emission of the same mass o"er the following 1@@ years. $ethane has a large effect for a brief -eriod (a net lifetime of 9.= years in the atmos-here+& whereas carbon dio'ide has a small effect for a long -eriod (o"er 1@@ years+. Because of this difference in effect and time -eriod& the global warming -otential of methane o"er a ;@ year time -eriod is 1;. The EarthIs atmos-heric methane concentration has increased by about 17@2 since 117@& and it accounts for ;@2 of the total radiati"e forcing from all of the long-li"ed and globally mi'ed greenhouse gases (these gases donIt include water "a-or which is by far the largest com-onent of the greenhouse effect+. 0sually& e'cess methane from landfills and other natural -roducers of methane is burned so )*; is released into the atmos-here instead of methane& because methane is a more effecti"e greenhouse gas. >ecently& methane emitted from coal mines has been successfully utili,ed to generate electricity. lobally& o"er 8@2 of total )H= emissions come from human acti"ities. $ethane is emitted from industry& agriculture& and waste management acti"ities globallyH the <griculture sector is the -rimary source of )H= emissions. %@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

5.3

Methanogenesis: <lso .nown as biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes .nown as methanogens. *rganisms ca-able of -roducing methane ha"e been identified from the domain <rchaea& a grou- -hylogenetically distinct from both eu.aryotes and bacteria& although many li"e in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The -roduction of methane is an im-ortant and wides-read form of microbial metabolism. /n most en"ironments& it is the final ste- in the decom-osition of biomass. $ethanogenesis in microbes is a form of anaerobic res-iration. $ethanogens do not use o'ygen to res-ireH in fact& o'ygen inhibits the growth of methanogens. $ethanogenesis is the final ste- in the decay of organic matter. 5uring the decay -rocess& electron acce-tors (such as o'ygen& ferric iron& sulfate& and nitrate+ become de-leted& while hydrogen (H;+ and carbon dio'ide accumulate. Bight organics -roduced by fermentation also accumulate. 5uring ad"anced stages of organic decay& all electron acce-tors become de-leted e'ce-t carbon dio'ide. )arbon dio'ide is a -roduct of most catabolic -rocesses& so it is not de-leted li.e other -otential electron acce-tors. *nly methanogenesis and fermentation can occur in the absence of electron acce-tors other than carbon. :ermentation only allows the brea.down of larger organic com-ounds& and -roduces small organic com-ounds. $ethanogenesis effecti"ely remo"es the semi-final -roducts of decay: hydrogen& small organics& and carbon dio'ide. 6ithout methanogenesis& a great deal of carbon (in the form of fermentation -roducts+ would accumulate in anaerobic en"ironments. Strains of Methanogens: Methanobacterium bryantii. Methanobacterium formicum. Methanobrevibacter arbori hilicus. Methanobrevibacter !ottschal"ii. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium. Methanobrevibacter smithii. Methanocalculus chun!hsin!ensis. Methanococcoides burtonii. Methanococcus aeolicus. Methanococcus deltae. Methanococcus #annaschii. Methanococcus mari aludis. Methanococcus vannielii. Methanocor usculum labreanum. Methanoculleus bour!ensis (Methano!enium olentan!yi ! Methano!enium bour!ense+. Methanoculleus marisni!ri. Methanofollis liminatans. Methano!enium cariaci. Methano!enium fri!idum.

%1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Methano!enium or!ano hilum. Methano!enium $olfei. Methanomicrobium mobile. Methano yrus "andleri. Methanore!ula boonei. Methanosaeta concilii. Methanosaeta thermo hila. Methanosarcina acetivorans. Methanosarcina bar"eri. Methanosarcina mazei. Methanos haera stadtmanae. Methanos irillium hun!atei. Methanothermobacter defluvii (Methanobacterium defluvii+. Methanothermobacter thermautotro hicus (Methanobacterium thermoautotro hicum+. Methanothermobacter thermofle%us (Methanobacterium thermofle%um+. Methanothermobacter $olfei (Methanobacterium $olfei+. Methanothri% sochn!enii.

5ifferent organisms are able to sur"i"e at different tem-erature ranges. *nes li"ing o-timally at tem-eratures between %7 and =@ O) are called meso-hiles or meso-hilic bacteria. Some organisms can sur"i"e at the hotter and more hostile conditions of 77 to 8@ O)H these are called thermo-hiles or thermo-hilic bacteria. $ethanogens come from the domain of archaea. This family includes s-ecies that can grow in the hostile conditions of hydrothermal "ents& so are more resistant to heat& and can& therefore& o-erate at high tem-eratures& a -ro-erty uni3ue to thermo-hiles. 5.4 Thermophillic Digesters: Thermo-hillic (high-tem-erature+ digesters ha"e been designed that o-erate satisfactorily at a 7-day detention time and a solids le"el of 1@-;@ -ercent. 5igester gas -roduction has been around 11 cubic feet -er -ound of "olatile solids destroyed. *-eration is normally started by bringing the digester u- to a tem-erature of 1%@: at a rate of about %: -er wee.. /n many ways& thermo-hillic digestion is better than digestion at E7 degrees :. as -roduction is about ;@ -ercent higher and solids brea.down about 1@ -ercent higher. /n addition& the higher tem-erature .ills more -athogenic bacteria& thus allowing the digested waste to be used as a feed su--lement without further sterili,ation. But thermo-hillic bacteria digestion also has its disad"antages. The methane content of the gas is somewhat lower (77 -ercent+& and digester o-eration is not 3uite as stable as con"entional digesters. 5.5 @nerg : $ethane is im-ortant for electrical generation by burning it as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam boiler. )om-ared to other hydrocarbon fuels& burning methane -roduces less carbon dio'ide for each unit of heat released. <t about 9E1 .NCmol& %; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

methaneIs heat of combustion is lower than any other hydrocarbon but the ratio of the heat of combustion (9E1 .NCmol+ to the molecular mass (18.@ gCmol& of which 1;.@ gCmol is carbon+ shows that methane& being the sim-lest hydrocarbon& -roduces more heat -er mass unit (77.1 .NCg+ than other com-le' hydrocarbons. /n many cities& methane is -i-ed into homes for domestic heating and coo.ing -ur-oses. /n this conte't it is usually .nown as natural gas& which is considered to ha"e an energy content of %E megaAoules -er cubic meter& or 1&@@@ BT0 -er standard cubic foot. The gases methane& hydrogen& and carbon mono'ide (!O+ can be combusted or o'idi,ed with o'ygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating -ur-ose& such as coo.ing. /t can also be used in anaerobic digesters where it is ty-ically used in a gas engine to con"ert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be com-ressed& much li.e natural gas& and used to -ower motor "ehicles. /n the 0K& for e'am-le& biogas is estimated to ha"e the -otential to re-lace around 112 of "ehicle fuel. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it 3ualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some -arts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and u-graded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane. By ;@1@& there was %7 6 of globally installed bioenergy ca-acity for electricity generation& of which 1 6 was in the 0nited States. < ; cubic meter bio-digester can -roduce ; cubic meter of coo.ing gas. This is e3ui"alent to 1 .g of B# . 0nited 4ations 5e"elo-ment #rogram as one of the most useful decentrali,ed sources of energy su--ly& as they are less ca-ital-intensi"e than large -ower -lants. 6ith increased focus on climate change mitigation& the re-use of waste as a resource and new technological a--roaches which ha"e lowered ca-ital costs& anaerobic digestion has in recent years recei"ed increased attention among go"ernments in a number of countries /f locali,ed anaerobic digestion facilities are embedded within an electrical distribution networ.& they can hel- reduce the electrical losses associated with trans-orting electricity o"er a national grid. Biogas from sewage wor.s can be used to run a gas engine to -roduce electrical -ower& some or all of which can be used to run the sewage wor.s. Some waste heat from the engine is then used to heat the digester. The waste heat is& in general& enough to heat the digester to the re3uired tem-eratures. The -ower -otential from sewage wor.s is limited The sco-e for biogas generation from nonsewage waste biological matter K energy cro-s& food waste& abattoir waste& etc. - is much higher& estimated to be ca-able of about %&@@@ $6. :ood waste is currently co-digested with -rimary and secondary munici-al wastewater solids and other high-strength wastes. )om-ared to munici-al wastewater solids digestion alone& food waste co-digestion has many benefits. <naerobic digestion of food waste -ul- -ro"ides a higher normali,ed energy benefit& com-ared to munici-al wastewater solids: 1%@ to 1&%@@ .6h -er dry ton of food waste a--lied com-ared to 78@ to E=@ .6h -er dry ton of munici-al wastewater solids a--lied. /f manure from F awalaG )olonies is added to the digester for cogeneration a manifold increase of benefits can be achie"ed& for instance one cow can -roduce enough manure in one day to generate three .ilowatt hours of electricityH only ;.= .ilowatt hours of electricity are needed to -ower a single one hundred watt light bulb for one day. Engine efficiency can be im-ro"ed by remo"ing carbon dio'ide from the digester gas before combustion& then burning the remaining methane. 5igester gas can also be

%% Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

inAected into the air stream in a stationary diesel engine. 0- to E@ -ercent of the fuel entering an engine by this techni3ue can be methane gas. 5.5.1 Ese B Consumption of Biogas:

Table 2': Ese B Consumption of Biogas

Ese :or coo.ing -ur-oses (-er -erson -er day+ To o-erate gas lam-s To o-erate gas engines To o-erate electricity /n -lace of -etrol /n -lace of diesel oil

Enits of consumption of gas 1; to 17 cft ;A cft -er mantle -er hour /b cft -er BH# -er hour ;; cft gas 1 0nit e3ui"alent to 1 .6h of electricity ;;7 cft gas 1 gallon e3ui"alent to -etrol ;7@ cft gas 1 gallon e3ui"alent to of diesel oil

$ethane -roduction is usually e'-ressed in terms of cubic feet of gas generated -er -ound of "olatile solids destroyed. Dolatile solids are the organic -ortion of li"estoc. wasteH about 9@ -ercent of the manure solids are "olatile. < gallon of li3uid manure containing 9 -ercent solids -otentially can -ro"ide about % %C= cubic feet of digester gas& or ; 1C; cubic feet of methane (>oughly 1@-1% cubic feet of gas can be -roduced -er -ound of "olatile solids destroyed in a -ro-erly-o-erating digester. Since about half of the "olatile solids added can be destroyed and half to three-fourths of the gas -roduced will be methane& about 7 cubic feet of digester gas (% cubic feet of methane+ can be -roduced -er -ound of total manure solids added. /n terms of digester si,e& it is -ossible to -roduce %C= to ; 1C; cubic feet of gas (1C; to 1 1C; cubic feet of methane+ -er cubic foot of digester "olume. The gas -roduction e'-ected from "arious li"estoc. s-ecies is shown below: 5.5.1 Dail 4aste and Methane 5roduction b Dair , Beef per 1,((( 5ounds of )nimal 4eight.

Table 2>: Dr Manure Methane 5roduction

2tem Dair Beef >aw manure (lb.+ 9;.@ 8@.@ Total solids (lb.+ 1@.= 8.E Dolatile solids (lb.+ 9.8 7.E $ethane -otential (cu.ft.+W ;9.= 1E.= W Based on 87 -ercent of gas being methane

%= Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

5.5.2

4aste Methane Contents and 5etrol @*ui"alents: 2tem Methane per Ton Dr 4aste 7@@ %%@ %1@ 11@ Tons of 5etrol @*ui"alents per Ton of Dr 4aste @.=% @.;9 @.;8 @.@E

Table 3(: 4aste Methane Contents B 5etrol @*ui"alents

:ood waste #a-er rass Branches and lea"es

Start-u- can be s-eeded by -ro"iding a source of methane bacteria. *ne way of doing this is to initially fill ;@-;7 -ercent of the digester "olume with acti"e waste digester sludge from a munici-al sewage -lant& then to gradually increase the amount of li"estoc. waste added at each loading o"er a 8-9 wee. -eriod until the system is fully o-erational. <nother& -erha-s more effecti"e method& is the -roduction of methane bacteria in laboratories. 5.5.3 De"eloping Technologies: >esearch is being conducted by 4<S< on methaneIs -otential as a roc.et fuel. *ne ad"antage of methane is that it is abundant in many -arts of the solar system and it could -otentially be har"ested on the surface of another solar-system body& -ro"iding fuel for a return Aourney. The assembly of a 7&7@@--ound-thrust li3uid o'ygenCli3uid methane roc.et engine has been com-leted. )urrent methane engines in de"elo-ment -roduce a thrust of 1&7@@ -ounds-force (%% .4+& which is far from the 1&@@@&@@@ lbf (%1 $4+ needed to launch the S-ace Shuttle. This -ro-ulsion technology is under consideration as the way off the $oon for human e'-lorersH such engines will most li.ely -ro-el "oyages from the $oon or send robotic e'-editions to other -lanets in the solar system. 5.6 Safety: $ethane is not to'icH howe"er& it is e'tremely flammable and may form e'-losi"e mi'tures with air. 5.7 !om"osition:
Table 31: Methane Composition B F

T pical composition of biogas Compound Chemical Methane C:4 Carbon dio!ide CC2 <itrogen <2 : drogen :2 : drogen sulphide :20 C! gen C2

F 7@K17 ;7K7@ @K1@ @K1 @K% @K@

%7 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

#$%

&ertili'er an Soil !on itioner: The solid& fibrous com-onent of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to increase the organic content of soils. 5igester li3uor can be used as a fertili,er to su--ly "ital nutrients to soils instead of chemical fertili,ers that re3uire large amounts of energy to -roduce and trans-ort. The use of manufactured fertili,ers is& therefore& more carbon-intensi"e than the use of anaerobic digester li3uor fertili,ers. The notable ad"antage of using a bio-digester is the sludge which is a rich organic manure called digestate. 5.> 4aste :eat .eco"er : <--ro'imately 17 -ercent of fuel energy in-ut to an engine is reAected as waste heat. Therefore& it is common -ractice to reco"er engine heat for heating the digester and -ro"iding water and s-ace heat for the farm. )ommercially a"ailable heat e'changers can reco"er heat from the engine water cooling system and the engine e'haust. #ro-erly si,ed heat e'changers will reco"er u- to 1&@@@ BT0s of heat -er hour for each .6 of generator load& increasing energy efficiency to =@ - 7@ -ercent. < biogas fueled engine generator will normally con"ert 19 - ;7 -ercent of the biogas BT0s to electricity& de-ending on engine design and load factor. 5.1( Biochemical 5rocess:
Carboh drates 0ugars

Carbonic )cids B )lcohols : drogen )cetic )cid Carbon Dio!ide Methane Carbon Dio!ide

9ats

9att )cids : drogen Carbon Dio!ide )mmonia

5roteins

)mino )cids

: drol sis

)cidogenesis

)cetogenesis

Methanogenesis

9igure > Biochemical 5rocess

The Biochemical digestion -rocess is as follows: Bacterial hydrolysis of the in-ut materials to brea. down insoluble organic -olymers& such as carbohydrates& and ma.e them a"ailable for other bacteria. <cidogenic bacteria then con"ert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dio'ide& hydrogen& ammonia& and organic acids. <cetogenic bacteria then con"ert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid& along with additional ammonia& hydrogen& and carbon dio'ide. :inally& methanogens con"ert these -roducts to methane and carbon dio'ide. The methanogenic archaea -o-ulations -lay an indis-ensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.

%8 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

5.11

5h sical 5rocess: /n the case of co-generation with biodegradable solid waste& after sorting or screening to remo"e any -hysical contaminants from the feedstoc.& the material is often shredded& minced& and mechanically or hydraulically -ul-ed to increase the surface area a"ailable to microbes in the digesters and& hence& increase the s-eed of digestion. 5.12 Alternative Biological Pro (ction ro(tes: <-art from gas fields& an alternati"e method of obtaining methane is "ia biogas generated by the fermentation of organic matter including manure& wastewater sludge& munici-al solid waste (including landfills+& or any other biodegradable feedstoc.& under anaerobic conditions. >ice fields also generate large amounts of methane during -lant growth. )attle belch methane accounts for 182 of the worldIs annual methane emissions to the atmos-here. *ne study re-orted that the li"estoc. sector in general (-rimarily cattle& and chic.ens+ -roduces %12 of all human-induced methane. Early research has found a number of medical treatments and dietary adAustments that hel- slightly limit the -roduction of methane in ruminants < more recent study& in ;@@E& found that at a conser"ati"e estimate& at least 712 of global greenhouse gas emissions were attributable to the life cycle and su--ly chain of li"estoc. -roducts& meaning all meat& dairy& and by-roducts& and their trans-ortation. $any efforts are underway to reduce li"estoc. methane -roduction and tra- the gas to use as energy. 6. 7eneration 5rocess: 6.1 Cptimum Conditions for Digester Cperation: E"ery a--lication is different. /n general& so long as the obAecti"e is to remo"e organic constituents& biological treatment is the most effecti"e and most economical. Biologically& we can usually get B*5 down to 1 or ; -arts -er million with a successful treatment& yet certain a--lications re3uire further reduction down to -arts -er billion le"els. :or this e'treme reduction& chemical treatment would be necessary. :or instance& biological treatment will ne"er yield -otable water. This must be achie"ed with chemical treatments li.e o,one and chlorine. $ost a--lications consist of a -rimary& secondary and tertiary treatment& the -rimary being mostly -hysical li.e filtration settling& etc. The secondary is ty-ically a biological treatment to organics. The tertiary treatment is a final& -olishing and clarification treatment. /t is ty-ical that the tertiary treatment would incor-orate some chemicals li.e -olymers to aid in flocculation. /n certain a--lications where there are no organics& it is a--ro-riate to only use chemical treatment. :or instance& a metal -lating factory has only metals in the water. Bacteria will do nothing and a hydro'ide must be used to chemically interact with the metal com-ounds and flocculate out. <cti"ated carbon is a ty-ical chemical treatment for final -olishing of water. #olymers are used to further flocculate and settle colloidal solids. /n certain a--lications in the -ast& the use of Bioaugmentation has allowed users to significantly reduce the amount of -olymers being used in the final treatment without affecting solids settling characteristics. This will net a huge costs sa"ings to the user. /n general& most a--lications should incor-orate a biological treatment. This treatment is usually good in most a--lications for discharge to the sewers or ri"ers. /n most -articular a--lications& chemicals can be used as -olishers in the tertiary treatment. )hemical only treatments are only a--licable in waters that ha"e no organics& a situation that is "ery rare.

%1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

6.2 0 stem Management: The system manager must -ro"ide an acce-table wor. en"ironment for micro-organisms by controlling the .ey o-eration -arameters such as -H& tem-erature and o'ygen le"els. He must com-ensate them with nutrients to ensure good growth and a healthy -o-ulation. He has to .now when to lay off wor.ers through wasting to .ee- the -o-ulation young and "ital. :inally& the successful system manager .nows when to hire new wor.ers to -ro"ide s-ecial s.ills not found in his wor.force. Bioaugmentation is the mechanism to -ro"ide these s.ills wor.ers. The biomass is the Xwor.forceX of a waste treatment system. /n a dynamic state of flu'& different microbes are dying while others grow and become more dominant. 0nder ad"erse conditions such as to'ic shoc.& certain bacterial -o-ulations may be reduced or eliminated& causing -oor effluent 3uality. E'am-les of to'ic shoc. would be blac. li3uor s-ills in -a-er mills or a -rocess u-set in a chemical -lant sending high le"els of ter-enes to the wastewater -lant. < critical -art of the success of a bioaugmentation -rogram is -ro-er a--lication. Because e"ery system is uni3ue& it is essential that -roducts are -ro-erly a--lied. Bioaugmentation -rograms should be im-lemented with the hel- of 3ualified consultants ca-able of sur"eying the total system& assessing the best solution to the -roblem& and documenting the im-act of the -rogram. Sim-ly dum-ing a -roduct into the influent is not bioaugmentation. 6.2.2 5referential Degradation of 0pecific Compounds: By adding selected organisms& low le"els of -articular com-ounds can be achie"ed that are not -ossible with the indigenous -o-ulation. )om-ounds such as -henols& chlorinated aromatics and aromatic hydrocarbons are but a few com-ounds that can be reduced with bioaugmentation 6.2.3 2mpro"ed <itrification -- $any industrial waste -lants ha"e difficulty in achie"ing nitrification because of design limitations or to'ic shoc.s. By regularly adding nitrifying bacteria& the -ro-er -o-ulation for ammonia remo"al can be maintained. 6.2.4 Cther )reas: *ther areas where bioaugmentation offers benefits include odor reduction& oil and grease remo"al& ra-id system start-u- and im-ro"ed tolerance to to'ic shoc.s. 6.2.5 5urpose: The -ur-ose of bioaugmentation is to facilitate a gradual shift in the microbial -o-ulation& not to totally re-lace the e'isting biomass. The -o-ulation shift must be accom-lished in a -lanned and controlled manner to maintain the integrity of the microbial ecosystem. *"er-feeding the selected microorganisms could result in a biomass no better e3ui--ed to handle the broad range of com-ounds in the influent than the original -o-ulation. 6.2.6 Method: Bio-augmentation dosage -roblems ty-ically follow a descending a--lication schedule to accommodate that fact that the benefits of the addition are multi-lied. These -rograms usually in"ol"e a F-urgeG or FinoculationG dosage to establish the -o-ulation 3uic.ly. The F-urgeG or FinoculationG is followed by an intermediate maintenance dosage to su--ort the de"elo-ment of the re3uired -o-ulation. :inally& a regular maintenance addition is used to maintain the re3uired -o-ulation to maintain the biochemical im-ro"ements& which ha"e been reali,ed through the FinoculumG and Fintermediate maintenanceG dosages.

%9 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

0nli.e that added to munici-al sewage digesters& li"estoc. waste is fairly uniform in com-osition. $onitoring digester o-eration& ne"ertheless& is a good idea and can be accom-lished fairly easily& using gas -roduction or -H of the digester li3uid as an indicator. 6.3 7as 5roduction. This is the sim-lest and most reliable indicator. /n a batch-loaded digester (one in which waste is added e"ery month or so+& if gas -roduction dro-s off gradually& the food su--ly a"ailable to the bacteria is -robably de-leted& indicating itIs time to add more waste to the digester. /f gas -roduction dro-s off ra-idly (within 1 or ; days+& the reason is -robably an u-set digester. <mong the -otential causes& the maAor ones are: too high a le"el of to'ic com-ounds in the waste feed& too high a feed rate or too cold a tem-erature in the digester. < low digester tem-erature could be the result of a failure in the heating system. /f a large amount of waste is added at one time& it should be -reheated to E7: to -re"ent thermal shoc. to the methane bacteria. Better -erformance is usually obtained with continuous loading i.e. where the digester is loaded with smaller amounts of waste on a daily basis. 6.3.1 p:: < near-neutral acidity (-HV1.@+ is a good indicator of -ro-er o-eration. This means that the bacterial -o-ulations are in balance& with the Yacid formersI -roducing only as much organic acids as the Ymethane formersI can use. < -H below 8.@ indicates a digester u-set. Bess-than-o-timum en"ironmental conditions can cause a digester u-set& usually resulting in acid conditions. This is because acid-forming bacteria will thri"e under a much wider range of en"ironmental conditions than the slower-growing methaneforming bacteria. <cid conditions can be tem-orarily controlled by adding an al.aline substance such as lime. Howe"er& the original cause of the imbalance must be found and corrected if gas -roduction is to be maintained.

9igure 1(: p: @ffects

6.3.2 )mmonia Concentration: <s <mmonia is -resent in large 3uantities in urine it can inhibit methane -roduction if -resent in large enough concentrations. <mmonia concentration at 1&7@@ -arts -er million (--m+ is considered to be the ma'imum allowable for good methane -roduction. <bo"e that le"el& the waste should be diluted with non-sewage water.

%E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

@ffect of )mmonia Concentration on Methane 5roduction:


Table 32: )mmonia Concentration @ffect on Methane 5roduction

Concentration -mg+l of )mmonia/<1 7 - ;@@ ;@@ - 1@@@ 17@@ - %@@@ <bo"e %@@@

@ffect Beneficial 4o ad"erse effect #ossible inhibition at higher -H Dalues To'ic

6.3.3 Eniform loading: (-referably daily+. 6.3.4 Le Consideration: )arbon: 4itrogen >atio of the in-ut material is the .ey consideration. This ratio is the balance of food a microbe re3uires to growH the o-timal ): 4 ratio is ;@K%@:1. E'cess 4 can lead to ammonia inhibition of digestion. The -rimary limitation on co-generation of li"estoc. waste along with li3uid waste loading rates is the high nitrogen (4+ content com-ared to its carbon ()+ content. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in manure added to the digester should be ;@ -arts ) to one -art 4 for o-timum methane -roduction. )ro- residues and lea"es& which are usually low in nitrogen content but high in carbon& could be useful in im-ro"ing digester -erformance. $i'ing cro- residue with high nitrogen li"estoc. waste -ro"ides a more fa"orable ):4 ratioH and gas -roduction increases accordingly. /f the li3uid wasteH cow manure and cro- residueC lea"es is not enough& for gas -roduction re3uirements& it can be mi'ed with "egetable and food waste to co"er the deficiency. Howe"er& this mi'ture has to meet certain conditions to be suitable for the digestion -rocess. This should ne"er e'ceed a ratio of %7:1& and e"en %@:1 is 3uite high. < high ratio will slow the digestion -rocessH a lower ratio will allow it to -roceed well and will ensure a good fertili,er with high nitrogen contents. Substances with low ratio are unsuitable for o-en air com-osting because so much nitrogen is lost to the atmos-here& as soon as it is turned into ammonia. Howe"er& the Biogas -lant a"oids this& as the atmos-here is sealed& and the ammonia cannot esca-e. Carbon: <itrogen .atios:
Table 33:C:< .atios

G 1 2 3 0rine

Material Blood )ow $anure (dung+

C+< @.9 % ;7

< -F 1 17 K 19 1@ K 1= 1.1

6.3.5 2mportant 2ssue: The most im-ortant initial issue when considering the a--lication of anaerobic digestion systems is the feedstoc. to the -rocess. <lmost any organic material can be -rocessed with anaerobic digestionH howe"er& if biogas -roduction is the aim& the le"el of -utrescibility is the .ey factor in its successful =@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

a--lication. The more -utrescible (digestible+ the material& the higher the gas yields -ossible from the system. 6.3.6 @stablishment: #o-ulations of anaerobic microorganisms ty-ically ta.e a significant -eriod of time to establish themsel"es to be fully effecti"e. Therefore& common -ractice is to introduce anaerobic microorganisms from materials with e'isting -o-ulations& a -rocess .nown as XseedingX the digesters& ty-ically accom-lished with the addition of sewage sludge or cattle slurry. 6.3.8 0uitabilit of .a% Material: )ertainly& large 3uantities of antibiotics and cleaning disinfectants should be .e-t out of the digester. :or this reason& consider e'cluding farrowing building waste from the digester. The antibiotic rumensin is also to'ic to methane bacteria and should not be fed to cattle whose waste is to be used for methane generation. 6.3.' 5ercentage of 0olids: /deally the slurry in a gas -lant digester should be 12 - E2 solid material& -ure manure is 192 dry matterH it must be diluted with a roughly e3ual -art of water to achie"e this le"el. /f "egetable waste is added& more water will ha"e to be added& de-ending on the solid content of the "egetable matter. /t ma.es greater Fecological senseG to utili,e sewage for this -ur-ose. /f "egetable waste is used the gas -lant should be -ro"ided with some .ind of a mechanical agitation system& otherwise& the hea"y lea"es or straw will settle to the bottom and fermentation will be "ery slow. 6.3.> Temperature of Cperating C cle: The o-erating cycle is the number of days after which with regular feeding and discharge of the gas -lant& the entire contents are re-laced by fresh material. <t tem-eratures a"eraging about 17O:& manure will ta.e about 7@ days to be com-letely digested. Bight "egetable waste will be digested in about 1@ days at this tem-erature. < mi'ture of manure and "egetable waste will ta.e about 7@ - 8@ days& de-ending largely on the 3uantity and the .ind of the "egetable waste added. /f tem-erature is artificially maintained between E@O: and 1@@O:& the fermentation -eriod will not be more than ;9 days for manure and =7 days for "egetable waste. <ccordingly& large si,e -lants that ha"e such tem-erature control will be based on an o-erating cycle in this range. 6.4 Digester Construction .e*uirements: 6.5.1 2nsulating: Because tem-erature is critical to methane generation& heat conser"ation in the digester is essential. To utili,e the insulating -ro-erties of the soil& consider mounding the soil u- around the tan. or burying the tan. in a well-drained site so that the soilIs full insulating -otential can be reali,ed :eating. The system most commonly used to -ro"ide a year-round E7: tem-erature for methane generation is a heat e'changer where hot water -i-es are -laced within the digester. The water can be heated outside the digester& -ossibly using a methane-fired water heater. :or best results& waste should be -reheated before adding it to the digester. <s much as fi"e times more heat may be needed for the -reheating -rocess as for maintaining digester tem-erature. 6.4.2 0tirring. $i'ing is im-ortant to ensure ade3uate contact between the bacteria and the waste and also to hel- stri- gas out of the li3uid. $i'ing can be done using either: $echanical mi'er. )om-ressor to bubble collected gas bac. through the digester li3uid. )losed-circuit manure -um-. =1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

< mechanical stirrer wor.s well as long as a good air seal is maintained. <tmos-heric o'ygen must be e'cluded from the digester& to eliminate the threat of e'-losion. :or the mechanical or -um--ty-e methods& to determine the horse-ower (h-+ needed to mi' the digester contents& use the e3uation: h-V@.197 ' 2 total solids ' li3uid ca-acity (in 1&@@@ cft units+. :or e'am-le& a 1@&@@@-cubic foot digester containing waste at 8 -ercent solids would re3uire a 11.1 h- mi'er (@.197 M 82 M 1@+. <s to fre3uency of stirring& some small-scale studies indicate that intermittent stirring (%-= times -er day+ is about as effecti"e as continuous stirring. /f a com-ressor is used for mi'ing& -i-ing can be inserted into the digester& and recirculated gas from a storage unit inAected by means of an o-en -i-e or diffuser at the bottom of the tan.. This creates turbulence and .ee-s the solids in sus-ension. <ny gas -i-ing used should either slo-e bac. to the digester or ha"e condensate tra-s to -re"ent water "a-or from condensing and bloc.ing the lines when the gas cools. <lso& it is im-ortant that a gas meter be installed on the gas collection line in order to monitor digester o-erationH a high& stable gas -roduction le"el usually indicates good o-eration.

9igure 11: 0tirrer

6.5 Digester 2nno"ations: 6.5.1 Corn Cob Digesters < laboratory study at #urdue 0ni"ersity found that an anaerobic digester containing corn cobs can be used to treat swine waste and -roduce methane at tem-eratures as low as 87:. The study used a detention time of 7 days and a loading rate of 1.7 -ounds of "olatile solids -er cubic foot -er day. This system holds a great deal of -romise for on farm use& with daily gas -roduction as high as 1.7 "olumes of gas -er "olume of digester. Since the cobs are high in carbon but low in nitrogen& they im-ro"e the ):4 ratio by su--lying additional organic carbon. They also -ro"ide a su--ort medium onto which bacteria can attach and be retained within the digester instead of being remo"ed with the digester effluent. 6.5.2 <n Energy 5ome that combines li3uid waste-treatment with biodegradable solid waste consisting of four& %@ft. domes (two each of <naerobic and <erobic 5esign+ with =; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

allied e3ui-ment will o-timally generate 1@ $6-hours of electricity while treating 1@&@@@ gallons (92 solid content+ of waste -er day. This is ade3uate to maintain 7@@ to 1&@@@ homes& de-ending u-on energy re3uirements. <n energy dome of this si,e& ca-able of generating %&87@ $6-hours annually and should cost under >s. ;@ million. This system costs less than coal or nuclear for initial set u- as well as maintenance while remaining com-letely sustainable. The % inch concrete with Basalt >ebar domeIs disaster-roof construction and adobe co"er of 1 to ; feet im-arts the ultimate fle'ibility for architectural design. /t is ideally suited for small as well as large-scale structures such as homes& sho-s& mos3ues& auditoriums& schools& athletic facilities& arenas& stadiums& gymnasiums& con"ention halls& stores& sho-s& and warehouses& including cold storeCfree,er o-erations. /nsulated concrete domes -ro"ide e'cellent energy efficiency. Heating and cooling a dome ty-ically costs 1C= to 1C; less than a con"entional building the same si,e. This cost sa"ings has to do with how the dome is constructed. The thermal mass of the concrete and adobe combined create an > "alue of 7@-8@ with e'tremely low air filtration. Bow maintenance is also a 3uality of a $onolithic 5ome. Snow and rain cause "ery little stress on the e'terior of a dome since its sha-e sheds water 3uic.ly. /n a well constructed 5ome lea.s are rare com-ared to con"entional domes and are easily re-aired. The <merican /nstitute of <rchitects has acclaimed the geodesic dome Xthe strongest& lightest and most efficient means of enclosing s-ace .nown to manX. They handle hurricane winds& e'treme snow loads and are the safest structure in an earth3ua.e.

9igure 12: 7eodesic Dome Bamboo 9rame

8.

JMa$een Datil Ma$anoon La K 5ue to climate change and rising energyC construction material costs as well as -re"ailing construction -ractices that are outmoded and ill suited to local climate and culture& a need was felt to de"elo- a "iable alternate. S-ecifically after the Earth3ua.e disaster in <N!K and Ha,ara& it was reali,ed that habitation of unsound architectural structures that are not suited& due to seismic instability as well as increasing heatC cold& should be re-laced with an ade3uate res-onse. <fter many years of trial and error and much -ersonal e'-ense such a res-onse has emerged. >efining the conce-t through e'-ert in-ut has always been a -riority and has ser"ed to enhance the -roducti"ity and a-tness as well as reduce the costs of such an endea"or. =% Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

8.1 0tanding on the Cutside, ?oo$ing 2n: The "ery word homeless e"o.es a feeling of -ity and insecurity. The social animal that man is re3uires the safety and security of a shelter that belongs to him. < shelter wherein he can find -eace and an o--ortunity to bring u- his children. The self-res-ect and esteem that goes along with ownershi- of one?s own home& fosters a sense of well being and belonging. 6ith this inborn cra"ing once satisfied the indi"idual can be e'-ected to -ut in his best for the society that he belongs to. /n no case should an indi"idual or family grou- be made to feel as outcasts. To be e'-osed to the "agaries of nature or the arbitrariness of landlords lea"es either a sense of des-ondency or else a growing frustration and inner rage against society. This must be addressed and remo"ed in a satisfactory manner. By this / mean to say that -ro"iding a. chea- and dingy ho"el in sordid surroundings would aggra"ate rather then alle"iate the -roblem. < way to -ro"ide ine'-ensi"e yet well suitedH modern and indeed futuristic housing needs to be ado-ted. 8.2 5resent Trends: The -resent trends in building houses suffer from the following serious defects: 8.2.1 J2sraaf:K <n /slamic term denoting ostentation. The "ast amounts of money wasted on -om- and show is a sin and is strictly forbidden. This leads to fostering a sense of de-ri"ation in the less fortunate sections of society as well as clearly de-icts the owners of such ostentation as insensiti"e at the "ery least. 8.2.2 @co/Disaster: The "ery method of -roducingC manufacturing building material is contributing towards an ecological disaster in the ma.ing. Bric.sH )ementH irders and other steel -roductsH )rushH Sand and trans-ortation are all based u-on burning of fossil fuels on "ast scales. This results in the emission of no'ious gasses that greatly damage the fragile ecological system. 8.2.3 Enaesthetic: The "ery attem-t to -roduce fine homes -ro"es to be a sore on the landsca-e and is totally out of -lace. This is all the more true due to mindless a-ing of the 6est and location of homes in a com-letely different en"ironment from the original. 8.2.4 En/0cientific: The design and construction of these so called modern houses fail to ta.e into consideration Solar /nsolationH #re"ailing 6indsH >ainfallH Humidity etc. This results in enormous costs of heating and cooling. < waste that can be easily a"oided or drastically curtailed. 8.2.5 @!pensi"e: <-art from ostentation the e'-enses in"ol"ed in construction of relati"ely modest homes is enormous. This is "ery much beyond the reach of e"en the middle class. 8.2.6 <on/Traditional: The ado-tion of non--rogressi"e and indeed seriously flawed standards lea"es us e'-osed to the charge of su-erficially following unsound -ractices. /f the ado-ted course were one wherein ad"ance is made and benefits accrued there would be no harm. Howe"er ado-tion of a course that leads to the afore mentioned deficiencies is ridiculous to say the least. Secondly a growing alienation and di"ergence from ones own culture and traditions is -romoted for no -ossible gain. 8.2.8 0ite/Crientation: == Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

The first factor for -lanning a house is the location and orientation. 6hereas location is often -redetermined due to a"ailabilityH inherent location defects can be o"ercome by means of correct orientation. The direction of window and door o-enings and their grou-ing is termed as the structures orientation. This is affected by the following:
Table 34: Crientation 9actors

G 1

MaAor 9actors 0un: This is the most im-ortant determining factor to ma.e structure energy efficient. < factor of increasing im-ortance due to rising energy costs and global warming. Solar angles "ary from summer to winter and ha"e to be ta.en into consideration de-ending u-on site location where heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter is to be a"oided 4ind: #re"ailing winds of an area when catered for will -ro"ide "entilation in summer and -re"ent heat loss in winter. #egetation: Degetation -ro"ides a host of uses from aesthetic to erosionC dust noise control and insulation. This factor can also be acti"ely used for income su--lementation andC or nutrition enhancement.

8.2.'

@nerg Conser"ation: <s mentioned -re"iously this factor is of increasing im-ortance and has become almost crucial. This as-ect is addressed by the followingH
Table 35: @nerg Conser"ation

G 2tem: 10urface )rea: Buildings with large surface areas will e'-erience greater heat gainC loss when least re3uired. < circular configuration encloses the most s-ace with the least wall area. This results in com-act structures without com-romising s-ace a"ailability. ;.oof ?oads: Hea"y roof loads for insulation re3uire uncon"entional structural systems. The best of such systems is the eodesic 5ome. This design distributes the load e"enly to all walls. %0huttering: <n as-ect that has fallen into disuse for no a--arent reason. The use of slatted wooden shutters is of enormous benefit. The incor-oration of directional s.ylights or windows facing south reflects sunlight into the house in winters but is screened out in summer with the change in the suns angle. The energy loss at nighttime is greatly reduced by using the insulated shutter in winters. 8.2.> Thermal Characteristics: The inherent heat lossC gain features of a structure are termed as its thermal characteristics. Thermal Mass: This affects the heat ca-acity& which is the amount of energy re3uired to change the tem-erature by 1 degree. < building with a large thermal mass within the insulation heats and cools at a low and slow rate. 6hereas the o--osite ta.es -lace at small thermal mass. 6here tem-erature inside the building is more of 3uestion =7 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

of sur"i"al rather then comfort this factor ta.es on increased im-ortance. #assi"e solar use greatly diminishes re3uirements of e'ternal energy sources in winters. 8.2.1( @arth 0helter: The interaction between roofH walls and floor is to a greater degree when earth shelter is used. 8.2.11 .oof: The geodesic dome -ro"ides the least roof surface area of any structure. This combined with a thic. earth berm around the walls leads to a high thermal mass. This results in moderate and stable heat gainC loss. Shading by trees is much easier. /f new -lanting is re3uired the growing -eriod can be co"ered by using green netting on bamboo -oles which is easier and uses less material then re3uired for s3uare or rectangular roofs& secondly use of fruit or "egetable "ines is also easier. 8.2.12 4alls: The door and window o-enings not only affect the strength of the building but also the net heat gainC loss. #ro-erly designed south facing o-enings& directly e'-osed to the sun in winters and shaded in summers should be used. These will -ro"ide a -ositi"e heating affect in winter and minimi,e gain in summer. Surrounding "egetation will decrease heat gain and conse3uent reflectionC conduction from the immediate "icinity. 8.2.13 9loors: The interior tem-erature begins to rise due to warmC hot incoming air or conduction in summer. <n un-insulated floor res-onds by drawing heat out of the building at a greater rate in an attem-t to maintain a steady tem-erature. Studies show that a three-fold increase in heat loss occurs in summer to aid in stabili,ing the interior tem-erature to comfortable le"els. < "a-or barrier of e'isting roofing material under a relati"ely thin com-acted floor will not act as a maAor im-ediment to this -rocess. 8.2.14 Basements: 6ith additional increase in e'-ense a si,able below grade& well ty-e room can be added to the structure at any time without affecting the e'isting building. This room will ha"e e"en more desirable thermal characteristics in e'tremely se"ere climates. /n this case -re-cast concrete -lan.s are used as roofing materialC floor of the abo"e grade room. Since these -ossess -oor insulation es-ecially where water-roofing is not re3uired& the heat loss characteristics are not affected. /ndeed these can be -ositi"ely aided by -ro"ision of e'haustC co"ering with rugs. 8.2.15 Berming: #ro"ision of a slo-ing earth berm around the structure will -ro"ide e"en greater insulation and lead to greater thermal mass. Secondly im-ro"ed drainage characteristics can be readily incor-orated. Thirdly utility rooms such as .itchen and bathC washrooms can be con"eniently built into these berms. :ourthly a greater degree of stability is ensured. 8.2.16 2nternal :eat 7ain: 5e-ending u-on the si,e and life style of the occu-ants there is a net heat gain inside the structure. This is estimated at 1; to 17 KwHrs -er day in winter and 1 to E KwHrs in summers for a small household (7 to 1 indi"iduals+. < good cross "entilation -lan and e'haust of .itchen heat to the outside will curtail this heat in summer. >etention of .itchen heat in winter and use of shuttering will add to comfort in winter. 8.2.18 4ell/Designed Cpenings: =8 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

>ecessed and shaded o-enings will greatly add to -re"ention of heat gainC loss when re3uired. These will automatically aid in -re"enting entry of insects as well as dust into the interior of the house. #ro-erly fabricated windows can -ro"ide net heat gain in winters. 8.2.1' 5re"ailing )dobe :omes: The conce-t of adobe housing is ancient and is still being used in many underde"elo-edC de"elo-ing )ountries. /ne'-ensi"e material and 3uic. building ha"e always been the hallmar.s of such ty-es of building. /nsecurity of tenancy adds to the re3uirement of building an ine'-ensi"e and semi--ermanent home. )rude and -rimiti"e& they nonetheless -ro"ide some features of climatic ada-tation that are worth considering.
Table 36: Current )dobe Construction Climatic )daptation )d"antages

G 1 ; %

)d"antages: Earthen walls gain and lose heat slowly. $aterial readily a"ailable& usually free of cost. Zuic. dryingC fast building.

Table 38: Current )dobe Construction Climatic )daptation Disad"antages

G Disad"antages: 1 >oofing gains and loses heat ra-idly. ; 4eeds constant maintenance. % Bea.ing roofs. 8.2.1> 7eodesic Dome Construction:
Table 3': 7edesic Dome Construction )d"antages

G )d"antages: 1 /ne'-ensi"e and readily a"ailable /nsulation materials ()lay+. ; Zuic. to build. % Dirtually indestructible. = :ire -roof. 7 /nsect -roof. 8 Earth3ua.e -roof. 1 6ater-roof. 9 Highly hygienic. E Bow cost. 1@ Su-er /nsulation. 0sual conce-ts of low cost houses are inefficient and de-ressing. This conce-t utili,es the e'tremely -leasing design of a eodesic 5ome and incor-orates the ad"antages of Earth Sheltered and #assi"e Solar Techni3ues. 8.2.2( 4eather+ Climate Crientation:

=1 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

/n cold climates or hot areas the house is built facing the South for ma'imum solar gain in winters and minimum in summers. #re"ailing cold and hot winds are also ta.en into account. 8.2.21 ?ocation: This ty-e of housing is highly ada-table in land use. Howe"er some disad"antages do cro- u-. 8.2.22 0ummar : 5etached 0nits re3uire from a minimum of @.@1 acres to @.18 acres lot si,es. :our 0nit )lusters re3uire @.;7 acres while double >ow <ttached 0nits re3uire as little as @.@19 acre lot si,es. This is by far the lowest of any ty-e of construction while yet lea"ing a range from as low as 7@ s3uare feet -er indi"idual for an 9-member family. <t -resent our less fortunate brethren are huddled together at intensities of 17 to ;7 s3uare feet -er indi"idual and are cram-ed together in single rooms where coo.ing also ta.es -lace in rainy weather. The conce-t of attached bathroomsC toilets is all together missing. #ri"acy is non-e'istent and this and the other factors ha"e significant ad"erse im-acts u-on the -syches of the coming generations. The House thus -ro"ides the following additional ad"antages:
Table 3>: )d"antages of 5roposed Construction

G )d"antages: 1 $ore S-ace at low cost. ; $ore aesthetic surroundings for children. % $ore #ri"acy. = S-ace <ge design acts as stimulus to imagination. 7 $ore #ri"acy. 8 /ndoor Toilets -ro"ide hygienic surroundings. 1 Stimulates #ride of -ossession. 9 >aises self-esteem. E Encourages 4ation Building. 1@ :osters )ohesi"eness in Society. 11 >emo"es <-athy. 8.3 Concept: The conce-t is based u-on the $ongol folding :elt Tents (F erG: *rigin of 0rdu word F harG or home+ which incor-orated for the first time the conce-t of Tension Bands and thus -re-em-ted disco"ery of this "ital architectural -rinci-le. The conce-t was ta.en further by the Tur.s who named it as FJurtG (*rigin of the word and language 0rdu as -lural of FJurtG to FJurtuG or <rmy )am-+. $uslim architecture incor-orated the engineering e'cellence of the 5ome as e'isting in harmony with the force of gra"ity as o--osed to the flat roof of contem-orary architecture. The de"elo-ment of the eodesic 5ome further increased the strength and engineering soundness of the conce-t. This de"elo-ment has been used e'tensi"ely by me to erect Bow-)ost En"ironmentC #redator reenC Shade Houses for Kitchen ardening. Here a wide "ariety of materials can be used to erect the re3uisite frame for the said -ur-ose. Similarly& the conce-t has been ta.en further and ada-ted to meet the e'acting climatic& e'-ense and geo stability re3uirements that we face. =9 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

8.3.1 @ffort: <n effort was made to utili,e locally a"ailable (4<>)+ construction material in the most efficient manner to establish >a-idly Erected& Bow-)ost 5welling for :ield >esearchC 5e"elo-ment wor.ers. The intended full scale model was for a ;@ ft. diameter dome with 7 foot "erandah& two bedrooms with one baths and one .itchen. The structure was to accommodate = wor.ers or two officers. :or TsunamiC Diolent 6ind Storm -roofing the structure was to be grouted on a reinforced concrete (=@'=@ ft.+ -ad. 0nfortunately and des-ite e'-enditure of my own resources& using my own wor.ers nd tools& the effort was called off due to differences between the )hairman #<>) and his :ederal $inister. This led to dismissal of th )hairman and all the -eo-le he had em-loyed. 8.3.2 Cther Eses: The conce-t can& and should& be used for insulated cattle-shedsH -oultry shedsH low-cost green houses or .itchen gardens for nutritional food security calledH cottage industry wor.-lacesH mos3uesH grain silosH godownsH cold storesH Bio >eactors (for generating $ethane for 5irect combustion or Electricity generation utili,ing sewage with no e'ternal energy in-ut+H sho-s& offices and other structures. 8.3.3 The Design: The design consists of an aero dynamic geodesic dome that co"ers the most floor s-ace with the least walls or roof and rests& but is not grouted to& a floor of ; tons -er s3uare foot bearing ca-acity. This results in freedom for the structure to mo"e with& rather than resist earth3ua.es u- to E on the >ichter scale. Secondly& the aero dynamic design does not o--ose high "elocity wind and allows it to flow o"er the structure thus -ro"iding ca-ability to resist u- to ;7@ m-h winds. >ising tem-eratures in summer and increased cold in winters is resulting in increased need of energy for heating and cooling at a time when energy is scarce and -rohibiti"ely costly. This is yet another factor which is ade3uately catered for by em-lacing the lowest -ossible cost and abundantly a"ailable adobe insulation material. <rising from the technology of our own cultural streams rather then the ina--ro-riate western technologies& the conce-t is ready for ownershi- by our -eo-le. 8.3.4 Culture: The dome of $uslim architecture is the -rototy-e of the eodesic dome which is the strongest structure in an engineering sense and consists of =@ triangular facets. The com-ressional forces of traditional architecture are re-laced by -re-stressed Ftensional membersG which is best described as FTensigrityG or Tensional /ntegrity of the structure. Each member is lin.ed to the other and -asses on a--lied force to the others to -ro"ide e3ual strength of all members. Similarly& gra"itational forces from below or im-actional forces from abo"e are not resisted but are allowed to flow through the structure. 8.3.5 0tructure: The structure consists of an >)) shell of % inch thic.ness that is co"ered with 1-; foot adobe with a soil-cement layer u-on curing. This system is ca-able of ra-id erection by using -ermanent inner and outer shuttering& utili,ing -ressure filling of concrete o"er Steel Bar >e-enforcement (>ebar+ or Basalt >ebar for lower carbon rating. Ste-s in"ol"ed areH :irstly& construction of floor -ad. SecondlyH erection of inner shuttering. Thirdly& erection of outer shuttering and -ressure fillingH :ourthly& curing and remo"al of outer shuttering and finally em-lacement of adobe co"er and remo"al of inner shuttering. 8.3.6 Designing and Trials: 5esigning and trials of different "ersions for disaster -roofing began after the ;@@7 EZ and built u-on efforts at low-cost )eramic <dobe )onstruction being studied and tried by the de"elo-er since 1EE@. <t an >!5 e'-ense of =E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

>s. =.7 million (less -ersonal time and effort+ the final "ersion is ready for mass dissemination. The e'istence of EZ :ault lines& storms and finally lobal 6arming accom-anied with the e3ual and o--osite reaction of increased cold in winters& demands that such methods of construction be immediately underta.en. >esistances to change and ingrained habits ha"e to be abandoned in order to ade3uately res-ond to ;1 st )entury challenges. 6e ha"e to li"e in harmony with nature in order to continue li"ing at all[ /t is a -ity that ade3uate attention is not being -aid to the de"elo-ment des-ite or because of it being a win-win em-owerment situation for all[ '. 0i3e of the 5lant: The si,e of the -lant is determined by multi-lying the a"erage "olume of slurry to be fed -er day as to su--ly the gas and fertili,er desired& by the number of days in the o-erating cycle. : '.1 0i3ing a Bio 7as 5lant. /n a two-stage digestion system (multistage+& different digestion "essels are o-timi,ed to bring ma'imum control o"er the bacterial communities li"ing within the digesters. <cidogenic bacteria -roduce organic acids and more 3uic.ly grow and re-roduce than methanogenic bacteria. $ethanogenic bacteria re3uire stable -H and tem-erature to o-timi,e their -erformance. 0nder ty-ical circumstances& hydrolysis& acetogenesis& and acidogenesis occur within the first reaction "essel. The organic material is then heated to the re3uired o-erational tem-erature (either meso-hilic or thermo-hilic+ -rior to being -um-ed into a methanogenic reactor. The initial hydrolysis or acidogenesis tan.s -rior to the methanogenic reactor can -ro"ide a buffer to the rate at which feedstoc. is added. Some Euro-ean countries re3uire a degree of ele"ated heat treatment to .ill harmful bacteria in the in-ut waste. /n this instance& there may be a -asteuri,ation or sterili,ation stage -rior to digestion or between the two digestion tan.s. 4otably& it is not -ossible to com-letely isolate the different reaction -hases& and often some biogas is -roduced in the hydrolysis or acidogenesis tan.s. #assi"e solar heating can be used to sa"e on direct energy consum-tion.

7@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

.@DE2.@M@<T0 0mall ?arge

0ingle Chamber

Double Chamber

0ingle 0tage

Double 0tage

Multiple Digesters

)"ailabilit of . a% Material

0uitabilit of . a% Material

)rtificial :eating B )gitation

)mount B T pe Cf .a% Material Esed

)rtificial :eating B )gitation

Cperating C cle of the 5lant

Si,e of 5igester

9igure 13: 0i3ing a Digester 0ummar This table summari,es the ste-s in designing a gas -lant. The items in double bo'es are the inde-endent "ariables i.e. they are determined before any designing is done. The single bo'ed items are de-endent "ariables. The -lainly written items are free o-tions which may be chosen on the basis of con"enience and local conditions Thus -roduction re3uirements determine how big a gas -lant should be. 6ith a small -lant one has the o-tions of one or two chambers in his digester& and with a big -lant& one can choose between a single or double stage -lant& or multi-le single stage -lants connected in series. #roduction re3uirements when considered together with the a"ailability and suitability of the raw material determine the amount and ty-e of the raw material to be used. <rtificial heating and agitation is necessary for large -lants& hence it is bo'ed. :or small -lants it is not always necessary. /t only becomes necessary if the raw material used '.2

71 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

in a small -lant contains "egetable matter. Hence it is semi-bo'ed to show that it is -urely for a small gas -lant. '.3 Double 0tage: 6hen such a large digester "olume is re3uired that construction in a single tan. is im-ractical& the two stage gas -lant is constructed. Here the digester "olume is di"ided between two tan.s. 5igestion is carried out in the first tan. until 9@2 of the total gas "olume is e"ol"ed& and com-leted in the second tan.. This necessitates the calculating of two o-erating cycles& and two "olumes. The secondary digester is built without heating or agitation system& although it should ha"e insulation. The -rimary digester should ha"e all these. 6hen the -rimary tan. is o-erated with heating and agitation& 9@2 of the gas is e"ol"ed from fresh slurry after 17 days. This will be the o-erating cycle of the -rimary digester. /ts "olume should be sufficient to accommodate all the slurry fed in 17 days. < si-hon transfers the slurry into the second digester when this "olume is e'ceeded i.e. when the tan. contains more than what will be fed in 17 days. The -rimary tan. is intended mainly to -roduce gas. The function of the second digester is mainly to com-lete the decom-osition. /f gas is e"ol"ed so much the better& but the cooler tem-eratures -resent there might cause -roduction to be 3uite low. <gitationI is not used because it would disturb the se-aration of the decom-osed solid settled at the bottom& from the only -artially decom-osed slurry coming in from the si-hon. )onstruction should be in cement and concrete. Since this material will absorb the gas a non--orous& non-absorbent coating must be a--lied to the inside right down to the le"el which is e'-osed to the gas.

9igure 14: 9lo% Chart 4aste Disposal

7; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

>. G 1 2 3

.esidual 5roducts: The anaerobic digestion -rocess -roduces:

Table 4(: Methane 5roduction .esidual 5roducts

5roduct 7rease that& se-arated "ia further treatment& can be used as an alternati"e li3uid fuel. ?o%/strength ?i*uid 4astes that can be fed into an on-site aerobic treatment -lant. Class/) sludge (5igestate+ with the -otential to be used as a high-3uality soil amendment. 4 Methane 7as Contaminants >.1 Class ) 0ludge: 5igestate is the solid remnants of the original in-ut material to the digesters that the microbes cannot use. /t also consists of the minerali,ed remains of the dead bacteria from within the digesters. 5igestate can come in three forms: fibrous& li3uor& or a sludge-based combination of the two fractions. The second by-roduct (<cidogenic digestate+ is a stable& organic material consisting largely of lignin that cannot be bro.en down by the anaerobic microorganisms and cellulose. The biodegradation of the nitrocellulose com-ounds may be the most challenging ste- of the bioremedial -rocess. Howe"er an alternati"e a--roach is to use .nown anaerobic bacteria often isolated in bo"ine rumens& or horse intestines % that are ca-able of decom-osing cellulose. The route which these ty-e microorganisms use to degrade cellulosic com-ounds is through the -roduction of im-ortant cellobiase en,ymes& endo and e'oglucanases& es-ecially of fungal origin. /t is -ro-osed to use the s-ecies Clostridium cellobio arum& which ha"e been found to effecti"ely degrade cellulose under a--ro-riate conditions& es-ecially anaerobically. /f this a--roach succeeds the digestate will not consist of significant "olumes of cellulose. <lso of a "ariety of mineral com-onents in a matri' of dead bacterial cellsH some -lastic may be -resent. The material resembles domestic com-ost and can be used as such or to ma.e low-grade building -roducts& such as fiberboard. The third by-roduct is a li3uid (methanogenic digestate+ rich in nutrients& which can be used as a fertili,er& de-ending on the 3uality of the material being digested. Be"els of -otentially to'ic elements (#TEs+ should be chemically assessed. This will de-end u-on the 3uality of the original feedstoc.. /n the case of most clean and sourcese-arated biodegradable waste streams& the le"els of #TEs will be low. /n the case of wastes originating from industry& the le"els of #TEs may be higher and will need to be ta.en into consideration when determining a suitable end use for the material. The digestate may contain ammonia that is -hytoto'ic& and may ham-er the growth of -lants if it is used as a soil-im-ro"ing material. :or these two reasons& a maturation or com-osting stage may be em-loyed after digestion. Bignin and other materials are a"ailable for degradation by aerobic microorganisms& such as fungi& hel-ing reduce the o"erall "olume of the material for trans-ort. 5uring this maturation& the ammonia will be o'idi,ed into nitrates& im-ro"ing the fertility of the material and ma.ing it more suitable as a soil im-ro"er. Barge com-osting stages are ty-ically used by dry anaerobic digestion technologies The wastewater e'iting the anaerobic digestion facility will ty-ically ha"e ele"ated le"els of biochemical o'ygen demand (B*5+ and chemical o'ygen demand ()*5+. These measures of the reacti"ity of the effluent indicate an
%

Sha-ton& 1E11

7% Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

ability to -ollute. Some of this material is termed Ihard )*5I& meaning it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for con"ersion into biogas. /f this effluent were -ut directly into watercourses& it would negati"ely affect them by causing eutro-hication. <s such& further treatment of the wastewater is often re3uired. This treatment will ty-ically be an o'idation stage wherein air is -assed through the water in se3uencing batch reactors or re"erse osmosis unit. >.1.1 Composting the Digestate:
Table 41: Digestate Composting )d"antages

G 1 ; % = 7

8 1 9 E

Benefits of Composting: Ser"es as the -rinci-al storehouse for anions such as nitrates& sulfates& borates& molybdates and chlorides that are essential for -lant growth. /ncreases )E) ()ation E'change )a-acity+ of soil by a factor of 7 to 1@ times that of clay. <cts as a buffer against ra-id changes caused by acidityH al.alinityH salinityH -esticides and to'ic hea"y metals. Su--lies food for beneficial soil organisms li.e earthworms& symbiotic 4itrogen fi'ing bacteria and mycorrihi,e (beneficial fungus+. Ser"es as recycling sin. for organic waste and green manures (animal manure& croresidues& household refuse and leguminous -lants collected within and outside the farm+ and thus .ee-s en"ironment clean and hygienic. Softens the soil by introducing fibrous matter. /ncreases soil water retention ca-acity. $a.es -lants more resistant to -ests and disease through im-ro"ed nutrient a"ailability and u-ta.e& resulting in healthier -lants with strong immune systems. #re"ents soil acidification.

9igure 15: ?arge 0cale Composting

>.2 7as Contamination and Contaminants: >aw biogas -roduced from digestion is not high 3uality enough to be used as fuel gas for machinery. The solution is the use of u-grading or -urification -rocesses whereby contaminants in the raw biogas stream are absorbed or scrubbed& lea"ing more methane -er unit "olume of gas. /t ta.es roughly between %-82 of the total energy out-ut in gas to run a biogas u-grading system. 7= Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Definition: #rocess of remo"ing one or more undesirable com-onents from a gas stream. Ty-ically targeted at remo"ing hydrogen sulfide (H;S+& silo'anes& and -articulates. *-tional remo"al of carbon dio'ide& nitrogen& and water "a-or for s-ecific a--lications. 5igesters are .nown to contain undesirable com-onents such as:

9igure 16: Digester 7as Contents

: drogen 0ulfide, :20: 1(( to 3,((( ppm: H;S gas when combined with water "a-or -roduces a wea. acid: hydro sulfuric acid which is corrosi"e to metals in the combustion chamber as well as the inta.e and e'haust -i-ing. /t also -roduces sulfur dio'ide during combustion. The corrosi"e nature of H;S alone is enough to destroy the internals of a -lant. The addition of ferrous chloride& :e)l;& to the digestion tan.s inhibits hydrogen sulfide -roductionH #olatile 0ilo!anes, 1(( to 1(,((( ppb: The word silo'ane is deri"ed from the words silicon& o'ygen& and al.ane. They belong to the wider class of organo-silicon "olatile organic com-ounds (D*)s+. Silo'anes can be found in -roducts such as cosmetics& deodorants& de-foamers& tooth-aste& water re-elling windshield coatings& lubricants& food additi"es& and soa-s. $ost common silo'ane ty-es found in digester gas are the 5%& 5=& and 57 com-ounds. Such com-ounds are fre3uently found in household waste and wastewater and are formed from the anaerobic decom-osition of materials commonly found in soa-s and detergents. 5uring combustion of biogas containing silo'anes& silicon is released and can combine with free o'ygen or "arious other elements in the combustion gas. /t also forms de-osits containing mostly silica (Si*;+ or silicates (Si%*y+ and can also contain calcium& sulfur& ,inc& -hos-horus. Such white mineral de-osits accumulate to a surface thic.ness of se"eral millimeters and must be remo"ed by chemical or mechanical means. .ecommended target concentration: 77 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

Target concentration in feed gas : \1@@ --m >eci-rocating engines and boilers: \1@@ --b Turbines C $icro-turbines: \ 7@ --b @ffect of 0ilo!anes: Silo'anes degrade to silicates (Si*; ! Si*%+ at high tem-erature and create im-ermeable glass -articles. These -articles bond onto hot metal surfaces. .eciprocating 5iston @ngines: :orms de-osits and hot s-ots in the combustion chamber& "al"es& "al"e seats& -iston crowns and cylinder walls. Boilers: 5e-osits a coating of silicate on boiler tubes that lowers heat transfer efficiency. 7as Turbines: 5e-osits on turbine blades leading to blade erosion and a significant dro- in o-erating efficiency. 5articulates: :orm de-osits on engine surfaces and boiler e3ui-ment. 4ater #apor, :2C: 1 M 6F: /nert gas& lowers heat "alue of digester gas. F6etG gas is more corrosi"e to machinery Carbon Dio!ide: 35 M 4(F <itrogen& 4;: \12 >.3 5urification of ?andfill and Digester 7as: #urification is done to remo"e harmful constituents within the stream. The addition of ferrous chloride& :e)l;& to the digestion tan.s inhibits hydrogen sulfide -roduction. The methane within biogas can be concentrated "ia a biogas u-grader to the same standards as fossil natural gas& which itself has had to go through a cleaning -rocess& and becomes biomethane. The cleaned methane fuel may be -ressuri,ed into a high -ressure fuel which is suitable for use with motors or "ehicle engines ada-ted to be fueled by com-ressed natural gas. /f the S4 #B allows for this& the -roducer of the biogas may utili,e the local gas distribution networ.s. as must be "ery clean to reach -i-eline 3uality& and must be of the correct com-osition for the local distribution networ. to acce-t. :irst the $ethane as is -assed through a -rimary .noc.out -ot that remo"es dro-lets& and filters matter from the $ethane as. The first segment of the duct -asses through a series of three tubes that are filled with caustic soda that retains the )*; emitted by the methane. The ba.ing soda -roduced after )*; reduction can also be a com-lementary source of re"enue. 4e't main "acuum andCor blowerIs -ressure boost the gas to the a--ro-riate conditions for mo"ing the -rocess gases as re3uired. The hydrogen sulfide (H;S+ remo"al system can either be a scrubber with solid media that absorbs the H;S in the $ethane as stream or a li3uid scrubber that catalytically con"erts H;S in the gas stream to solid sulfur. 6hen using the second mentioned method& hydrogen sulfide remo"al -roduces inert element sulfur that can further -urified for use as a secondary nutrient or e"en to stabili,e 0rea to a"oid hydrolysis and "olatili,ation when it is inculcated in the soil. This would also -ro"ide us with a double nutrient fertili,er. <lternati"ely it can be used as an additi"e for com-ost. This is in contrast to ty-ical hydrogen sulfide remo"al -rocesses that -roduce a ha,ardous waste element to be dis-osed of as ha,ardous waste if it is treated by the first mentioned method. <fter the hydrogen sulfide remo"al -rocess the gas mo"es to the silo'ane remo"al e3ui-ment where silo'anes are remo"ed by adsor-tion. The silo'anes remo"al 78 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

system can be granular media scrubbers with re-generable or non-re-generable adsorbent media or a -ressure swing adsor-tion (#S<+ system& Dacuum Swing <dsor-tion system (DS<+& Tem-erature Swing <dsor-tion (TS<+ system. The silo'ane waste -roducts are then dis-osed of with a small amount of $ethane as in a flare or thermal o'idi,er. The resulting cleaned $ethane as fuel is deli"ered as feedstoc. to the wor. a--lication with clean& dry& filtered and tem-eratureCdew -oint controlled fuel gas stream& without e'cessi"e hydrogen sulfide& and silo'anes after a final -articulate filter to remo"e any entrained -articulates in the gas stream. This stage may include as )onditioning. < s.id mounted gas drying system& including a moisture inlet coalescer& heat e'changers& chiller& -um-s& moisture se-arator& recirculation by-ass& and all -i-ing& controls& and control -anel consisting of: #rime mo"er: 5ifferential -ressure blower& com-ressor& "acuum -um- stage. This stage -roduces the re3uired delta # to mo"e the gas within the -rocess stages& deli"er it at -ressures re3uired for use in the engineCboiler user system. This stage mo"es from -oint to -oint within the flow -ath -er Aob re3uirements. .easons for 7as 0crubbing:
Table 42: 7as 5urification .easons

G .eason 1 5ecrease engine maintenance inter"als ; /m-ro"e fuel (heat+ "alue % /m-ro"e engine -erformance -ro"iding more -ower[ = Sell gas to utility (-i-eline 3uality+ 7 #roduce com-ressed natural gas ()4 + for )ity fleet use 8 #ro"ide higher 3uality fuel to boiler 1 Bess maintenance There are four main methods of biogas u-grading& these include: 4ater/%ashing: The most -re"alent method is water washing where high -ressure gas flows into a column where the carbon dio'ide which is soluble in water and other trace elements such as #articulates are scrubbed by cascading water running counter-flow to the gas. This arrangement could deli"er E92 methane with manufacturers guaranteeing ma'imum ;2 methane loss in the system. /t ta.es roughly between %-82 of the total energy out-ut in gas to run a biogas u-grading system. >.3.1 7as 0crubbing Technologies: )dsorption -Dr 0crubbing1 $olecular Sie"e $edia <dsor-tion: )om-onent is adsorbed onto media the media is either e'hausted and re-laced or regenerated such as /ron s-onge (iron o'ide on wood chi-s+ for remo"ing H;S 4et 0crubbing: <cti"ated carbon& acti"ated alumina for silo'ane. remo"al

71 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

9igure 18: 4et 0crubbing

.efrigeration ()hilling+: $echanical refrigeration that remo"es moisture by lowering the tem-erature of the gas to condense the water "a-or. *ther im-urities also remo"ed in condensate. .emo"es: $oisture - dew-oint \ =@]: E@ - 1@@2 -articulates 1@ - 9@2 silo'anes ;@ - %@2 H;S 5ressure 0%ing )dsorption (#S<+: < mechanical -ressure switching system that ra-idly cycles from adsor-tion to regeneration. 0ses molecular sie"e media and other adsor-tion media to allow the -assage of methane but reAects carbon dio'ide& H;S& and silo'anes Molecular 0ie"e Media: S-eciali,ed adsor-tion media that tra-s (adsorbs+ smaller molecules in media while allowing larger molecules to -ass through. $edia can be ra-idly regenerated. Digester 7as 0crubbing: Tra-s carbon dio'ide& nitrogen& and other smaller molecules while allowing methane to -ass through media. <ngstrom K length e3ual to 1 ' 1@-1@ meters.

:igure 19: #S< )ycle

79 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

5ressure 5hase: <dsorbingH :eed gas flows u-ward thru media bed. Targeted com-ounds are tra--ed or adsorbed in the media bed. )H= -asses thru the bed& o"er time the bed will become saturated. #acuum 5hase: #urging and >egeneratingH #ressure is released thru the bottom of adsorbent bed.

9igure 1>: 50)

7as 0crubbing )pproaches: >emo"e H;S& )*;& #articulates and Silo'anes 0nit #rocesses in SeriesH Series of unit -rocesses to remo"e each undesirable com-onent.
Table 43: 5urification 5rocess

G 5rocesses: 1 /ron s-onge. ; <cti"ated )arbon. % )hiller. = 6et Scrubber. 7 <dsor-tion. 8 #ressure Swing <dsor-tion (#S<+. 0chematic: $aAor )om-onents of #S< as Scrubber :eed )om-ressor Ty-e: >eci-rocating )a-acity: 1 $illion S):5 8@ H# $otor )om-resses from =@-7@ to 1@7 #S/ Dacuum )om-ressor Ty-e: Bi3uid >ing )a-acity:@.7 $illion S):5 17@ H# $otor >educes from -% to -19 in of H ^ <dsorber Dessels :our <dsorbers: *n-line& 5e--ressuri,ing& >e--ressuri,ing& and #urging. Buffer Tan.s Two E3uali,ation and Two >e-ressuri,ation Tan.s Tail as BufferTan. 7E Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

G 1 ; % = 7 8 1 9 E 1@

#urge Tan.

Table 44: 50) 0crubbing )d"antages

)d"antages of 50) 0crubbing: 4o consumables. #S< media has 7T year life. Single -rocess "ersus multi-le -rocesses. Bess li3uid discharge (com-ared to wet scrubbing for )*; remo"al+. Bower maintenance cost. Bower o-erating cost. )ost of the -roAect. >ecei"ed <merican >eco"ery and >ein"estment <ct (<>><+ money for the -roAect. #ay bac. -eriod will be between 7-1@ years. By using clean gas reduction in maintenance cost of the engines and boilers. Sell the gas to as )om-any or Build a )4 station.

1(. Determining the 9easibilit of Methane 5roduction: The economics of methane -roduction are generally considered 3uestionable& e"en at todayIs escalating fuel -rices. But energy costs and a"ailability tomorrow is changing this feasibility drastically. The following e'am-le& while by no means a com-lete economic analysis& should -ro"ide a rough idea of the "alue of methane generation. @!ample: 0r. 2tems and calculations #alue ). Determine potential "olume of gas produced per da . 1. as -roduced -er unit of in-ut materials. ;. Total gas -roduced -er day. Zuantity of in-ut ' Ste- <.1 %. Total methane -roduced -er day. Ste- <.;C _ B. 1. ;. %. =. C. 1. ;. %. Determine amount and "alue of energ produced. Energy "alue -er day. (<ssumes ` of the methane must be recycled to -ro"ide heat for the digester. <s com-ared to cost of 4atural as. Energy "alue of methane ' usable methane ' Ste- <.% V BT0Cday 4atural as e3ui"alent of heat -roduced. Ste- B.1 C BT0Cgal. 4atural as >u-ee "alue of energy -roduced -er day. #rice of 4atural as ' Ste- B.; >u-ee "alue of energy -roduced -er year. 5aysCyr. ' Ste- B.% Determine digester tan$ "olume and dimensions 5esign li3uid "olume in the digester Below rade Dolume Total digester "olume (including 1C; dayIs storage for gas -roduced+ in cubic feet. Ste- ).1 T (1C; day ' Ste- <.%+ Total digester "olume in gallons.

8@ Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

=. 7. D. 1. ;. a.

b. c. d. e. %. a. b. =. a. b. 7. @. 1. ;. %. =. 7. 8. 9.

als.Ccu.ft. ' Ste- @.; 5ome dimensions. 5iameter of circular sum- for height chosen. ((Ste- ).; C Ste- ).=+ ' 1.;1+1C; Determine Digester Cost, including 2nsulation, :eater and Mi!er. )ost of digester& including -um-. )ost for digester insulation on co"er and sidewalls. /nsulation co"ering. (*ne way to insulate is to construct a larger diameter tan. around the digester and insulate the s-ace between. The outer tan. does not need to be as watertight or sturdy as the inner tan.. <ssume cost of the e'terior tan. is 1C; the digester tan.+. Ste- 5.1 ' 1C; 5igester sidewall surface area. Ste- ).= ' Ste- ).7 M %.1= 5igester co"er area. (Ste- ).7+; ' @.1E Total digester surface area. Ste- 5.;.b T Ste- 5.;.c /nsulation cost. /nsulating costCs3.ft. ' Ste- 5.;.d )ost of the water heater. Heater si,ed to su--ly %@ BT0 -er hour -er cubic foot of digester li3uid "olume. Heater ca-acityCcu.ft. ' Ste- @.1. Heater cost. 5igester mi'er cost. $i'er si,ed to stir digester contents ha"ing about 1@ -ercent solids. Ste- ).1C1@@@ ' -ct. solids ' @.197 $i'er cost. (<ssume a %-in. dia-hragm -um- and -i-ing system to re-circulate digester contents+. Total digester cost. Ste-s 5.1 T 5.;.a T 5.;.e T 5.%.b T 5.=.b Determine the Cost of holding Digester @ffluent Entil Disposed. Effluent -roduced -er day in .gs. Effluent -roduced -er day in cubic feet. Ste- E.1 C .gs.Ccft. Storage "olume needed for '-day(s+ ca-acity in cubic feet. 5ays ca-acity ' Ste- E.; Storage "olume needed for '-day(s+ ca-acity in gallons. als.Ccu.ft. ' Ste- E.% )ost for a -refabricated storage structure. )onstruction costCgal. ' Ste- E.= )ost for an earthen storage structure. )onstruction costCgal. ' Ste- E.% Determine cost of a gas storage unit. < gas storage unit must also be constructed or else a use de"elo-ed which consumes gas at the rate it is -roduced.

81 Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org

:or this e'am-le& assume no gas storage is needed. 7. Determine total cost of this methane generation s stem. 1. Total cost with a -refabricated storage. Ste- 5.7 T Ste- E.7 ;. Total cost with an earthen storage. Ste- 5.7 T Ste- E.8 :. Determine the economic feasibilit . (The >u-ee "alue of methane -roduced in Ste- B.= can be used to determine the -aybac. -eriod+. 1. )a-ital in"estment that can be -aid bac. in 1 years. ;. Total brea.e"en in"estment. Ste- H.1 K Total /n"estment. -2n case of Carbon Credits attained or Cost .eturned the situation %ill be different. :o%e"er, it ma$es good economic sense to %or$ out @conomic 9easibilit 1. 11. Conclusion: By now& / am sure that all will agree that the discussed e'ercise is not only badly needed& it is also highly desirable and affordable. < )$5 #roAect that commands carbon )redits is the re3uirement of the day. /n this manner& gi"en seed money for initial establishment& a recycling of )a-ital along with Socially enerated 6aste is made -ossible. /n this case we do not ha"e to as. FHow much will it cost& rather as. what will it cost not to im-lement the #roAectRG

9igure 2(: Mo"ing To%ards the 9uture

8; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan. Email: timurhyat@gmail.com web: www.tamir-e-nau.org