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2g optimization and planning

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2G optimization and Planning

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Table of Content
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. 5. The optimization process cycle Quality of service objectives Quality of service evaluation Data analysis Network capacity optimization BSS parameters optimization Examples of optimization actions at network level 3 6 9 52 66 83 200

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1. The optimization process cycle

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Optimization cycle in a GSM network


QoS objective

QoS evaluation

Monitoring and collection of observation data : OMC counters, radio interface parameters

Optimization action validation

Data analysis

Optimization action

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2. Quality of service objectives

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3. Quality of service evaluation


3.1. Monitoring techniques

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Collection and global analysis of counters and alarms at all levels (from physical layer to layer 3) from the OMC

OMC

Reports

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Example of coverage map after a measurement campaign

e.g. : Coverage map after a measurement campaign

This map corresponds to processed measurements of signal level, performed on radio interface over a determined area Best server distribution gives on each point the cell offering the best signal for the mobile

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Example of coverage map after a measurement campaign

area covered by cell 0020-2 tri-sectorial site

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Capture example of data performance measurements in GPRS

RLC/MAC performance

LLC performance

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3.2. Computation of the quality of service

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counter name

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MOC Call setup reminder


MS
RR channel request RACH Channel activation (ref. SDCCH) Channel activation ack Channel activation nack RR Immediate assignment (SDCCH) L2 Immediate assignment command (IAM message) AGCH RR Immediate assignment rej L2 Immediate Assignment command (reject) SDCCH SDCCH Authentication and ciphering SDCCH SDCCH CC Setup CC Call proceeding BSSMAP Assignment request Channel activation (ref. TCH) Channel activation ack Channel activation nack SDCCH FACCH FACCH FACCH RR Assignment command(TCH) SABM UA RR Assignment complete Assignment complete Establishment Indication BSSMAP Assignment failure BSSMAP Assignment failure (SABM) CM service request (UA) CM service request (Estab Ind) CM service request Estab Failure BSSMAP Complete L3 Info (CM service request)

BTS
Channel required

BSC

MSC

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Call_estab_fail_ratio
MS
RR channel request RACH

BTS
Channel required

BSC

MSC

Channel activation (ref. SDCCH) Channel activation ack Channel activation nack RR Immediate assignment (SDCCH) L3 Immediate assignment command (IAM message) AGCH set T3101 RR Immediate assignment rej L3 Immediate Assignment command (reject) SABM( CM service request ) Estab Ind( CM service request ) BSSMAP Complete L3 Info (CM service req.) SDCCH stop T3101 UA Estab Failure SDCCH Authentication and ciphering SDCCH SDCCH CC Setup CC Call proceeding BSSMAP Assignment request Channel activation (ref. TCH) Channel activation ack Channel activation nack SDCCH FACCH FACCH FACCH RR Assignment command(TCH) SABM UA RR Assignment complete RF channel release(SDCCH) Establish Indication set T3107 BSSMAP Assignment failure (3) Assignment complete stop T3107 BSSMAP Assignment failure (2) BSSMAP Assignment failure (1)

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4. Data analysis

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Real case of SDCCH allocation failure monitoring


S D _ A L L O C _ F A IL _ R A TIO S D_A LLO C o m c N a m e B s c N a m e s e c t o rN a m e n e t w o rk OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 xxx xxx D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 1 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 3 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 7 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 8 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 1 0 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 3 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 7 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 9 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 0 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 2 2 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 3 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 5 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 2 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 7 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 3 0 D ate 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 (C 1 0 3 4 ) 488156 6862 287 6643 3575 4893 5420 4935 606 5351 171 2572 1917 2560 923 3534 899 4124 2845 4082 2599 3575 2984 904 933 3027 4070 382 2460 2572 431 TC H _ O V E R S D _ A L L O C _ F A IL ( C 1051/2) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (C 1 0 3 6 ) 1072 264 11 212 53 57 62 56 6 38 1 15 11 14 5 16 4 18 12 15 9 12 10 3 3 9 12 1 6 6 1 (C 1 0 3 6 / (C 1 0 3 6 + C 1 0 3 4 + C 1051/2) 0,22% 3,70% 3,69% 3,09% 1,46% 1,15% 1,13% 1,12% 0,98% 0,71% 0,58% 0,58% 0,57% 0,54% 0,54% 0,45% 0,44% 0,43% 0,42% 0,37% 0,35% 0,33% 0,33% 0,33% 0,32% 0,30% 0,29% 0,26% 0,24% 0,23% 0,23%

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S DCCH a llo ca tio n

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5000

6000

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0
c ell_01 c ell_02 c ell_03 c ell_04 c ell_05 c ell_06 c ell_07 c ell_08 c ell_09 c ell_10 c ell_11 c ell_12 c ell_13 c ell_14 c ell_15 c ell_16 c ell_17 c ell_18 c ell_19 c ell_20 c ell_21 c ell_22 c ell_23 c ell_24 c ell_25 c ell_26 c ell_27 c ell_28 c ell_29 c ell_30

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SD C C H _alloc_fail

Real case of SDCCH allocation failure monitoring

30 w o rst ce lls

S D_alloc

S D_alloc _fail

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Real case of TCH allocation failure monitoring


TC H _ A L L O C _ F A IL _ R A TIO TC H _ A L L O C o m c N a m e B s c N a m e s e c t o rN a m e n e t w o rk OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 xxx xxx D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 1 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 3 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 7 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 8 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 1 0 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 3 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 7 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 9 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 0 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 2 2 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 3 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 5 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 2 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 7 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 3 0 D ate 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 (C 1 0 5 1 / 0 ) 1820813 11924 12298 22974 18221 48531 16742 20629 29074 2705 7851 8152 14032 49078 41306 42859 38903 44200 6576 7288 18679 36061 34589 4582 5768 31660 4485 17922 24233 10062 4554 TC H _ R E E S ( C 1051/1) 3339 17 27 14 6 6 78 38 7 9 3 6 11 28 16 27 39 68 18 13 8 10 17 5 60 7 4 39 14 9 16 TC H _ O V E R (C 1 0 5 1 / 2 ) 51643 1054 843 4417 1116 4663 1368 187 750 0 61 105 181 1487 808 8307 819 2606 20 32 1042 5614 2099 1 10 479 4 656 829 61 5 TC H _ F A IL (C 1 0 3 9 ) 164995 20454 16895 18926 12891 22660 7495 8444 8463 703 1836 1660 2525 6007 4569 4945 3419 3845 520 567 1472 2911 2203 249 314 1683 209 821 1102 439 196 (C 1 0 3 9 / (C 1 0 3 9 + C 1 0 5 1 / 0 + C 1051/1+ C 1051/2) 8,08% 61,15% 56,20% 40,85% 39,99% 29,87% 29,18% 28,82% 22,10% 20,57% 18,83% 16,73% 15,08% 10,61% 9,78% 8,81% 7,92% 7,58% 7,29% 7,18% 6,94% 6,53% 5,66% 5,15% 5,10% 4,98% 4,44% 4,22% 4,21% 4,15% 4,11%

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T C H a llo c a tio n

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

0
c e ll_ 0 1 c e ll_ 0 2 c e ll_ 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 c e ll_ 0 5 c e ll_ 0 6 c e ll_ 0 7 c e ll_ 0 8 c e ll_ 0 9 c e ll_ 1 0 c e ll_ 1 1 c e ll_ 1 2 c e ll_ 1 3 c e ll_ 1 4 c e ll_ 1 5 c e ll_ 1 6 c e ll_ 1 7 c e ll_ 1 8 c e ll_ 1 9 c e ll_ 2 0 c e ll_ 2 1 c e ll_ 2 2 c e ll_ 2 3 c e ll_ 2 4 c e ll_ 2 5 c e ll_ 2 6 c e ll_ 2 7 c e ll_ 2 8 c e ll_ 2 9 c e ll_ 3 0

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Real case of TCH allocation failure monitoring

3 0 w o r s t c e lls T C H _ AL L O C T C H _ AL L O C _ F AIL

T C H _ a llo c _ fa il

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Real case of call assignment failure monitoring


A S S IG N A S S IG N C M D om cNam e n e t w o rk OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 OM C2 B scNam e xxx S W B S C01 S W B S C04 S W B S C04 S W B S C03 S W B S C03 S W B S C01 S W B S C01 S W B S C01 S W B S C01 S W B S C05 S W B S C03 S W B S C03 S W B S C04 S W B S C04 S W B S C02 S W B S C01 S W B S C01 S W B S C03 S W B S C02 S W B S C01 S W B S C02 S W B S C03 S W B S C01 S W B S C02 S W B S C02 S W B S C05 S W B S C01 S W B S C02 S W B S C02 S W B S C05 s e c t o rN a m e xxx c e ll_ 0 1 c e ll_ 0 2 c e ll_ 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 c e ll_ 0 5 c e ll_ 0 6 c e ll_ 0 7 c e ll_ 0 8 c e ll_ 0 9 c e ll_ 1 0 c e ll_ 1 1 c e ll_ 1 2 c e ll_ 1 3 c e ll_ 1 4 c e ll_ 1 5 c e ll_ 1 6 c e ll_ 1 7 c e ll_ 1 8 c e ll_ 1 9 c e ll_ 2 0 c e ll_ 2 1 c e ll_ 2 2 c e ll_ 2 3 c e ll_ 2 4 c e ll_ 2 5 c e ll_ 2 6 c e ll_ 2 7 c e ll_ 2 8 c e ll_ 2 9 c e ll_ 3 0 D ate 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 (C 1 0 4 9 ) 1218944 4660 6744 11534 2067 7946 8382 2137 6116 5568 5315 2423 2733 403 2733 5888 4377 519 1947 5594 11115 7836 7600 3907 322 4887 3353 6550 5164 8108 4067 COM P (C 1 0 5 0 ) 1187883 4025 5860 10123 1821 7090 7597 1961 5649 5161 4929 2254 2561 379 2573 5546 4123 489 1836 5279 10491 7400 7209 3709 306 4649 3191 6240 4923 7739 3888 A S S IG N F A IL 23603 513 675 1302 203 788 729 143 414 301 334 126 145 14 134 178 188 16 76 260 513 370 296 148 13 198 132 201 180 326 126 A S S IG N _ F A IL _ R A T IO 2,55% 13,63% 13,11% 12,23% 11,90% 10,77% 9,37% 8,24% 7,64% 7,31% 7,26% 6,97% 6,29% 5,96% 5,85% 5,81% 5,80% 5,78% 5,70% 5,63% 5,61% 5,56% 5,14% 5,07% 4,97% 4,87% 4,83% 4,73% 4,67% 4,55% 4,40%

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c a ll a s s ig n m e n t

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ce

ll_ 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ll_ 26 ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_

ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce ce

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c a ll_ a s s ig n _ fa ilu re

Real case of call assignment failure monitoring

3 0 w o r s t c e lls
ll_ ll_ ll_ ll_ 27 28 29 30

AS S IG N C MD

AS S IG N _ F AIL

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Real case of handover failure monitoring


IN C _ H O _ IN T R A om cNam e n e t w o rk OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 OM C1 B scNam e xxx s e c t o rN a m e xxx D ate 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 15/4/01 IN C _ H O _ IN T R A _ R E Q 77499 3 845 129 36 119 9 44 3 17 156 19 146 27 24 37 66 66 17 184 13 27 51 85 25 502 16 27 65 22 28 _CM D 75793 3 845 129 36 119 9 44 3 17 156 19 146 27 24 37 66 66 17 184 13 27 51 85 25 502 16 27 65 22 28 IN C _ H O _ IN T R A _ COM P 71321 0 141 39 13 62 5 26 2 12 112 14 108 20 18 28 50 50 13 141 10 21 40 68 20 405 13 22 53 18 23 IN C _ H O _ IN T R A _ R E T_ o n O L D 3972 3 694 88 23 55 4 18 1 5 44 5 35 7 6 8 16 14 3 42 3 6 10 17 5 92 2 3 11 4 5 IN C _ H O _ IN T R A _ F A IL _ R A T IO 5,90% 100,00% 83,31% 69,77% 63,89% 47,90% 44,44% 40,91% 33,33% 29,41% 28,21% 26,32% 26,03% 25,93% 25,00% 24,32% 24,24% 24,24% 23,53% 23,37% 23,08% 22,22% 21,57% 20,00% 20,00% 19,32% 18,75% 18,52% 18,46% 18,18% 17,86% D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 1 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 0 3 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 0 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 7 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 8 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 0 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 1 0 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 2 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 3 D N B S C 0 4 c e ll_ 1 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 5 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 1 7 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 1 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 1 9 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 0 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 1 D N B S C 0 3 c e ll_ 2 2 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 3 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 4 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 5 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 2 6 D N B S C 0 1 c e ll_ 2 7 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 8 D N B S C 0 2 c e ll_ 2 9 D N B S C 0 5 c e ll_ 3 0

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c e ll_ 0 1 c e ll_ 0 2 c e ll_ 0 3 c e ll_ 0 4 c e ll_ 0 5 c e ll_ 0 6 c e ll_ 0 7 c e ll_ 0 8 c e ll_ 0 9 c e ll_ 1 0 c e ll_ 1 1 c e ll_ 1 2 c e ll_ 1 3 c e ll_ 1 4 c e ll_ 1 5 c e ll_ 1 6 c e ll_ 1 7 c e ll_ 1 8 c e ll_ 1 9 c e ll_ 2 0 c e ll_ 2 1 c e ll_ 2 2 c e ll_ 2 3 c e ll_ 2 4 c e ll_ 2 5 c e ll_ 2 6 c e ll_ 2 7 c e ll_ 2 8 c e ll_ 2 9 c e ll_ 3 0

2g optimization and planning

Real case for handover failure monitoring

3 0 w o r s t c e lls IN C _ H O _ IN T R A_ C MD IN C _ H O _ IN T R A_ C O MP

in c _ in tra _ H O _ fa il

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5. Network capacity optimization

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Overall capacity optimization process


capacityaudit audit capacity -load distribution onrelevant relevantboards boards -load distribution on -CPUactivity activityanalysis analysis -CPU -capacity forecast -capacity forecast
Forecasts meet service expectancies ?

-LAPDload loadbalancing balancing NO -LAPD

localoptimization optimization local

-CPUactivity activitytroubleshooting troubleshooting -CPU -capacity forecast -capacity forecast overalloptimization optimization overall -site reparenting BTS-BSCand andBSC-MSC BSC-MSC NO -site reparenting : :BTS-BSC -LAC repartitioning -LAC repartitioning -capacityforecast forecast -capacity
Forecasts meet service expectancies ?

END

Forecasts meet service expectancies ?

END

New equipment introduction NO New equipment introduction

-HWand andSW SWupgrade upgradeplanning planning -HW -New equipment dimensioning -New equipment dimensioning

END

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6. BSS parameters optimization

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Example of a MOC with its parameters


Here is a part of the bts object, it contains different kinds of parameters as specified previously : design parameter system parameter optimization parameter operating parameter product parameter During the optimization process, we will essentially deal with changes on optimization parameters note : many features in the system are vendor-dependent and some of them may affect the system performances the better we know the vendor equipments,
the better we can optimize

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6.1. Terrestrial links optimization

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6.2. Radio procedures optimization


6.2.1. Cell selection

Reminder on cell selection procedure


List of frequencies of the selected PLMN no Selection of another PLMN

-cell of selected PLMN -cell not barred

Eligible cell ? yes

C1 = rxLev-rxLevAccessMinMAX [(msTxPwrMaxCCH - P),0]

C1 computation for best eligible cells no

-eligible cell with C1>0 rxLecAccessMin :: min rxlev to rxLecAccessMin min rxlev to access to the cell access to the cell rxLev :: signal level received by rxLev signal level received by the mobile from the cell the mobile from the cell msTxPwrMaxCCH : max power msTxPwrMaxCCH : max power that MS can use to access on that MS can use to access on RACH RACH PP :: max of MS power according to max of MS power according to its classmark its classmark

Suitable cell ? yes Look for the cell with the best C1 in the suitable cells IMSI Attach no Rejected ? yes

End of cell selection

PLMN set in the forbidden PLMN list

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6.2.2. Access and paging channel control

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6.2.3. Communication supervision

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6.2.4. Radio measurement processing in dedicated mode

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6.2.5. Handover procedure

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6.2.6. Power control procedure

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One shot algorithm


transmitter Pmax
no path compensation K=0

receiver

rxLev virtual P
partial path compensation 0 <K < 1

RXLEV Pmin
full path compensation K=1

lRxLevXXP

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7. Examples of optimization actions at network level

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Activating BS power control


hando ver evo lutio n 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0
16 /1 1 17 /04 /1 1 18 /04 /1 1 19 / 04 /1 1 20 / 04 /1 1 21 / 04 /1 1 22 /04 /1 1 23 /04 /1 1 24 / 04 /1 1 25 / 04 /1 1 26 /04 /1 1 27 /04 /1 1 28 /04 /1 1 29 / 04 /1 1/ 04

handover number

incoming intra BSC4 outgoing inter BSC3 outgoing inter BSC4

time

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Hardware failure detection


incoming handover intra failure ratio
handover failure

cell 308-1
40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
15/05/04 12/06/04 19/06/04 26/06/04 22/05/04 29/05/04 03/07/04 05/06/04

incoming handover intra failure ratio

time

in c o m in g h a n d o v e r in tr a f a ilu r e r a t io
h a n d o v e r fa ilu r e

cell 308-2

50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


1 5 / 0 5 /0 4 2 9 /0 5 / 0 4 2 6 / 0 6 /0 4 2 2 /0 5 /0 4 0 5 /0 6 /0 4 1 9 /0 6 /0 4 0 3 /0 7 /0 4 1 2 /0 6 /0 4

h a n d o v e r fa ilu re

0%

tim e

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