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BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork

Applications and Technical Manual

Introduction

In 1986, Fire Protection Limited began a research program to develop an entirely new fire rated ductwork system. This program, which is continuous, has resulted in the FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork System being manufactured and supplied worldwide. As a result of continued growth, Firespray International was formed to carry out the ongoing research and development program and also to market FLAMEBAR products on a global basis. This Manual has been produced for everyone associated with the design and installation of fire rated ductwork systems and illustrates how to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory bodies. It also clearly emphasizes our own commitment to fire safety. FLAMEBAR BW11 FIRE RATED DUCT SYSTEMS SATISFY THE REQUIREMENT FOR FIRE RATED DUCTWORK FOR VENTILATION, KITCHEN OR EXHAUST APPLICATIONS.

Contents
Page

1 Test Requirements ISO 6944 (1985) Definitions 2 Fire Rated Ductwork When and Why 3 FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork Analysis and Performance
3.2 FLAMEBAR BW11 Flexibility in Design 3.3 FLAMEBAR BW11 Construction of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct 3.4 FLAMEBAR BW11 System Integrity Ancillary Components 3.5 FLAMEBAR BW11 Air Temperatures at Various Distances from Duct Without Additional Insulation 3.6 FLAMEBAR BW11 Supports and Hangers

4 6 8

3.1 FLAMEBAR BW11 Single Source Responsibility Certificate of Conformity 8 8 9 10 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24

4 Smoke Exhaust Ductwork Systems 5 Commercial Kitchen Extract Ductwork 6 Exit/Escape Route Ducts 7 Pressurization Ductwork Systems 8 Basement Smoke Exhaust Systems 9 Dual Ventilation/Smoke Exhaust Systems 10 Fume Hood Exhaust Systems 11 Penetration Seals Between Fire Compartments 12 Standards 13 System Advantages

1 Test Requirements (Non-Grease)


ISO 6944 (1985) is the accepted Standard for the USA and Canada
ISO 6944 (1985) Fire Resistance Tests Ventilation Ducts
The purpose of ISO 6944 (1985) is to measure the ability of a ductwork system to resist the spread of fire from one fire compartment to another without the aid of fire or smoke dampers. It should be noted that the test relates to a complete ductwork installation and therefore joints, supports and the fire stopping through the furnace wall all form an integral part of the test.

ISO 834: 1975 (E) Fire Resistance Test Standard Time Temperature Curve (Cellulosic)
2192 2012 1832 1652 Temperature F 1472 1292 1112 932 752 572 392 212 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Furnace Temperature Curve as Specified in ISO 6944 (1985) Aluminium Melts Fibre Glass Melts

Time (minutes)

Giving temperature rise as a function of time for all ISO 6944 (1985) fire tests.

Requirements of ISO 6944 (1985)


The fire rating of ventilation ductwork shall, according to the Standard, be expressed in minutes of duration of heating until failure occurs according to one or more of the following criteria: 1 Stability 2 Insulation 3 Integrity Criteria of Failure: 1 Stability: Stability failure shall be deemed to have occurred in duct type A within the furnace and in duct types A and B outside the furnace when the duct collapses in such a manner that the duct no longer fulfils its intended function. Included in this is the ability of a smoke exhaust duct to retain at least 75% of its cross sectional area along its whole length, both inside and outside of the furnace. 2 Insulation: Insulation failure shall be deemed to have occurred when the temperature rise above initial ambient temperature on the surface of the test specimen outside the furnace exceeds either: 1 284F as an average value, or 2 356F as a maximum value. For kitchen exhaust duct type A, these temperature rise limits also apply to the inside surface of the duct within the furnace. 3 Integrity: The presence and formation of cracks, holes or other openings outside the furnace through which flames or hot gasses can pass shall constitute integrity failure. Definitions of Types A & B Fire Exposure The testing standard differentiates between types of fire exposure; two classifications apply as detailed below. Fire Outside Duct Type A
Compartment with Fire Outbreak Adjacent Compartment T1 Temperature Sensor

Duct Resists Penetration of Fire from Outside

Ventilation or Smoke Exhaust Opening No Fire Penetration from inside Duct

Fire Inside Duct Type B


Adjacent Compartment T2 Compartment with Fire Outbreak

Temperature Sensor

Duct Resists Penetration of Fire from Inside

Fire Penetrates into Duct through Ventilator or Smoke Extract Opening

2 Fire Rated Ductwork When and Why


One of the most important factors to be considered when designing and constructing a building are effective zones to limit the spread of smoke and fire throughout the building via the ventilation ducts. Under normal circumstances this zoning is achieved by the use of fire dampers or fire/smoke dampers within the duct systems. However, under certain applications the use of fire dampers is inappropriate. In this case the ducts themselves must provide the same level of fire rating afforded by the wall or floor of the zone. Systems, which would not be fitted with fire dampers under normal circumstances, are as follows but not exclusively: 1 2 3 4 Pressurization Ducts Grease Ducts Non-Commercial Kitchen Exhausts Toilet Exhausts 5 6 7 8 Dryer Exhausts Fire Smoke Emergency Exhaust Dual Ventilation/Smoke Exhaust Systems Exit/Escape Corridors and Lobbies

Any duct system that is intended to operate or has a special use under a fire condition and cannot therefore utilize fire dampers will require to be fire rated. Duct systems and applications, which have special or operational effect under fire conditions, are as follows: 1 Pressurization Systems Pressurization is a method of restricting the penetration of smoke into exit/escape routes, protected stairwells, corridors and fire fighting shafts for deep basements by maintaining pressure differential. Smoke contamination in these areas would jeopardize escape in the event of a fire. NFPA 90A requires that pressurization ducts should be enclosed in a 2 hour fire rated enclosure. The FLAMEBAR BW11 duct is classified by UL up to 4 hours Stability, Integrity and Insulation without any additional enclosure. 2 Grease Duct Systems (see also our Grease Duct Pamphlet [Blue Top]) Exhaust systems serving commercial kitchen hoods are required, as per NFPA 96, to be separate and independent of any other systems because of the polluted nature of the extracted air. Fire dampers should not be installed in any exhaust duct systems serving kitchens. Any ducts which penetrate fire resistive barriers should be fire rated to the same level of fire separation as the wall or floor through which they pass. The fire rating should be for both type B exposure (fire on the inside) and Engulfment: Type A exposure (fire on the outside). All penetrations require to be fire stopped. Grease ducts pose a particular hazard in that they contain deposits of accumulated grease on the internal surfaces. Fire in an adjacent zone through which the duct passes could ignite the internal deposits and cause a flashback to the served kitchen hood. It is important therefore that all grease ducts be insulated, to protect from a fire in an adjacent fire zone igniting the accumulated grease. To minimize the build up of grease, fire rated access doors shall be installed at maximum 10 feet centers to allow access for cleaning. Grease duct installations shall be evaluated, tested and listed to the requirements of the IBC, IMC and UMC and these require compliance with ASTM E-2336 or UL 1978 or UL 2221. FLAMEBAR BW11 complies with ASTM E-2336 and UL 1978 and NFPA 96.

3 Non-Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems NFPA 90A requires that non-commercial kitchen riser ducts on high rise apartments passing from floor to floor up through the building, shall be protected in a 2 hour fire rated enclosure. Since the FLAMEBAR BW11 duct system is a 2 hour rated assembly the need for a 2 hour enclosure is eliminated. However, as defined in NFPA 90A all branches serving each floor shall be fitted with a fire damper, fire/smoke damper or a SMACNA type (sub-duct). 4 Toilet Exhaust Systems NFPA 90A requires that toilet exhaust riser ducts on high rise apartments passing from floor to floor up through the building shall be protected in a 2 hour fire rated enclosure. Since the FLAMEBAR BW11 duct system is a 2 hour rated assembly the need for a 2 hour enclosure is eliminated. However, as defined in NFPA 90A all branches serving each floor shall be fitted with a fire damper or a SMACNA sub duct. 5 Dryer Exhaust Systems NFPA 90A requires that all dryer exhausts rising through a building passing from one fire zone to the next be enclosed in a 2 hour rated duct/shaft. Since the FLAMEBAR BW11 Duct System is a 2 hour rated assembly the need for a 2 hour enclosure can be eliminated. The Building Code further stipulates that the internal face of the ducts be free from screws and protrusions which could cause lint to be trapped. 6 Fire Smoke Emergency Exhaust Systems If the duct system is intended to be used to remove hot smoke in an emergency ISO 6944 (1985) requires that the duct maintains 75% of its original free area. If a duct crosses from the fire compartment to an adjacent fire zone it must have the same fire resistance as the fire barrier it crosses. Ducts used as smoke exhaust shall be rated for fire exposure type B (fire on the inside). 7 Dual Ventilation/Smoke Exhaust Systems Serve as normal ventilation systems, but in an emergency are converted to provide smoke exhaust in the event of a fire. Since the FLAMEBAR BW11 duct is already fire rated no additional enclosures are necessary. By combining the two applications into one system significant cost savings can be effected. 8 Exit/Escape Corridors and Lobbies It is a requirement of the International Mechanical Code that any duct crossing an exit/escape corridor or lobby must be fire rated for Stability, Integrity and Insulation, with the same rating as the compartment through which it passes. It should be noted that with FLAMEBAR BW11 only one fire damper is required, if either side of the exit corridor is constructed with non-fire rated ductwork.

3 FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork


Analysis and Performance
3.1 FLAMEBAR BW11 Single Source Responsibility Certificate of Conformity 3.2 FLAMEBAR BW11 Flexibility in Design 3.3 FLAMEBAR BW11 Construction of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct 3.4 FLAMEBAR BW11 System Integrity Ancillary Components 3.5 FLAMEBAR BW11 Air Temperatures at Various Distances from Duct without additional insulation 3.6 FLAMEBAR BW11 Supports and Hangers

FLAMEBAR BW11 Rectangular Fire Duct

3.1 Single Source Responsibility Certificate of Conformity


When considering the use of Fire Rated Ductwork, issues such as Single Source Responsibility and Certificates of conformity are often overlooked. When specifying FLAMEBAR BW11 you are assured that every process from design to installation is directly controlled. Single Source Responsibility means exactly what it states, that from design through manufacture, spray coating and installation there is a single source responsibility. Furthermore, once the installation is complete and all contractual commitments are fulfilled, a Certificate of Conformity is issued to the client. This confirms the periods of fire rating installed and compliance with the relevant criteria of ISO 6944 (1985). This certificate underlines our commitment to providing the best and ultimately most fire safe installations available.

FLAMEBAR BW11 Flat Oval Fire Duct

3.2 Flexibility in Design


FLAMEBAR BW11 offers complete flexibility in design and can be fabricated to any required shape. Rectangular, flat oval and circular ducts are available. The construction of the initial galvanized sheet steel duct means that all FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Ducts have normal standards of air tightness and are therefore easily capable of being successfully tested. As well as profile flexibility as depicted in the previous illustrations, FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Ducts can also be supplied as detailed below: Single Sided Two Sided Three Sided Four Sided

FLAMEBAR BW11 Circular Fire Duct Flat Oval Circular Any other shape

3.3 Construction of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct


FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct is constructed from galvanized sheet steel manufactured to an approved and listed standard, then degreased and factory fire sprayed with FLAMEBAR BW11 which is a specially formulated water based compound. This contains selected mineral filters in a low permeability elastomeric binder to a thickness of approximately 0.04 inches when dry to give a finished product which has been successfully tested for international use under Cellulosic Fire Conditions in excess of 4 hours duration. Ductwork is produced in sections and is assembled on site utilizing tested fireproof gaskets/sealants. The unique properties of FLAMEBAR BW11 has enabled us to design a low density, highly durable material which accommodates induced stress arising from extreme and varying conditions, eg. Climatic Moisture and Structural Loading Variation and the effect of thermal shock during a fire. The complete system has been tested and classified to ISO 6944 (1985) up to a temperature of 2071F therefore facilitating complete design freedom.

3.4 System Integrity Ancillary Components


FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rating of Attenuators FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rating of Access Doors FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rating of Volume Control Damper

Some of the additional features that can be incorporated in FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct Systems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Access Doors Control Device Housings Volume Control Dampers Internal Flanging Penetration Seals between Compartments Protection can be applied to fans, silencers etc. (if suitably constructed)

3.5 Air Temperatures at Various Distances from Duct Without Additional Insulation
Compartment walls and floors will have a prescribed fire resistance in terms of Stability, Integrity and Insulation for between 30 and 240 minutes. It is therefore essential for fire safety that where compartmentation boundaries are penetrated by fire duct, the fire separation and the performance criteria of the penetration wall or floor is maintained and that the duct should not act as a conduit along which fire may spread to other areas. In all cases, the time period for Stability and Integrity should be at least equal to that required by the penetration element. However, controlling Authorities and engineered solutions have in many circumstances waived the insulation requirement. If the duct work is within the first compartment (see example) it will not need to be insulated and if the fire duct has not been fire insulated for a given period, sufficient distance must be maintained between the fire duct and any adjacent combustible material. NFPA 90A code recommends a minimum of 18 inches be maintained. The graph below gives the air temperature, taken at various distances away from our FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct. It should be noted that the insulation failure temperature, as per ISO 6944 (1985), is a minimum of 284F, plus ambient temperature. FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct without additional insulation Indicative temperature measurements in air adjacent to a duct B (fire inside) test to ISO 6944 (1985)
20 18 IAS Feasibility Test No TE87473 16 Distance from surface of duct in ins. 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176 194 212 230 248 266 284 Temperatures taken at 1 hour, 2 hours and 4 hours

T IM E2

FLAMEBAR Solution when Lower Insulation Temperature Required All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Ducting has been fully tested to ISO 6944 (1985) for Stability and Integrity up to 4 hours. However, where lower installation temperatures are required due to ducting being rated the same as the smoke exhaust fan or a fire engineering consultant having determined a fire engineering solution, we are able to offer our FLAMEBAR BW11 product, on its own or with the addition of various thicknesses of insulation depending upon the insulation rating required.

E TIM

Temp F measured at various distances from duct

E TIM

ins FU ns RN FU AC RN ET AC EM ET P2 EM 071 P1 F 884 16 F 97 F

40 m

s min 60

0 12

i P m EM ET AC RN FU

10

Smoke Exhaust Duct Test Fire Inside Duct


Mean furnace and duct surface temperatures
1292 1112F FURNACE TIME TEMPERATURE CURVE 932 Temperature (F) 752F FIRE TEST Nos. 615, 616 & 621 1202F 1112

752 572F 482F 392 INSULATION FAIL TEMP. 284F + AMBIENT 212

572

EXTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF DUCT 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Time (minutes) BW11 BW11 with 1in insulation BW11 with 2in insulation

Minimum Periods of Fire Resistance for Fire Rated Ductwork


Example showing a typical fire duct run passing through different fire rated compartments

30 MIN FIRE RESISTANT DUCT 1st FIRE COMPARTMENT 2nd FIRE COMPARTMENT

60 MIN FIRE RESISTANT DUCT 3rd FIRE COMPARTMENT

60 MIN FIRE RESISTANT DUCT 4th FIRE COMPARTMENT

30 MIN FIRE COMPARTMENT WALL

60 MIN FIRE COMPARTMENT WALL

60 MIN FIRE COMPARTMENT WALL

From the example, it can be seen that when the fire duct passes from the second to the third fire compartment, the fire resistance of the duct increases in line with the rating of the fire compartment wall. This rating is not reduced in the fourth compartment, despite the reduced rating of the fire compartment wall between the third and fourth fire compartments.

Important Note: If the fire duct is for exhausting smoke, it must also maintain a minimum of 75% of its overall cross sectional area over the total length of the duct, including the first fire compartment. Therefore, smoke exhaust ductwork in the first fire compartment must always be tested to ISO 6944 (1985) for Stability and Integrity.

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3.6 Supports and Hangers


As it is known that tensile strength of steel reduces with temperature, it has been calculated and tested by the Building Research Establishment which is an IAS Facility that based on the original strength of steel for support of 62350lbs/in2, fire duct supports should be sized based on: Fire duct rated for 60 minutes 1697F Tensile strength of 2175 lbs/in2 Fire duct rated for 120 minutes 1884F Tensile strength of 1450 lbs/in2 Fire duct rated for 240 minutes 2071F Tensile strength of 870 lbs/in2

Weight of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct Total weight of up to 2 hour fire duct without insulation = 2.24 lbs/ft2 Total weight of up to 2 hour fire duct with 2in insulation = 3.33 lbs/ft2 Total weight of up to 2 hour fire duct with 4in insulation = 4.40 lbs/ft2 Total weight of up to 4 hour fire duct without insulation = 2.89 lbs/ft2 Total weight of up to 4 hour fire duct with 2in insulation = 3.97 lbs/ft2 Total weight of up to 4 hour fire duct with 4in insulation = 5.05 lbs/ft2 Above weights are based on 40in x 40in typical standard ductwork per linear 3ft length.

When designing and testing Fire Rated Ductwork it is critical that the reduction in tensile strength of steel under fire load is given adequate consideration. This applies to hangers (threaded rods) and bearers, but it is equally important that due consideration is given to the performance of the fixing system under fire load. It must be recognized that the pull out load of an anchor under fire conditions is significantly less than at ambient temperature. By specifying FLAMEBAR BW11 you can be confident that these issues have been adequately addressed.

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Table showing typical anchor and hanger sizes required for 2hr stability and integrity FLAMEBAR BW11 Smoke Duct
Duct Size Duct area per 3ft run Total weight per 3ft of duct + BW11 32lbs 42lbs 74lbs 112lbs 145lbs 217lbs Bearer spacing in Weight on each bearer Weight on each anchor Max test load Size of that Hilti HKD anchor and anchor will hanger used withstand in a to provide fire situation added safety 88lbs = 1/4in HKD 88lbs = 1/4in HKD 88lbs = 1/4in HKD 88lbs = 1/4in HKD 176lbs = 3/8in HKD 176lbs = 3/8in HKD M10/ 3 /8in M10/ 3 /8in M10/ 3 /8in M10/ 3 /8in M10/ 3 /8in M12/ 1 /2in

Sum of 2 sides 24in Sum of 2 sides 32in Sum of 2 sides 48in Sum of 2 sides 64in Sum of 2 sides 80in Sum of 2 sides 120in

12ft2 16ft2 24ft2 32ft2 40ft2 60ft2

5ft 5ft 5ft 5ft 5ft 5ft

48lbs 64lbs 112lbs 168lbs 218lbs 326lbs

24lbs 32lbs 56lbs 84lbs 109lbs 163lbs

Typical Vertical & Horizontal Support Arrangements

SUPPORT STEEL TO SPAN HOLE

CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB

Support sizes dependent on stability and integrity rating

SIZING OF GALLOWS BRACKET TO SUIT DUCT

TYPICAL ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUPPORTS

Ensure that fixing into slab is capable of supporting the weight shown on the chart. (Note, all part of anchor to be steel)
2in 2in

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4 Smoke Exhaust Ductwork Systems


DUCTWORK USED IN SMOKE EXHAUST SYSTEMS SHOULD NORMALLY BE RATED FOR STABILITY, INTEGRITY AND INSULATION AT LEAST EQUAL TO THE COMPARTMENT WALL THROUGH WHICH IT PASSES. SMOKE EXHAUST DUCTWORK MUST RETAIN AT LEAST 75% OF ITS CROSS SECTIONAL AREA, BOTH IN THE FIRE COMPARTMENT AS WELL AS IN ADJACENT COMPARTMENTS.

PLANT ROOM FIRE RATED FAN

MOTORIZED SMOKE/FIRE DAMPER AT EACH FLOOR ESCAPE CORRIDOR OFFICE PENETRATION SEAL

ESCAPE CORRIDOR OFFICE

SHAFT

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: Office exhaust ductwork shown must be suitable for removal of smoke within the compartments and normally rated for 2 hour for Stability and Integrity to resist heat smoke and fire from inside (type B). Insulation fire rating is not required in the first compartment. Where the office exhaust duct crosses the escape corridor shown it must maintain Stability, Integrity and Insulation fire rating for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes and this may be required for the remainder of the ductwork route through the building to outside. In some circumstances insulation requirements may be waived or varied by the regulatory authority if there are no combustible materials within 20ins of the duct, such as in the plantroom shown In order that the 75% cross sectional free area criteria be maintained, fire rated ductwork would be used within the shaft requiring Stability and Integrity shown . However, if there are combustible materials within 20ins of the duct, insulation would still be needed. The Building Regulations and ISO 6944 (1985) require that all fire rated ductwork shall be tested and installed to comply to the full cellulosic time/temp fire test curve (ISO 834 and E119). However, a fire engineered solution designed by a qualified fire engineering consultant for lower smoke temperatures, may be allowed by the regulatory authority, thus reducing the insulation requirement. However, the duct shall be tested and installed to maintain Stability and Integrity to the full test temperature. All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory.

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Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

5 Commercial Kitchen Extract Ductwork (See separate pamphlet)


COMMERCIAL KITCHENS MUST HAVE SEPARATE AND INDEPENDENT EXTRACT SYSTEMS (NFPA 96). FIRE DAMPERS MUST NOT BE USED IN A KITCHEN EXTRACT SYSTEM. ACCESS DOORS MUST BE INSTALLED AT 10FT INTERVALS WHERE POSSIBLE AND HAVE SMOOTH INTERNAL SURFACES TO ENABLE EASY CLEANING OF THE GREASE. CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE COMBUSTIBLE DEPOSITS IN THE DUCT CANNOT IGNITE IN ADJACENT COMPARTMENTS.
ROOF PLANT ROOM SUITABLY FIRE RATED FAN PENETRATION SEAL

OFFICE

ESCAPE CORRIDOR

KITCHEN EXTRACT DUCTWORK

FIRE RATED ACCESS DOORS

OFFICE ESCAPE CORRIDOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTED TO NFPA96

HOOD

KITCHEN

HOOD

ESCAPE CORRIDOR

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: Grease ductwork presents a particular hazard in that combustible deposits such as greases are likely to accumulate on its internal surfaces. Therefore, the ductwork should resist fire from inside (type B) and must be rated for Stability, Integrity and Insulation, for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes, shown As a fire in an adjacent compartment through which the kitchen exhaust ductwork is passing could initiate a fire within the ductwork, in the absence of fire dampers this might prejudice the safety of kitchen occupants, it should also be tested to fire outside engulfment (type A) with the additional requirement that the internal surface of the ductwork within the compartment must meet the insulation criteria. In some circumstances, insulation requirements may be waived or varied by the regulatory authority, if the duct passes through an area where fire cannot be present shown such as a protected shaft. However, Stability and Integrity must still be maintained for the relevant period of time. FLAMEBAR BW11 kitchen grease duct is tested and evaluated to ASTM-E2336-04 and UL 1978 and complies with NFPA 96 (2008 edition). All our FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have also been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory. Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

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6 Exit/Escape Route Ducts


ANY DUCT CROSSING AN ESCAPE CORRIDOR MUST BE FIRE RATED (NFPA 90A)
NON FIRE RATED DUCT FIRE DAMPER

NOTE: ONE FIRE DAMPER WILL BE REQUIRED IF EITHER SIDE OF EXIT CORRIDOR IS CONSTRUCTED WITH NON FIRE RATED DUCT

PLANT ROOM OR RISER SHAFT OFFICE PRESSURIZED FRESH AIR SUPPLY DUCT TO ESCAPE LOBBY

SUPPLY DUCT

DUCTWORK IN EXIT CORRIDOR MUST BE FIRE RATED WHERE DUCT CROSSES THE ESCAPE CORRIDOR STABILITY, INTEGRITY AND INSULATION WILL BE REQUIRED OFFICE

EXIT CORRIDOR

NON FIRE RATED DUCT

NON FIRE RATED DUCT

ESCAPE LOBBY

LIFT STAIRWAY

FIREMANS LIFT

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: The pressurized air supply duct shown from the fire rated plantroom above crosses the cleaners room and the exit corridor to provide air to the escape lobby. Pressurization ductwork systems are dealt with in full on page 18 but it should be noted that where any type of fire rated duct crosses the escape corridor it will require Stability, Integrity and Insulation shown for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes. Both the normal ventilation supply duct and exhaust duct follow a route from the riser shaft through the office using fire dampers and galvanized sheet steel duct shown Where the ducts cross and run in the escape corridor shown the duct must be fire rated and will require Stability, Integrity and Insulation for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes. It will only require one fire damper if either side of the escape corridor is constructed with non fire rated duct. All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory. Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

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7 Pressurization Ductwork Systems


PRESSURIZATION DUCTS MUST BE ABLE TO MAINTAIN AN AIR SUPPLY TO CRITICAL AREAS FOR THE DURATION OF A FIRE. AIR SUPPLY MUST BE MAINTAINED IN A FIRE SO FIRE DAMPERS CANNOT BE USED. ALL DUCTWORK PENETRATING FIRE COMPARTMENTS MUST BE FIRE RATED, IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN COMPARTMENTATION. PRESSURIZATION PLANT SHOULD BE IN A DEDICATED PLANTROOM OR BE SEPARATED FROM OTHER EQUIPMENT BY A 1 HOUR FIRE RESISTANT ENCLOSURE.
FIRE RATED FAN

PENETRATION SEALS

DEDICATED ROOF PLANT ROOM

OFFICE LIFT LOBBY

FIRE RESISTING PRESSURIZATION DUCT TYPE A

NON FIRE RATED DUCT

PRESSURIZATION SHAFT/STAIRCASE LIFT LOBBY

ESCAPE CORRIDOR

STAIRS LOBBY PRESSURIZATION STAIRCASE SHAFT CONSTRUCTED TO METHOD 2 OF NFPA 90A

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: A pressurization system is a special form of mechanical ventilation which maintains a positive pressure in critical areas to stop smoke from entering from adjacent areas, typically used in protected stairways, lobbies, corridors and fire fighting shafts. Ductwork shown is passing through a dedicated plantroom supplying air and requires a minimum rating of 1 hour for Stability and Integrity to resist fire from outside (type A). Where it passes through the office shown it must maintain Stability, Integrity and may require Insulation fire rating for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes and this may be required for the remainder of the ductwork route through the building to the pressurized lobbies. Ductwork within the lobby or corridor shown need not be fire rated. Ductwork shown is in a protected shaft constructed to NFPA 90A requirements with other services and in some circumstances insulation requirements may be waived or varied by the regulatory authority if there are no combustible materials or other services within 18ins of the duct. All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory. Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

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8 Basement Smoke Exhaust Systems


EITHER A NATURAL OR MECHANICAL METHOD MAY BE USED TO VENTILATE SMOKE/HEAT FROM BASEMENTS. THE AIR EXHAUST SYSTEM SHOULD GIVE AT LEAST 10 AIR CHANGES PER HOUR. IF APPLICABLE THE FIRE DUCT MUST BE CONSTRUCTED TO RESIST WATER IMPINGEMENT FROM ANY SPRINKLER SYSTEM.
FAN TESTED TO 752F FOR AT LEAST 1 HOUR AND OPERATES AUTOMATICALLY ON ACTIVATION OF THE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

ATTENUATOR AT LEAST 1 HOUR FIRE RATED

ROOF PLANT ROOM

FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS AT LEAST 1 HOUR FIRE RATED NATURAL SMOKE OUTLETS 2.5% OF FLOOR AREA

SHOP PENETRATION SEALS SPRINKLER SYSTEM

PAVEMENT

GROUND LEVEL

STORE BASEMENT ROOM

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: Smoke outlets/vents are needed to provide a route for heat and smoke to escape to the open air room basement levels, either using natural or mechanical means. Mechanical exhaust may be used provided that the basement levels are fitted with a sprinkler system, illustrated above the smoke exhaust duct shown . It must be suitable for clearing smoke within the compartments and normally rated for 1 hour Stability and Integrity to resist hot smoke and fire from inside (type B). Fire insulation rating is not required in the first compartment. Where the basement duct rises through the shop above shown it must maintain Stability, Integrity and Insulation fire rating for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes and this may be required for the remainder of the ductwork route through the building to outside. In some circumstances insulation requirements may be waived or varied by the regulatory authority if there are no combustible materials within 18ins of the duct, such as in the plantroom shown . All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory. Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

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9 Dual Ventilation/Smoke Exhaust Systems


OPERATES AS A CONVENTIONAL DUCTWORK SYSTEM UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS. OPERATES AS A SMOKE EXHAUST SYSTEM UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS. SMOKE EXHAUST DUCTWORK MUST RETAIN AT LEAST 75% OF ITS CROSS SECTIONAL AREA, BOTH IN THE FIRE COMPARTMENT AS WELL AS IN ADJACENT COMPARTMENTS.
CHANGEOVER DAMPERS, TO CHANGE SYSTEM FROM SUPPLY AIR TO SMOKE EXHAUST FAN FIRE RATED PLANT ROOM MOTORIZED SMOKE/ FIRE DAMPERS

SERVICE SHAFT ESCAPE CORRIDOR

OFFICE

STORE ROOM

DUCTWORK SUPPLY/ EXHAUST SUITABLE FOR CLEARING SMOKE

ESCAPE CORRIDOR

OFFICE

PRINT ROOM

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: Systems that can operate in two different modes may offer economical solutions for smoke exhaust. The ductwork shown must be suitable for clearing smoke within he compartments and normally rated for 1 hour for Stability and Integrity to resist hot smoke and fire from inside (type B). Fire insulation rating is not required in the first compartment. Where the duct crosses the escape corridor shown it must maintain Stability, Integrity and Insulation fire rating for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes and this may be required for the remainder of the ductwork route through the building to outside. In some circumstances insulation requirements may be waived or varied by the regulatory authority if there are no combustible materials within 18ins of the duct, such as in the plantroom shown . But, Stability and Integrity must still be maintained for the relevant period of time. In order that the 75% cross sectional free area criteria be maintained, fire rated ductwork would be used within the service shaft requiring Stability and Integrity shown . However, if there are combustible materials within 18ins of the duct, insulation would still be needed. All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory. Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

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10 Fume Hood Exhaust Systems


FIRE DAMPERS SHOULD NOT BE USED WHERE PLASTIC DUCTWORK IS INSTALLED TO RESIST ACIDIC FUMES AND SOLVENTS. ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS MUST BE FOUND FOR CROSSING EXIT CORRIDORS AND GOING FROM ONE COMPARTMENT TO ANOTHER. DUCTWORK CONVEYING POLLUTED AIR MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE PARTICULAR HAZARD INVOLVED AND THE LIKELY CONTRIBUTION TO FIRE SPREAD.
PENETRATION SEAL

LABORATORY

OFFICE

EXIT CORRIDOR

STAIRS

LIFT LIFT LOBBY LIFT

OFFICE

FUME HOOD EXTRACT DUCT INSULATED AS IT CROSSES ESCAPE CORRIDOR

FUME HOOD

FIRE RATED WALLS

FIRE RATED FLOORS

NON-FIRE RATED WALLS

IN THE DIAGRAM: Plastic ductwork presents a particular problem where acidic fumes and solvents are exhausted in fume hood systems. Fire dampers are impractical and alternative solutions must be used. Duct shown is a plastic duct installed inside an outer fire rated casing (duct within a duct).

The outer casing would resist fire from inside (type B) and from outside (type A) maintaining Stability and Integrity. Where the fume exhaust duct crosses the exit corridor shown the duct would require Stability, Integrity and Insulation for the same period of time as the compartment through which it passes and this may be required for the remainder of the ductwork route through the building to the outside. All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork and Penetration Seals have been tested to ISO 6944 (1985) and manufactured and installed as tested or assessed by an International Accreditation Services Accredited Laboratory.

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Note: Final approval must always be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to commencement of construction.

11 Penetration Seals Between Fire Compartments


If specified we can provide fire stopping compartments as part of our installation service. Details below are two typical fire rated ductwork stoppings, as tested to ISO 6944 (1985).

Floor Penetration Seal


3in x 3in RSA Fixed to Duct @ 6in CRS with 3/8in Bolts

Drill 20 Suit 3 /8in Bolts

U.L. Approved Fire Stopping System Plate Ends on Angle for Site Fixing

Wall Penetration Seal

U.L. Approved Fire Stopping System

A PENETRATION SEAL MUST BE INSTALLED AT EVERY FIRE COMPARTMENT WALL OR FLOOR. THESE SEALS ARE NOT INCLUDED UNLESS STATED. THE PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM TO BE EITHER CONSTRUCTED FROM MINERAL WOOL OR FIRE MORTAR AS U.L. SYSTEM NO: C-AJ 7029 or 7030 or XHEZ F-A-7017 XHEZ F-A-7005 XHEZ W-L-7133 XHEZ W-L-7160

Stiffener or Flange within 2in of Wall

U.L. Approved Fire Stopping System

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12 Standards (Non-Grease)
The range of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has been tested by UL and evaluated by Intertek and other International Accreditation Services test facilities in accordance with ISO Standard 6944 (1985), for vertical and horizontal ductwork, with fire inside and outside the duct, in excess of 4 hours Stability, Integrity and Insulation for ventilation ductwork, smoke exhaust ductwork or grease ductwork. FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has the Underwriters Laboratory UL Classification and listed by Intertek for up to 4 hours fire rated ductwork. FLAMEBAR BW11 has been tested by Underwriters Laboratory to determine compliance with NFPA 90A (Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems) for flame spread and smoke development with the following results: NFPA Requirement Flame Spread not to exceed 25 9.4 Smoke Development no higher than 50 0.2

FLAMEBAR BW11 Results

Test conducted in accordance with UL Standard 723 Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (ASTM E84). FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has also passed the hose stream test to ASTM E119 with water pressure of 30 psi for 21/2 minutes. Impact Test of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct Impact and Strength to UL 1978 Ref sections: 17 Vertical Support Test. 18 Strength Test 18-1 and 18-2 Impact Test. 18 Strength Test 18-1 and 18-3 Longitudinal Force Test. 18 Strength Test 18-1 and 18-4 Load Test for Grease Elbows. 18 Strength Test 18-1 and 18-5 Grease Duct Joint Load Test. Impact test to BS 5669, in which a dart imparts 32.5ft pound force at maximum drop, resulting in a small indentation which passes under the criteria of BS 5669. FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct also has undergone impact testing to the requirements of Appendix A BS 5588 Part 5. Exterior Weathering of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct Duplicate samples were placed on the exterior weathering frame and left totally exposed since January 1993. The results so far show: 1 2 3 4 Some dirt pick-up which can be washed off No mold growth No chalking Material has remained totally intact

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Durability Report Inspection report to Bodycote Warrington Fire an IAS facility confirming durability of FLAMEBAR BW11 coating and duct system since 1995. Confirming no deterioration of the coating or duct including thickness applied. Considering the length of time the samples have been exposed, the material is in good condition. Artificial Weathering of FLAMEBAR BW11 OUV Weatherometer The samples undergoing artificial weathering have undergone over 22,000 hours of alternate UV and condensation cycling which is extremely excessive in duration terms, normally 1,000 hours is sufficient to predict whether a material is suitable for exterior/semi exposed conditions. 22,000 hours is equivalent to 60 years external exposure. Expansion of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct As all steel expands with temperature, there will naturally be an expansion of fire duct under fire conditions as follows: At 2012F an expansion of 0.016in per inch At 1112F an expansion of 0.008in per inch At 806F an expansion of 0.006in per inch Thermal Properties of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct U value thermal transmittance. FLAMEBAR BW11 without insulation = 0.88 Btu/ft2/hrF FLAMEBAR BW11 with 2in insulation = 0.147 Btu/ft2/hrF FLAMEBAR BW11 with 4in insulation = 0.08 Btu/ft2/hrF Chemical Resistance of FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct The coating has been tested in: Standard 10% solutions of the following acids: Hydrochloric, Nitric and Sulphuric. Standard 10% solutions of the following alkalies: Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide. The following solvents: Xylene and Acetone. After 10 days total immersion, all the above chemicals failed to cause a breakdown of the product structure.

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13 System Advantages
Single Source Responsibility 1 The design of all FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct Systems is to a certified standard. 2 All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct is manufactured and sprayed to UL classified construction standards. 3 All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct is erected to UL classified installation details. 4 A Certificate of Conformity will be issued by the manufacturer or the local UL approved Licensee following final inspection certifying compliance with all necessary requirements of the UL classification. Testing All FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has been tested to: ISO 6944 (1985) for up to 4 hours Stability, Integrity and Insulation. UL 723 Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (ASTM E84) to ensure compliance with NFPA 90 A & B. Weight: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct is the lightest fire duct system available. Shape: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct can be manufactured in rectangular, flat oval or circular. Impact Resistance: FLAMEBAR BW11 systems are impact resistant to BS 5588 Part 5, Appendix A. Moisture Absorption: FLAMEBAR BW11 systems are non-hygroscopic and have been tested in an artificial Weatherometer to an equivalent of 60 years external exposure. Chemical Resistance: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct is chemically resistant to many acids and solvents and has excellent resistance to chemical attack. Mold Resistance: FLAMEBAR BW11 has been evaluated for resistance to fungal attack according to Thor Test Method 800.1. Thor Test Method 800.1 Dry Film Fungal Resistance Test Humidity Cabinet Method Micro-organisms tested: Alternaria alternata Aspergillus versicolor Aureobasidium pullalans Cladosporium cladosporoides Penicillium purpurogenum Phoma voilaceae Rhodotorula rubra Sporobolomyces roseus Stachybotrys chartarum Ulocladium atrum

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Table 1 Dry Film Fungal Resistance Test


Sample P2/B001 Firespray BW11 22 April 2003 P2/B002 Firespray BW11 22 April 2003 Laboratory Blank Laboratory Standard Film Fungal Growth Rating/Intensity Replicate (0) (0) (90+++) (0) 0 0 5 0

Growth Ratings: 0 = No growth 1 = Trace growth 2 = 1-10% coverage of growth 3 = 11-30% coverage of growth 4 = 31-70% coverage of growth 5 = 71-100% coverage of growth Intensity Ratings: + = light, ++ = moderate, +++ = dense Technical Report B/03/0360 shows no growth on the surface of BW11 when spray inoculated with a mixed spore suspension and subsequently assessed according to BS 3900 Part 6. Smoke and Toxic Fume Emission: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has been tested to BS 6853 for smoke emission and toxic fume emission. Anti Drumming: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct has a damping co-efficient to BS AU125 (1966) of 19db per second decay rate. Inline Plant: Inline plant such as fans and attenuators can be treated with FLAMEBAR BW11, if suitably constructed. Acoustic Properties: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct achieves a sound reduction index to BS 2750 Part 3 (1980) as tabled below:
Frequency (Hz) Systems FLAMEBAR BW11 FLAMEBAR BW11 +4lb/ft2 2ins insulation FLAMEBAR BW11 +6lb/ft2 2ins insulation 63 10.2 11.0 13.4 125 11.7 12.5 14.9 250 16.7 17.5 19.9 500 21.7 22.5 24.9 1K 27.7 28.5 30.9 2K 32.7 33.5 35.9 4K 37.7 38.5 40.9 8K 43.7 44.5 46.9 dB dB dB

Cleaning: The smooth internal finish of FLAMEBAR BW11 Systems enable easy cleaning of the ductwork therefore it is ideal for kitchen exhaust duct installations. Color: FLAMEBAR BW11 Fire Duct without insulation has a monolithic spray texture with natural buff finish. FLAMEBAR BW11 Systems can also be overpainted or sprayed with water based paint to obtain any desired colour.

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Flamebar BW11 Fire Rated Ductwork Systems are protected by design right.

STATE LICENSEE

Firespray International North America Tel: 540 292 9521 Fax: 540 949 7936 e-mail: kenbaker@firespray.eu.com www.firespray.eu.com

Certificate No. 277a Approved to BS 476: Part 24

Assessed to ISO9001:2000 Certificate Number 277

This Applications and Technical Manual has been produced by Firespray International Ltd who have a Policy of continuous Product and System improvement and reserve the right to change Methods and Specifications without notice. FIRESPRAY INTERNATIONAL LTD FLAMEBAR HOUSE SOUTH ROAD TEMPLEFIELDS HARLOW ESSEX CM20 2AR ENGLAND TEL: +44 1279 634 230 FAX: +44 1279 634 232 e-mail: sales@firespray.eu.com www. firespray.eu.com