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THE

STUDENTS'

HAND-BOOK

OF

ART

AN

ELEMENTARY

I STORY
ARCHITECTURE,
PAINTING

OF
SCULPTURE

ART

By
n'THOR OF-

Mrs.
"LIFE OF

ARTHUR
RAPUAFI.

lBELL
D'lRBISOr
"THE

(N. D'Anvers)
ART GUIDE TO EUROPE."
S-c.

FOURTH
NEWLY REVISED

EDITION
BY THE AUTHOR

NIVERSITT;
OF
^

NEW

YORK:
:

CHARLES

SCRIBNER'S MARSTON AND

SONS

LONDON

SAMPSON

LOW,

COMPANY

Llmited
ST.

DUNSTAN'S

HOUSE,

FETTER

LANE

1895

This

work

is

adopted
the

hy

tlie

Civil

Service

Commissioners

as

Text-Book

for
It is also

Examination

of
the List

Candidates

on

qttestions
to

of

AH.

placed
Science

upon

of

Prizes

granted

Stvdents

of

Art

ly

the

arid

Art

Department.

[All

righti

raened.]

RiaiARD

Glat

Buks,

LminsD,

Lokook

Bvkoav.

AVTH0R8

NOTE

TO

THE

FOURTH

EDITION.

The

continued the

demand

for the

Elernentary History of carefully revised


first edition Arts in
was

Art

is

great
up

to gratification
to

author, who
When

has the the

and

brought

date

the ago, and

present issue.
the share taken
was

published
in

many Great

years Britain

by

Fine

education
and

America the

comparatively small,
as

great ignorance
and tual intellecyears,

prevailed amongst

general public

to

the

technical

history of Architecture, Sculpture, and


however,
a

Painting.
taken for of

Of

late

great and
is and
now

widespread change

has

place.
its
own

The sake

ance importas

of Art
beautifier

fully recognized, not


of the

only

the the

ennobler reflex

surroundings
of the

daily life, but


to

as

exponent
artists

and

of the

development
for the

nations works
; of

which
or

great

belonged.
of their works

Facilities
are

study

of their
side
to

tions reproducmany of of

multipliedon
have British and been Musetmi

eveiy made and

late

years

most

important

additions

the the the and

original works
fine South collections

antique sculpture in

the

to

reproductions of sculpture
Museum,
National in the

architecture

in

Kensington
In the

London,

Crystal Palace, Sydenham,


every school
are

elsewhere.
now

Gallery nearly
South

of many

painting is

represented;
of

KensingtonMuseum
of British the

examples representative
series in of

the

work of

artists, supplemented by several


Continental

graphs photoBritish

masterpieces in

galleries ;
old

the with

Museum of
Dulwich

are

numerous

original drawings by drawing


and

masters,

mens speciand
at

Oriental
are

painting ;
of the
work

at

Hampton
of the

Court

admirable

examples

greatest

masters

of

Vlll

AUTHOR

NOTE

TO

THE

FOURTH

EDITION.

the

past

periodical

Winter

Exhibitions

are

held

in

London

of
the

carefully

selected

masterpieces,
art

whilst

in

countless

private
from

galleries
time
to

tendencies

of

the

of

the

present

day

are

illustrated

time.

Equally
able

great
on

has

been

the

increase

in

the

issue

from

the

press

of

works

art

costly

illustrated

art

histories,

biographies exhaustively
art

of

artists,
with every

treatises

and

pamphlets,
art

art

magazines
and every

dealing
variety
of

phase
each

of

development
with

production,
the student

succeeding
now

other

such

bewildering
of

rapidity
than from

that

suffers

rather

from command.

difficulty
That

selection

the

paucity
been able

of

material

at

his

the

Ehnv"iitary
of such
a

History
crowd

has

to

maintain

its

position unjustly
in its

in

the

midst

of

competitors
and that

may it

perhaps
may go

not

be

claimed

as

proof
form

of

its

vitality,
a

forth
is the

new

and

enlarged
its author.

on

fresh

career

of

usefulness

earnest

desire

of

NANCY

BELL

(N.

D'ANVERS).

8(AfM"ourne-(yix-8ea,

A\ig\ist

1894.

":r^-;,j^
TT

CONTENTS.

Book

I."

ARCHITEOTIJRE.

PAOR

iNTRODrcTiOK Egtptiak

"

Materialfl and

methods
at

of

building Luxor, Rhamesion,


Kom

"

Pyramids"

Temples
Phil"
and
"

Earnak,

Ombo,
4

Ipsambul, Dinderah,
Babtloniak,
Nineveh
"

Assyriak,

Pebsian"
of Darius

Nimrud"

Khorsabad"

Koyunjik

"

PcraepoUs

^Tomb

12 Tombs" Grave
of Midas"

Lyciax,

Phrygian,

andLydian"

Rock-cut

Tumulus 17

of Tantalus Indian"

Topes

at

Sanchi, "c.

"

Rock-cut

Caves

"

Temples

"

Mosques

"

Pagodas
20

"Tombs
Chinese Early
and

Japanese"

Buddhistic

Temples" Pagodas"
Ruins las

Porcelain
of

Tower
.

23

American,
Monoliths
"

Peruvian,
Palace

Teocallis"

of

"c." Mexican, Casa de Zayi"


"

Tita-Huanca"
at Uxmal 25
.

Monjas

Greek"

Orders

of Architecture: Mausoleum

Temples
at

Acropolisat
The

Athens" Seven

Parthenon
Wonders

"

Amphitheatres"
World ExRUscAN" Roman"
Gate

Halicamassus-

of the

27 of Volterra of Tombs
:

"

"

^Amphitheatre"

Vases
....

42

Orders

Coliseum"
"

Canicalla
"^^

"

T^e The Pantheon Temples" Basilicas Baths of Amphitheatres" Triumphal Arches" Trajan Column" Palaces Pompeian Villas
" " " "

Architecture

44

"arly

Christian

Catacombs
:

"

Basilicas"

Mosaics
. .

.65

Byzantine

"

Churches

Saint

Sophia

"

Saint

Mark's, Venice

"

Cathedral

at Aix .59

laChapelle
Rolf ANESQUE Mahomedan
"

"

Cathedrals
or

and

Churches

in

France, Spain Germany, Italy,


" "

64

Saracenic
of Cordova
"

"

Mosque
IndU

^The Alhambra

Minarets Pavilions Gateways" Mosque of Omar Mosques at Constantinople and in


"

7"

CONTENTS.
PAOE

Gothic"

Introduction" Gables
"

Cathedrals" Piers"

Walls Grouiid-plans"
Triforium"

and

Buttresses-

in France Sculptures Cathedrals and Civic Buildingsin Halls in the Netherlands" Town in Palaces and Cathedrals Italy"Cathedrals in Spain and Germany Portugal

Windows"
"

and Clerestory

"

80

The

Renaissance

in

Italy"

First

Period,
in Rome St.

a.d.

1420

to

1500"
....

Cathedral 97

and Palaces in Florence"


Second

Palaces to

and in Venice
Peter's
at

Period,

a.d.

1500

1580"

Rome"

Michelangelo"
.101
. .

Farnose Third

Palace"

Sansovino-Palladio-Palaces
1600
at to

at Verona

Period, A.D.
:

1800"

In

Italy: Bernini and Borromini. Spain : The Escurial" Cathedral


:

In

France

Chateaux

and Blois Chambord, Chenonceaux, Fontainebleau, Invalides.


In of and .105 and In the Netherlands
:

"The

Louvre"

The

Granada"
St.

Townhall

at Seville.

The Townhall
.

Jacquesat Antwerp.
in the

In

Germany

Castle of
"

Heidelberg
:

Architecture

Nineteenth

Century
near

In

Germany

Theatre

Museum

in Berlin"

Walhalla
at

Ratisbon"
In France

Museum
:

in Dresden"

GlypS^.
della
108

tothek and

Pinacothek
"

Munich. House
"

Ecole des Beaux In


: Italy

Arts" Aero

Madeleine
'

New

Opera
Great

Hotel

de

Ville.

PaceatMikn
.

Architecture

in

Britain"

Roman

Remains"

Uriconium

and
113

Silchester

AnglO'Saxon"ToweT
house J\ror9iMi""Cathedrals
and Chichester, Gothic"

of Earl's Barton

Church

"

Bamack

Church

"

The

Pyx114

of

Rochester, Winchester, Canterbury,Peterborough,


Castles
116

Norwich"

Early English,a.d. 1189 to 1807" Westminster Abbey" Salisbury, Lichfield, 121 Wells, Worcester, and Lincoln" Queen Eleanor's Crosses
.

Decorated, a.d.
Minster
"

1807

to

1877"

York

Minster"

Ely Cathedral"

Beverley
127

Round

Tower, Windsor
1877 to 1547"

Perpendicular, a.d.
St.

Henry VII. 's Cliapel" King'sCollege, Cambridge" George'sChapel,Windsor" Churches in Somersetshire, and Suffolk Gloucestershire, Norfolk, Ro8l}m and Holyrood Chapels 180 Hampton Court Palace
" "

A.D. Transitioned,

1546 to 1619"
"

Mansions: Caius

Holland Oxford

"c. House, Burleigh,

Longleat, Wollaton,Hatfield, College, Cambridge ^The Schools,


"

135
A.D.

Eenaissance,
Churches Oxford"
"

1620

to

presentday
Castle

"

Whitehall
"

"

St. Paul's Cathedral"

in

London" House"

Howard

Blenheim
"

Radcliffe
"

Library,
National
"

Mansion

British Museum

Bank
"

of England

House" Gallery Bridgewater Albert Memorial AiicniTECTURB


OF THE
"

Traveller's Club
of Justice

Houses

of Parliament

^New Courts

186

NINETEENTH

CsNTUBY"

In Great Britain"

In America

140

CONTENTS.

XI

Book

II."

SCULPTURE.
PAUB

IXTRODUCTION

"

Materials used in Old

"Processes "Subjects Proportions 1 49 Sculpture


"

Egyptian"

The

Sphinx of
Babylon
and

Empire, 3645 Meinnon" Memphis


"

to

2668

B.C."

Statues"

Bas-reliefs" The
154 "c. Winged Bulls,
at

Bronze

Statues
"

Nineveh
to

"

Bas-reliefs at Nimrad
Bas-reliefs in

Statues"

156

Persian,
Gem I-vAsia

521

467

RC"

Statues Peraepolis"

Behistan"
161

Engraving
Minor
b.c.
and

Syria Gods

"

Rock-cut

bas-reliefs Colossal bas-reliefof


"

King
.

163 164

250 Indian, Chinkse


and

"

and Goddesses"
"

Tope

at Sanchi

"

Statues

of Buddha Bronze

Japanese

Colossal statues

of Buddha

in bronze

"

Eagle
165 165

"Statuettes Perit
Greek
and

Mexico First

"

Feriod, ab.
in
"

Cypselus" Group
"

^The Discobolus

"

Pediment

of the

Lion Gate at Mycenpe" Chest of 490 B.C. Statues of Athletes Statues" Chryselephantine ebony" of from Tombs from Xanthus Selinus" Temple Metopes .166 Temple at iEgina Statues at Tenea and Cyprus 650
to
" "

Second Feriod,ab, 490 to 400


of Zeus of
"

b. c.

"

Statue of Athena"
"

Statues
"

at

Olympia

Venus

of Melos
"

Theseus

The

Parthenon

Friezes

Statue Chryselephantine Doryphoros Temple ^Western Pediment Metopes


"

The

"

"

"

Frieze of the Erechtheium"


Third

Caryatides
B.C."

171

Feriod, ah,

400

to 323

at Halicamaasus"

Venus
"

of Cnidus
"

Temple of Athena at Tegea" Mausoleum Hermes with Apollo Sauroctonos"


"

infant Fuwiih

Dionysus
ab.

The
to

Wrestlers
146
B.c.

^The

Apoxyomenos
of Rhodes" The

.178
his 181

Feriod,

323

"

School

Laocoon

and

Children" Etruscan
" "

The

Famese

Bull"

School of

Pergamos"

Dying
Tomb
at

Gladiator
in terracotta Rome
"

Bas-reliefs and Bronze

on Sculptures

Tombs^The
at

Lydian
"

Statues"

Chimaera

Florence

She-wolf

Sarcophagi
Roman

184

(of Greek
"

origin) The
"

Apollo Belvedere

"

Diana

and

Stag

"

Famese 187

Hercules

Venus

dei Medici
B.C.

First Feriod, 146 and other Roman


Seeofnd

to

14

A.D.

"

Statues

of

Pompey, Ca"sar,Augustus,
189

Eniperore
14 to
A. D.

Feriod,A.D.
groups

138"

Statues and

Marble Titus
Third
"
"

of the

Tiber

Pompeii and Herculaneum" Arch the Nile Trajan Column"


at
"

of

Column

of Antoninus 138
"

191
Statue of M.

Feriod,A.D.

to.Decline of the Cameo


"

Portland Vase

Empire" Eq. cutting Engraved Gems

Aurelins
.198

Xll

CONTENTS.
PAOE

)( Early

Christian"
of SainU

Ftr.*/ to
"

Tenth

Centuries"

In

tli" Catacombs"

Bronze
"

Statnes

Marble

Sarcophagi"EpiscopalChair

of Maximianus

Carved

ivoryDiptychs
"

195 Eleventh Centuries

Romanesque
covers"

Tenth

and

"

Beliquaries^Diptychs Book
"

Ivorytablets"

Bronze

doors of Hildesheim
In

191*

Twejfth and Thirteenth Centuries"


"

Germany
"

The

Extern in

Stone of

at Horn

on Sculpture
"

churches

at

Hildesheim
at

Columns

Crypt
:

Freising
front
of

Cathedral

Font
"

of St. Bartholomew
at Autun"

Liege.

In France

West

of St. Gilles

Pediment Le Mans

West
"

front at Chartres" front of Ndtre

Doorway

"

Dame, Bourges Cathedral. In Italy San Zeno, at Amiens on Sculptures : Sculptures Verona" Parma Bronze Gates of the Baptistery and the Baptistery,
at

Cathedral

and

West

Paris

"

Cathedral
Gothic" ^tVa^

at Pisa

" .

201 1226 to
a.p.

Period,

a.d.

1400"

In

France:

Statues
of

in

La

Bouiges, Philipthe Bold, and Moses Fountain in St. Denis. In Germany : Sculptures at Treves at Dijon Monuments Cathedrals and Strasburg ^iuBambergandNuremberg Beautiful Fountain of Archbishop at Nuremberg" Eq. Statue of St. George at Prague" Tomb in Cathedrals In at Pisa, Orvieto, Conrad, Cologne. Italy:Sculptures Siena,and Bologna" Campo Santo, Pisa Gates of the Baptistery Pistoja, Tombs of the Scaligers Statues in Cathedral and at Verona at Florence
Sainte west

on Chapelle,

front of Rheims, and


to

in Cathedrals

Beauvais, and Blois


"

"

Monument

"

"

"

"

"

Churches
Renaissance

in Florence In the FifteenthCentury


" "

205 In
: Italy

"

Tomb

of Ilaria del Carretto,


"

and Fonta Gaia at Lucca St.

Bronze

Gates of

Florence Baptistery,

Statue Statue

of of of 21-3

George,

Florence

"

Enamelled

terra-cotta

bas-reliefs
"

Eq.

Coleoni at Venice"

Tomb
the

of Cardinal

Jacopo

in San

Miniato"

"Medals

Malatesta,and Sforza,

Gonzagas
"

Decorations of the Certosa, near

Pa via
"

Statues of Dayid and Moses, by Michelangelo In the Sixteenth CteTi^wryPerseus at Hercules and Cacus" in the Medici Chapel,Florence Tombs
"

Florence, and Diana


da The

at

Fontainebleau,by Cellini
"

Mercury,by

Giovanni
222

Bologna"
"

St.

Cecilia, by

Mademo

Renaissance

In the Sixteenth

Century
"

In France
"

Statues in St. Denis des Innocents

and at Chartres
"
"

Cathedral"
and

Groups

in the Louvre

Fontaine
:

Tombs

at Rouen

in the Louvre.

In the Netherlands
"

Chimney-piece
"

at

Bruges.
Statuettes

In In

Spain :

at Madrid.
"

The Alhambra Marble groups at Toledo Convents Choir-stalls Fountain and Ulm Altar-shrinea at : Germany
"

in wood

and
"

ivory
"

Bas-relief and Bronze Shrine at


of Frederick

Nuremberg
. . .

"

Tomb

of St. Sebald

Monument
and

III. at Vienna
"

230

Sculpture-

/w the Seventeenth
"

EighteenthCenturies

In

: Groups by Italy
:

Bernini
and

Statues and

groups and Tombs

by

Canova.

In France

Statues

groups

by Puget, Coysevox, Girardon, Couston, Bonchardon, .and


of the Tuileriesand

Houdon,

in the Gardens

and Versailles,

in the louvre.

CONTENTS.

XIU

PAGE

In

Germany
In

"q.

Statue
:

of

the

Great and

Elector

of Alouzo

Saxony"
Cano

Fountain

at

Vienna.

Spain

Altar-piece
In In
of Statues

Statues

by

286
.

In

the

NineUerUh
and

Century"
Wolff. Tomb Bauch
"

Denmark
:

Statues

and

ba8-relie"s
"

by

Thor-

waldsen

Germany
Queen
and

Ariadne,
and

by Eq.

Dannecker Statue of

Monuments Frederick
and

by

Schadow"

Louise,

the
\.

Great,
thaler"
In

by

Groups by

by Drake,
Kiss"

Bietschel,

SchwanBahdel. in the
of

Amazon
:

on

Horseback,
on

Armiuinus,
"

by
and others
"

Yon groups
"

France

Groups

the

Yenddme

Column

Statues and

Louvre,
animals

by by

Pradier,

Rude,
on

Duret,
the
and

David,
New

Groups
of

Barye"
In

Groups
:

Opera by
modern

Houses

Joan

Arc,
240

Versailles.

Italy
/m

Statues

groups
and

sculptors
CeTUuries"Tomha
on

British

Sculpture"

the and

Thirteenth Gloucester
and

Sixteenth
"

in Cathedral Crosses
"

Westminster
"

Abbey
of in

Cathedral Eleanor

Statues

Wells

Tombs

Henry
Lincoln Tomb

III.

Queen
Norwich
of

"

Queen
and

Eleanor's
the

Sculptures
Westminster"

and
of

Cathedrals,
at

Chapter-House,
VII.
.

Earl

Warwick,
of in

Wal-wick-

Henry
and
"

249

In

the

Seventeenth and

Century"
Francis
Cross
"

Tomhs

Queen

Elizabeth

Mary
of

Queen
Charles

of

Scots,
at

de

Vcre,
Coins
on

Westminster Medals
" "

Abbey

Statue

I.

Chazing

and

Wood-carvings
Statues
on

by
Bar

Grinling
252
. .

Gibbons"

Bas-reliefs

the

Monument

Temple
Roubiliac and

/"

the

Eighteenth
in

Century
Westminster

"

Groups Abbey"
and
Bacon

and

statues

by
groups,
and

and

other

foreigners Wilton,
In the

Statues,
"

monuments

by
254

Banks,

Nollekeus, C7(Wi/ury"
"

Bas-reliefs

statues

by
Eve

Flaxman

Nineteenth

Sleeping
Venus,

Children, by
and
of
"

by
"

Chantrey"
Statues Richard and

at

the

Fountain,

by Bailey

^Tinted

Gibson

bas-reliefs
,

by Wyatt, by
to

Westmacott,
"

Macdowell,
on

others

"

Cceur
"

de

Lion,

Marochetti Duke
of

Statues

Houses Stevens other

Parliament
Ino

by
Bacchus,

Thomas

Monument
"

Wellington,
Macdonald,

by
and

and

by Foley

Statues 256

by Spence,

artists

Ame"icax

Sculpture

260

Biographical

Index

263

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

ARCHITECTURE.
EXG. PAOR

1. 2.

Pylon of the Temple of Rameses at Kamak Sketch-map of cities of the Ancient World Pyramid of Cheops,and Great Sphinx

Frontispiece
3 5 6

3. Rock-cnt
4w 5. 6.

Fa9ade of Tomh
an

at Beni-hassan

Pylon of
Forecourt

EgyptianTemple
Temple
at Eamak

7
8

of

Ground-plan of south part

of

Temple

at Kamak

9
....

7, 8.
9. 10.

EgyptianColimins
Pillar and Beam of Capital Rock-cut
a

10 10 10

Column

11. 12. 13. 14.

the Nile on Temple at Ip{(ambul, Egyptian Sphinx Winged Eagle-headedFigure from Nimrud

11
12 13 14 15

Winged

Bulls

of

gateway

at Khorsabad

15. An

Assyrian Palace
slab from with Palace of

16. Pavement 17. Column 18. 19. 20.


21.

ornament spiral Part of Rock-cut Facade of the Tomb Rock-cut Tomb at Myra in Lycia

Koyunjik from Persepolis


of Darius
.

16 16

.17 18

Rock-cut

front of the Grave

of Midas

at

Doganlu, in

Phrygia

19
.

..

Dagoba from Ceylon


of

20

22. Cave 23.

Elephanta
to
a

21

Gate

Pyramid

Hindu

Temple

22 22

24. Pillar in Hindu 25.

Temple JapanesePagoda
Zayi Monjas at Uxmal Sketch-map of Ancient Greece and Italy Ground-planof Temple of Neptune at Paestum
Doric Order.
From

24 26 27 28
.29

26. Palace of

27. Casa de las 28. 29. 30.

Temple
Temple
From

at Selinus

31

31. Ionic Order. 32. Corinthian

From Order.

of Athene

(Minerva), Priene
of Athens Lysicrates,

33
. .

Monument

35

XVI

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAOE

ENO.

33. 34.

Temple of Neptune at Paestum Temple of Theseus at Athens


at Athens at Athens Acropolis

36
... ...

.37 38
39 40 43 44 45 4" 4*

35. Parthenon 36.

37.

Porch Caryatid

of Erechtheium

38. Cloaca 39.

Maxima, Rome Facade of Tomb at Castellaccio

40. Roman-Corinthian 40a.

Capital Composite Capital


Pantheon, Rome
.........

41. Section of
42. Ruins 43. 44. 45.

of

Coliseum,Rome
with

4t 49

Arch

Rome of Constantine,

Forum, Trajan's

Column, Trajan's

Rome

50 51

Baths of Caracalla House

46. Interior of Roman 47. Interior of 48.


49.

52 53

Pompeian Basilica
of San Rome Pietro,
.56

Ground-plan of old Basilica


Justinian and his Suite

57
58 59 60
....

50. Interior of Basilica of San


51. 52. 53. 54.

Sant'

Rome Paolo, in Classe, at Ravenna Apollinare


at Sophia,

of Saint Ground-plan Saint Saint Mark's, Venice


"

Constantinople

Sophiaat Constantinople
of San Marco, Venice Golden Altar-piece D'Oro,'*
at Hildesheim
...

61 62 63 65 Co

54a.
55.

Pala

of St. Godehard Ground-plan

56. Basket 57. 58.


59.

Capital. From
of Church
of

CUhedral
Cornice

of Gurk

Romanesque Arcaded
Doorway
Cathedral

66
67
'

of St,

Jak, Hungary
. .

Spires
of Schwartz
un Rheindorf,

68
,
. .

60. Double
61.

Church

Rhine
.

.70
71

Basilica of San Miniato


Satumin
at Toulouse

62. St 63. St. 64.


65.

72

Caen (Abbaye aux Etienne, Romanesque Arches Arabian Gateway at Iconium Pavilion
near

Hommes)

73

74 76 77 78 79 81
82 83 83 84

66. Moorish 67. A

Granada

Doorway
Jumma

in the Alhambra

68. The

Musjid,at

Delhi

69. Ground-

planof

CologneCathedral
Cathedral

70. Interior of Beauvais 71. 72.

lancet Two-light

Tracery of
or

later date Rose

73. Circular

Window

74. 75, 76. Three

Gothic

CapiUil"

.85

LIST
ESQ.

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

XVII

PAGE

77. Rheims 78. Miaeiere

Cathedral"
Seat from
at

West
Wells

Front Cathedral

86 87
88

79. aoth-hall
80. Charch 81. Rathhans 82. Churct 83. Duomo 84.
at

Ypres

of St

Catherine at Oppenheim

89 90 90
91 93
....

at Lubeck

Norway Hitterdal,

Florence,with Giotto's Campanile Cathedral of Siena, (Fa^e by Giovanni Pvsaiw)


of

85. Clfc d'Oro,Venice 86.

94 96

Burgos Cathedral
of Cancellaria Palace at Rome .99

87. Conrt
88. 89.
90.

97
98

Ospedale Maggiore,Milan. FUarete Venice. Palazzo Ycndramin Calergi,

Fietro Lombardo
....

Saint Peter's, at Rome, with Bernini's Colonnade 91. Biblioteca of San Marco, Venice. Jacopo Saiisaviiio
92. Palazzo
93.

100
102

....

Valmarano, Vicenza.
Palazzo del
of

FaUadio

.103
. . .

Loggiaof

Verona. Consiglio, Maimard

Fra

CHocattdo

.104
.

94. Ch"tean 95. 96. 97.

Chenonceauz, on Loire

106

Paris. Facade of Invalides,

107 109 Ill

Royal Theatre,Berlin. Schinkd New Opera House, Paris. Gamier


Tower
of Earl's Barton
.

Charch, Northamptonshire 99. Doorway of Barfreston Church, Kent and partsof arches at St Peter's, Northampton 100. Shafts,capitals,
98.

.116 116
.

117 118 119


120

101.

Cathedral Peterborough of

"

Ground-plan

102. Nave
103.

PeterboroughCathedral
Castle
nave

Keep

of Norwich

from pillar ia5. Early English Window

104. Clustered

of Wells Cathedral

122

123
124 126

106. Lichfield Cathedral 107.

Cathedral Salisbury Chapter-Honse,


of Wells

108. Nave

Cathedral Cathedral Front


. .

126
126

109. Choir of Worcester 110. York

Minster"

West

129 .131
.

111.
112.
113. 114.

in Fan-tracery

roof of

Henry VII.'s Chapel,Westminster


at Norwich Stephen's

Open

timber

roof of St
in

133 134 .136


. .

Wolsey'sGreat Hall

115.

Hampton Court Palace Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire. Smithson "nd Thorpe Inigo Janes BanquetingHouse, Whitehall
London. Cathedral, Wreii Martin's-in-the-Fields. Gibbs

137 138 139


141

116. St. Paul's

117. St 118.
119.

Bajvy BridgewaterHouse, London. Houses of Parliament, with Westminster

Abbey in distance

.143

XVIU

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

SCULPTURE.
BMO. PAGE

20.

of Proportions

Human

Figure. VUrmhis
be Pharaoh of the Exodus
.

153 155 156 167

21. MENEPHTAH.
.

Supposedto

EgyptianStatue

in black basalt

23. Ra-em-Ke 24. Rameses 25. 26.

III. between

Thoth

and

Horus

158 159

at Work Sculptors bas-relief on Assyrian


a

wall

160 161 161

27. Part of

from Nimrud Lion-bunt,


a

28. Statue of 29. Wounded

Priest Lioness.

Assyrian

162 163 167 168

30. Persian baa-relieffrom

Persepolis

31.
32.

tbe top of Lion gate at Mycenaj on Sculpture CalamU a Ram. Mercury carrying

33. The

after Myron Discobolus, the

169 170
171 172
.

34. Bas-relief from 35. Western 36.

Harpy

tomb

pediment of Temple of iEgina Interior of Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Statue of Zeus by Pheidiaa
Venus of of Melos

37. The 38. Head 39.

173 174 175


i

Juno, after Polycleitus


Eastern frieze of the Parthenon the Parthenon
Frieze

Group
Western One

from

40. Bas-relief from 41. 42.

.176

pedimentof

Parthenon.

From

Carrey. 177 drawing by Jacqtfss


178 179 179

of the

Metopes of Parthenon
Praxiteles Praxiteles
.

43. Niobe 44. The

and her Children

Faun.

45. Hermes 46.

47.

the Infant Dionysus. carrying The Apoxyomenos. Lysippus Statue of Sophocles.Lysippus Laocoon.

.180 180 181 .182 183

48. The 49. The

Agesander,Atheiwdoms, sxi^ Polydonis


Etruscan tomb

Dying Gladiator
an

50. Relief from

184
185

51. The
52. The 53. The 54. The 55.

Lydian
She-Wolf Famese

Tomb. of the Hercules

Etruscan

Capitol.Etruscan
(Colossal)

186
187 188 188 189

Apollo Belvedere Diana with the Stag


de' Medici Statue of

56. Venus 57. Marble 58. The


59.

Augustus
.

190 192

Nile

Relief from

Tngan Column

193

LIST
E^G.

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

xix
PAGE

160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171.

Gonzaga Cameo. Sarcophagusof


Leaf of
a

Ptolemy I. and Eurydice


Junius Bassus

194 197
198

carved

Ivoiy Diptych

Ivory Diptych of Otto II i^bel offering his Lamb Angel Gabriel and Virgin Moses Fountain at Dijon. Claes ^uter
of Figures Adoration Virtues and of the

200
202

203 206 of

Vices, from Cathedral


Niccda Pisaiw

Strasburg
.

207
.

Kings.

209 210
.

Campo Santo of one Capital


Saint

of Pisa.

of the columns

Designed by Giovanni Pisano Venice of Doge'sPalace,


Ghiberti
.

.211
216
.

George. DonateUo
at Florence. Baptistery

172. Central Gates of


173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 182a. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 196. 199.

216, 217
218
219 220

The

Singers. Luca DeUa Robbia The Nativity. Luca DeUa Eobbia


Statue of Bartolommeo Bronze

Coleoni,Venice
Vittore Fiaano
.

Medal of SigismondiMalatesta. Sanamdno Baptism of Christ. Andrea Statue of Moses.


Statue

.221
223 224 225
.

Michelangelo
de

of Lorenzo

Entombment Diana

Medici,Dawn and Evening. MicJielangelo of Christ. Jacopo Tatti


Benvenuto of Medusa.
da

226 227

of Fontainebleau. the head

Cellini
Benvenuto

Perseus with

Cellini

228
.

Mercury.
Monument Relief. Shrine

Giovanni
to Admiral

Bologna
Jean Coiidn Adam
.

229
232

Chabot.

Above

door

of Public Scales, Nuremberg.


Bernini

Kraft

234
.

of St. Sebald, Nurembei^g. Peter Vischer


and

.235 237 238 240


241
.

Apollo and Daphne.


Mars Venus.

Canova

EquestrianStatue of Elector. SMuter Triumphal Entrance of Alexander into Babylon. ThorwaliUen


Ariadne. Tomb
of Dannecker

242

Queen Louise,Charlottenburg.

Eancfb
....

243 244

Cupid. Chaitdei Riule Paris. Fratigois The Marseillaise^ his son. Monteverdi Jenner inoculating
of Robert of Normandy Effigy Carvings in the Chapter House

246 247 249

of Westminster

Abbey
.

250
.

Tomb Medal

of Queen for Lord

Elizabeth

.252
254

Simon High Admiral. Children. The Sleeping ChaiUrey

257 .261

200. The

Libyan Sibyl. Story

GLOSSARY
USED IN

OF

TECHNICAL AND

TERMS SCULPTURE.

ARCHITECTURE

Abacus. Am
BO.

"

A A

square

slab

forming
or

tlie topmost

feature

of

Greek

capital.

"

rostrum,
"

pulpit, Having cuttings

tribune.
at

Amphipbostyle. Annulets. below ANTifB.

columns
in

both

ends. of
a

"

Deep

the

circumference

Doric

column

immediately

the Columns

echinus.
or

"

pilasters

built
of

in the
a more

masonry.
or

Arabesque.

"

Decorative of

design

less and the

intricate

and

interlaced

character,
The whom

composed
was

conventionally
other Eastern

treated

floral besides

geometrical
Moors
or

patterns.
from

style
the

used

by

nations

Arabs,

Tuiine

probably
"

is derived.
.

Architbave.

The roof

stone

laid The
or

on

the

top

of round

the
a

columns door
or

of

classic

building
or

to

support
Astylar.
"

the

front.

moulding
shafts.

window

opening,

arch.

Without
A seat

columns,
canopy,
of

Baldacchino. throne
or

"

either
or

fixed, portable

as

those
as

of

carved carried

wood
over

or

stone

above
of

honour,
in
a

those

the

heads

the

principal
Barbican.
Bay. A
"

persons
An

procession.
or

outwork

advanced
a

fortification

attached from
space

to

castle.

"

compartment
or

in

structure

separated
the

the between

remainder
one

by
column

an

arch,
the

buttresses,
next

vaulting,
is
a

In

church,

and

in

the

nave

bay.
decorative

BiLLET-HoULDiNG.

Normau iii rows,

work,
each

in

the
from

form the

of

rounded

oblong
a

blocks about

arranged
their Campanile.
Cancslli. the
"

generally

separated

other

by

space

of

own

length.
"

Bell-tower. ^The
of
a

railings
church
or crown
:

or

low
Jience

screen

separating

the

choir

and

clei*gy

stalls

from

nave

chancel.

Capital."
Caryatide-s.

Head

of

column. used
as

"

Female
The
"

figures
enclosed

supports

instead
of
a

of

columns.

Cella,
Chevet.

or

Nave. An

inner

portion

templu.
in
a

"

apse

suiTouuded

by chajK^ls arranged

semi-circle.

GLOSSARY

OF

TECHNICAL

TERMS.

XXI

Chevron. CmBORio.
and

"

Zigzagmoulding
^The raised

one

of the most tho roof of


a

common

fonns of Nonnan

decoration.
navp

of portion transepts. {Spanish.)


" "

church

at the intersection of the

Ci^EBESTORT.
oyer

the nave,
"

^Upper story of a church with windows above the aisles. and rising
sewer.

on

both

sides,immediately

Cloaca.

A
"

tunnelled
A

Concrete. Cornice. Corona.


so as
" "

mixture

of

graveland mortar, mouldings at


a

of great strength.
room.

^The horizontal
^A

the

or top of a building

moulding formingpart of
off the rain water

cornice,the under side of which is grooved


the edifice.

to throw
"

from

CoRTiLE. Crypt."

^A small inner court.


a

) {Italian,

arched passage surroundinga garden or Originally ranean recent modem used only to denote a subterarchitecture, courtyard ; in more beneath a church. chamber (usually vaulted) that is,an cloister,
"

Cyclopean.

to masonry ^Applied derived the term originally work of giants, or Cyclops.


"

of any

kind

constructed

of vast

unhewn

stones
were

from

the

that supposition

such

erections

the

DrpTERAL. DoMUs."

Having

two

wings or

aisles {pteron^ Or,


a

wing).
it distinguish from

used of house, generally

detached

residence to

Insula^a block of houses.


EcHDTcrs.
"

The

carved

ornamentation

of the ovolo, or

rounded

moulding

beneatli

the abacus. Entasis. Fillet.


" "

{Greek,)
of or enlargement swelling round
or a

^The

column, making

curved outline.

^A small

lued to denote the Flameotant.


"

other largerones, two angular moulding separating of column. bands between the flutings a iipright

of architectural ornament to France in the fifteentli peculiar style its character of the from its which, with their mouldings, century, deriving name ^A

resemble flames. curved and twisted outlines, Frieze.


on
"

the
"

highlydecorated, immediatelyabove long band, usually of the of at a room. or a building, "^e top
Room
"

the architrave

Galilee.

over

the

porch of

church.
or

HAiiMER-beam.

roof-bracket. Hypaethral. Hypobttle."


"

end long square beam with enlarged Peculiar to Englisharchitecture of the


to the

head, used

to

support a

fifteenth century.

Literally, open

sky

"

to applied

open courts.

"under columns," but usually Literally, appliedto an arrangement of pillars of which the two central rows are higher than those at the sides ; the of the Gothic clerestory, into the interior. to throw light as in the case being, object

Metope.

usuallysquare, sometimes oblong,placed at much and divided by triglyphs, regularintervals along the frieze, generally decorated with designs but occasionally or groups of figures, plain.
"

panelor

tablet of stone,

MoBquE."

A Mahomedan

of worship, or palace. templeor place

xxii
Mouldings."
a.

GLOSSARY

OF

TETHNICAL

TERMS.

Torus."
"

convex

band. band.
boss encased

b. Cavetto.
c.

A
"

concave

Ball-flower.
"

A An

round

with leaves.
a

d.

Dog-tooth.
somewhat

angular moulding placed in a tooth in form. resembling


the
a

hollow

course,

MuTULE."

from Primarily, any projection

surface

of

wall ; used

describe the square block like the end of above the frieze of a Doric building. Narthex.
"

beam,

appearingat

to specially distances regular

In

earlyChristian

churches

the

portionset apart for


with

the

and reception

examination

of the Catechumens. the vaulted roof

Nave.

"

The

inverted NiLOXBTER.
to mark
"

portionof a church ; so called because it resembles the shape of a ship (ftavis).


central
An

the annual
"

erected building octagonal of the Nile. rising


rear

on

the island of Rhoda

oppositeCairo,
at

Opisthodomus.

The

part of
had
Mosaic

temple.

Also

small

chamber

the back

to

which Opus
a

the

alone priests
"

access.

Alexandrinum.

designin black and red pavement of geometrical


a or bracket. corbel,

on

white A
"

ground.
window, resting on projecting
More

Oriel." 0
VOLO.

Primarily, moulding. any egg-shaped


of the small round
or

commonly

used in the restricted

sense

features of
or

column.

Pagoda

Taas. of many

"

Chinese

each stories,

sisting construction,conJapanese temple of peculiar having its own up-curvedroof.

Parapet. Pediment.
TOW

"

A
"

low

wall,breast-high only,on
crown triangular or

the

edge of
a

tower

or

gallery.
a

The

finish of

usuallysupported on portico,
There several varieties
"

of

the tympanum. columns, enclosing


"

Peripteral.

Surrounded

on

all sides

by

columns.

are

of

be divided into the following columnar classes arrangements, which may those monopUralf i.e. having a singlerow of columns at one side ; dipteral ^ with two rows of columns buildings having one row standing ; paeitdo-dipteral, in the main wall ; and pseudo-peripteral, applyingto a apart, and one embedded structure

with columns
"

sunk
a

in its walls

on

all sides.

Peribtylium. Pharos."
A

^The interior of

surrounded building
from

by

columns.
on

lighthouse ; derived
same name

that which

erected Ptolemy Philadelphins of Alexandria.

the island of the

at the entrance
a

to the harbour

PosTiouM."
Pronaos.Prostyle.
"

Space behind
The

the Cella in
a

Greek

temple.
three sides,and

vestibule of

Greek
a

temple.
row

Porch

supportedby by the pediment.


gateway of
an

of

columns, open

on

mounted sur-

Pylon." Quadriga.

The
"

Egyptian temple.
of
net.

^A four-horse chariot.

Reticulated."

Latticed like the meshes

GLOSSARY

OF

TECHNICAL

TERMS.

XXlll

RooD-scBREN.
"

Properly,
a

an

open which
screen

gallery
the
when

placed
Rood sarmoonted

immediately
or

above
was

the
to

chancel view
j

screen

of
also

charch,
of
a

in chancel

Holy

Cross

displayed

but

used

by
of
an

Cross.

SoF7iT.
"

^The

flat ^The

surface

or

the

lower

or

nnder between

side

arch

or

cornice.
of

SftwKiiKiL. square
Tops.
"

"

triangular

surface-space

the

spring

an

arch

and

its

frame.
^An

artificial

mound,

generally
to
a

cone-shaped
of the
of the

and

rounded

at

the

top,

raised

as

sepulchral
A
"

monument

personage

distinction.
from

{Indian.
north

)
to

Trahbept. TBiFORn7M.
"

transYerse An

nave

crossing gallery pillars


grooves

central arches
nave.

nave

south. beneath the

open

arcaded the

running

immediately

elezestoiy,
TitiOLTPHS.
"

and

above

of

Triple
with

upright
these

channelled the
in frieze

in

the

spaces
Or. to

between hollow
of

the

metopes,

and Tympanum.

together
The
"

forming
space

(gluplwy
end,
;
or

out).
an

triangular
finials
^A
"

gable capital

at

the

head

arch.

Volute.
"

^The

coiled

of

an

Ionic
of

also

any

spiral deriving

ornament its

Wagooktilted ZooPHORUS.

VAULT.

simple
waggon.

form

rounded

vaulting

name

from

the

cover

of

Band
"

of

decoration

on

frieze,

composed

of

representations

of

animals.

*^*

Tlie

date

and

place

of

birth

of

Deceased

Artists,

and

the

date

of

death,
are

given

in

the

Biographical

Index

at

the

end

of

the

volume.

HANDBOOK
TO

THE

HISTOKY

OF

AET,

ARCHITECTURE.

INTRODUCTION.

takes ARCHITECTURE combines beauty and has been

rank

something more of construction, that principles in Although it is principally of buildingsthat we see both the artistic and scientific principles archit-ecture applied, be raised a a cottage, may privateresidence, even of materials, and careful this to a dignity by judicioustreatment
attention A
to

grace done than

it is not until utility. Hence of out the mechanical carrying be called a work of art. a building can and other temples, monuments, public the

among with

the

fine

arts

only

when

it

the

laws

of

beauty.
character when

bmlding
express

may the purpose

be said to have

for which
the mode of

it is intended Its

ornamentation. improved by well-designed in and much When


a

and proportions the effect be ; may form and styledepend


as

its form

gieat

measure

windows,
affected
an

and

upon the formation the nature

such spanning openings,

doors
course

define its
either The of

by important building is to be erected, the which form by walls,or sometimes by pillars,


a

of the

of roofs ; and the building is of which material is chosen. first


course

is to

succession
between
are

of

stones

of

similar

size,
stones

or

last may consist of a monolith.* other

spaces in the walls the

the

the pillars,

doorways, and
and Greeks.

the

then

spanned by
the instead
"

horizontal

openings This was {lintels).


lintels
were

plan adopted by

Egyptians
of stone.

Wooden

sometimes

employed
*

See

before Glossaryof

terms

used

in architecture.

2 The
nature

ARCHITECTURE.

the

within certain limits restricts, necessarily which to be covered with or are openings spaces lintels. Wider be covered if the stone lintel is replaced can openings by the arch, which is formed of stones cut wedge-shaped and (voussoirs) dimensions of the cemented
"

of the material

The arch, of whatever kind circular, semitogether with mortar. horseshoe or stone and the vault pointed, supplanted lintels, took the place of the flat roof. These the methods of roofing were adoptedby the Romans, and by different nations in the earlyChristian
"

and

middle

From

ages, and the artistic

at the time

of the Eenaissance.

the different

tion, working out of these various systems of construcof architecture have been styles developed.

MATERIALS

AND

METHODS

OF

BUILDING.

The

materials the

used

for

are building

of the

greatest importance in
The

determining

nature

of the

whole

structure.

followingare
"

employed:

"

1. N^cUurcU best substance

Stone
that In

"

such
can

as

sandstone, or granite,
:

limestone and

^is the in

be used

it is

hewn generally still remain

dressed

regularblocks.
any undressed from
were

elaboration
stones
were

very of

massive early times, for building

out withpiles
"

plan
"

such

as

in India

large,

used

in the

forms irregular

in which

they came

the quarry. The interstices between these largepolygonal masses filled up with rubble,or stone broken into small pieces.This of which building,
was

mode

in Asia
a

Minor,
which
were

Greece, and

chiefly prevalentin the earliest ages is known the Cyclopeanstyle, as Italy,


the tradition that such Thracian hewn the of tribe of

term

structures

in Greece, from originated of the Cyclopes, the work a

giants.

Of

all the

ancient

buildingsconstructed
white

of

mostly temples,

built of

marble,

were

stone, the Greek finest. To increase


was

the appearance of rough, as is the the


are name

the solidity,
case

surface of the stone


varieties in which

in certain kind
or

given to the marked by grooves


structures

of work decided

masonry of the stones the joints

left sometimes called rustic,

channels.
a

2. Brick for them such

mark

step in the developmentof

the

buildingart, as

it is necessary in the first placeto form the material of the soft earth or clayprovidedby nature other ; moreover,
are

artificial substances
"

often

as

terra-cotta and In

in required Bricks plaster.

addition
were

to

the actual

bricks,

employed in the erection

of and has

massive simple, been

structures
our own

Assyria. of mortar Concrete^ a mixture brought to great perfection. with gravel, is also used where great strength is required. Timber 3. Wood. in the was employed in the erection of log-huts earliest times, strong beams and being usuallypiledup horizontally,

in the earliest times, in Persia,Babylon, without stucco, day plainbrick building,

OyfuS
BLACK

EUXINUS
SEA

Fu"t^*fc^

a^'tte

ao

'A*

"flJ*"**
of
some

riaUit iSen.

S:

t left

Street
.

LonJott.

1.

"

Sketch-map

of the

cities principal

aod

great temples of the


should colour the
seas

Ancient and

World. this map

For

it is suggested that of refer^nee facilitjf and in that


on

the student p. 28 tpith


a

gulfs in

lightteash of blue.

ARCHITECTURE.

In the middle ages a half-timbered ingeniously joinedat the corners. 'of timbers, and architecture the spaces having a framing prevailed, between them often filled in with

stone, clay,or

bricks.

The

beams

and

posts
more

were

liave been

which carved, as we see in many buildings elaborately This style from that time. has been often imitated preserved architecture of Russia is

recently.
wooden of
trees

The trunks carved

merely rough, consisting


often ornamented

of

piercedpanels. The and pleasing.An of artistic wooden architecture in Norway style extremely prevailed churches of that in the early part of the middle ages. are Many style still extant ; the largest is that of Hitterdal (see the Eng, 82), ance appearand dressings

piled up and window barge-boards

but horizontally,

witli

well-known

chaJst of Switzerland

is characteristic

of which
4. Iron for the and

is very remarkable. is a material employedchiefly as of ties and

an

either important auxiliary, with

making
of

heaniSy or,

in combination in

for glass,

the

construction
at the

exhibition

as we markets, see railway stations, and notablyin the Crystal Palace. In America, buildings, of iron, constructed entirely are frequently present day,buildings

largeroofs,such

in imitation

of stone.

Egypt
It is
on

the

banks
their
no

of the

Nile

that tends

we come

meet

with
to

the most
us,

ancient the

examples of
of perfection of which The the from

architecture

that

have

down

though

workmanship
now

to

point to

ings still earlier build-

record Ancient

remains. be divided into four

of history

Egypt may
b.c.

great periods ;
of the sixth

that of the Old first, the seventh

Empirk, from the first to the end


to 2000

The Middle Empire, b.c.]. which time dynasty,during (about the fourteenth dynasty) the country was invaded by the Shepherd-^ The New Empire, from the eighteenth Kings [2000B.C. to 1600 B.C.]. built [1600b.c. the twentieth to when the great temples were dynasty, 1110 to to the Empire, from the twenty-first B.C.].The Za^er New of the last Rameses death that from the to is, thirty-first dynasty, It then the conquest of Egypt by Alexander [1100 b.c. to 332 b.c.]. 3000 dynastyof kings [about
to the seventeenth

became

Greek

kingdom
640.

under
a

the

Ptolemies

till the

death

of Cleopatra,

B.C.

30 ; and

afterwards

Boman

provincetill the

Mahomedan

invasion, a.d.

EGYPTIAN.

The
erected
upon

Pyramids
as

are

the

oldest monuments

of the world. size often of stone

of the burial-places the

the

lengthof

kings,and their reign. They consist of masses

They were depended


and bricks

raised up around the chamber which contained the sarcophagusof the this increased and was mass monarch, year by year until the king died. The Great Pyramid Cairo (Eny. 2) was built by King at Ghizeh near

2."

The

Pyramid

of

Cheops, and

the Great

Sphinx.

Khufu
million

(called by
men

the

who Greeks, Cheops), labour feet


"

it employed, than second 218

is

said,seven

in
a

forced

in {corvee)
an

its erection. of
more

The twice

height was
sions the dimenbuilt

480 feet

on

base of 764

area

by

of any other building in the world. Shafra (Kephren) was 454 feet high on

The
a

Pyramid

base of 707 but fourth

third erected base of 354

by

Menkaura These
were

was (Mycerinus)

feet ; and the feet high on a

feet.

all

kings

of the

dynasty.

The

AUCtilTECTURli. of the masonry and the chambers the admiration with of in the Great that galleries
or

workmanship
with which have excited Extensive

Pyramid,and
it contains less
were

the

great skill

consti-ucted,
in the

of all skilled observers. of the

more sepulchres, private

rock, are
but
are

connected in with

some

deeplyexcavated Pyramids. These are in


The walls
are

stone,
often whose

imitation

timber
scenes

construction. from the

adorned

of paintiogs
at

life of the

person

body
The

is entombed. fine Obelisk twelfth about

of the

erected by Osortasen,the great king Heliopolis^ is a monument of the Middle Empire,which dynasty,
two

commenced
a

thousand

simplememorial
a

stone, with
rock-cut

column, and taperingsides, square base, gradually


To the
at
same

years before the Christian era. from cut with geometrical precision
a

It is
a

single pyramidalor
of the for theii* which

pointedtop.
which pillars,

periodis also
Greek Doric

ascribed

the formation

I'omha

in Middle Beni-hassan^

Egypt,remarkable {Eng,3),of
doubtless the the
are

resemble

colxmins

they

prototype:
column, and
to the

they are the examples of

earliest kno\vTi

1400 years anterior are earliest Greek. "When invaded called the the the Asiatic

country

was

by

tribes the
.

herd-King Hyk-shos,or Shepthey


drove the
was

rulers of the land into Lower

Egypt,and
to

reduced

people
not

subjection. It
1600
were

until
3.
"

B.C.

that these the in this

truders inof

Rock-cut

Fa9adeof

Tomb

at Beui-hassan.

and expelled,
era

then the the New

commenced
was

Empire,with
between of her It

Thebes
b.c.

for its and

capital. It
b.c.,

period,
reached

included zenith

1600 the

1110

that

Egypt
of the of
a

greatness, and
was

Egyptian

architecture

its fullest
tion construc-

development.
of the

golden age of art, the age great temples. These usuallyconsisted


a enclosing

cluster

of

different parts
gave the
were
can

small

sacred

centre

or

shrine. cornices

with pyramidal facadescalled lyylons,


an

mighty imposingappearance to the entrance ; but with this exception for internal effect. They designedalmost entirely temples were and heavy architecture shut in by enclosing and the severe walls,
been
seen

their

Towering {Eng, 4),

have
no

only by

those admitted fanciful

within

the

Here with and

no window-openings,

groupingof
are

sacred precmct. columns, break the


with
a

monotony of the desolate courts, which

as covered,

tapestry,

mystic
rulers.

and many-colouredhieroglyphics A

of gods representations

double

row

of

or sphinxes,

of ram-headed

often colossi,

lUTT,
EGYPTIAN.

The

leads up to the entraDce, in front of which usually stood two obelisks.* leads into vestibule a doorway square open to the sky, with access on on two, sometimes three,sides. The vestibule gives porticoes

large inner court, with a massive roof supportedon columns. Beyond this are several smaller apartments of varying size, enclosing within them the kernel of the whole the low, narrow, mysterious, is enthroned in mysticgloom cella the shrine in which dimly-lighted the image of the god. In several instances it is clear that these great and an temples have been extended by the addition of a court-yard in front of the original this seems entrance to cases one, and in some
to
a
" "

4."

of Pylon (Entrauce-gate)

an

EgyptianTemple.
every instance the internal the outside of the building, add Almost the the

have

been all

done

more

than

once.

In almost
as

well the pillars, as walls,the ceilings,


are

decorated profubely the


ornaments
on

with

coloured

which carvings, symbolic


were

to greatly

only or astragal buildings sculptured added the was and the cornice,while over bead at the angles, doorways ornament a circular boss with a an wing at each side of it. ruins of Thebes, the "City of a Hundred The Gates," grand and extensive in Egypt, and are in its decay, the most are imposingeven

majestic appearance

of the structure.

the exterior of

"

"

monoliths. Invariably
one

Rome,

in London, {Cleopatra's Needle)

There are twelve in Several liave been carried away. in Paris. and one (the Obelisk ofLtixor)

8 scattered
on

ARCHITECTURE.

through the ancient and most town. largest Templeof Karnak {Eng. 5) are remarkable : Mr. Fergusson says they are perhaps the noblest effort The of architectural magnificence ever producedby the hand of man." built by Osortasen was I.,and the rest of the Sanctuaryof Karnak fe6t in length, added It is 1200 monarchs. later building was by than more by about 360 in width : its great hyposiylehall covers
both sides of the

Nile,which
"

thus

runs

Those

of the

the

and 88,000 squai'e feet, 60 feet

contains

central

avenue

of twelve

columns,

high and

12 feet in

and diameter,

122

of lesser dimensions.

5.

"

Forecourt

of the

Temple

at Kariiak.

The of the of
once

Te)ni)le of
Nile, was
In
were

Luxor
^

built

by

Rameses the

the

Great, on

the

same
an

side
avenue ;

connected front

with

Temple
two

of Karnak

by

sphinxes.
there The ruins

of it stand

colossal statues is
now

of Kameses the bank Great of the and

two

obelisks, one
The

of which

in Paris.

of another called B.C.),

temple,likewise

built
are on

by

Eameses

(about 1500

Ehamessio^i,

the other

river ; the pylonsare still standing. At Tel-Bdsta of the (the Bubastis

Greeks),between
remains
as

Cairo
one

Ismaila, M.
finest of of them have all.

Naville Mariette

has

recentlydiscovered
it in

of

-^be xj"" beautiful

described by Egyptianedifices,

Plerodotus

the most it
was

been

explored for utterlydestroyed. The

vain, and

thoughtto
of stone

remains

comprise blocks

EGYPTIAN.

9
of King Pepi-Merira dynasty and other the sixth
;

carved columns
of the

with

the

Dames

and

titles of twelfth

dynasty;

Osortasen

I f. of the

monarchs

with

lotus bud of his

capitals, bearingthe cartouche

of Eameses

II.

nineteenth
one

II. and the

djmasty; fragmentsof colossal statues of Rameses sons. Carvingson the blocks of red granite in
a

(Jsortasen's hall

represent

perhaps a coronation,with great festival,


the
cat-

figureof the
been 450
are

King frequently repeated, accompanied by


whom this

headed
to have

goddessBast, to
feet in

temple was
about in the The 150

dedicated.

It is believed of in

and length, forms. is

feet in width.

Columns form
a

largely employed
are

architecture oldest is
seen

Egyptian

temples. They
a OD

of various

more

employed usually
base,somewhat
of the its shaft

given in Eny. 8.
a an

The

Eng, 7, and shaft, supported


at

round

resembles is often
seen

bundle the

the bottom and leaves,

of i*eed-stems, and imitation of the sheath

of and

from springing capital^

necking

of the

shaft

0."

Qround-plaa of

the south

part of the Temple


to

at Kamak.

blinded in others

together with
the

it, is

supposed
flower;
entablature.

resemble the in heads of the

lotus

bud,

and the

oj"enedlotus
the supported leaves with used
meet
are

above

capital is laid
have later

which (ibitcuSf

Many

columns of the

capitals
at

representingpalm

{Eiiy, 10),and
in pillars
as

temples (as

Denderah) we
and other
are

which

goddessIsis
their for wall close

deities their

the in

ornaments

capitals. Egyptian
of proportion is
no

colimins

usuallymassive
diameter the
ever

character,but
columns word

heightto

varies

considerably. There
in stone.
a

reason

supposing that
were paintings

very

fanciful

in represented We
must

the
not

actuallyexecuted pierswith
to

this notice of

without Egyptianpillars square architectural stnctly


are

on

the so-called do not

caryatid

columns,

which

colossi

placedin front

of them.

Although not
temples.

as objects, they

support the

entablature, they

greatlyadd

the

architectural effect of

Egyptian

10
The the remains of the

ARCHITECTURE.

Temple of
remarkable

Kom for

Ombo,
the

on

sandy

hill

neai-

first cataract, are

beauty

of the

columns, of

"""""""""""""""""""imu

Egyptian Columns.

9.

"

Pillar aud

Beam.

which

thirteen

are

still standing. The

are capitals are

of excellent smaller
ones

desfgn.
called

In addition

to the

great

there temples,

several

Typhonia or
plans
Greek
The
to

Mammisi,
bear
a

the

ground
of the

of which

semblance restriking some

those

of

temples.

of the tombs royal Theban and eighteenth following dynasties, excavated from in the living rock the western of the Nile, are plain less worthy of study than the no of A winding temples. labyrinth with the halls, passages, alternating roofs of which are supported by
10."

Capitalof

Column.

Palm-leaf.
walls life of

left pillars from


a

in the

rock, leads living

vestibule
are

to the

chamber

itself.

The the

of these

tombs

covered
is

sarcophagus with ings paintthese

relatingto

the

ruler, aud

it

from chiefly

EGYt^TIAN.

11
There which
are

pAintingsthat
groups i-emarkabie are the Cemeteries
are
on

the of the

of History tonabs the Tor/ibs Sacred of the

the

distinct

in the

kings is written. of the Nile, of plains


Other

many
most
y

the

of

tJieQueens, the Tmiibs

of
"with island

Apis,

of the Kings and ments important Egyptian monu"

met

in Nubia elsewhere, especially and Elephantine, the

such

as

the

temple
at

the

"^IuaI] with

two

Rock-cut

Caves

Ipsambul {"tig, 11),


courts

smaller

chambers

of which, consisting of two extensive larger has external an beyond, facade100 feet

11.

"

Rock-cut

Temple
four

at

Ipsambul,on

the Nile

in

height, adorned
the Great cataract. the third
"

with

statues, each
of the

about

65 These

feet
are

high,of
near
*

Kameses

(theSesostris

Greeks).

the

second
About

century
Under

B.c.
more

Egypt

had

sunk

into

of longperiod the Ptolomies

decay, which
came

lasted till the

of enlightened policy
"

to its relief.

them," says Mr. Fergusson, she enjoyedas

her arts under the Pharaohs as ; her architecture and great prosperity of the great revived, not, it is true, with the greatness or the purity

national
was

era,

but still with

much

richness remain

and

material
was

splendour." It
of the most

daring this

that the period

TempleofEdfou
to
us

one built,

of all the perfect

that buildings

The (seeFrontispiece).

12
two

ARCHITECTURE.

huge pylonsstill exist,though they have


are

lost their Tliis far from

and cornices,

there about

the

colonnades

of

vast

inner

court.

temple was
this is

of the

the size of

Cologne Cathedral.
Not with celebrated its

TempleofDenderaJty facadeof Isis-headed


which
to
are

cohimns,
other smaller

different

in character in the than but small ^^

of any country. It is those the

temple

at

"dfou,
more

its situation

is

imposing.
Temple of Philoiy
on an

The

situated picturesquely

12.-Egjptian Sphinx.

,5,3^^

^^^

Nile, Hke wise

i
is
an

to this belongs

period. There
so

no

building out of Thebes opinion of Egyptian architecture

ihat givesthe
as

traveller

favourable

this

beautiful

little

temple.

Assyrian,and Bahylonian,
The and The inhabitants of the from

Persian. by
the
to

great
the

region
a

watered

Euphrates
the Persian

Tigris, extending
at
a

Armenian age to various

mountains

Gulf, attained

very down

remote

architectural
3200

of the styles
b.c.

region from
interwoven IUbylonian

that it will be
or

Chaldean,
or

high degree of civilisation. this peoples who ruled over to 330 b.c., are, as well as their history, so several convenient the to treat more style.*?, Assyrian, Persian, as developments of one
Belus,
one

type.
The

Temple of Bddl,
less than the have rivalled Gardens

at

Babylon,
Not

of

terraces, each
must

the

below of

as it,

described connected

eight stories,or by Greek writers,


are

pyramids

Egypt.
were

less famous with the

the but

of Semiramis, which Hanging of the Assyrian rulers. Of all these the mounds
near

palaces

works
on

nothing now

remains the

the

town

of

Hillah, built
the old

the ruins of the ancient

Babylon,and
*

beneath

which

temple of Belus,* and


Tower of Babel
:

palace
for
no

The

distinction of
three different

being the
masses
:

ruins of the
Nimruds

is claimed the
west

less than

Tmcer at Akkerkuf of the Euphrates and Hillah ; and the Bits five miles from Euphrates and six miles north-west of Hillah ; )mt there is
for identification.

east AfujcllibCy

Nimrxui^
no

of the

sufficient evidence

BABYLONIAN,
of Kebuchadnezzar

ASSYRIAN,

AND

PERSIAN.

13

are supposed to have been (600 b.c.), by some were evidently by fire, destroyed recognised.Many of these buildings of vitrified the ruins in masses a measure consisting ; but in great their rapiddecay was the result of their having been built cases some of sun-burnt which crumbled bricks, by exposure to gradually away

the

atmosphere.
sufficient remains certain
not

No any

of the the Birs

earlyChaldean
their
a a

idea of

to

be

gathered of

exist to enable buildings character; but they were midal pyratower

probably

unlike

Nimrud,

erection

six stories crowned

by

the shrine. enclosing Important discoveries


some

ten

miles,have
of the
to

been

of ruins, extendingover made the at Mosul, on

right bank

and buildings Tigris. The palaces after have named the been brought light of Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Koyunjik, villages which near found, and are most probthey were ably the ruins of ancient is the
a

Nineveh. Palace with

Of

these of

the it

most
was

important
erected
on

of

Khorsahad:

mound

terraces

brick,

faced of
a

by

walls of

of

number

narrow

great apartments and


a

and thickness, series of

consisted

leries, long galcourts.

grouped They
purpose purer very columns for the which
were

about

open

of

raised,it is supposed, partlyfor the and for sake of the the defence, partly
be obtained
at
a

air to of

higher level.
forms,
as

No
as

distinctive
a

architectural

such

characteristic

have style,

yet been

discovered

by

atoned ; but this is in a great measure the richness of the decorative details. In
see

we sculptures

the

foreshadows the lower

the

design of a Ionic style. The


or

column liefs, bas-re13." headed

tablets on sculptui^ed
cover

alabaster

which slabs, sometimes the chief

Winged EagleFigure from


Nimrud.

part of the

walls, are

carved. beautifully
events

They

commemorated

in the lives of the


to

Assyrian rulers. Many


a

of them

have from

been the

removed

the

British the the

Museum

palace of Nimrud,
Bull, are
are

Siegeof

; of these Tcym, and

the Lion

Hunt,

the Erection
ornaments

of a Colossal
of the gated varie-

among glazed slabs of the

most

remarkable.

The

pavements and
The

in many cases of the use of Greek The

excellent.

the upper partsof the walls quent beauty of the drawing and the fre-

us

rich in

flanked

honeysuckleand allied types of decoration remind were workmanship. The interiors of the rooms always or colour, either in plaster mosaic.^ entrance palaces were gateways of these singular generally faces and elaborby pairsof colossal winged bulls, with human

14

ARCHITECTURE.

feathers various drains with

ately curled hair and {Eng, 14).


colours of the the arch. have

beards, wearing a high tiara surmounted by gateways faced with glazed bricks of also been dug out ; and these,with the vaulted
Arched that

palace, prove

Assyrian
on

architects

were
a

acquainted
kind

of upper admitted air and lightfreely probably story to the building, ; but there of opinionas to the means is great divergence employedthroughoutthe

Galleries,raised

columns,

forming

for buildings erected of the


on

the admission
to

of

terraces,

which

were light. All the Assyrian buildings of it and flights st^ps gave access,

is

probable that they were palaceat Khorsabad One of the pavement


the

several

stories

high {Eng,15).

The

comers

quarters of the compass. slabs of the ruins at Esarhaddon, supposed to

face the four

liave been

in palaceof Sennacherib,at Koyunjik,is represented

Eng,

16.

^kzt.y
14."

'i

Winged

Bulls of the gateway at Khorsabad.

Under obtained
and this The and all sides. many

the For

rule

of

Cyrus
the

the

Great

the (559"529 B.C.) extended

Persians
on

ascendancy over

Medes, and
centuries of their is

their dominions
were a

upwards of two

they

great nation,
be
seen

important remains

architecture

may

to

day.
architecture and

The

of these nations

late offshoot of that of and platforms which


was

Assyria.
the brick

Medes

Persians This

adopted

the terraced

walls faced with Nineveh. the

characteristic of the ruins of Babylon materials, costly

styleof ornamenting walls,


of from Central the the Asia and in

common

throughout perhaps have


in the The stories

whole

ancient East

Egypt,

may

sprung manufacture

designsof the

textile exquisite excelled

fabrics,
in very
seven

of which

of the people

early times.
of Media, was royal Palace of Echatana^ the capital walls coloured with high,built in the terraced style, in
some

BABYLONIAN,

ASSYRIAN,
and The

AND

PERSIAN.

15
bear
a

part" glowing with


to those affinity

gold
with

silver.
columns

These

walls

striking
used in halls silver

faced

coloured

glazedbricks,which
and and covered Minor with

were

the
were

of Nineveh. palaces of cedar and

of the ceiling-beams

cypress the Greeks

wood,

gold and

plates.
Intercourse with of Asia influenced greatly Persian and architecture, of adoption many
near Pas.sargadsB,

led

to the extensive
ornaments.

Greek the modern

employment of marble, and the On the site of the ancient


the ruins of
a

Murghab,

largestructure

^^y^grrd^^l'^y^

Rertoration. .S"/"s?wterf

15.

"

An

ARsyrian Palace.

have been

discovered,which
a

are

supposed

to

have

been with

the
a

Tomb

of

Cyrus.
it" form

It consists of

small

betrayingGreek
was

steps. It
surrounded

constructed

gable roof, erected on a influence, pyramid of seven of white marble, and was formerly entirely
chamber temple-like marble erected columns under
at
some

by

kind

of cloister of

little
and The

distance from
The famous
ruins of

it. Palace
was of Peraepolis

Kings

Darius

celebrated Xerxes, this fine


a

for their fruitless


are building

with struggles
seen
on

the Greeks. 1582

to

be

the

plainof Nardusht,
Teet by

on standing

flatsurface cut

from

the solid

rock, about

16
938

ARCHITECTURE.

feet.

Massive

double

of steps lead flights

to

this

platform,now

^(^(iaji:""^|e")("i"0(5))("j

16."

Pavement

slab from

the

palaceof Koyunjik.
which still tower
some

strewn

with the

ruins, from

colossal marble forty with

These pillars.
so
a

steps, together
to their

artificial terraces this the

favourable

introduction,are
ancient The been of palaces ruins of

feature principal
immense

of all the of

neighbourhood. Hall hexastyle


that it must

Xerxes, the Chehil Minor, show


one

have

of the The

in this largest buildings bases of


no

the world. columns this

part of less than seventy-two


the
enormous

stillremain

to mark must

size of of modern

grand temple,which ground than most of


times
:

have

more occupied

the

cathedrals

it

was

of considerable
occur

height.
of rock
at

Here with

also

the from

tombs the

the and

Persian
adorned from the

monarchs,

excavated Tomb

high
The

sculptured facades also cut of


Da/rins for is remarkable

rock.*

Naksh-i-Rustam

having on the facade beneath the sarcophagusa representation of the Palace of Persepolis it in the was as days of the Great King, by means of which the parts missing in the ruins can be supplied. In all these fa9ades we recognisean imitation of the Persian columns,
which
17." Column
ornameDt ftpiral Persepolis. are

{Eng, 18)

remarkable
these

for the

carved

bulls' and

with from

Casts
are now

from

taken rock-sculptures,

by

new

cess, pro-

at the British Museum.

LYCIAN,
unicorns' heads which which
at

PHRYGIAN,
form
a

AND

LYDIAN.

if
ornament spiral

the

and capitals, date


as

for the

reappeared
Ionic

later

the

characteristic

feature

of

Greek

architecture

{Eng, 17).

^\-- ^-^\'L-"\.\

-\

.:"i^'

UJlJUJOjyjJUUlJ^^

18.

"

Part

of the Kock-cut

of facade

the Tomb

of Darius.

{StudetUs who

desire

should consult the several works of Mr. George Curzon. )

furUier informationon the Architecture of Assyria and of Sir H. Layard and the accounts of the recent

Persia Travels

Lycian,Phrygian,and Lydian.
The most Asia which the

important
lies between

of the native the Black

races

who and

inhabited the

that

part o{
were

Sea

Mediterranean

and the Lydians. Of these the Lydians Lycians, the Phrygians, in the the were reign of their king Gyges (about700 B.C.), probably, But 550 valiant. about most B.C. Cyrus conquered their king Croesus, took their splendid and joinedtheir country to the great city Sardis,

Persian Empire.
those of distinct from of a form are totally Lycian monuments districts mountain The inhabitants romantic of the Lydia and Phrygia. of sepulchre, one Minor of Asia adopted two different descriptions rock structural the in the both were other cut detached, or being ; but houses everywhere common imitations of the wooden taineers, amongst mounThe
"

with

sometimes
of
a

the

addition The

the construction

ship.

features of some tombs detached are

wliich

recall

conperfectly

18 stnicted

ARCHITECTURE.

cophagus, pedestal supportinga sarwhich is surmounted borrowed by a curvilinear roof,evidently from a wooden of that boat turned a object, apparently upside down. The second class those have either sculptured in the rock cut kind of framingstandingout from the rock (Eng, 19), or a fa9ades, to be closely resemblingthe fronts of primitivelog huts, especially in the Necropolis later date, imitations of At at Myra. seen a on columns, betrayingthe influence of the Greeks, supplanted porticoes
a
" "

of monoliths, consisting

double

these with

carpentry forms.
a

cornice of

stood monuments, monoliths of Lycia,containing a small slates, projecting typical these tombs The
most

Near

burial chamber.
now Harjfles^

famous Museum.

of these is the so-called Ibmb

of

the

in the British

,w'^.

19.

"

Rock-cut

Tomb

at

Myra iu Lycia.

The It for them the


was

menu sepulchral

men some

to of

customary
structure ;

with of

ancient

Phrygia are of to peoples


with others The

different chai*acter.
over

raise mounds
use

the rock latter

of their leaders, but resting-places the


a

to

the natural the

tomb.

Phrygians
in the

followed

custom

tbey
with

excavated linear

their tombs

with

These sculpturedfac^-ades. skilfully in dwelling-place life of the

livingrock, and facades were


nomadic

adorned

entirely

covered

patterns painted in various

colours,imitating

tents, the

Phrygian,and
textile

the peculiar preserving styleprobably suggested by

the Eastern

LYCIAN,

PHRYGIAN,
have

AND

LYDIAN.

19

fabrics,
Midas* It is 40

to

at

already alluded. The so-called Grave of Doganlu (AViy. 20) is a remarkable specimen of this class. feet high, cut from the living and terminates in a pedirock, ment
we

which

with These
"

two

scrolls.
races are

various

famous

for the

strange tombs
of

each

people havin^jadopted a

different form

they erected, monument. sepulchral

1- V

".

*. "*

"j s

fe (* "

.:""* w ,r
f, f*, I
"-

20."

Rock-cut

front of the Grave

of Midas

at

Doganlu, in Phrygia.
of the upon tumulus primitive base. a cylindrical

Those

Lydia,often form, stones heaped


The

of

of colossal in the

are proportions,

largest of
on

up all is the

form

of

cone

situated hundred

the northern tumuli


now

similar

royal city of Sardis,


and
"

of Tantalus,200 feet in diameter, shore of the Gulf of Smyrna. More than one in the neighbourhood of the old to be seen are occupied by the squalid villageof Sarabat,
of the ancient
MI DAI
is

TwrnUus

are

supposedto
culled
because

be the tombs
the
one

rulers of the land.


an

So

word

iu legible

otherwise

illegil"le

iutfcriptiou.

Indian.
It
to

is to

Asia, the
earliest
to
or

cradle of

of the

human
to

race,

that

find the
we

if

expect India, China,


with the rise

germs find the any

art, and
ancient

trace

their of

t\u*n uatui*ally development. But


we

most

remains of the

architectural

art

in be

other The of

country
Asoka

remote art
"

East,
appears relics

we

shall
commence

greatly disappointed.
into

history of

Indian

to

power and of his fathers religion of Indian architecture earlier times.

272 [b.c.
Buddhism. traditioDal

236], who
The

forsook
now

the

adopted
to
a

existing
down frora

belong

style handed

21.

"

Dagoba

from

CVyloii.

architecture development Indian attained distinctive to a was style, which employed in religious This monuments. or style was subsequently adopted by the Hindu Brahmiuical of profuse it by the use sects, "vho completely transformed ornamentation. The Hindu and people retained their national religion in the political peculiar style of architecture, even apathy into which sank exist and there they subsequently comparatively modern j many forms still be recognised. can buildingsin which the original
very first

In

the

period

of

its

The
an

various

districts

of

the of

vast

territoryof
of
one or an

India

are

strewn

with

extraordinary number
by
the

monmnents

exclusivelyreligious
other

chamcter, erected

professorsof

the

of the

two

great

INDIAN.

21

i-eligious systems of India ; and resemblingeach other in generalstyle, of form. of a vast diversity The earliest works of which we in spite
have any

knowledgeare
the

"

Topes (from
erected proper,*

Sanscrit

a mound), stup/ia,

of two

kinds

"

the tope

to commemorate

simplefuneral monimient of his chief disciples. ^These erections are often of considerable size, of which, erected by the two Topes at Sanchi,tfor instance, the largest
" "

a event, and the dagoba, special of of Buddha for the preservation relics and

some

Asoka, is 121

feet in diameter
244

Ceylon
The

the larger: feet in height 270 feet high. was : the RuanweUe the ancient of capital Thuparamaya dagoha,near Anuradhapoora,
are even

height. The topes of 1100 feet in circumferen 88) was Ahayagiri (b.c.
and

55

feet in

and

22." Cave

of

Elephanta.
a

nine feet high, and is platform pillars by {Eny.21). for the followers Residences or monasteries (rnharas) Rock-cut Caves, of Buddha, and templesor halls of assembly (chaityas) the : such as of cave-temples Karli,Ajunta,EUora, Kannari, etc. The earliest known These Behar, datingfrom about 200 B.C. chaityais at Nigope near which think were followed by the early Christian some buildings, of pillars churches in their internal arrangements, have rows separating from the aisles ; and in Buddhist the nave a small or dagoba, temples
on

but is smaller, Ceylon,

it stands

siuTOunded

rows

of

"

in the form of an animal,which Pillars called lAts^ crowned with a capital the marked entrances to temples. probably t In Central India. A cast of the gateway to one of these topesis in the India MoBenm, South Kensington. 7 r;^
"
^

"

'

^-^'\

22 seated shrine, containing a


cave,

ARCHITECTURK.

image

of

Buddha, rises

at

the

end

of the

in much
caves

the
are

same

placeas
;

the altar stands

in Christian churches.

Buddhist

of

simple construction, with


the

plain piersand
the

pretending un-

ornamentation

Brahminical,
every

hand,
with

are

often intricate structures,with


are
no

or Hindu, on decorated part profusely

other

sculptures.
less than -six thirty of
caves

There

of this

scattered description in the Cave

through Elephanta in
the

Western

Ghauts

the harbour

(mountain 22). Bombay {Eiig,

ranges)and
The

island of

of Karii\

4f

K-m
23."

O'opwm,

or

Gate

Pyramid Temple.

to

Hiudu

24." Pillar in Hindu

Temple. and
most Poonah, is the largest, perfect, in the first century after Christ. the village of Sadras, are the cave-

on

the road
most

between

Bombay
It
was

and On

beautiful.
of

excavated
near

the Coromandel

coast,

are temples probably the remains of a once important royalcity. They are hewn from rocks above ground. of worship, of detached Pagodas, Hindu places consisting buildings above sacred to ground. A pagoda comprises a group of structures the god, surrounded by several series of walls forming an enclosure. The central building is of pyramidal form, and is covered all over with sometimes of copper. overlaid with strips profuse ornamentation even
" "

which Mahavellipore,

CHINA

AND

JAPAN.

23

The

of hewn the gatestones of colossal size,and generally ways elaborate of several structures stories. pyramidal {Eng. 23) are and Jaggernaut are fine specimensof The pagodas of Mahavellipore of building. this style that of the A system of civilisation so vigorousand advanced as could not fail to exercise a lasting influence on Hindus surrounding find their religion and their style of art widelyadopted nations ; and we island groups, and on the neighbouringcontinents. in the large
wall;3
are

erected with

Mosques, But the most by the Mahomedan


"

remarkable

them, and combined In amongst the natives. form it is never human The are used; in Mahomedan seen. freely Moslem of of the is rich Guzerat, Ahmedabad, capital city especially in

those are buildings their own brought style conquerors, it with the system of ornament prevalent Hindu architecture of tho representations who

of all Indian

of surprising yard, courta beauty. In front of them is usually mosques three sides by open colonnades,the mosque sun'ounded itself on fourth side. Three doors the to the give access filling large mosque, up which the is surmounted
are

by

three

or

more

largedomes.
also

The the

interiors of external

mosques
on

minarets

either

richlyornamented, as are side of the principal entrance.

bold

Temples, Mosques, and Tombs Mahomedan Architecture, on chapter


The

of later date

are

described in the

China
Although of much noted for the Chinese decorative
as a

and
nation

Japan,
can

boast

of

state of civilisation

greater age than that of Western


there

nations,and have long been


no

are work, buildingsof great antiquity. Chinese bear the impress of those of India ; and

in China the most

remains

of historic

Buddhistic

temples manifestly

of

architecture

in China

are

truly typical examples undoubtedlythe pagodas. The largest

templeis that at Honan, the southern suburb of Canton ; it is two stories of a series of courts surrounded in height, consisting by colonnades and cells for the priests, and having attached to it kitchens, and refectories, In the centre of the forecourt the pavilions are hospitalwards. devoted to the worshipof the idols. The templeitself is of stone, but the colonnade is of wood. Temples of similar form exist throughout
China The
:

their roofs
or

Taas,

always curved. are usuallynine Pagodas,


are

stories in

diminishing height,

24
as

ARCHITECTURE.

in plan. They are constructed of they reach the top, and octagonal porcelain and faced both inside and out with glazed painted, wood, richly tiles of brilliant colours.
at Nankin Porcelain Tower is the well-known small roof is There a of London). (aboutthe heightof the Monument when and at each angle is a bell" 144 in aU" which

The

most

celebrated

at

each

story,

by the agitated pleasingmanner.

breeze tinkle in This


tower

very
was

built about 1430, but is doubtless a traditional copy of earlier buildings.


A

Pagoda,built
great Wall
an

Chinese, may
The
more

in imitation of the Gardens. in Kew be seen

of China,
of

though
tioned. men-

example
Built

than engineering

architectural skill, may


about

yet be
200

B.C., it is 25 feet thick at 1 400 miles in length, feet and 20 at the top, and the base, from 15 to 30 feet
are now

high. Many parts

of it

in ruins.

The their

Japanese, though they


stone

ployed em-

in the

construction
wood in

of
fined con-

bridges and
themselves of their

walls, always
to

the

erection

as

until influenced buildings, And by foreign countries. result, all their buildingshave from time
to

been The

time Shinto

burnt

down.

roofs of the

templesare
ples tem-

but straight,

in the

Buddhistic

they are
China. beams and roofs
25." Japanese

The and

curved, as in those of posts, brackets, and


other details in
are

richly
the The

carved fancifully of animals


are

tion representatiles.

and

and plants, with

covered
are
a

Pagoda.

Temples

through similar to those of are 25) Japanese Pagodas{Eng. carved. elaborately of Japanesehouses, that the walls are constructed It is a peculiarity in of privacy. As all possibility thus precluding of movable screens, this and is abundant in Japanesebuildings, China, colour is everywhere in the production and varnishes, of lacquere mainly produced by means of which the Japanese have always been very proficient.

kind

usually approached of archway, Torit, China,and even more

EARLY

AMERICAN.

25

Unforttmateljfor
influence is every

the

student

of

pure

Japanese art, European

day becomingmore

apparent in the country.

Early AmeHcan,
Before countries and of of

commencing
of

our

review
turn

of for
come
a

architecture
moment to to
us

in the

the New

different

Europe, we

must

World,
The

what monuments inquire of the early inhabitants remains


our

have the
two

down

of the civilisation continents. within the scope

great American
come scarcely

architectural

of North

America

as : mere subject, they are all of the rudest description mounds, from five feet in to enclosed within colossal walls varying thirty height, of earth and stone. Their origin, and the purpose for which they were

erected,are
The from

alike involved
in

in

obscurity.
remains, sculptures, etc., in
remarkable
to

principalarchitectural
are

South
to date

America,

Peru,
the

and

the most

of them formed
Peruvians

appear

before the time erected

of the

Incas, and

have

part
"

of buildings whose of this

by

of the predecessors

ancient

race

very The

name

is unknown.

Ruins

of TitorHuancay on
of 21 pillars

the shores of Lake

are Titicaca,

and class,

consist of monolithic

by

13

wide;

feet

doorways, and of high,


of the

one

of which

immense

high masses cyclopean

is 1 0 feet

of masonry. The monuments

of the
of the
to have
a

times earlier kind

Incas of

are

inferior in every
The ancient of mud, buildings

reftpectto
Peruvians which
was

those appear The

inhabitants

Peru.

constructed

their earliest

supplanted by
Ruins

blocks.
the finest of

of

of concrete, and that again by cyclopean of the kingdom,are Cuzco, the old capital
posed com-

specimensof

the huge and three in terraces. greatestprecision, piled up The principal architectural ruins of Central America in Mexico, are J all have been the Yucatan, and Guatemala. to are They supposed creations of the Toltecs, who a race probablydwelt in these provinces in the most and remote attained to a higher degree of civilisation ages, than their successors, America
are

still extant. They are masonry limestone blocks, fitted together with polygonal

Peruvian

the Aztecs the

of

Mexico, and the mixed


Houses and of

races

of the in

neighbouringdistricts. The
Central
of the

most buildings

deservingof
God, and
"

notice

or Teocallis,

the

palaces

kings.

The

former

consist
more

of four-sided
"

divided into two,

or three,

terraces

the

pyramids generally which temple itself,

26
rises from
a

ARCHITECTURE.

Pyramid of Cholula,near it has Mexico, is the largestand most celebrated of the Teocallis; been much has been defaced,and the original temple by a replaced modern dedicated church to the Virgin. This pyramid originally

platformon

the summit.

The

measured Yucatan

1400
are

feet each in
are

much

177 feet high. The Teocallis of way, and was better preservation.They are built on not
an

terraces, but
adorned formed the The with

approached by
60 feet and

unbroken the

is Pyramid of Palenqtie

high,and

of steps. flight temple on the summit tablets. The roof

The is is

bas-reliefs of

ical hieroglyph

by

courses

summit, with

external

differ but palaces

meeting at approachingeach windows. dormer projections resembling little from the Teocallis. The pyramidssupportstone

other, and

iMMMf

iiiiiiifiiLiiiiiiiiiiinmiiinjiiiUHqiiinr'

26."

Palace

of

Zayi.

ing

them

are

generallylower

and

of

an

oblong form, and

the

upper

of apartments. The residence itself contain a larger number buildings consists almost universally of a stone basement, with square doorways, but
no

windows,

surmounted

by

superstructure often
a

elaborately
The Palace

borrowed carved, and evidently

from

wooden

structure.

qf Zayiyand the Casa de las Moiijas(theHouse of the Nuns) at XJxmal, in of this description the finest buildings in Yucatan, are, perhaps,
Central America.

Many

or standing together, officers of temporal high rank. The Palace of Zayi {Eng, 26) rises on with architectural and consists fa9ades, with grotesque carvings.

them to be temples and palaces suppose to of w hich different belonged palaces, groups
a

pyramid

of three

terraces,

of tiers of

buildingsadorned

GREEK.

27

The Casa

de

las

Monjas
20

at

Uxmal

{Eng, 27) is
of which

raised
"

on

three

low

terraces, each

about

feet

high, one

that

facingsouth

27." Casa

de las Monjas at Uxmal.

"

is

pierced

with

gateway

leadinginto

by buildings one
decorations.

story high,remarkable

for

surrounded courtyard, of their the profusion

Greek.
of special attention,not only deserving of its great beauty,but because on it has influenced all the account of the Western of the Egyptians, The architecture styles Europe. the Persians, though intenselyinteresting from and an Assyrians, of has the exercised scarcely archaeological point view, any effect on architecture The of Greece is

architecture of western
or

nations, while
the

the

influence other

of the of the

Greeks
some

is

everywhereapparent. Every
other been

has at detail of their buildings

time

adoptedby

of people

one

or

European

GREEK.

'29
the tower
are

countries Greek
not

and

the although

arch and and

that it is supposed buildings, for arches the to ignorance, have been known

their absence
towers to Greek

wanting from the and is due to rejection


the

of

Egyptians and

must Assyrians

architects.
from in the development of many a platform the building

Temples, Greek architecture of temples. A Gi'eek temple rises building


within the walls of steps
is
a

reached

its fullest

sacred

enclosure.

Every part of

finished and every detail is as carefully proportioned, accurately The work of sculpture. as a Egyptians strove to give expressionto and in the overwhelming extent their dim yearning for the sublime Greeks but the masdveness of their buildings, producedan impression of and purity of beauty and solemn grandeurby perfection proportion of outline. The Egyptian temple, was always designedfor moreover, the contrary,appealedfai* more internal effect ; the Greek temple, on

29."

Ground-plan of

the

Temple

of

Neptune

at Paestum.

of the bystander than to that of the to the admiration sti-ongly its who within worshipper portals. prayed of a Greek The ground-plan temple is a parallelogram(Eng, 29), either with columns at each end only, pediments supportingthe sloping
continued e, gables), or (i. itself is always small,even
"

all round. when


are

The

naos

or

ceUa

"

the of

temple
is
a

the

surroundingenclosure
haVe consisted

large.

The

earliest

and only,

where a columns
anta

naos temples in without front, e. were (istyUvr columns) except (t. buildings and the side walls was placing produced by continuing porch

Greek

supposedto

between

them

in

ant is as

it

was

or called,

between The
next

the

two

e. pilasters) {%. formingthe ends of the walls.

step was

to advance

the porch before the building, it into a proatyle converting of the building line When of end the other {i.e. projecting columns). it became treated in a similar manner, was e. prostyle {i, amphip-ostyle at both ends), the sides beingstill astylar without e . columns). The {{.
next

stage was

the continuation
on

of the columns

all

the round, enclosing is called


are

ceUa with colonnades


^v

(i, e. peripteral

every side. This treatment havingcolumns all round). There

peristylar
kinds of

two

30 those temples, peristylai*


those which
or

ARCHITECTURE.

with

row single are

of columns

on

each

and side,

have
on

wings
The From

aisles

two, which latter each side).

called

e. having two dipteral (i,

templeswas very simple. the cella is entered, the pronaos (i, e. porch) beyond which is the back in to the opisthodcynius cases e, {i. j)08ticum space), leading some
(back temple).
columns,
admitted
one over

internal

arrangement of all the Greek

In

the

of the interior has a double row largebuildings it is supposed,been other, the lighthaving, upper
row.

through the

Greek
There
are

Orders
in Greek
most

of

Arc?dtecture.

three

Orders The

Architecture,the Doric, the Ionic,


is the column and with the and roof

and
its and third

the the the


to

Corinthian.
next

important feature

: the capital

is the beams

number and

arrangement of the columns,


:

horizontal

system of decoration

supported by them of adopted. The capital


which the whole be that when

the

column

can recognised. is Order particular any does and it but the the column not mean mentioned, capital merely, whole styleof architecture throughoutthe building. In all early Greek templearchitecture we meet with substantially the same treated in two ground-plan widelydifferent styles.This is

is, so
But

speak, the
be

badge by
in

it must

borne

mind

accounted
races,
names

for

by

the

fact that
the Dorian

Greece and

was

inhabited

by
have The

two

as distinguished

to the two

chief Greek
"

Orders

the Ionian, who of Architecture.


not

separate given their


as no

third Order

is called

the

Corinthian, why, has


been found

yet been

determined,

examplesof it have
To avoid

at Corinth.

with confusion,it will be well to make ourselves acquainted and its superstructure the different parts of the column entablature or of those parts in every Order before describing the different treatment in their various A column

styles.
of the

consists

base, the

and sliqftf
surmounts

the

capital.The
and the

which entaMature,that part of the building


rests upon

the columns
"

their

consists capitals, cornice the ornamented


on

also of three The flat tablet

parts,

architravef

the and

and frieze,

the

{Emj, 30).

architrave

is the horizontal

portionresting
is sometimes The them.

abacus

placedupon the capital), by mouldings with flat spaces between (a

moulding projects beyond the other,to throw off the the The frieze, the middle portion of the entablature, between rain. Tho architrave and cornice, is generally ornamented with sculptures. and is divided into cornice forms the upper portionof the entablature, three parts ; namely, the suppoi-ting part,and the part, the projecting lower form The the crowning part. supporting part ; they mouldings but called bed-nxouldimje are (crown), part is the corona ; the projecting
upper

^Cornice.

Pediment.

Corooa.

1^
Mutules.
Frieze and with

triglyphs

metopes.

Guttae.

I Architrave.

f^

',

{Abacus.
,

Annulets.

Fluted

abaft.

Stylobaie.

30."

Doric

Order.

From

the

Temple

at Seliuus.

32
the
true

ARCHITECTURE.

crowning point is the moulding surmounting the so-called of the cornice. member The triangular formingthe highest corona, enclosed Tvithin the the horizontal cornice and two over portico, space which of the follow the slope e, cornices, roof, is rdkiTig {i. sloping) and is generally called the tympanum^ filled with sculptures, as in the Parthenon The whole of the triangular at Athens. end, which answers is the pediment. The roof was to the gablein Gothic most buildings, covered with tiles marble. or frequently ordei' is remarkable for solidity The Doric and bined comsimplicity, with elegance and beauty of proportion The Dorians {Eng.30).
and had the
no

base

to

their columns
as
a

or

rather base have

they made
whole
or an

the
row

platformserve
columns into
are

conmion

for the

upper step of of columns.

Doric

massive, and
towards the channels

entasis
are

and profile,

taper
a

top. They

convex slightly fluted that g"n"rdX[j


"

touching each other, of which the twenty. ringscalled anntUets,deeplycut the shaft, connect it with the capital, and throw into relief the on lower and the a convex echinug, moulding forming principal part of a The Doric is distinguished entablature Doric capital. mentation by the ornaof the frieze or central portionwith trvglypha, t. e. three divided by channels or flutes which, it is conjectured, slight projections, of timber the Beneath the triglyphs the beams. ends are represent the triglyp/is The spaces between called imtopes. They are (juttcB. are and has been left open to serve it were, conjectured, originally square, in all known as windows, but they are examples filled in with stone
is, cut
normal number is Several adorned tablets, Above
"

series of

with Thin

in relief. sculptures last division of the the into of the natural cornice. three
rows

the frieze rises the third and


connect

entablature,

the

cornice. the

bands, called mvivlea,placedover


them
are

and

each

metope,

with

The

of surfaces) drops). The bears marked timber


a

mutules order that

worked

triglyph (under soffits of gvitoe (". e.

each

Greek

Doric

resemblance close
as

to the

in many forms for

features

of its entablature

to timber

structures;

not

perhaps so

shown

by
on

the

to be

accounted readily

have been the must buildings have with But the the case we triglyphs, gutta^,and the mutules. the that already seen Egyptians employed, as at Beni-hassan, a column which the prototype of the Doric be considered fairly may column. The

Lycian tombs, but still too than that any other suppostition This is especially the originals.

pediment, although
it
"

not

forming part
a

of the
its

order

"

which

is

without complete be left unmentioned. Doric and

is too We
now

constant

feature been have

have known

described already
to have

temples are

and the colouring must internally, of the general effect. beauty

to buildings position. painted both externally greatlyincreased the

of Greek

GREEK.

33
different character
to the to the Doric.

The We
at

Ionic order

{Erig. 31) is of quitea

have

alluded already

to its resemblance

oi the columns style

(see Persepolis Eng, 17). Instead


but pleasing,

and

of stern simplicity, have graceful we forms. of The strictly conventional, capital the column

Cornice.

-m3mmm3mmmm

Frieze.

'^^mm^um^jj^^mm^m^M

Architrave.

Abacus

miUmmmmL

Capital.

*5haft.

Shaft.

Base.

31.

"

Ionic Order.

From

the

Temple

of Athene

at (Miuerva),

Priene.

is the distinctive mark from the Doric.


a

Instead of
base

it has building, of the shaft.


or

greatly of the from the platform rising abruptly of a series of mouldings at the bottom consisting
but order, the column
more

of the

itself varies

The
more

shaft itself is taller and


numerous,
more

the slender, and have

channels left

flutes

are

deeply cut,

spaces
D

^4j
between columns mark either them celled

AUCHITECTURE. A neckingis generally introduced in Ionic fillets. the capital. The latter, the distinguishing order,has an ecfiinus like the Doric,but instead of a voltUes

between of the side.

the shaft and

simpleflat abaciis two


on

moulded

The upper adorned with abacus, and

considerably project beyond the eckiniiif is a thin,square, part of the Ionic capital
leaf

patterns.
notice the The
same

In the other of richness the

of Ionic portions of form variety of


one

we buildings as

increase

in the columns. of

called /rteze,

instead zoophoToa (figure-bearer), unbroken adorned with

metopes, consists

in figures some templesit was left plain. In Attica,Doric influence produced a modification of the Ionic style, which has appropriately been entitled Attic. We have next to notice the CorinUiian order {Eng,32), which is in fact but a late varietyof the already described Ionic,from which it is and its than by its pro^ more by distinguished foliaged deep capital

and beingdivided into triglyphs series of perpendicular quently slabs,frebas-relief or other sculptures, but in

portions. The
from the

base and

shaft of the Corinthian


new

column

are

borrowed

is a Ionic,but the capital leaves On


was

and

distinctive

form, representing

flower calices and like natural indented

plants.

acanthus

leaf

pointing upwards,and cuiTiDg gracefully of its beautiful shape, the deeply^ account most frequently adopted.

DevclopnerU.
The
in which
never

historyof
from
see we

the the

developmentof gi*adual
first crude
; but

the

Greek
to the

system of

architecture be

rudimentary forms
which have
come

perfection
to us, will

it in the monuments
a

down

known fully be taken


as

careful examination of the various

reveals certain which The may

differences in the treatment


indications
"

of all existing ings buildof their several parts,

stagesof development.
between

740 first period (b.c.

470) may

be said to be included

the age of Solon and the Persian War. The Atreus and the Gate qf Liofis of Eastern character 131 the in

so-called
at

Treasury qf
work and

JBf^f. MycensB(see
of
the

Sculpture) form
as

as

it

were un

link

between
stone at

the oldest

such PelasgaB,
not

the wall of and

wrought
a

Samothrace,
an

eai'liestknown
are

Greek

architecture.
are

monuments Existing

of this

period

very numerous,
are

all of

massive

type,with

appearance

of

great antiquity.
There the extensive six in Sicily : magnificentDoric buildings temples, Agrigentmn three,Syracuse one, and ."gesta ruins of is in
a

Seliiius has
one;

perfectstate. At Paestum^ in Southern fine group is an extremely Italy(theancient Magna Gro^cia), of temples, of which is that Poseidon the of one (Neptune) among and best preserved most of all existing relics of antiquity perfect {Eng. The of ruins Doric the from the seventh 33). qf Corin^i, Temjjle dating
very
" "

last-named

Cornice.

Frieze.

Architrave.

Abacus.

Capital.

Shaft.

Shaft.

Base.

S.
"

Corinthiaa

Order.

From

the Monumeat

of

at Lysicrates,

Athens.

36

ARCfllTECTDHE. B.C.,
on are

century

perhaps
now

the

only remains
one

of earliest of the most


were

Greek massive the

tecture archi-

the soil of Greece

itself. It is

mens specishort. Persian

of architecture The War


to

existing. The
"

columns included In the

somewhat

second and

470 period (b.c.


of Athene from the of the
are

333) is
we

between

the Macedonian

supremacy.

erected Temple of jEyina,


see

the honour transition

(Minerva),
severe

can

the commencement

of

the

architecture

marble, and

wrinkles of the

style to the gracefulornate of Parian are temples. Its sculptures executed with the greatestcare the and delicacy, even nude rendered. The Theseus, of being Temiile figures
later Greek

archaic

Suggaltd

.xttoralion.

33.__The

Temple

of

Neptune

at Paestum

(about550 B.C.).

at
we

Athens, is
see

one

of the noblest Doric Its

works

the stern

styleof the earlier times


its whole

of the school of Attica, in which softened and rendered

and pleasing
more

harmonious.

and delicate, materials costly Pericles held

It is of marble. It the
was

more

its ornamentation more slender, are proportions refined qualitymore {Eng.34). than that of -^gina, beingbuilt of white

when

the reins of erected. In

government

in Athens

that

his age the dignity of the finest monuments were archaic style combined with the science and grace of the mature was The and there epoch, was as yet no hint of approachingdecadence.
or Part/ienon, Temple

of the

VirgingoddessAthene

of

Athens, erected

GREEK.

37
the had city), been

on

the

(thehighestpoint of Acropolis

destroyed,

with

other fine buildings, When by the Persians under Xerxes. many the Athens to the first position states of more rose once amongst site of the old original It 64
was

Greece, Pericles rebuilt the Parthenon


the

temple,but
Doric The

the form

(about 440 B.C.).He retained of the new was building


was

different. considerable

of the

and in style, order,peripteral


:

of 101

dimensions feet

for

of that time temples restoration for many intact

228

feet

long by

broad, and

high.
almost

occupied six

buildings remained

years, and the until they were centuries,

34. "The

Temple

of Theseus

at Athens

(465 B.C.). ruins and all that

destroyedby
now were

the of

Venetians
this

in 1687

two

mutilated

are

remain the the

magnificentstructure.
Pheidias and
of his which have

IctinuB
been
as

Callicrates have
the
to

and architects,

are pupils supposed to

executed British than beautiful

sculptures, many

removed

Museum.
works of

relics, they are

Although they are so acknowledged universally sculptureever produced.

broken
to

to be little better

be

among continuous

the

most

band

of

of which shall speak further in the book bas-reliefs, devoted we to the exterior of the cell near Sculpture, ran round the top of the wall. We

give two

illustrations of this noble

{Eng, 35 building

and

36)

"

38
one as

ARCHITECTURE.

it

was

before
on

time the

and

the Venetians known


as

ruined the

the other showing it,

which site it Acropolis, templeof Nik5 The at each end, was portico, eight Apteros, and the Propylaea. columns in width,and two in depth,crowned a by pediment. The shared with the

how. it stood

rock lofty

Erechtheium, the

statue

of Athene, the

with regard to roof, especially of light, is the subject of conjecture, the admission owing to the fact that the timber-work, which was doubtless employed in it, has entirely which was freelyused, has also perished. The coloured decoration,
exact

mode

of the

construction

of the

vanished. totally

Ri"toro.tion.
,

35."

The

Parthenon

at Athens

about (built

4U)

B.C.). alike

The

Parthenon and in

affords

wondrous of the minute the

example of
studied
care

exactitude
which the

in

design
took
to

execution,and
the most

Greeks

rectify, by from perpendicularand inseparable


and the inclination of

variations,the
horizontal

illusions optical
as

entasis Not the

columns,

and

lines ; such the curve

the the

of

Architrave. tess famous than the Parthenon side of the itself is that formed

Porch, magnificent
the entrance
to the

built of white Propylaeay

marble, which

temple on
as

the western same age the Parthenon, having been erected by the architect Mnesicles under Pericles (about 430 B.C.). of for perfection This building is remarkable and is proportion and grace of detail, combination of the Doric and Ionic
a

Acropolis.It

to the belong.s

fine

specimen of
was

the harmonious

as styles,

also the

Templeqf

40

ARCHITECTURE.

at Bassse in Arcadia, designed by Ictinus, which was, Epicwrius Apollo Ictinus also exterior Ionic within. Doric and the it is supposed, on built another temple to Apollo in Arcadia, at Phigaleia.Amongst

other

remains

of Doric
at

architecture

in Greece of Demeter

may

be mentioned Eleusis

the in

TempUa
Attica. For

qf Zeus

Olympia, and
the Ionic

at (Ceres)

examples of early of remains the Ephesus


which within
was our one own

we style

must

the fanious marble of the of the Seven Wonders

At go to Asia Minor. Artemis (Diana), Temple of

World, have

been

explored
been

day.

Portions

of the

columns sculptured

have

37."

CaryatidPorch

of the Erechtheium.

above the brought to the British Museum, and show that the shaft just encircled of life-size base was in relief richly by a group figures sculptured method of treatment which bad never before been attempted, a and
"

has

not,
can

to any

extent, been
see

imitated.
an

We
date

likewise works

the result of

Attic

modification

of the Ionic the


same

in two style
as

of

extremelymodest
:

of about proportions
on

the

Temple of Theseus
Athens

Temple qf Xike
to the

and the temple the Ilissxis, at the right of the entrance Apteros (WinglessVictory)

the ruined

Acropolisof

{Eng. 36),

It is,however, in the third building of the Acropolis, the Erecktlieitim, that we see the fullest development Attic-Ionic style. of the graceful The

Erechtheium original

was

named

after Erechtheius, an

Attic hero, and

GREEK.

41 the
rose

contained

his of

tomb, which
was Pericles, a

was same

destroyedby
name,

Persians; and
on

the

second
the and and

buildingbearing the

which the

its ruins

after

death three

structure, with splendid

several

chambers of Athene also many

containingnot porticoes,
of
some

only
heroes

sacred

the tombs much

of the

old

of the

image land,but

venerated highly-

relics. religious small

The
a

outside of this second


fair state of

although
is

mutilated,is still in
side
a

building, On preservation.
of which

the southern columns

vestibule

remains, the entablature

instead of by six beautiful female statues, or caryatideSt* supported It affords almost ation an {Eng. 37). unique example of devifrom of the ground-plan of the Greek the simpleregularity
have been lately
we

temples. Fragments

found

of

the

colossal Mausoleum his widow been


one

at

ffalicamassus, erected to in 353 B.C., which


finest structures of the the inlaid panels, a richly

Mausolus,
must
ever

king of
consider

Caria,by
to

misia, Arteof the

have

kind

raised.

Some

marble

statue

of the

t^ether, and
four-horse
ornaments

at

British It

king in several Museum), and part of


the

with pilasters pieces (now joined the quadriga (i, e.

which chariot) excavated.

crowned
was

monument,

were a

amongst the
Greek

of unusual when

height

for

building.

27ie third
to wane,

periodcommenced

and

the power of the lasted until the final overthrow of Greek in this age
were

began republics
freedom. but the The in

erected buildings the massive simple, and

fine and

numerous,

wanting manly

grandeur of earlier an sensuality gradually acquired

works. influence

Oriental
over

ness voluptuousand

Hellenes, and the effect on their architecture was highly-cultivated of profuse for severity ornamentation the substitution and purityof Handsome structure. palacesand theatres were privateresidences, and the ornate Corinthian be looked built instead of temples, style may of the age. Of the palaces and dwelling-houses the offspring as upon it of is that but those no remains, thought vestige Pompeii and Hercubased upon The them. laneum to us were Agora is known only by and the its Boman Forum. And written the offshoot, description by of which know we only erections besides temples and monuments of for the such that certain are as Theatres, Dionysos at anything which were in plan and open to Athens, and that at Segesta, elliptical
the the the

sky.
transition from the Ionic to the Corinthian
can style B.C.

The

be

seen

in

Tenipieof

AtJiena

Alea, at

Tegea,erected

in 394

by Scopas,

in monuments celebrated architect and sculptor.The Corinthian characteristic is the small the Athens it.self most are Choragic nionu; in which the Egyptian and Asiatic features tnent of Lysicratea, we see

combined

with

the

Ionic.

This

monument

was

erected

in 334

b.c.

(seeEng. 32).
*

at Copied

St. Pancras

Church,

London.

42
Asia Minor

ARCHITECTUBE,

of fine buildings remains of thr^ many Corinthian Such are the Temple qf Athene to this age. style belonging to the patroness of the arts by Alexander the at Priene, dedicated

also contaiDS

Great, and the famous


303 building, dipteral The from scheme

ft.

Temple of Apollo Didymceus at long by 164 wide.

Miletus

"

huge

influence the

adopted by the Greeks had a lasting Western Art. on Mouldings of frets, honeysuckle(adapted acanthus and were Assyrians) everywhere to be seen, and
in

of ornamentation

increased

beauty and
lessened

varietywith
on

the

of the colouring

for it became

buildings by increased

the other

hand

growth of the as decreased,

orders. the

The

necessity

decoration.

The

Seven Wonders
Seven Wonders 2. The

of the
of the

World,

The
we
"

much-talked-of

World, of
Gardens

most

of which

have 1. The

all existed given descriptions, already

Pyrainids qf Egypt ;

3. The
at

Pharos 6.

Ephesus ;
;

They were of Babylon ; Hanging at Alexandria (Lighthouse) ; 4. The Temple of Arternisy Statue qf Zetis,in the temple at Olympia,by 5. The
The which Mausoleum
was

at this time.

Pheidias Rhodes it
f

at

Ilalicamassus the of

7. The

Colossus
the

of

with

Desert, about
was a

each

of

Lybian Memphis. Accordingto Herodotus of two stories, than 3000 chambers, more building containing had flat monolithic slab It is now which for its ceiling. a
once

classed

Labyrinthin

70 miles south-west

nearly buried

in sand.

Etruscan.
Of the the north
never

origin of
of

the

Etruscans been
an

they are

supposedto
became that of

have

nothing definite is yet known, but who Asiatic people took refuge in
centuries the before the Christian did their
era.

Italyabout
the

thirteen

They
blend

assimilated

with

Italians,nor

art

with
was

Etruria which the

state, and

peoplein the extinct as an became it soon independent subjugated, the of all that remain to to testify higherdegree civilisation
attained before the works had been heard in of Rome the very name of masonry and ceramic art which have come

surroundingdistricts.

When

it had

land, are

ETRUSCAN.

48

down to

us.

They

are

fal architects. The

sufficient to prove that the EtruscaDs were skilwalls of immense fortifications of their cities were but
we see

strength, frequentlyof polygonalstones,


masonry,and
of the in the

sometimes

of

squared
cement,
Such
a

gates of

some

of these

the first introduction fixed without the Romans. Cloaca

blocks of arch,built of wedge-shaped


was

stone

which

subsequently so widelyadopted by
at Vol terra.

gate is that called L* Arco,

The

famous

Maxima

at

Rome {Eng, 38), one of the finest and most solid,as well as one of the oldeststructures of the kind,made during the reign of the Tarquins, has been attributed builders tunnel to Etruscan ; it is a subterranean
of vast

extent, covered by.three largearches Several portions of it stillexist. Tamba are of the most interesting amongst

one

within

the

other.

Etruscan

antiquities.
roofs of

Theyare

hewn

in rocks, and

consist

of several

chambers, the

38.

"

Cloaca

Maxima,

Rome.

which
of the

are

supported on

columns.

Paintingsrun

round

the

walls,

incidents representing

in the have

every-day life of the

the people,

worship

dead, and

the condition tombs in outline tombs

of the soul in the other

fariades of the
resemble slightly

every appearance the fronts of Egyptian temples {Evg. 39).


are

world, etc. The of great antiquity, and

The
and

finest of these

at

Corneto, Vulci, Chiusi,Castellaccio,


in Central
to

Norcia, a

rock-cut of Asia
an

group there tombs The

of cities to be found
were

tumuli

similar in form

Italy. Besides the tombs the Pelasgic


amphitheatres ;
almost The in the
are now
a

Minor.

Etruscans
seen

also erected of

theatres and

example of
and

the latter is
ornament

in the ruins at Sutri"


or use

perfect
them

circle. carved Museum


to be of

Objectsof

great variety, many

of
most

have in the tombs. been found polished, the of which are number are paintedvases, a of those formerly called Etruscan ; but many Greek

terestin in-

British

origin. That

the Etruscans

had

distinctive

proved styleof

44

ARCHITECTURE.

architecture

we

only know
been

from written
The

have buildings

discovered.

records ; no remains of religious Etruscan languagehas never yet

39."

of Fa";ade

Tomb

at Castellnccio.

until it and fullydeciphered, much that existing inscriptions might Etrusccm Sculpture), been

is

we

must

remain

reveal.

aho (^S^e^

ignorant of the chapter mi

Roman.
situation of Italy resembles much that of Greece ; geographical home of East her to the the to owing greater proximity original ^it the arts was through Greece that the diffusion of culture amongst of the continent effected. We find the various races was chiefly in the south of Italy Greek colonies at a very earlydate. flourishing deficient in imaginative ^The Bomans were genius,and we find in few original their architecture forms of their owrilireation. Their early works and in their later style were copied from .Etruscan buildings, from the Greeks. borrowed Two of Etruscan they largely peculiarities architecture, however, were always retained by the Bomnns, and carried by them to great perfection, namely,the arch and the vaulted roof. The but
" "
^

ROMAN.

45 such stractures The


or

only employed but gradually aqueducts, they were and kincP^nbasilicas, amphitheatres,
were

At

first these

in

introduced

baths.

and bridges of every into buildings kmd of vault simplest


as

used end

by
to

the

Komans
of

was

the
across

plain waggon
from
one

barrel

semicircular arch
another vaults

thrown
a

wall to

vault,which is a another, or from one

elaborate form
two

of vault

tunnel

square

combined

A space. with the

A second and more apartment. longitudinal in which is the groined(t. vault, e. intersecting) of equalheightcross each other at rightanglesover a third form is the dome vault,which was subsequently

semi-dome,

over

the

semicircular

recesses

called

enabled the Homaus to cover These three systems of vaulting spaces and of every size ; and the arch was adorn the used to outer freely of fullest the inner walls of their buildings.While a use making

a:-

4U.

"

Eoman-Corinthian

Capital.
which the Greeks

40a."

Composite Capital.
never

constructional

expedient
were an

had

employed,the
architects,were
This
was

Romans,
content

who
to

always

better

than enfjineers

borrow

artistic element from another

source.

theycopiedin a comparatively and to and tasteless coarse employed not only in the entrances way, and their temples,basilicas, baths, theatres,amphitheatres,palaces, The of their private houses. but also in the richly-decorated courts but often introduced orders were into a single three Greek building, the the nchly-deporated the favourite order was Cprinthian, beauty of and fulness it which the Komans to increase by adding to strove a in attaining succeeded {Eng,40). strengthsuch as the Greeks had never of the attempt to Order the outcome The CompcHute or Roman was free version in fact a somewhat of which it was improve the Corinthian, the order was, on the Tuscan while what is known as [Kng. 40a.), distinctive version of the "Doric. The other hand, an impoverished
the columniation of the

Greeks, which

46
feature circular seldom from of in of Roman with
a

ARCHITECTURE.

architecture the
new

is the

combination

of

the The
a

Etruscan Komans

arch

Greek

system

of columniation. worked the


out

invented

form, they

never

styledistinct
the interest
'

that of their and the

or predecessors

complete in itself; and


wonderful

Koman

architecture,apart from
the skill with it
was

extent

of

the

structures

which

they were

erected,consists

entirely

the

fact that

combination a transitional,

of all ancient

and styles, examination

to understand

of early Christian An architecture^. starting-point of Roman shall presently as we us buildings, see, enables much otherwise have remained inexplicable that must in of the Gothic age.
was

the architecture In that

Greek considering kinds

attention architectui^e, our


but
now we come

mainly confined
we

to the study of the

temples ;

toRome,

shall find

many and

of

have buildings

to

be

notice3T^temples7 basilicas,
period
Qf

theatresTamphixheatresT circuses, baths, bridges, triumphal aqueducts,


arches Roman and dwelling-houses. columns, tombs, palaces, architecture of the earliest
"

was

an

entirely

monarchs of eaj-ly ascribed have round whose is so Rome, name gathered many- legends the building of the Temjile qf Jupiter on the CapitolineHill. Some of these earlytemples circular in plan : of these the best known were
one
"

Etruscan

Priscus type. To Tarquinius

of those

are
^

those The

erected

to

Vesta at Rome

and

Tivoli.

of portionof the republicwere utilitarian class. The Via Appia (Appian Way), from an exclusively Rome the to Capua, the first paved road in Rome over ; the bridges of and line of Camthe the Tiber and in the provinces long aqtveducts ; erected buildings in the earlier pagna of the
are

memorials Greece Greek

of this age
influence

(about312 ^.c).
to

In the latter

days^

Greek republic

of subjugation of the temples Metellus (who


Macedonian The and basilicas

began The by the Romans (about150 B.C.). eartresi'Vasiircas and the were style

be

after the felt, especially


first fine built

by
the

died

115

B.C.)out
only
courts
a

of
of

the

booty acquired in
also

wars. were

not

but justice,

market-places

exchanges.They were specimens quiteopen of surrounded the which colonnade place for his court by the prsetor space required in which markets of the building, portion
transacted, and
basilicas erected which l/lpia. what
as

consisted of

hall ; and the earliest quadrangular to the air. Later, an external wall took the the
was were

basilica. original

The

railed off from


held and
a

the other
was

business

consisted under been the

of

semicircular of the hall. in the

from projecting have

the back

apse No remains the ruins of

with

raised
exist the

form, plat-

of the

Republic; but
like. formed

of

Basilica
us

excavated

Forum
The

show Trajan,
are

the basilicas of the

havingbeen
churches.

the first

Empire were of buildings


as

basilicas

ing interest-

architectural

for Christian Christian

worship,and

having

the model

used importance of many early

ROMAN.

47
Borne
was

Towards
with

the

termination

of the

when republic,

convulsed

civil war, and the revolts of the slaves threatened to overturn the whole system of government, the republjcansimplicity of earlier
was buildings

changed for

built and

by

Marcus

Scaurus, in 58
with

The theatre, of style. princely magnificence which was capableof holding B.C., handsome such marble columns
as

contained 80,000 spectators,


was

and

decorated richly Three

costlymaterials
the Koman

fine statues, and silver, gold,

ivory.
known

Home, which
to
us

later, Pompey erected years held 40,000 spectators. But


from remains found
at

first stone theatres Caesar the

theatre in
are

best

beautified the

Circus

Pompeii. Julius built MaximitSf by Tarquin

enlargedand

elder,of which

fliggggiEEEraFiP

41." Section of the Pantheon, Eome,

b.c.

27.

Restored
^

202

a.d.

but

few ruins remain.

It

was

circular at

one

end and

at rectangular

the other.

These, and
advance
created time which

other buildings, were, many towards that golden age of Home, from their old
national of the

however, only steps in the


when

Eoman
as

architects
almost
to

so

freed themselves entirely


a

trammels The

have

styleof architecture.
of Home

finest monument

of this

{Eng, 41), first built about b.c. 27, of the ancient world. Whether grandest buildings it was erected as a Temple or as a Hall attached to the Thermae of is It is in moot a of state even now a Agrippa point. good sufficiently for able of be what it was. Its plan and to judge preservation us to
is
one

is the

Pantlieon

the section of its dome

exhibit the circular form enamoui*ed.

of which

ancient

were Italy

so

the Externally

peopleof elEect is rather spoilt

the

48

ARCHITECTURE.

by

the combination

of the of

rectangular temple and


a

the

rotunda, but the

interior is

extremely beautiful, althoughit


alterations date later than with of

costlycolumns
marble, and

yellow marble,

the mairble slabs of the lower also mention the Theatre Orsini Palace

appropria spoilt by inThe building. original capitalsand bases of white to walls,however, still serve the of which alone been still

has been

much

give some
We remains
must

idea of its pristine splendour.

of Marcellv^, much
; and

in the

present
"

the

ruins of the handsome have boast served prehe

l^OTfib of Augustus,
"

the enclosure

walls

of which that
"

as

monuments

of this age and

it. succeeding immediately

After

the death

of the

Emperor Augustus

whose

it

was

that

42."

Ruins

uf the

Coliseum, Rome. of marble been the zeal for

had
seems

converted
to

brick

cityinto
not

one

"

building
a

have time.

cooled,and

to have

again revived

for

siderable con-

architecture second goldenage of Roman known Flavian i*ank is the commenced. In the foremost amphitheatre, which the Coliseum {Eng.42), was as begun by Vespasianand finished
With the Flavii

(a^. 69) a

by

his

son

Titus.

It

was

the

structure largest

of its is 620

kind, and is fairly


could

well

It preserved.

covers

about

five

acres

of It

and ground, feet

contain,

it is estimated, about 87,000 persons. 160 feet in broad. The exterior is about orders of columns
"

long by 513
a

and height,
"

consists of three with

Doric,

Ionic, and
all.

Corinthian
There
are

story of
the

Corinthian

above pilastei-s

them

arches

between

ROMAN.

49

colamns, forming open galleries throughout the building. Four tiers with the four outside stories. of seats inside correspond The building in by a temporary roof or awning called a covered was velariurrif

supported on poleswhich passed through were encounters, mimic sea-fights gladiatorial


which been The
a

the

cornice. in the for the

Besides

the has

held

Coliseum,for
arena

most

elaborate

system

of

water

supply

discovered.
is well prethat it been
memorates com-

Triumphal Arch of Titus,at Rome (a.d. 70),which and for the fact servedyis remarkable for beauty of detail,
the

conquest
much

of Jerusalem.

The

vast

Arch

of Constantine
bor-

{Eng. 43)

owes

of its interest to its

having sculptures

43.

"

The

Arch

of Constantine, Borne.

rowed much
or

from Casde

Trajan monument
still exists St.

of earlier date. under the


name

The

Tomb Mole

of Hadrian,
of Hadrian of feet feet of 75 140

of which

of the 340

the

of

Angelo,surpasses
was
a

all the

sepulchralmonuments
and feet, and

the in

time.

Its basement which


rose

above high, which


two
was
a

round

tower

square 235

of about

feet in diameter

the whole height,

being

crowned

by

dome,
Parian

the central The Tomb

ornament

quadriga.It chambers, sepulchral


B.C.

was one

faced with above

marble, and contained

the other. these

of Caecilia
the

MeUHa, erected
The latest Bcuilica

monuments. sepulchral of Constantine, begun by Maxentius, belongs to

60, is

of typical

of period

ancient art.

Fragments of

the broken

roof

are

strewn

44."

Trajaa*8 Forum

with

Tr.ijaa*8 Column/,

Rome.

ROMAN.

51 three barrel

like have

masses

of

rock

upon

the

ground, but
the

vaults,which
the

remained

still rise from standing,

ruins, together with

4o.

"

The

Baths

of Caracalla.

apse

built subsequently feature striking

on

to
scene

the
so

and, with side-aisle;

they overlook
form
a

the desolate

suggestiveof fallen
miles round.

Coliseum, greatness,and
the

of the

landscapefor

52 Of the
were

ARCHITECTURE.

various/ora (openspaces
and largest
most

where

markets
was

and

courts

of

justice

held)the

celebrated

the Forum

Romanum,

Hill to the temple of the Capitoline and The boundary houses. was by temples the other the Via Sacra (SacredWay) ; on the east and north was on coriidors and halls (forthe bankers,money-changers, sides were etc.), of of erected them The the Forum beauty. Trajanum, great by many for its great circumference, architect ApoUodoms, is remarkable and and for its simple dignity beauty. In the centre was a colossal statue of the Emperor Trajan, about 20 feet in height, column on a triumphal It stretched

from

the foot of the surrounded

Dioscuri,and

ISuggtiUd Kestoration. 46.


"

Interior of

Roman

House.

117
the

feet

7 inches

high,*covered
to

with

from sculpture his

the

to pedestal

erected capital, {Fng.44). Of all the monuments of the

commemorate

victory over

the

Dacians

departedgreatness to be found in Home, the most remarkable for are (publicbaths) not for gymnastic extent. but They were only fitted for bathing, exercises,and as placesof publicresort,and were open to the public fee. The built in a.d. 10 by Agrippa. The at a nominal first were Baths of Caraccdla (a.d. halls {F7ig, were 217) gigantic 45) in which
the remains therm(B
*

of

cast is in the South

KensingtonMuseum.

ROMAN.

53
bathers columns splendid and it was building,
:

there and amid


were

were

marble

seats for sixteen

hundred Bull Baths


'

adorned magniGcent sculpture its ruins found that the


*

this immense and the


*

Farnese The

Farnese

Hercules

'

in later years.

of

Diocletian

(a.d.303)

were

Sugff"st"dJiestoralion. 47.

"

Interior of

Fompeian

Basilica.

four hundred bathers. The and bad seats for two thousand still, larger size of these the how and wt\s walls are stillstanding, prodigious prove Grand The now Hall, restored by Michelangelo, grand publicworks. forms the church of Santa Maria Angeli. degli
*

See

Chapterson Greek

and

Roman

Sculpture.

54
In each of these of vast

ARCHITECTURE. which is the the central building, establishments, all the greatestpublic halls that have been erected since, halls of various

type of almost
was
a

size. shapesand magnificent The FcUaces,built hy the Koman Emperors,are known to us only by for of the Palace the ruins of the Ccesars are but fragmentdescriptions, ary, and the Pcdace of Diocletian at Spalatroin Dalmatia, on the of the beginning eastern coast of the Adriatic,dates not earlier than group the what when fourth the
we
"

century
one

a.d.

'*

It

of the splendour find


"

powerful exactlythe

emperor buildingfor his retirement dimensions of the

certainly givesus a most exalted idea of have been must imperialpalace at Home neither the richest nor the most certainly
a

villa in the in

country of almost

Escurial in

surpassing in

size, as
. .

it did
.

Spain, and consequently of the modern most magnificence,

515 feet in The palacesof Europe. gallery, great southern face of the seaward whole 24 in extended the width, length by along * of of ancient Rome were building." The private dwelling-houses kinds" two the insula or block of buildingsfor the poorer classes, and the
or dajutts,

detached
a

latter consisted
to open muniment

of

residence, for the more the atrium in vestibule, (roofed


the

wealthy.
at the

The

the

sky

in the

centre)flanked
and

but sides, by sleeping apartments, the

rooms,

peristyliumor

receptionroom,

surrounded

by

saloons, libraries dining-rooms,


of the
wei*e rooms were on

richlydecorated
monuments

(Etu/. picture-galleries 46). Most from a nd the door : they the ground floor, lighted and coloured designs. with marbles Pompeii and
we
can

The Eoman

of In the and

Herculanseum the

deserve from

word
Greek

of
to

notice, as special
forms.

in them

trace

transition

baths, city walls triumphalai-ches,


we palaces,

and show

gates,
The
us,
as

temples {Emj, 47) private residences


"

have

Kome

in miniature. instance
"

the

House

of Sailust, for

far of

as

the ruins of

Home, that the Romans


to the

Pompeii may be taken as a guide to the buildings of comfort and enjoyed all the appliances
ancients. Rome notice. itself that Wherever find relics of the architecture Rome held sway there she left

luxury known
It is not

only in
of her

we

of the

period under

greatness in temples, amphitheatres,arches, and in in France, in Britain, aqueducts ; notably in other parts of Italy,

evidences

theatre examples we may mention the AmphiMaison the Nhiies (called Carrie), Tevipleof which probably dates from the time of Hadrian ; the Temple of Baalbec, and the Treasury of Pharaoh, at Petra, in Syria ; the Porta Nigra
As
at

and Spain,

in North

Africa.

the Vero7ia,

and Pont

the du

Basilica
Gard

at

Treves

; the

great Theatre
Nimes.

at

Orange ;

and

the

near (aqueduct),
*

FLTgusson.

Early
To find the
"

Christian.

first traces the


narrow,

of Christian

architecture network

we

must

turn

to

the

Catacombs
out

of

the the

which

winding, gloomy easily-worked rock in the vicinityof Rome, in for worship and huried their dead. met early Christians
soft and
are

of passages,

hollowed

These

Catacomhs low the

also

called

cryptsy
mines.
are

or

cemeteries,
The low

and

consist hollowed
as

of

long,
out

much galleries,
sides of of
on

of

the

scarcely capable
up with

resembling and galleries, holding a body.


which
are

so

are graves and small

to

look

The

entrance

to

the

stones,

often

inscribed of the

the Greek

letters
name

grave D.

is built M. of

(Deo
Christ

would be hollowed larger tomb with the walls of which adorned were out, unpretending frescoes. there the and Here galleriesexpand into spacious and lofty vaulted and walls chambers, niches, the ceilings being containing seveml for chambers with adorned were evidently intended painting. These
a

Maximo), or XP, {XpitTToc), For a saint, or

the

first

two

letters
a

martyr,

the

service

of the

Church,
The of

and

in

some

Christian
the
are

buildings.
celebrated rather

Catacombs
have

sacred respects still resemble of the Via Rome, are Appia, near

most

interesting
than crude of
as

which any for the


of

yet been
of

discovered

but

they
they
the

traces

wall-painting
architecture the time

which

display
These first

examples
and
our era.

architecture.

inartistic It

attempts
was

at

date of

from

century
"

not

until

Constantino abandoned
erect

337) that the (a.d. 312 these gloomy refuges, and places of worship worthy
stantine the

persecuted and
found of the creed

scattered in

Christians
a

themselves

position to they professed. Under


and
were

Con-

power
from the

of

Paganism
Heathen find
we

waned,

Christianity received
little suited for seldom
new

recognition Christian worship,


that

state.

and it

that

temples they were


create
a

was ; but purpose for the emergency, and, of various kinds, which were

impossible to
as we

form

employed for of building


basilicas

have been

seen

46), the (ptige


use

Roman heathen of

had

in

under

the

empire,
Christian
or

found

to

worship.
aisles

The
rows

admirably adapted to the requirements into long quadrangular building,divided


be

three and

five circular semi-

by

of
"

accommodated pillars,
and the

the

congregation,
off from
the the

the
rest

apse
"

generally elevated,
exactly
the
seat

railed for

the

of

the

was building took naturally

right place

altar.

The

bishop

the

priestsor originof the

formerly occupied by prtetor or quaestor,and the This, then, was presbyters the places of the assessors. This semicircular Christian basilicas. someearly apse was

56
times the

ARCHITECTURE.

separated from the rest of the buildiog bj a transverse passage the enti*ance to the apse, thus converting the form of running across
into that of a cross. These building to the church, to right-angles opposite directly and the
" were

which at run passages, each other, cut it through,

therefore called
where the
arms

transepts. At
or cross was

point

transepts
formed

'13^

"

intersect above The chief it


on

the

body of
a

the

by

L"

the central

the altar aisle,


two

and placed,

rose

arch, often suptriumphal ported massive pillars. extremely


the central aisle which this central
runs

of portion

westward

from

point to the (from


runs

entrance
a

naviSf
aisles the In with
f
T-

is called the nave which the portion and ship) ; is the choir. The columns
means

eastward
were

of the of

joinedtogether by
by
a

arches,or
central than wider

horizontal
or nave

and architrave,
was

aisle

higher and
of
the windows

the side-aisles. let into the

cases, numbers many arches were semicircular

walls

of

the which

nave
a

above flood of round

columns,
mitted adthe In

through
48.

lightwas
the kind

Ground-plan of the old Basilica of San Pictro, Rdme.


"

to the

low

walls

body running

of the church.

side-aislep,
introduced
of
;

windows but the

were

also sometimes in unlighted,


a

apsisor

choir

was

left generally

mystic

ing twilight producedby the reflection of the lightin the rest of the buildthe glimmering on goldmosaics {Eng,49)with which it was adorned. with These rich in design,crowded sacred decorations were very decorated with The floors were and blight in colour. figures, usually
a

form

of mosaic
to

known atrium

entrance entrances. entrance

each An the

OptisAlexandrinum, and in large churches aisle,


as or

There the

was nave

separate
three
at the

had

enclosed

existed court-yard generally churches.

to
an

The materials of the costly earliest basilicas are also the most as beautiful, their construction. the ruins of fine antique were employed in buildings
formed San which

basilica ; it was usuallysurrounded essential feature of most early Christian

by columns, and

Clemente
is

in Home the

is

one

of them

the

loftynave,

part of

it is arcades ; underneath termed an amho. The pulpit


most

the from choir, is separated by choir is side of the On either a crypt. chiu-ch of Sam Paolo fuoH le Mttra at Kome {Eng. 50),partlydestroyedby fire in 1823, was one of the finest and

occupiedby

side-aisles

of interesting and in modern

the

basilicas of that about


a.d.

city.

It

was

built- by Theo-

dosius restored

Honorius,

and style,

Unfortunatelyit has been little remains of its original beauty.


386.

EARLY

CHRISTIAN.

Oi

The
the

old basilica of San

in Pietro, replaced
same

the fifteenth erected


a

century by

great temple bearing the


was
a

name,

was

in the noble
a

reignof
or

and Constantine,

magnificentstructure, with

atrium very and

and entrance-court,

nave

eightyfeet across, but


small basilicas
were

with in the

small San the


paratively com-

apsis or choir. Lorenzo, at the


sixth
and the

The

two

of

Sant

Agnese

gates of

Rome,

erected

end

of

beginningof the

seventh

centuries,and
have

remain,

little altered. speaking,

They

their side-aislesin two

stories. The church


of

of Sant' about

in Apollinare from

Claase the

Ravenna,

three miles

{Eng. 51) at the old port is a fine basilica of the city,

49. "The

Emperor

Justiuiao

and Suite.

Mosaic, about

a.d.

554.

In San

Ravenna. Vitale,

erected first class, is the with

between almost

a.d.

538

and

549.

The

internal

details

are

but the outside is painfully beautiful, plainand unembellished, extremely


as

case

all

erected by buildings circular detached with originated the

the

earlyChristians.

It is the

a as possessing interesting

Campanile^or bell-tower,which
did also as basilicas,

feature of church
exist in Rome,

architecture
were

these Baptisteries; and

Ravenna, and such as San few Some basilicas, Vitale at Ravenna, are circular in
of Rome
:

buildings, examples of which later examples at Florence and Pisa. and San Stefano Rotondo at Rome the circular temples plan,recalling
of the erected by buildings

others
to

are

polygonal.
most chronicles,

According

Grerman

58
the Germanic
races

ARCHITECTtJRF. at this

century)followed period(sixth
church been
or

the

plan of
erected the

the Koman The


at

basilica.
a

complete plan of
has been der

monastery intended
name

to be

St. Gall he is

preserved. The
have
an

of the author
at the court

is

unknown,

but

supposed to

architect

of Louis

Fromme). (Ludwig belongs to the earlypart of the ninth century, and he was Gospertus when rebuildingthe monastery
Pious However that may

be, the
was

planevidently
sent to Abbot

of St. Gall.

It is

y^^l^lllHl

50.

"

Interior of the Basilica of Sau

Paolo, Rome.

Built about

a.d.

380.

and valuable,as interesting be the invention ninth The

proving that
were a

many

additions
as a

supposed to
earlyas the library are
very few

century.
in the

of later ages Two apses, the

known

to architects
a

crypt,
of

and sacristy,

included

principal group
qf
basilicas

buildings.
one

Church

is Natimty^ at Bethlehem,

of the
to

early Christian
consists in its Of

remainingin

the

East. much

Its chief the

peculiarity
beauty
and

three apses, which of of inside the building. the dignity

having

add

the various

basilicas

we

have

described above,

some

of the

more

feYZANTlKE.

59
have all flat
over ceilings

modem

have

vaulted

roofs,but

the

earHer

the central enclosure.

51."

Sant'

in Classe, at Raveona, Apollinare

549

a.d.

Byzantine.
The
races

of Byzantinestyle of

architecture from where

was

that

adoptedby
was

the Slavonic

Europe,

as

distinct countries

the Teutonic, and


the Greek the form transformation

employed with was professed.Simultaneously


of the Roman basilicas into

in all those

of

generally Christianity
in the
new

West

placesof Christian

worship,a

style

began
models. Rome There

to

Roman on develop itself in the East, likewise founded Eastern to was Byzantium (Constantinople) Europe what
to

was

Western.

It

was

in

Byzantium
of the

that

ancient Middle of

art

was

saved from
was

total oblivion, in the the preserved


anew.

darkest

periodof the

remembrance technical

ideal forms

Ages. antique

beauty, together with


embodiment
a

the

knowledge
was

Byzantine architecture
of

for their necessary not, like the Roman,

mere
;

combination

antique styleswithout
all that and

by

its artistic

paganism, and of plan,construction principles


as gained for itselfa position

from

of recognition bold its by


an

or individuality ality origindistinguished Christianity

developmentof the original it which and decoration adopted, school. oiiginal


'^

60
The chief

ARCHITECTURE.

rather the fundamental of the or principle, peculiarity, churches is the employment of the cupola construction of Byzantine or of the in and dome the central the substitution church, covering part churches. of an almost for of the Roman the aisles plan long square Instead of the rows and of columns of the basilicas, loftypiers strong connected by arches supported the cupola. To the central space,

covered

by
Small

the

great cupola,were
were

joined half-domes
for

of

less

tude. magni-

columns central apse,


or

rail off the

parts. The
feature
of

and to galleries supporting from the of the surrounding portion building invariable an choir, containingthe altar, was

only used

and, in the narthex,divided basilicas, they displayed

Byzantine

churches

common

with

the

early-

off from

the rest of the

52.

"

Ground-plan

of Saint

Sophia,at Constantinople.

to building, portionof

which the various covered

catechumens

buildingwas
the

admitted. were Every penitents of were richly decorated : the pillars and
were

marbles tives

of

which colours, domes with mosaics

also used

to

line the and The bases

lower

parts of the walls,and


were

and of

domes subsidiary

penden-

and great beauty. of and the railings of the columns, the cornices,the friezes, capitals with great profusion. all of marble, and ornamented the galleries were in plan,built at of San The church VitcUe at Ravenna, octagonal fine specimen of of the Eastern is the time of the supremacy a Goths, But the best example of any is the church of Byzantine architecture. of Conthe great mosque Saint Sophia (Holy Wisdom), which iffnow commenced 52, 53). It was stantinople^^72^". by Justinian in 532, and completed in 537, but was much an twenty earthquake by injured

BYZANTINE.

61
and of Thralles, The narthex

years later. of Miletus.

Its architects It
are

were

Anthemios

Igodoros consists of
a

is of

no

but great beauty externally, the

its internal

arrangements fine halls,one two


square, surmounted
to rising west

of

surpassing grandeur.
other, and
and south
vast
a

over

the church

itself is almost
east to

being
a

229 the

ft. north
centre

by

243

ft. from ft. in

west,
and
cut

in

by

dome, 107
same

diameter, and
East
are

heightof
are

182

ft. from

the of the

floor of the church.

of this

two

semi-domes

diameter, which
"two
a

into On round

by
the

three lower

smaller

half -domes,

supported on
stands North

tiers of columns. all the

of these columns range the church except at the apse.

running gallery,
south

and

galleries

53." Saint

Sophia at Consiautiiiople.

are

-domes, and these walls The double narthex, galleries, with twelve small windows. are pierced of and apse are lightedby two rows windows, which extend all round is lighted The central nave the church. by one great western window
surmounted

by

wall

instead of

by

semi

and the

number

of smaller church

in openingspierced

all the

domes

justabove

springing.
at

tecture later Byzantine archiin which Constantinople, is that called TlieotocoB be studied in its completeness, can the tenth the en^f about erected (Mother of God). It was probably of the eleventh century. or beginning Another

62
In other

ARCHITECTURE.

parts of the
In

ancient

Greek At there

empire
a

Byzantine architecture,
of many churches. mural with internally Misitra

still exist. Athens

Salonica is

many there are

examples

of

the remains decorated

small

cathedral

and at externallywith sculpture; paintings, Turthe the and is at Church of Sparta) Virgin; another ancient church is still preserved. manin, in Syria, felt in Western How Europe is widely Byzantine influence was the magnificent Cathedral as proved by the existence of such buildings in spite of of Sl Mark at Venice {Eng.54),begun a.d. 977, which still,

(theancient

!5et%-

54."

Saint MarWa, Venice.


corner

Begun

a.d.

977.

a {Shoioing

of the Doge'sPalace.)
much

certain foim of

Gothic

alterations,retains
It has five

purely Byzantine type.


a cross

original grandeur of a domes arranged in the equal-sized

of its

by supported
at

which lar^e porches, are ; and at the great front seven of marble columns. hundreds Over the middle porch stand horses which
once

the four celebrated bronze Rome. The whence interior

adorned

the arch

of

Trajan

they were
of Jhe

took them to Constantinople, Emperor Constantine Dandolo in 1204. Venice The to brought by Doge with cathedral is covered a profusion of glittering render it
one

mosaics, which

of the most

remarkable

in buildings

the

rT-TTTT-r

2SS
"

" '.fr

^"

"

m """"

K"

" V

"""l:.l-"W

V*

*.*. ""'

54".

^Part of fche *Tala D*Oro,'* the Golden

of Altar-piece

San

Marco, Venice.

64
world. Its

ARCHITECTURE.

beauty has

been

fully brought home

to

us

by

the

eloquent
feet

writingsof Mr. Buskin. which ^he Pah, d^OrOy or goldenaltar-piece, is made of coloured by six feet nine inches high,
work filagree window. The It of
was so gold,

is about enamels
a

ten

long

inlaid in fine

that

the effect is like that of


a.d.

made

at

about Constantinople

978
have

coloured-glass {Eng,6ia),
been built

Cathedral
; it is

of Aix-hrChapeUey supposed to
a.d.

by

Charlemagne
Northern

between
one

796

and and

804,

also shows

fluence Byzantine inof buildings

of the oldest

finest of the circular

Europe.

is evident to this Eussia, too, the impressof the Byzantinestyle in France, at P^rigueux in Auvergne, and elsewhere, day. And In

examples of Byzantine architecture

are

still to be

found.

Romanesque.
Although which style, looked The after if not upon form
we

have

turned

aside

for

time

to notice

the

Byzantine

developeditself
as a

continuation

in the East, the present chaptermust be of that on Early Christian Architecture. architecture This the in the Western that be met be known with in considered

assumed

by

Christian pagan Boman. of


to

Empire,
as

it freed

itself from

influence, was
was

the

Bomanesque, or debased quite,every country transition style leading up


Christian
architecture. In

to

almost,
as
a

Europe,

and

may

great Gothic
art

development of
differed
to
our

this

respect Western

from
own

which has perpetuated the same Byzantine, without into phase. day passing any new To render the basilica of
more

forms almost

suitable for Christian

when worship, the


was

the first

form earlyrepublican and priests raised


to appropriated

was religion

by replaced
then the

division of the apse whole

laity into
the front
use

totallydistinct
of of the the apse,
on

classes,the
the which
"

and clergy,

part

in

altar

dais, or stood, was

called cancelli, hence the modern term by railings the introduction of a choir or enclosed A further change was chancel. the congregato the presbytery or apse, outside which tion space, attached hear the gospel and epistle assembled read of to from a kind called the avibo. Another feature early introduced an was pulpit dedicated the building was burying of the body of the saint to whom for separated them

ROMAN

BSQUfi.
or

65

in the basilica iteelf, in


receive it beneath To make
room

crypt

vaulted

sanctuary constructed
nave

to

the choir. for the whole tho congregation, and side-aisles

55."

Ground-plan of
the atrium into
a

St. Godehard

at Hildesheira.

were

and lengthened,
was

entrance western

converted
was
an

in front of the principal court-yard simpleporch {"ng, 55). The principal


or

entrance

generallyflanked
invariable

by

two

towers, which
northern

quently subse-

became The flat roof the vault


"

almost

feature

of

buildings.

was

replaced

the generally groined vault, more rarely,

by

as

in

France, by the tunnelor


a

vault The above


was

series of of pillars

cupolas.
walls,

plainness of the
the relieved

by

the nave, the introduction which

of
were

above cornice, of windows size than of but

rows a

usually
those of basilicas. scription, de-

of the

smaller

earlyChristian
a even

Windows

similar

smaller,
the sideThe ways alor

were

introduced
round

in the walls

running
aisles and

in the apses.

50."

Basket

Capital.

From

the Catbedral

semicircular without

arch, usually
Circular the
were

of Gurk.

mouldings, was
above columns

employed.
introduced
Piers and

wheel for

windows

were

principal porch,as
used
a

well

as

in the

being adopted, widely itself. building


were

of purposes, and variety gi*eat

of

forms. The antique orders were replaced by columns with very varied of different flowers basket or capitals {Eng. 56), representing capitals

66 kinds.

ARCHITECTUKE.

introduced into capitals", Later, every varietyof form was human flowers, heads, and those of animals beingtreated with leaves, the greatest boldness and freedom. The arcaded cornice
to

the

walls

of the

nave

{Eng.57) was

acteristic char-

feature of

profuseornamentation
the cathedrals carved of this devices

perhaps the Komanesque buildings ; but many of the w^est fronts is what marks principally earlyage.
The chief entrance
was was

the

part

most

sumptuously decorated
wdth with animal The forms

; but every of marvellous

portionof the front variety. Flowers

often

richly

and

leaves alternate

scroll-work
"

and of

some

with figures grotesque others the mere tions creadeep symbolicmeaning,

tracery; human

of the architect's

fancy.
between it

period

included In

1175

and

1220

is known reached

as

the

Transition
all the

Period.

Komanesque
of great
true

architecture

its fullest

development ; many of the peculiarities

churches

erected, retaining beauty were Romanesque style, imbued, however,


"

:i.i"^ i'I d" i? iFiifiFii,

I57."

V.
Arcaded Cornice.
From
a

'

-^^

'M^T"

Bomanesque

Church

at Vienna.

slightGothic feeling, premonitory of the coming change. The after change, of the age, ever restless spirit longingfor and i-eaching forms of reflected in in its the constant new was architecture, adoption The transitional style and now combinations of familiar details. was demand for finer and more the result of the ever-increasing costly places the of worship. The unlocked Crusades to the people of the West forms of Eastern and Eastern treasures art ; were widelyadoptedby the thing Western and painting. Somenations,alike in architecture,sculpture of form of earlier works of the grand severity and piu'ity was
with
a

lost,never
circular

to

be

regained. Pointed
arch ; the

and the

foiled arches columns But


were

replacedthe
more

Koman

shafts of

richly

nothingwas the carved which marked in the more as were richly doorways, change so and more adorned than ever with sculptures {Eiig, 58). The profusely circular wheel window also introduced, more or was rose large generally in in France, where lancet windows, so genei-al the narrow especially
the capitals more clustered, carved. elegantly in

ROMANESQUE.
were "iigland" never

67
was
a

adopted.
it retained

This its

circular wiudow

ornament

as

long as

simple form, like

that

very great in the west

front of the cathedral

of Chartres. is

earlier

rich in Romanesque basilicas of the especially with such as the Schlosskirche (Church of ceilings, period, the Castle) also in other with them at Quedlinburg. But meet we of provinces Germany ; such was the convent church at Paulinzelle, forest. now a fine ruin, in the Thuringian

Gemtant/. Saxony
"

flat

58."

Doorway

of the Church

of St. Jak, Hungary.

Period.) (Transition the eleventh It The what usual

The

CatliedrcU of Hildeslmmy built at

the with

of beginning
more

century, is of a later has bronze gates,16


Convent of the it
was

date,when
ft.
on

the

was style

fullydeveloped.
fine bas-reliefs.
one

high,adorned
It is
now
a

very

Church German before

at

Limhurg decay.
The church.

the Haardt in

(1035)is
choir

of the
to
see

largest

basilicas. its apse.

ruins,but it is easy
instead

It has The

square

of the

semicircular
a

Cathedral

mediaeval typical

be considered of Treves (Trier) may erected was by the building original

68

ARCHITECTURE.

Empress Helena, and


but basilica,
to make

consisted
was

of

circular down

and baptistery in the

rectangular
century
was

the

former

taken church
a

thirteenth The

way

for the

present

of St.

Mary.

basilica

and strengthened

completedas

placeof Christian

worahip by

Arch-

59."

Cathedral

of

Spires.

bishopPoppo
the

in the

of beginning columns into

the eleventh

century.

He

converted

Roman original

by piers,*
pierin

casingthem

in masonry,
is

* The difference between a column and a 4uid the latter may be of almost any shape.

that the former

always round

HOMANESQUE. covered the which in the atrium, and added


an

69

twelfth

century Bishop task, and commenced

Hillin

In entrance. apse at the western took up Archhishop Poppo'sunfinished the choir" or eastern rebuilding apse,
at the

of the thirteenth beginning the Romanesque style was century. These two apses" one built when in its infancy, it had reached its culminating the other when point admirable illustrations of its development. are of this epoch, Three great German in which we see the flat buildings roof superseded and by the vault,are the Catliedrals of MainZf Worms The first in the and the finished in eleventh was tenth, begun Spires. of Little the remains the eastern b uilding original century. except
was
"

by Bishop John completed

"

apse, with begun in and is


as

its two

round

towers.

The

second

"

that

of Worms in

"

was

996, and finished in 1015, but


to have

part of it fell down


eastern

1018,

it is known

been

reconsecrated subsequently end

it (1110), is all that cathedral

remains that

The rebuilt. supposed that it was entirely of the building consecrated in 1110. square
out.

Its chief
The third

is peculiarity
"

that the apse is circular inside and of Spires{Eng, 69) is the


"

and largest

finest of the three

great

rivals. in

It is

massive solid, Is has

to later times.

Germany; the nave high to the centre of simplebeauty; it has


running
dome under harmonise

of a simplegrandeur unknown building, a na/rthex, or porch a feature seldom met with is 45 feet wide between the piers, and 105 feet
"

the
no

dome.
ornament

The but

outside the

is remarkable

for its
an

small

windows, and
square
towers

arcade rounded

the

roofs ; but

its massive

and

appearance, houses which The Rhine" excellent The the been


two

rising as
form

and present an imposing admirablytogether, far the of insignificant do above they groups Schwartz

the town.

Churches

of
an

Rlmndorf,

one

over

the

other,on
"

the

erected Church commenced

examplesof the

thirteenth

Archbishop of Cologne in 1158 {Eng.60) are of this tiiae. of church building style of Limburg, on the Iiahn,belongsto the earlypart of is supposed to have century, and that at Gelnhausen
by
somewhat
so are

later. handsome.

They
St,

transition

style;

also the the of

cathedrals

the latter of which

is very

specimens of the Naxvmberg and Bamberg^ its s at Viemiay with Stephen^


are

fine

of

spire, marking is one taperingpinnacle, pointedstyle.


In North
to

beautiful

transition the

from

largestof

square tower churches German

the

to the

of the

Germany,
those

where

it

was

similar

mentioned

above

were

difficult to obtain stone, buildings The of brick. constructed

was Romanesque style


"

adoptedin

the

earlypart of

the twelfth

century

the flat roofs and

columns

of the

basilicas

being quicklysuperseded

by piersand
Italy,
"

vaults.
eleventh In many and of

of Italy of the Romanesque buildings from those of Germany. twelfth centuries differ greatly
The

70
them
we see
a

ARCHITECTURE.

combination

of the

earlyChristian

basilica with

simple

60."

Double

Church

of Schwartz

Rheindorf, on

the Rhine,

ad.

1158.

system of vaulting.One of the best specimensis the basilica of San MiniatOf near Florence,begun in 1013 {Etig. 61). It has three aisles,

ROMANESQUE.
but
no

71
two

and is divided into three longitudinal transepts, by portions arches upon led is
at
now
as

large
looked which church The

supported
a

on

clustered

piers.* These
central

arches

crude later

efFoi-t at

vaulting the

be may of the portion

church, and

the
a

clustered

piers show the working of the influence This period to the Gothic system of arches.

much

modernised.

Cathedral
a

of Pisa, commenced
the
more

fifty years
Italian

after the church

of San

Miniato, is

typical example of
Gothic
cross

transitional

Komanesque

style. It
form

has

of the

Ls

than the earlier building peculiarities ; the the of extension the fullydeveloped by transepts

Prtnnt

Stntf.

61." Basilica of San Miniato.

(Begun

in

1013.) roof of
Fame

on

either side of the The

choir,but

it has the flat wooden


at

an

basilica. the arches

church

of Sa7i Micheh

Lucca,

of the

early styleas

for the profusion of columns and cathedral of Pisa, is remarkable characteristic of the later Romanesque style. and architecture earlyfreed itself from Roman influence, Lombardic

trace the growth of its of the eleventh century we can buildings built in style. The church of Sunt' Antonio at Piacenza was peculiar the early part of the eleventh century ; the plan is Romanesque, but the ordinary from that differs considerably type, the transepts even

in the

"

A
a

clustered

pieris one

in which

several spuaU columns

are

each together, joined

with

base, shaft,and

ca^iital.

72

ARCHITECTURE.

end, and the tower, which rises from the point where the nave and four and transepts meet, is supported on eight pillars roofed with side The whole is vaults,and outintersecting piers. building

being at

the west

we

see

the

buttresses

which

afterwai*ds

became

so

importanta

feature of Gothic

architecture.

In the Cathedral

of Novara
It too

further

styleis noticeable.

belongsto

developmentof the Lombardic the earlypart of the eleventh

62."

St. Saturain

at Toulouse.

and century, and retains the atrium, the baptistery

the

basilica.
was

One

chief characteristic of this and


open and throughwhich light of arcades air
most
were

other

of the age buildings


the The
eaves

duction the introthe

immediately under
admitted.

of

roofs,
Michele

church

of San

qf

Pama
we

is
see

one

of the

perfectof

Italian and

of buildings Gothic
"

In it

the

stylealmost

developedinto the true

this age. the only

subsequent inventions

arch being the pointed

The window-tracery.

ROMANESQUE.

73
of this
a

CcUhedral
PalfUiiia

of
in

Modena the and

is another

example
we

palaceat
Moorish

Palermo

have

style. In the CapeUa specimenof the mixed


of detail.

Romanesque

remarkable styles,

for richness

6.3." St.

Etienue, Caen

(Abbaye
to

aux

Honimesi.

France. of France

"

It would

be

even impossible

name

the

numerous

churches

belonging to
most

One

of the

period (eleventhand twelfth centuries). is that of Mac/uelone, which has a remark interesting
this
i-

74
able the has

ARCHITECTURE.

doorway,in
A and
a

which

the

Moorish Claesical, French arcade

and

Gothic

stylesare
is It

combined.
church
a nave

typicalexample of
Satumin form

Romanesque
above

architecture

of St

(orSt.
an

Semin),at Toulouse
; instead

{Eng.62).
The

with side-aisles,

the latter. of the

choir,
in

however, is of

French essentially

circular simplesemiis
an

which was basilica, apse of the Roman invented and French the Germany Lombardy, round At which is clustered
a

universally adopted
a

which chevet,

apse

Westminster, Canterbury,

group and

of

chapelsin placeof a simpleaisle. there are Englishexamples Norwich


Normandy
churches of
Caen

of the chevet. is this rich in One of age. finest is St. Etieiine


aux

the

at Hommes) erected 63), by (Frig. the William Conqueror, in

(Abbaye

1066,
364

to

celebnite

his It is is

quest connow

of feet

England. long and


into

in lofty chevet

: the original proportion apse

was

converted

in the twelfth
western

century. The
is flanked which
a

entrance

by
and

two

towers,
became

quently subse-

distinctive

almost

invariable churches. Most smaller but

feature

of French

Spain. earlyand Spain were


"

of the

very chui'ches of
a

built with the

circular semidrals catheare

apse, and
64."

largerchurches
on

Romanesque

Arches.

usually arranged

the Qhevt

plan ; that is,having a series of apsidal from the radiating chancel, chapels according to the French method. All the larger ecclesiastical buildings usually possess transepts, seldom fact in of the the walls m uch short, projecting beyond very
side-aisles. almost and
At

the intersection

of the the

nave

with either

the dome the

transeptsthere is
or

a invariably rising of

roof
was

tower-shaped

well-marked

This externally. furnished

called side

by

Spanisharchitects

the cimhorio. The


nave

is sometimes So vary far the

with

side-aisles. architecture the choir

characteristics those of most the


west

little from

and always with chapels, of the Spanish ecclesiastical other European nations, but instead of the
east

a at occupies position

of the

SARACENIC.

75

in the cathedrals of other occasionally will be familiar' to many and it is in as countries, readers, English in Westminster It the of has unfortunate effect use more or Abbey. less catting the church in two, so that usually the choir fittings and of the eastern limb from the west end of prevent a free sight the cathedral, but this defect is to a great extent compensated for by
spreen

This arrangement occurs transept.

the increased space available for a sumptuous choir. The same liarity pecuof plan exists in several of the early basilica churches Eoman at Home. as, ". ^., in San" Clemente The English Great Britain. to this age will be buildings belonging noticed in the chapter architecture. on English
"

Saracenic.
will here insert a brief notice of To avoid confusion of dates, we Saracenic architecture, ing otherwise called Mahomedan, before continuwhich subsequently review of the Christian styles our developed themselves. of architecture is the result of the requireAlmost style ments every new
are a striking mosques instance of this fact. At first the followers of the Prophet found and the earliest Christian churches well suited to their own rites, a new

of

and religion,

the

Mahomedan

built by Christian architects from Constantinople, and mosques were the resembled Byzantinebuildings. much new h owever, Gradually, of decoration known style of animals representation
as was

in which all was introduced, Arctbeaque but profuse and brilliant decorative forbidden,

obtained ; vegetable effectswere and forms, geometrical figures of patterns{Eng.65). in an endless diversity letters beinginterwoven Some forms arch the pointed of foiled arches which have been have architects. attributed well as itself,
so as

the

various

to Moorish buildings,

Mahomedan

arch,which remains the and architecture,

in Christian widely adopted the horseshoe They certainly onginated distinctive and original most feature of has very rarely been imitated.

of a mosque not unlike those of a The internal arrangements are almost invariably consists of porticos The mosque Christian church. tain surroundingan open square, in the centre of which is a tank or founis central the ablutions for portion circular, ; sometimes,however, is a pulpit, In the south-east of the mosque as in Byzantine buildings. * liesis towards Mecca sacred in which niche which direction the a and in
"

The

of Mahomet. birth-place

76
the faithful there is
are

ARCHITECTURE.

directed desk

to

look when the

a generally of The simplicity parapet.

for the

Opposite the pulpit surrounded Koran, on a platform by a was gradually replaced original mosques
in prayer.

by
and
'

an

of arcaded infinite variety

courts, gateways, domes, and minarets,


of
a

by frequently

the

addition

tomb the

sacred

to

some

person

of

renown being in most cases ; the dome of the the wooden ceiling occasionally

leadingfeature, although early Christian basilicas was


introduced distinctive minarets
a

adoptedin
as

its

place. The Moors

afterwards
as

known ceiling,
to
are

Ibecame almost which the stalactite, arch. the horse-shoe architecture as

feature of their
tall

The

alluded

65." Arabian

Gateway

at Iconium.

turrets which
can

divided

into

several

each stories,

marked

by

fi-om balcony,

the Mueddin

exceed The

calls the faithful to prayer, and nothing (Muezzin) of design the elegance by many of them {Eng, 68). displayed

and
more as

without outsides of many are entirely ornamentation, mosques this peculiarity renders the richness of the internal decoration the

striking.The
with of
a

flat surfaces

of the walls

are

everywhere covered,

both

richness patterns,of the utmost carpet with many-coloured of East. and the textile fabrics the colour, design recalling

In the

earlymonuments

of Saracenic

architecture which
we see

have

been

in preserved

and Arabia, Palestine,

Syria

the crude

beginnings

SARACENIC.

77
are

of and

into stylestruggling

life. the

Such

the

Kaabah

at at

famous It

Mosque of OmcMr
was

and

both Moaqv^eof El AkaaJiy


art

Mecca, the Jerusalem,

that of

Caliph Walid
Egypt
a

at Damascus.

in and

that

Arabian

first

character the

settled

of the
are

ancient

style. Side by side Egyptiansrise many handsome


island
near a.d.

acquireda distintptive with the mighty monuments


mosques. Such

Nilomeier,on

an soon

Cairo,and
643.
art

the

Mosque qf AmrSuy
its

at Old Cairo, founded

after

It was,

however, in Spain that

Saracenic

attained

greatest

68." Moorish

Pavilion

near

Granada.

beauty.
their exercised
"

The

Moors

obtained

footingin
the

that

country in

a.d.

711, and

intercourse subsequent
a

with
on

knightsof Western

Christendom

great influence

it always retained although

tecture all their ai'ts, that of archion especially ness of colour and richthe exuberance in buildings
was

of decoration characteristic of Saracenic

every

country.
Abd el
most

The
Rahman It

celebrated
in

Mosque qf by

Cordova, commenced
his
son,

by Caliph
the

786, and

completed by

first and of

important
was

erected building

the Moors

after their

conquest

Spain.

and is therefore and omam^ted enlarged by successive rulers, as* different of the interesting containing adopted in styles specimens

78

ARCHITECTURE.

Spain from
reached After commenced

the

first arrival of the

Moors

until

Moorish

architecture he (1248),

its fullest Mahammed

developmentin
ben Alhamar

the Alhambra.
was

driven AUiambra

from

Seville
a

the building

citadel of the

upon

rocky height

67." A Doorway

in the Alhambra.

(Begun work
seems

a.d.

1248.)
to have

the cityof overlooking carried of portions Yousof in between


on

Granada. immediate it
now

The

been

fully faith-

by

his

successors,

but

all the the and

the

as building

stands

date

from

principal vening interperiod


the death of
to

the accession

of Abou

Walid
no

in 1309

1354, after which

time

important additions

appear

SARACENIC.

79
Alhambra original one long courts
"

have iitiW
**

been of of

made.
are

The

standing
the

of portions ranged round

the
two

which called

are

the

Court

the other Fishpond,"

the

"

Court

of the

Lions."

They

consist

halls porticos,pillared paved with mosiacs, etc. exquisitely may Palace, where Jones. No

{"iig.67),
Court

arcaded
*'

chambers,
the

They

be

studied form

in
one

the

"

Alhambra
most

at

Crystal
Owen

they

of the

beautiful

tions, series of decora-

carried out

in faithful imitation

of the

by designs supplied

of any importance was erected by the Moors building the Alhambra, before their final expulsionfrom Spain in 1492.

after

G8."

The

Jumna

Musjid,at
when

Delhi.

by (Built

Shah

Jehan, about

a.d.

1630.)

At

the

very

time

the

power

of the

kings of

Granada

was

a new being added to those already province was rapidlydeclining, nople of followers the the by the conquest of ConstantiProphet, occupied by rulers of the Eastern Empire by the Turks (1453). The new

effected
and

great change in the architecture


a

of the

subjugated country,

differed not only from the which mosque but of the East, of the time of which sacred buildings we are treating, Mahomedans. the also from They anything previouslyproduced by
introduced

styleof

took

Santa
more

Sophia for
or

their

model, and
that

all their

buildingsare
of Justinian.

less

of perfect

great

work

reproductions The

80
y

ARCHITECTURE.

is an exact copy of Santa Sophia Mosque of Solivian II. at Adrianople, It was in plan and form, but differs from it in detail. completedin built by the Turks The Enest mosque 1556. is that at Constantinople of Soliman the Magnificent (1530 1555).
"

Little
in Mahomet.

now

remains in India With

of the
many

erected buildings

but Persia, Santa

still mosques these slightexceptions, mosques Two of the most in which the beautiful the
are

by the Mahomedans to the power testify


are

of

from
or

Sophia.
at

the Jumna
at

closely copied Musjidj

Great

erected

Mosque by Shah

Delhi

{JSng. 68),and
Shah Jehan

Taj Mehal,
his with wife

Jehan

seventeenth and

Agra, both nounced century. The Taj (prolie

under Tcige), built of the


stones most

buried,is
of inlaid
to

purest white
colours.

marble, ornamented

mosaics the

of various beautiful
was

By many in the world. building


Austin Genoa de and Venice.

critics it is considered It is believed that that the

be the

principal
were

architect workmen

Bordeaux, and

decorators

from

Gothic.
Gothic the
"

architecture invariable

is often
occurrence

termed
of the

Pointed

architecture in its architecture.

"

from
Gothic

almost the

pointed arch

buildings
century
The the
to

and

sometimes, but

less

was

in style adopted Gothic Gothic

Christian accurately. from middle the Europe

of the twelfth writers

to

the classical revival

of the is
a

fifteenth and
term

sixteenth

centuries.

Round-arched transitional The the

stylebetween
was

applied by many Komanesque and Pointed.


in
as

word

first used this art

derision

by
and

the

artists of the

Renaissance, to

characterise

meaning of the word is now original be have described. in the way we to come generally accepted zontal The chief peculiarities of a Gothic the disuse of horiare building moderate cornices and of such gables have a as slope very ; and such as the introduction of vertical or very sharply-pointed features, and made roofs buttresses,high-pitched gables, spires, (oftenopen of ornamental),pointed arches, and pointedinstead waggon-headed vaults ; the substitution of mouldingscut into the stone for projecting mouldings; and the use of window tracery. In late work we meet and with with in the nave arcades, piersformed of clustered pillars all these It buttresses. that of not to be expected flying is, course, will occur all equally in every building, that they are peculiarities or to be met with in every the but of development they are all style ;

antiquated.But quaint and the term has quitelost,

GOTHIC.

81

charncterisrtic of it. and have their


a

They meaning and

were

all the result of structural necessities, We have purpose of their own. already

the early Christian churches built if and the ground-plan of a cathedral {Eny,69) be ; with of that a compared basilica-church, alreadygiven, they will be found very similar. Cathedrals built were and east always west, the altar at the eastern high end, and the main entrance (a)being at
on

described

the Roman

basilicas and

models

(b)

end, while there is geneially second a side of the nave or transept. In plan they are
western

the

door at almost and (c),

the north

invariably
is flanked
same

cruciform.

The

stem

of the
arms,

cross

is called

the

nave

by

aisles

(d).

The

called

transepts (e), usuallythe

width

69.

"

Grouud-plaa of Cologne Cathedral.

and
two

height as
aisles
or

the
more.

nave,

have
east
or

sometimes end
"

but head

one

and aisle, the


cross"

sometimes

The

the

of

is called and

the choir. of
a

The
;

presbytery,

chancel

is the most (f), that

important part
of the
nave,

cathedral

its floor is raised

higher than

it contains

throne. clergyand choir and the bishop's and sometimes an e. apsidal {i, Its end is sometimes rectangular, often chancel is there form. the semiciri ular or polygonal) Beyond chapelsfrequently a Lady Chapel. Other open out of the aisle of the from and occasionally, walls of the transept, eastern apse or from the the stalls for the the cathedrals there is a crypt. (SeeGlossary,) many of the nave is usually erected at the crossing tower The principal front sometimes is The intersection. the often west called and transept,
nave.

Beneath

82
flanked drals the

ARCHITECTURE.

by

two

towers, and

sometimes

by

one

only;

in

some

cathe
of each

"

there

transept.
as

there are two, at the end is one, and occasionally The spiressurmounting the towers became more Attached
to

tapering

styleadvanced.
of monastic

the

cathedral

was

a frequently

group
or

and buildings, the cloisters.

an ambulatory usually

for the monks

called priests,

70." Interior of Teauvais

CatlieJraL

(Begui

a.d.

1225 ;

completed a.d..1272.) features of

We Gothic

have

explainthe originof the which all developedout were buildings,


now

to

distinctive of

previously existing
generally
outside the

styles.
Walla aiid BtUtresaes.
"

The

walls

of Gothic
are

are buildings or

of stone.

The

external

buttresses

props

piersadded

GOTHIC.

83 of the
to strengthen groins,

to opposite baildingy

the

point of
a aci*oss

pressure

the walls ; and sometimes shape of an arch thrown the


a

further external
between

support is added

in the

flyingbuttress

to

helpsupport (seeEng. 105). Vaults and Eoo/s, ^The early semicircular massive walls to resist extremely require
buttress,so
as

to

the upper part of the roof of the nave. This is called the wall and

"

or

barrel vaults

were

found

modification thrown the


across

was

the

introduction certain In

their thrust ; and the first of transverse arches (seeEng, 70), the barrel

here and
on

there beneath the

vaults,to
which
to

concentrate

chief

thrust
were

buttresses

being small,the

placed. Koman vaults intersecting

to points,opposite the side-aisles,


were

the be

external

spaces used ; but

covered
barrel

as

71."

Two-lightlancet.
Gothic "Windows.

72." Tracery of later date.

desirable to dark and vaults were gloomy, it became necessarily of the the windows nave. to introduce lofty vaulting, especially light of cross vaults, This could only be providedfor by the introduction the principal one. piercing which It
was

in

with struggling
on
a

the

difficulties

large scale that the are was capableof being as they can be made of bays of any size or shape, appliedto vaulting lines of The their whatever e, intersecting (t. groins span. equalheight and these ribs with ribs (see the vaults) were Eng, 70), strengthened
attended
the
use

of such

cross-vaults Pointed

pointedarch

first introduced.

arches

and

their

mouldingsbecame

more

and whole

more

nxmierous,
was

as

the with

Gothic

until style developed itself,

the

vault

covered

them,

producingin finally

England

the beautiful

(seeEng. Ill) fan-tracery

84
with which
we
are

ARCHITECTURE.

the Seventh's

Chapel, King'sCollege Cambridge, Henry Westminster, etc. ; whilst in France and Germany Chapel,
"

fanuliar

in

carried out. other forms of elaboration were many The general vertical tendencyof Gothic work of any vertical breaks (t. e, projections buttresses, the face general of the

the

steep roofs,the
or

part within
horizontal

beyond
desire of where

work),etc.
from
a

"

are

traceable largely
sun.

to the

to obtain

effects of shadow for

low

The

cornices

Classic architecture lose much the of


sun
a

of their natural

effect in countries

diffused and

great part of the year is low in the faint. In the Gothic comparatively
this Italy) vertical

heavens, and
less

lightis

of the south buildings

Europe (Spainand

tendencywas
are

completely

developed.
Gables teristic characparticularly and architecture, decorated.
was nave

of Gothic
are

usuallymuch
those of the the west
"

The

attention greatest
to

always paid
and

aisles,
"

forming

front.

Windows.
which
western

Window

tracery
architecture

of Gothic peculiarity has


no

in any parallel
"

other

style
a

was

developed

from gradually several


one

windows

desire to group togetherunder

arch ; and a completeseries of forms can be made out, beginning readilywith


two

{Eng, 71) and leadingup to


of which
an our

the

lights* arch, enclosing


tracery
is

lancet

the beautiful
to such

engiuving No. 72

and example,

elaborate

73.

"

Circular

or

Rose

Window.

the great windows as compositions the flamboyant buildings of in France. The circular Rose the dows winin kind in the

{Eng. 73 and
the in

77) often

seen

great
surpass and

western

fronts

and

transepts of largeFrench

cathedrals

anythingof

England.
Piers.
"

In

Gothic

nrchitecture, columns
were

internally they the shaft was slender,but if for sup[tort, usually only, often very the The massive. were it was capitals more carvings on rich,as may be seen in the examplesgiven(Eng. 74, 76). The clustered ribs of a groined {Eng.75) were a device for carryingthe leading piers lines of a moulded arch,down to the ground. They roof,or the lesiding
used for ornament
*

little used

; but

of the

piers were externally greatest importance. If

Long

narrow

windows,

with

the head

of shaped like the point

lancet.

GOTHIC.

85

each with a cap (t. e, capital) pierssubdivided into different shafts, of its own, or bearing a separate portionof the vaulting arcading. of less value structurally than optically. They were in a series Mouldings and Traoery. Gothic traceries were developed bold Gothic with the and simple as as regular buildingscommencing at the utmost examples of the transitional Ilomanesque,and arriving
are
" "

to beyond the limits of a hand-book and tracery; but those who wish to of mouldings upon an analysis themselves thoroughly architecture make Gothic must scientifically study the subject. with be said have mastered both ere tliey to can acquainted is also thoroughlytypical The character of the decorative sculpture and varied with of the style, changing phase which it went every

complexity. It
ent^

would

carry

us

receive the student's earnest attention. through : it should consequently In and Trifortum, Gothic, as in Romanesque buildings, Clerestory carried high enough above the side-aisles to the vaults of the nave were
"

admit

windows

under

the roof to

the light

nave

; and

these windows

in

mmm

74, 75, 76." Three Grothic churches The


or gallery,

Gothic

Capitals.
e, clerestory (i.

form

what above the the

is called the

the

clear

storey).
the

open windows and clerestory


or

arcade, which

occurs

in

largechurches

below

central avenue,

from

great arches that separate the nave, side avenues, is called the triforium or aisles,

(seeEng. 108). Nothing can exceed


with

its endless

overhead, its and its aisles,


flood of The outside

dral, view of a Gothic cathebeauty of the general of of lines arches,meeting variety intersecting of grouped shafts and delicate ribs,its long perspective
rows

of

windows, stained-glass
stone-work with is
as

from

which

is

poured a

the light, tinting of of


a

every

of variety
as

hue. the interior

Gotliic cathedral
easy

remarkable

for boldness

design and
crowned

grace

of ornament.

The

projecting

slender by acutelypointed indescribable effect of lightness^ an heavenwards,produce spires tapering and complexity. frozen the staccato notes of that to They are, so speak,
the pinnacles,
"

buttresses,often

music

"

to

which

has Schlegel

likened

architecture.

86
Decorative
"

ARCHITECTURE.

In Scvlptures. and

mediaeval

times

symbolism
much

entered

largely
strange,

into all the arts ;

Gothic

cathedrals

owe

of their

with which every part" even beautyto the fantastic sculptures unearthly and the sacrarium, the west front, the portals, the crypt,but especially full The decorated. the high altar) was (or sanctuary containing
"

77." Rheiras

Cathedral,AVest Front. of

(Completed in

a.d.

1241.) ing, becom-

developmentof
so

this love

mystic ornament

led to the church

Everywhere we see hovering speak,a universe in miniature. vines and lions, of Christian virtues emblems angels mystic ; trailing of Divine love and mercy ; ivyand symbols of faith ; roses and pelicans,
to
or

GOTHIC.

87

Iambs, of submissions,etc.,whilst the walls and altars the relics and the holy shrines, glow with sacred pictures, containing of the saints,sparklewith jewels and mellow harmonious whilst the ;
;

dogSyof

truth

of the

placed in the windows stained-glass and thus greatly enhance sun

lends the

tone glorious

to

the rays

beauty

of the interior.

78 "Miserere

Seat

"

from

"Wells Catheoral

The the

Gothic

stylemay
in the

be said to have thirteenth fourteenth

: passedthrough three periods

century ; the middle or perfected Gothic, century ; and the decadence, in the fifteenth century ; these dates are, however, only approximate, the as The of different varied in countries. rate round-arched, or progress and the south of France, transitional Gothic style, in Italy originated
severe

earlier

of the style,

where

it

and developed itself naturally from lingei*ed long,

the Romanesque,

introduced

by

the Lombards

and

other

Italians. have
to deal, principally

France,
was

"

The
out

Gothic,with pointed
first in Northern Cathedral

which

we

worked 1140.

France

its full in

developmentwas
The

the Cathedral

; and the earliest example of qf St. Denis,near Paris,founded

Dame, in Paris, is a later building; later still, and marks that of CJiartrea is somewhat a step in advance ; that of RJieims (see Eiig, 77),completed in 1241, greatly surpasses

of

Notre

either of its model that of in

predecessors ; and
which
not

with rivalry much

of Amiens, Cologne cathedral that excel it. The

in 1272 (the completed is equal to was built),

Kheims, if it does
resembles

Cathedral

qf Beauvais

(see

Eng. 70)
commenced and
tower

five years

of Amiens, but is incomplete. It was In the second in 1272. and consecrated later, that additions in the
were an

periodof French
other

Gothic, many

made

to the cathedrals

commenced buildings

as first,

example of

which

the

and spire of St, Pierre,at Caen, may be noticed. The Church qf of the third style, St. Machu, is at Kouen (1432 1500), a specimen drals csMe^ flamboyant and describe all the Gothic cathe; t but to enumerate
"

and centuries In

great churches
would alone

of France and

from

the thirteenth

to the sixteenth

a require

volume.

speakingof the domestic


may
*

departmentof military
the Fortress

of the first period, we

mention

of Mont

architecture St. Michel and

+ From

Carving beneath a seat in the Chancel. the flame-like shapesof the window ti-acery

88
the and

ARCHITECTURE.

CMteau

a,nd of Couci/t

in the

the Chateau'o/Bloi^, flaiihoyant style,

the Hdtel de

Ville at Caen.

"

-"^

'-=^

79." Cloth-hall at Ypres.

Thirteenth

Century. is rich pai-ticularly in

Belgium

"

In

Belgium, a

country which

GOTHIC.

89 chief Gothic
"

examples of

this

of architecture^ the style

great halls of the towns. form, and occupyingone


several dormer

These

the are buildings in a longrectangle buildings usually chief


"

in the town are square with small windows stories in height are pierced ; ; studded the windows too are over r oof, frequently high-pitched

side of the

the fronts

80."

Church

of St. Catherine

at

Oppcnheim.

always an important feature. The Clothhall of Yj/res (Eng. 79) is one of the earliest and century) (thirteenth Town-hall handsomest; the of Bruges (commenced 1377) is a small and that of Brussels (1401 elegantbuilding; 1435) is famous for its openwork that decorated ; of Louvain spire; (1448 1463) is elaborately of the decadence, when that of Ghent (1481) marks the commencement
above which rises the tower,
" "

90

ARCHITECTURE.

beauty of designwas
must

by extravagance replaced
of the fine Cathedrals

of ornament.

Mention

also be made Glient,

MecJdin of Antwerp^ Brussels, tecture Germany. The Gothic archiof Germany, like that of France,can be divided into
"

and

three

: peiiods
"

The

first, or

Gothic, may be in the Church of livelloly seen at Cologne,and the Apostles Churches of Arnstein and' Andemach. 1220
was

round-arched

It that the

was

not

until arch it the then

pointed
even

and adopted,
to

had

strugglelong with
before
it

semicircular

finally

triumphed. The following of cathedrals of the are Germany pointed


Gothic German
81."

and style, of the nation time


was

are

ments monu-

when united

the in
one

Bathhaus

at Lubeck.

**one

faith,

one

hope,

Magdeburg,
the Church

1208-

of

St.

baptism":" The Catfiedral of thirteenth century ; -1363 ; the Minster of Freiburg, the LiebfrauenElizabeth at Marburg, 1235"1283;
Kirche Tlie the
at

Treves, 1227"1244.

Cathedral
eastern to
a

of Strasburg,
longs bethe Basilica of

part of which

eleventh
most
nave

century, is one

of the

the interesting,

present
teenth thir-

in

having been the early part

commenced
of the

of this of

century. The west front which gi*eatcathedral,


in

is second

to that importance Colognealone,was begun by

the celebrated

Erwin

of Steinwith

bach, and
his
82.-Church
at
sons
on

proceeded
his death

by

(1318).
ings buildGothic

The Hitterdal, Norway.

Cathedral
in the

of Cologne,

the finest of all German be the

style, was,

until

lately, supposed to
:

de Hochsteden

in 1248

but it is

now

pointed building begun by Conrad ascertained that he only rebuilt

3)

O
JO

3
"*-"

3
I

92
the old cathedral

ARCHITECTURE.

of the

ninth

century. Nothing is known


was

of the

architect

have, after many years of spires and this magbeen finished according to the original work, now design, nificent of almost cathedral is an a uniqueexample begun and building finished without any radical alterations in its original Eng, 69). plan(see the St. Stephen's Vienna, fourteenth to qf belongs century, as does
also the
Maria Kirchs of Lubeck, The third

which of the present edifice, The consecrated in 1322. and nave

commenced

about

1275, and

Church

of

St. Catherine

at

Oppenlieim {Eng.80) It is marked of the by intricacy Flamhoyant styleof the French. the which much the of of ornament. original moulding, destroys grace also Many fine civic buildingsin the pointed Gothic stylewere erected in different parts of Germany : such are the Rathhaus (Townand Munster and those of Brunswick of Ltiheck {Eng. 81), hall) ; the In Prussia Eastern Junker's Hof (Merchants' at etc. Dantzig^ Court) of brick building and elsewhere,where stone was came scarce, a style
into
use

to the belongs

to the period, corresponding

about

this time.

in Switzerland,Norway, Sweden of the Gothic period buildings Gothic. and Denmark partake many of the characteristics of German churches almost of In Norway and Sweden constructed were always wood {En^.82). The

Italy. In Italythe chai*acteribtics of Gothic architecture were, as has already The use of been seen, largely influenced by the climate. infusion marble the of what chief building as material,and a strong called be classical also contributed to mould the peculiarities taste, may
"

of Italian

Gothic.
are

Here
common,

the

horizontal
are

cornice is often

retained,low-

comparatively rarelymet with ; of Northern groinedvaulting Europe, with its attendant external buttresses, is almost and window unknown, tracery is of a inferior of character. The double church St. Francis qf Assist very spires
the elaborate famous rather than for for its beautiful fresco paintings (1238 1253), its architectural design qf Florence {Eng.83),one of the ; the Duomo churches of Middle 1294 or 1298, and the largest Ages commenced completedearlyin the fourteenth century remarkable alike for the of its details ; grandeur of its plan and for the inappropriateness beautiful Campanileadjoins it ;)the Cathedral qf Milan (Oiotto'8 (1385 of white of built of the the mediaeval one cathedrals, 1418), largest marble and sumptuously decorated, but spoilt by an attempt to combine Renaissance with Gothic features ; and the CatJiedrdls of Siena {Eng. 1243, the latter 1290), are 84) and Orvieto (the former commenced the known best of Italian Gothic, examplesof specimens pointed among which are, however, to be met with in many scattered other fine buildings throughout the country, at Treviso,Cremona, Como, Bergamo,Bologna; became The civic buildings of acclimatised in Rome. though it never
" " "

pitchedroofs

"

"

GOTHIC.

93

Venice
one

of the same of them fine specimens style ; of these, many of the richest is the palace called the Cd, d'Oro {Eng,85); but the
are

noblest

and

most

renowned,

as

well

as

is the largest,

well-known

Doge's

84." Cathedral

of Siena.

Began

a.d.

1243.

by (Fa";ade

Giovauni

Piaano.)
at

Palace.

At

Cremona

is the Palace its

of the Jurisconaulta

; and

Como,

with the Broletto (townhall),

marbles. party-coloured

94

ARCHITECTURE.

of

Spain, There are but Spanish architecture


"

little trustworthy data in the

middle

ages. The

for any exact history The influences which


are

combined

to

form

the

character of the

Spaniardsthemselves
Moorish

also

traceable in that
In the south the rich and blended but with in the the the
more

of their architecture.
an

conquest in the

eighth century introduced


florid character
severer

altogethernew
Saracenic of the

styleinto the

country.

predominanceof

influence is still visible in

architectural prevalent

decoration,
as

outlines of the

Gothic,and known
as

Moresco

northern

towns,

such

Cordova

and

Granada, the

85."

The

Ca

d*Oro,Venice.

Gothic

manner

retained,even
the taste of the Granada Moorish the very

hold upon sites of


more

puted undisduring the Moorish occupation, Cathedrals The people. present grand
are

of Seville, Toledo,and
ancient upon

all built not

mosques,

named, almost
are

foundation

only upon the exact of the firstthe in but, case ever, howlines : in the last only,
work
not

by
There
earliest
*

there any remaining traces of Arabic the superseding Christian structure.


were

ated whollyobliter-

three the

periods of
Cathedrals

Gothic

architecture

belong

of

St,

lago

di

Spain. To the Zamora, ComposteUa,*


in
A.D.

A cast of the grand Puerta delta is in the South KensingtonMuseum.

Gloria,built by Master Matteo about

1180,

86."

Burgos Cathedral.

(Commeuced

1221.)

96

ARCHITECTURE.

TarragoTia
were

and
as

Scdaiiianca.
models
;

In and the the

the

second CcUhedrcUs

period
of

the

French

cathedrals

taken
were

Burgos
the

{Eng.
famous
Gothic became

86)
Cathedral
cathedral very

and

Toledo

erected.
of which In later
we

To

third

period

belongs
the of

of Seville,
in in

have times

before
the

spoken,

largest

Europe.
character.

architecture

Spain

florid

Portugal.
than in
a

The
"

architecture The
most

of church

this
at

country
BataUia Gothic the

does
erected

not

call

for

more

passing
one

notice. of the

by
is

King
very of

John

1385,

important

buildings,
tomb-house

freely
Emanuel

covered the

with

florid

decoration,

especially

Fortunate.

Great

Britain.
"

We the

reserve

our

notice

of

the

English
in of

pointed
which the

Gothic will in be that

buildings
found
a

for'

chapter

on

English
of the

architecture,

continuous

description

development

style

country.

We
without the

cannot

close

our

account to

of the
the art.

Architecture of of

in

the

Middle
whicli

Ages
in

calling
of much in masonry the

attention twelfth

institution

freemasonry,
the thirteenth
were a

middle

and upon

boi^inning
The and

centuries

exercised

influence

Freemasons

body
any

of

men

skilled

.of
in the

every best

kind,

competent
manner.

to

carry the of the

out

work their and


a

they

undertook

scieutiiic
to

At

time

of

organisation
system
each
were

writing
secret

was

unknown
was

the

majority
masons

laity,

of other.
at

signs
houses

invented,
of

by
were

which called

could

recognise principal
of

The

meeting
and much of the

lodges
vast

the

Strasburg,
are

Vienna,
to
owe

Zurich. of their

The

cathedrals the harmonious


states.

Germany co-operation

believed

beauty

to

of

the

Freemasons

different

guilds

and

Renaissance
First
The succeeded revival into
never

in

Italy.

Period:

Early

Renaissance, 1420"1500.
the
name

Renaissance the of

e, revival) is {i.

Gothic. Eoman

It

took

its

rise

in

ancient and

architecture.
as we

given to that style which fact in a Italy, and was Gothic, although introduced
above,
to
a

Italy, really

adopted,
flounshed

have
nor

seen

certain
the

extent,
classical

there,

supplanted

entirely

87.

"

Court

of tbe

Cancellaria

Palace

at

Rome.

style ;
revival
arts ;

and
was

when the

Petrarch

revived for later


was a

the
to

study
the
rest

of

classic

literature, that
in all the

signal
century

return
on

ancient of

models

first in

Italy, and

in

the

Europe.
an

The made Rome.

fifteenth
to

the

transition with

time, when
those of
to

attempt
Greece

was

combine In

existing
and

styles

ancient this

and the

churches

cathedrals

belonging

period,

98

ARCHITECTURE.

groined ceilingof

the

Gothic

alternate styles

with

the

intersecting
from of the date.
a

vault, and
are
a

the civic buildings transition fortresses

the the We

feudal Middle
a

Ages
later

to

palaces of
can

trace

in them

change
to

somewhat which
came

similar
over

that

the

lives of the old feudal


"

barons

warl ike

simplicity

giving place to princely and luxury. The elegance still distinguished palaces were
for their
mented orna-

fronts,as

in

the but
were

previous

centuries,
arcades

and pilasters

largely and principal


feature of

introduced.
Italian

distinctive

public

palaces of this time is the cortih (i, e, surrounded court-yard), by


which open arcades, over the upper apartments were carried in the in
our

buildings and

manner

seen

illustration

(see
that

Evvg,87). Although it is
to impossible

deny

from is

tural strictlyarchitecof view there point much in the buildings


a

of this insist

is open to of the criticism those who


era
on

that

architectural

rectness, cor-

there is nevertheless
a

grace and

delicacy

in the
a

ornamentation, and

freshness and
them

simplicity
er rendthe
at

in the

which details,

superior to
were

88."

Part

of the

OspedaloMaggiore,Milan.
By Antonio The

Wiih

which buildings
same

terra-c0tta

decoration.

A.D. Filarete,

1457. the

time
out

being
later very

carried Gothic

in

the
were

stylos.

Italians

in especially

Lombardy,

RENAISSANCE

IN

ITALY.

99
purposes, sometimes and

successful in
them

moulding bricks
their

for ornamental

employed

civic buildings and also in their largely in the details of the cornices and the moulded churches : they executed arcades and window-openings, either by moulding the bricks,or by the of bricks of differenj;/designs use arranged in patterns. The OspedcUe Milan is a well-known Maggtore of example of Italian ornamental brick and
terra-cotta

work

{Fng,88).

80." Palazzo

Vendramin

Venice. Calergi,

By Pietro Lombardo,

1491.

Italian Renaissance the and Florence

architecture

Florentine,Eoman, and

may Venetian.

be divided into three

schools

"

be said to have been the cradle of the Renaissance ; may it is to her great master, Brunellesclli, that she owes hi^r preeminence in the revival of classic architecture. He completed the dome and Cathedral, work
"

of the the what

built the he
"

last-named is called

first

rusticated

and the Pitti Palace, In Spirito artistic to managed give importance to The Strozzi (builtby Cronaca, structure. may age. be cited
as

Santo

1498),Gondiy Riccardi,and Rucellai Palaces Florentine of the earlyRenaissance buildings Borne, In Roman of the same buildings
"

other

fine

imitation

of classic

models, and

freer

use

period we find and of pilasters

closer arcades

ftfiNAISSANCE than in the in the attic


"

IN

ITALY. two
or more

101
stories
are

Florentine
one e, (t.

palaces. Sometimes
of columns with
two

included

order low

their entahlature so-called Venetian of St. Mark

surmounted

by

an

storey).The

Rome

largepalacewith
de

the Church

in palaces it built adjoining

Majano about 1468, and the smaller by Baccio Pintelli in 1475 Renaissance domestic architect are good specimensof Boman unfinished court- yard of the former^is the first example tnre : the large of a building constructed the model of the Colosseum, with its tiers on by
"

Giuliano

of columns

and the Rome

series of arches. whole


was so

During
centuries This will

of

the

fourteenth
disturbed

and

parts of the

fifteenth

much

by

intestine

of the population

city was

reduced

to

less than

contests,that the 20,000 inhabitants.

explaiqwhy, as Mr. Fergusson says, "Rome possesses no of this that the with stern grandeurof can buildings period compare the Florentine palaces, the playful luxuriousness of those that adorn or
the canals Venice.
"

of Venice."
^The Venetian the is the most The
ornate

of the three schools. possesses windows


a

Each
tier of

storey
coltunns with The

of

chief
an

of Venice buildings arched the


are spandrels

separate
are

and

entablature.

ornamented

columns, and
fronts
are

filled with frequently

figiures.

Renaissance,

of the early of them of marble. Of the palaces many the Palazzo and the Palazzo Vendramin Calergi(Eng.89) mention. special

Giovanelli deserve

Second
As

Period:
Florence
; but
a

Advanced
was

Benaissance, 1500
of the and
new

"

1580.
its and

long as

the the

home

it retained style, of mediaeval

transitional

the result of the combination character, in 1500


scene

antique forms
alike underwent the attracted

destinyof

the Renaissance Rome lover of art, became

change.

Julius

II., an

enthusiastic

the centre the


more

greatestmasters of the day to his court, and For a world, as it had long been of the religious. of Pericles of and of period twenty years the classic sculpture the age
of the art best monuments

of Roman

art

were

studied diligently worked

; and

once

and painters, sculptors,


more delighted

architects than

togetherin harmonious
and noble
as masses

of undying beauty. In this age combination, producingmasterpieces the Romans


ordered
ever

in vast
were

of well-

forms,and buildings.
Donato

their finest works of

now,

before,their civic
school of

Bramante
ever

Urbino, the founder of the Roman


as

will architecture, which palaces and he

be famous

the

of aS'^. Peter* 8. designer The

In the

he adhered strictly to antique datails, erected, treating grace of his own. Palaces are Torlonia)
a

them, however, with


Gtraud also

Cancellaria

Eng. 87) (see

(now designedthe Sacrietyof

Santa

He amongst his chief works. and the eastern Maria part of

91"

Biblioteca of San Marco, Venice.

By Jacopo Sansoviuo.

After

a.d.

1o36

RENAISSANCE

IN

ITALY.

103
of the
masters

Santa
built

Maria
the

delle Orazie, both

at

Milan.
was

One

who To

approachedmost
Famesina himself

nearlyto
we

him

Palace, famous
owe a

in power for work

Baldassare

Peruzzi,who
"

its frescoes

by Raphael.
the

Baphael

noble

of architecture

Palazzo

Fandolfini(1520) at
itself (Palazzo

a fragment of a palacein Rome ; and is said also have built from been his designs. to Vidoni)

Florence

the mighty genius in the who excelled~alike Buonarroti, Miciielangelo of sister and left the three arts architecture,sculpture, painting, impress of his vigourand power on architecture. To him we owe the designof with its picturesque the present Capitol, the Porta group of buildings, Pia, and the completionof the cupola of St. Peter's, This, the largest church tine. and in The

Christendom, is built
foundation-stone

on

the site of the old basilica of Constannew

of the

had building

been

laid in

1406,

the
Bra

work

was

ceeded pro-

with

after

designs
his took

by
death

man

te, until
that of the Peruzzi

and

Pope.

Raphael

and

and up his unfinished task, in their turn ceeded sucwere

by Michelangeloin
1546, when
reached year. his He and he had

already seventy-second
designed
at

the of

dome,

the

age

ninetysaw
he the church Greek
at

the greater

part
for the

of his task fulfilled. When

died, he left models

completion
in the
cross, with

of

form but

of

92."

Palazzo Valmarano, Vicenza.

By Palladio.

the dome his successors, the prolonging with the added model

the

crossing ;
his would front have and

Yignola and
nave

Oiacomo Mademo

della Porta,
erected The of the the later

altered which
west

plan by

westward dome.

beyond the length


church

harmonised the

the

Bernini

colonnade
most

{Eng, 90).
ambitious

of with

St. Peter mosaics Famese

became and

of the

churches The Giacomo who In

of the Renaissance coloured

style. Its
marbles.

interior is very

decorated richly

Palace, begun by San

Gallo

in

1530, and
of genius

della Poi-ta, also bore the worked on it after San Gallo. North

impressof the
It is one

by Michelangelo,
all Rome.

finished

of the

in grandest

attained to much the school of Venice importance Italy, indebted For this she was art. during this the golden age of Roman built the to the great master, Jacopo Tatti, called Sansovino, who his considered masterpiece, Library of St, Marie a* (1536) {Eng. 91),
*

The

designhas

been

copiedin

the Carlton Club

in London.

104
and the

ABCHITECTURE.

the magnificentGate of sculptured


same name.

the

of Sacristy
group their

the

church

of

In

Vicenza, in the

sixteenth

century,
not

of
own

buildingswas
account, but

erected

by Palladio,remarkable

only on

93."

Loggia of

the Palazzo

del

Verona. Consiglio,

By

Fra

Giocoudo,before

1500.

because of the
manner

they became
"

the

models

upon

which

Eenaissance work in this country was of Palladio in the fa9ade of whose


covered
two

stories

"

having become
chief work
was

(Eng, 92) ; the quently frebuildingspilasters the fashion in England,


the Famese

very based

largeproportion

while

that

of

Vignola,whose
more

PaUice

at

Cajyra/rolaj was

followed in France.

RENAISSANCE

IN

ITALY.

105
same

In Yerona for much the Palazzo del

there still exist

of buildings

the

remarkable period
most

beauty of their decoration. One of built by Fra Oiocondo,a Consiglio,


that

the

elegant is
who

the

Dominican

attained

in celebrity

city.

Third Fet^od:
The in the the and merits

Decline
which the

1600 of the Renaissance,

"

1800. of art
of the

simple beauty
sixteenth, were
of the left out ; and

fifteenth century, and


defects

richness

the works distinguished which and dignity in the seventeenth


were

succeeded

by
the

they displayed stylein which


almost all its license Gothic. and style,

Kenaissance
which

and exaggerated,
was

unhappily reflected
It neither
was

unbridled
nor

effeminate

luxuryof the age.


Bernini

Classic of the

Giovanni the extent in is front One him


seen

Lorenzo
to which

the chief master and

new

unmeaning

in his bronze His

baldacchino

decoration was capricious indulged (canopy)coveringthe high altar of


work is the colossal Colonnade
was

St. Peter's.

great architectural
is
a

in

of St, Peters

Emj, 90). Bernini (see


group of His Francesco rival,

also famous

as

sculptor.
to outdo

of his best works

Apollo and

Daphne, finished in his


From
even

eighteenth year.
by
even

Borromini,endeavoured
his and

greater
forms

exaggerationof ornament.

buildings
the

rectilinear

almost disappear

entirely,
"

the

gablesof

windows,
so

the and

and cornices,

the entablatures
an

are

broken

contorted,

that all

of design is lost, and regularity

of effect produced

painful

confusion In the

instability.

in eighteenth century architecture recovered, especially and a simpler France, from the exaggerationof the previousperiod, and more which made i n to an dignified styleprevailed, attempt was
return
were

to

classical forms

; but
as

deficient in interest

works

had their

founded

given character by Bramante


vast

to

the

erected importantbuildiugs many of art ; for the creative power which school, productionsof the great Eoman the

and the

was Michelangelo,

of wanting ; and, in spite


of their

size and

richness and

luxuriance

decorations,

they remained
France.
in of
"

cold,unmeaning structui'es.
the

Whilst

styleof

the

Renaissance of any

made rapidly
was

Italyto

the almost

total exclusion

Europe

still remained

true to Gothic

other,many and it traditions,

its way of the countries


not

until

the sixteenth At

centurywas
and

advanced considerably

that the Classic revival combined retained, of Chavihord with and of

spread to France
first many

England.
forms
were case

of the old Gothic

Italian features. This is the Chenonceaux {Eng. 94) on the


and many other fine

in the

ch"teaux

Loire, in the palace of Fontainehleau,


two

buildings.The

first-named

a palaces, part

106
the of
a

ARCHITECTURE

Chdleau

of Blois,and
to the

Loire, belong

of the in the valley other mansions many architecture the of I. when Francis time a period
"

France,in its piquancy,and

passage from refinement a


use

Grothic to Renaissance, surface


ornament.

a displayed coupledas it was rarelyequalled,

grace, with in the

the most seventeenth but late it


was

exuberant

of delicate the

It

was

century that
that

Italian debased

unfortunatelythe

adopted; stylewas universally and exaggerated phase of the


Italian architects
were

Renaissance, not

of the

golden age.

94."

ChAteau

of Cheuonceaux,

on

the Loire.

a.d.

1530.

and largely employed, The


west

their

directions

were

obeyed
Pierre in France.

front of the Louvrey erected of the finest examples of earlyRenaissance

by

in every country. Lescot, 1544, is one The old

portion

of the of the TuHertes, built by Philibert De Lorme, 1564, shows more classic element the defects of the style. In the next when century,

again began
result To
was

to

in Italy, the prevail erection of


"

effect was

the

the
two

handsome

felt in France, and the buildingsof the Invalidea of the

{Eng,95) and

the Pantheon

of the finest structures

jieriod.

the earlier part of the century belong the Palais Royaljbuilt for and Palace of the Luxembourg, Later, Mansard raised the Richelieu,

RENAISSANCE

IN

ITALY.

107

and which, though vast, lacks both variety huge buildingat Versailles, the eastern block to the Louvre. dignity ; and Perranlt added To the last form assumed of the Eenaissance stylethe by this period is often Rococo term given. It is characterised by extravagant and ornaments meaningless profusely applied.

95.

"

Fa9adeof
"

Paris. the lavalides,

By Mansard. the

Completed

a.d.

1706.

Spain, In Spain we may built by Juan de Herrera,


as

instance
one

Monastery of

the

Escurial,
"

of

the

finest Benaissance

remarkable Europe,and especially the chief work and of this and

for its central church


Other

palacesin (1563 1584),


Seville,

style.

examples are

the Cat/iedrals of

Granada

Malaga,

the TawnhaMs

of Zaragoza and

108
The church
"

ARCHITECTURE.

In the Netherlands,which affords but few Netherlands, the TownhcUl, and architecture, examples of Renaissance

portant imthe

of St.

Jacques at Antw"rp, designed by Bubens,


of his family, only need ^The Gothic the in be mentioned.

and

containing

the monument

Gemuiny,
Bdvedere^
sometimes

"

in Germany styleprevailed

until the
as

mencement com-

of the seventeenth
in Hradschin
now Heidelbergy are ruins,

century.
at

The

noble

hall known and the

the

called the

Prague^ Square of early Renaissance, or eiuunples Transition i n style, Germany.

CasUe
what

of
is

Architecture in the Nineteenth


The
accurate

Century.
the

researches

made

in Greece the

in the

century, and eighteenth


of vital known

of representations
were

monuments

discovered in that coimtry

which form the

at that produced

were period,

importance to

tecture, archi-

and of the

constituted

an

event

in its been

history. Hitherto
and

the Roman
at

had antique style

alone

imitated ; but

of the present century an attempt was made in England, beginning of architecture. a nd Greek revive the France to Germany, Italy, style Nowhere this movement than in Great was more developed strongly Britain ; but, as a separate chapter view is devoted to a comprehensive of English architecture, the Greek in which phase will receive notice, continental countries and the at two to we once France, Germany pass where

Greek

art

was

most

studied of

and

followed

by

architects.

a Ge^'many, Schinkel,
"

man

of the of their

first architects His

to

forms of

beauty borrowed

grasp from the

the

and original was genius, powerful them ideas and new embody

one

in

Greeks, but with


are

vital character

own.

works principal and Artillery

the T/ieatre {JSng, 96),

the new Royal Gua/rd-hotise, the and School Buildvig Engineers' the
,

ScJiool at Berliuyand the Casino and St, Nicholas's Church at Potsdam, He also designed All his and country houses. churches,castles, many
are productions

remarkable

for

unityof designand vigourand harmony


Friedenskirc/ie at is of no special

of detail. Another external

German
the

and Potsda/nij

built the architect,Sttiler, Museum at new Berlin, which the

for beauty,but praiseworthy

harmony and

ness appropriateof

of its internal the finest in Munich is

arrangements
in

; and

for its noble


in the

staircase, one

Europe. rich especially

erected buildings

presentcentury.

IN

THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY.

109 of the greater number.

Leo
The

yon

Klenze

and

O"rtner

were

the architects

(picture gallery), the is former not style ; altogether of a Greek a work, but has something of original : the feeling copy cornice above the portico is finely decorated, and the pediment is enriched with decorations other by Wagner, Schwanthaler, and The Picture Galleryis by some considered a finer work than sculptors. the for which It the it was Glyptothek. fullyexpresses purpose
by
Von

and Glyptothek (sculpture gallery)

the PinaJcothek

Klenze, are

in the classic

96." The

Eoyal Theatre, Berlin.

By

Schinkel.

erected ; the
are

and for largepictures galleries The materials


are

cabinets

for smaller

ones

brick,with stone dressings. and These others in different buildings, many parts of Bavaria, the and WalficUla near Katisbon, by Von Klenze, the Ltuiwigs-kirche

extremely effective.

"

Triumphal Arch
built
at

in the

same

town

by Gartner,

for instance

"

were

all

of art. adhered

enthusiastic lover the expense of Ludwig I. of Bavaria, an Von Gartner whilst Klenze revived adopted a Romanesque,
more

to closely

the Greek

style.
have aided in the Classic revival of the

Other

German

who architects,

Gottfried Semper,builder of the T/ieatre (destroyed are presentcentury, of and the of Dresden, and Theophil Mitseum Hansen, to whom by fire), Vienna
owes

many

handsome

buildings.

110

ARCHITECTURE.

England and Germany, has had a Classic revival ; architectural school in the present century was the most powerful architects whose styleis called the neo-Grec (t. that body of French e. the fine of whom the Second and to we owe revived Greek), buildings marked features derived from the all which are strongly by Empire, the framework which the gradual Greek of art engrafted upon study had supplied. The Church qf St, development of the Renaissance
France^ as well
as

and

Vincent

Dnban,
of

SL

des Beaux de Paul, erected by Hittorf,and the EcoU Arts, by both in Paris, are earlyspecimens of this style. The Church commenced was in Madeline, in imitation of a Greek temple,
was

1764, but

not

in the (1860-68),
an

That of completedtill 1842 by HuY^. forms form of an irregular triangle,

SL in

Augustine
its
struction con-

unusual

example

of the

is the most (hmiier (1861-74), of artistic, example its latest form theatre interior in the

of iron ; the Opera-house^ use by but by no meaus the most important,

{Eng,97).
area

It is the

largest existing
Marbles,
; in the

world, coveringan

of

nearlythree

acres.

and granite,
are

porphyry
mosaics

have

been

used freely

in its decoration

the on We of not omit to notice must the are statuary. facade great groups formed Louvre the of the and of which Tuileries, by p art palaces group
was

and

of great magnificence, and paintings

and
an

in 1871. The difference in the styles by the Communists of conformity in alignment of the two want palaces long formed the of the to to difilculty giving unity insuperable appearance burnt
; and

whole
new

it

was

reserved
a

for the
as

architect
to

Visconti
the

to arrange

the

in such portions

manner

tone

down

and disparities,

harmony producea pleasing


feature but
even

in the

various

parts. Some

large central

is stillconsidered without

necessary
as

by
it

Fergusson and
now

the Louvre, it,

other authorities ; stands,is one of the finest de

of the palaces The


new

day.
Yille,and
and such cities as

Custom-houses, Prefectures,H6tels

in buildings public

Bordeaux,Lyons,Eouen,
when style

similar Marseilles

be cited as good examples of the Classic may edifices of a secondaryclass. The Hotel de

employed for
in 1628, style

built in the Renaissance ViUe,originally much in until enlarged, it became


one

and afterwards
structures

Paris,was
in the

burned
same

by
was

of the most magnificent the Communists in 1871. It

has since been The domestic

restored The

style. largely improvedunder the Paris are especially remarkable

architecture modern

of Paris

Second
for the endless Our
to

houses of the windows, and for the general of happy arrangement priateness approof all the details, though wearisome in the monotony of their

Empire.

repetition.
limits will not

permit us

to do

more

than Arc de

make

brief allusion

the

Trophiesof

Paris,which, however, deserve separatestudy, alike


artistic value. The

for their

historical and

Triomphede VJ^ile^
with

built after the

and designof Chalgrin,

decorated

grand

groups

IN

THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY.

Ill

sculptureby triumphsof the


of Modern

of

Rude first

and

many
"

other is
one

artists," commemorating the


of the finest

Napoleon
the

triumphalarches

Fontaine

St,

Europe. The Michel,and

publicworks In Italy the


and refinement

the VendSme, the Colonne de Juillet, the fine du Trocadero,are among of the present century.

CoUmne

Palais

Classic revival of for but detail,

was

carried

out

with

much

purityof

taste the

noveltyto

call

nothing remark, with special

has the

been

producedof sufiicient

exceptionperhaps of

'

97.

"

The

New

Opera Houso,

Paris.

By Gamier.

Areo della Pace


and finished has

(Arch of Peace)at Milan, by the Emperor of Austria.

commenced

by Napoleon J.,

Russia

Many

architectural considerable of late years shown activity. have been erected in St. Petersburg marble palaces handsome
"

all of them, however, from the Archdvke


structures

designsby
New

artists. foreign
one

The

Palace

of

is after the design of Stalian, Micliael, of the class.


a

of the

finest

The

Museum

of St.

by Petersburg,

Von

Klenze, is
after
a

Church The of considerable merit. of St. Isaac, building is the best De French Montferrand, a architect, design by

ecclesiastical edifice of this northern

city.

112
Since
one

ARCHITECTURE.

the

close

of

the

war

between

France

and

of its results, Germany the is concerned.

has

steppedinto the
nation
on

Germany, and as position formerlyheld


continent, as
rank the far
as as

by France, of being
architecture
of architectural

foremost

the

Many
have

buildings claiming to
been erected in

portant im-

work,

important cities

Germany,
the

and

in several

demolition space

fort, cases, as, for example,in Cologneand Frankof the old fortifications, become has now obsolete, which has been turned These with
to

set at
new

a liberty

into boulevards
are

flanked

by

publicand
often

private buildings.
treated

almost

free version but spirit, have shown

of Benaissance

much be

in a universally vigour,and originality,


in

leaving something
accuracy.

desired

the

matter structures

of

and refinement, elegance,

The

architects

of these

of modern great readiness to avail themselves building of iron and of the use steel. An contrivances,especially example of architecture Renaissance of somewhat the same type, too remarkable
to be

passedover,
at

is furnished is
a

by

the

of Belgium. capital very Indian elaborate

The

Palace

of

Justice

Brussels

which

the outline

suggests
form.

very that of

and lofty
some

structure, of

familiar covered
a

European
with which

The

whole

of the

Renaissance

features

treated

than any of vast is mass masonry boldness with and startling

temple

rather

freedom

be might appropriately

termed in
are

licence.

Many recent those especially


Renaissance Brussels

publicbuildingserected
in Berlin and
are

other also

European capitals,
almost
treatment

Vienna,
less

uniformly of
than the

character, but

irregularin

example.

Exhibition of Paris, in the buildingserected for the International much be made of iron, in combination how use can 1889, has shown with other materials, especially effects. tiles,to produce architectural The various galleries and halls erected at that time, and still standing, works, thoroughly modern, and of a type are genuine architectural which with great advantage be followed elsewhere. may the continent on tendency of modern architectural art as practised of Europe was in a pretty uniform the direction, namely, towards almost the exclusive employment of the Renaissance but nental contistyle ; The architects have

striven,and
to

not

without
to

success,

to render

that

stylemore
of modern

and elastic,

adapt

it better

the

varying requirements

forms, and new ornaments, new life, by introducingnew of composiand of the combinations, by abandoning many tion principles by which till recently architects have invariably been guided, the fettered, in designing their buildings possiblysometimes ; and results seem connection intimate to show not only that there is some
between but and that
can

the the

of feeling
to lend

Renaissance

architecture
a

and

modern of

taste,

styleitself is

capable of

very

largeamount

variety,

be made

itself to many

purposes.

Architecture

in

Great

Britain.

of preceding chapters oil the Architecture found reader in the be useful to will,we trust, enabling that of England, and chief characteristics understand to recognise the of Europe. from in the which rest art distinguishEnglish contemporary ideas and Architecture, like language, is the expression of national national of and the be to study English history might peculiarities ; inconsiderable examination illustrated by an of the buildings extent no Each which each under became consideration. race period belonging to of the left its impress on dominant in Britain the architecture time, marked and the gradual advance in civilisation was by a corresponding in the science of building. advance When invaded Julius Caesar Britain, in 55 B.C., the dwellings of the inhabitants mud of the simplest description caves, were huts, or of stone circular houses wood with or tapering roofs, through an of which emitted. and smoke admitted light was aperture in the summit collection of monoIt is therefore the remarkable at least probable that lithic on masses e. hanging or Salisbury Plain, called StoneJvenge (t. of which is familiar, one uplifted stones), with the appearance every inhabited erected those of men who not were race as by the same those shows simple dwellings. Stonehenge great experience in the of stone, and masses handling of enormous practice in the art of the other advanced rude stone monuments, mason. so Many though none
All

that

we

have

said

in

the

Continent

"

as

works
were

of

art, exist
and of the

in various the

parts of Britain
builders
event
was
an

; but

the

date

when

they
The

raised arrival

history of their
converted natives all

still remain

obscure.

Homans

of

great importance for


from
an

British
into
a

architecture.

city,

and

They taught the

London the in his

enclosed

fort

principals of
to

construction.

the Britons wean Agricola (a.d.80) power them their wandering life,and arts from to encourage to practise the surrounded He rule cities of peace. and under his was successful, rose walls, and adorned by temples, basilicas,and palaces. The by massive cited Vriconium of Silcliesfer be remains as (Wroxeter) and may third civilisation. In the century, British examples of this advanced did especially architects became the famous Great built for the their skill ; and in of AtUun
sent

when

the

father

of

Constantino many
At

city
were

Burgundy began
to

(a.d.290),
decline
in
a

of the
the
as

workmen

employed
the third in Western off

from

Britain. in

end

of

century
of the

architecture This
was

Britain,
measure

elsewhere the

Europe.
best

caused
to

great

by

drawing

artists

Byzantium

(now

114
to aid Constantinople),

ARCHITECTURE.

in the

great works

ander taken

by

the

Emperor
buildings
fore theretheir Of

Constantine. When but domestic the Romans left

Britain,the natives allowed


structures

their

to fall into

decay,or

to be seized and

destroyed by invaders
remain in of Villas at

; and

few relics of Roman


and

England.

the foundations architecture,

cestershire Woodcliester in Glouthe most

Brading in the Isle of


the into styles the end

Wight,
we

are

important.

are following Englisharchitecture

The

which

may
"

divide conveniently
the Norman

since the Roman

occupation
centui*y to

Anglo-Saxon, from
1066. Conquest,

of seventh

Normwn,

from

1066 1190

to

nearly1200.
to 1619. to the

Gothicyfrom

to 1546.

from 1546 Transitional, about 1619 Henaissance,

present day.

The Grothic is different names are

three which into to commonly periods, authorities introduced assigned by different ; those and still Rickman, are JSarlyEnglish,1190 to usuallyaccepted, by 1272 to 1377 ; Perpmdicidar, 1377 to 1547 (thelater 1272 ; Decorated, Perpendicular beingalso called Tvdor), The Transitional period is commonly divided into the Elizahetfum and of extent to Jacobean, 1546 to 1619 ; and a third modern some it, phase
"

divided

contemporaneous with
Anne.

the

is now Renaissance,

known

as

that of

Queen

Anglo-Saxon Style,
On
true

the arrival of the artistic did


were

Saxons

the 449), (a.d.

little that
was

remained

of of

in the feeling
not

natives
at this

of Britain
of their the

quicklycrushed.
knew

Like

the rest of the Germans

date, the Saxons


any

nothing
even

art, and
cathedrals
covered

employ
of wood.
It

stone

in

buildings ;
was

their

The
was

chiuxih original
not

of York seventh

of timber,

with and

reeds.

until
earnest

architecture

York,
Their in

revived, thanks Benedict, founder

to the

century that efforts of Wilfrid, bishopof


of Wearmouth This and

of the

Abbey

(Sunderland).
prevailed
than which the Norman

erections

began

in the it were, of the

called Anglo-Saxon, which style

England which style


the most
two

until the Norman succeeded form

Conquestin 1066.

western

however, in reality nothing more to or Romanesque Byzantine style,

handsome
we owe

Bishop Wilfrid chaptershave abeady been devoted. Hexham and at York, Ripon, buildings ; and to
the first introduction from of

erected Benedict

tnanufacturers Britain.

France, who

glass in churches. taught their art

He
to

invited the

glass
of

natives

ORiEAJ? The before their total and destraction of

BRITAIN. wooden

Ho
etc. erected cathedrals, to impossible

during the

all the of reign Alfred Of


The the

renders it
stone

describe but

style or
few

very of EarVs

appearance. relics remain.* Barton in

churches
are

of later date
"

following hamshire, Northamptonshire{Eng. 98),Stvkelyin BuckingKent in Worth in Berkshire, {Eng,99), Avinyton Barfresion
at Bradford-on-Avon.

the

principal the tower

in

Sussex, and St. Lawrence


The
stone original

fice edibey Ab-

of Westminster
was

built

by Edward
All that

the 1055
now

Confessor, between
and 1065. remains ffouse
room,
"

of it is the
a

Pyx

low,
a

row nar-

with

vaulted
the

roof, divided
centre

down

by a row of seven with plain pillars simple

capitals. The teristics characprincipal


of
are

Saxon

work

plain
rude
with

semicircular

arches,
with

short

columns, ated decorcapitals


indentions of
a

various

lengths, or
copy of
some

rough
order

Greek with
a

; windows

semicircular very their


narrow

head, often

compared to
times some-

length, and
divided

by

short

98." Tower

of Earl's Barton

Church, Northamptonshire.
what

used balusters, columns known


; very
as

like small thick and

walls

without

external
the

and buttresses,'

are

''long
of Saxon

short"

quoins, at
is

of columns, Ornamentation, except in the capitals The

plan
and

churches

body
towards
were

chancel, and
in end
a

a generally ornamented by an separated

building. used. sparingly divided into a rectangle,


was

angles of the

arch, the chancel


not
same

terminating
the

semicircular of the Saxon

apse.

Transepts
About

did

period.

the

until appear time towers

erected at the west

front,and

bells were

first used

in churches.

in Lincolnshire is believed to be the The lower part of the tower of Barnadc of stone earliest example and JDeerhuret in Gloucestershirei built in architecture, 1056, the earhest dated church in England.
"

116

ARCHITECTURE.

Norman
The Norman is that style which

Style.
prevailedfrom
I., William
1066
to about

1200,

including the reigns of

William

II.,Henry I., Stephen,

did not introduce many new Henry II.,and Richard I. The Normans this but theyimprovedthe existing to features, bringing style by country
men

who
a

had had

carried it reached

to

far it

higher pitch

than

here,and who possessed in a greater experience


the erection of
were
a

large
customed ac-

and buildings,
to

richer details. the of

treatment

of

The the those of

are following

chief characteristics
Norman of the Semicircular

style.
arches, as
nave

Cathedral Peterhoroxigh

("ng. 102), with larger openings than


in the Saxon almost and style, with invariably ments. enrichThe
entrancewere

mouldings and

arches of churches for

decorated,as, profusely

example, atEly,with mouldings, wreaths,


figures
Towards

masks, human in relief, etc.


the
99.
"

close of the

period
casionally oc-

Dgorway

of Barfreston Church, Kent.

(Norman.)

pointedarches
in the upper We circular. Norman

were

introduced stories of
even see

whilst building,

those

in the

lower

remained

them

here and alternating

there with

the old form.

columns,

diameter as compared though higher than the Saxon, are of immense have them. with their height and the distances between circular, They like the reticulated {i.e. hexagonal,or octagonal shafts, with fluted, of a net), meshes are or lozengedmouldings{Fny.100). Their capitals of
a

well-marked

type, and

either

plainor

decorated

with

kind

of

GREAT

BRITAIN.

117

volute (". e.
etc.

or enrichment), spiral

with

of plants, animals, representations


and often semicircular-headed like the
or

Norman The
are

windows
are ceilings

are

narrow are

Saxon, but they are


threes. whicb
on

and larger,

in twos grouped together

flat and generally

vaulted

with

stone, the

walls are edge. Norman For decoration,rows shallow piers used. but in their place are plain, with of arcades nothing to support are of frequentoccun*ence ; the the chevron the chief mouldings are e. zigzag moulding), e. /ret {{, {i, with one fillets" narrow bands or rings meeting in ornament or more billet(i. vertical or horizontal directions), nail-head, e. cylindrical pieces etc. two or three inches long in hollow mouldings), cablCf lozenge, wave, semicircular and the hollow The {cavetto) {torus) large mouldings the
"

timber,except in crypts, if decorated, or groinsbeingplain, only with no massive, buttresses, extremely

of

100." Late NormaQ

and parts of arches at St. Peter's, ehafts, capitals, Northampton.

occur

in

bases,and elsewhere.
"

In

our

Norman

is

the custom In

executed more usuallybeautifully in some subsequentperiods.


Norman churches the

far

the masonry buildings than was indeed, perfectly,

transepts

are

of

frequentoccurrence;
between them chief and The

the the

tower, rising from


nave,

point of
in Saxon

intersection of

being
the

loftier than
two
nave

buildings.The
size and whole

distinction

between

stylesis
in Norman

increase

richness.

great

lengthof the
gives
*

churches, unbroken
to the

an

appearance
screen

of vastness
of the

by any rood-screen,* building.


from its

The

at the entrance
a

chancel,so called
on

having

been
word
cross

mounted sur-

by

of largefigure

Christ

the

cross.

The

Anglo-Saxon

rod
on

siniifies a cross, and the word rood^derived which our Lord was put to death.

from

it,was

appliedto

the

118
The earliest

ARCHITECTURE.

of specimens
Norman. The

the

the continental

resemble closely Anglo-Norman style f ounded Cathedral of Canterbury, by St.

of the sixth century, and rebuilt by the middle Augustine a nd L anfranc Odo (1070 1089), Anselm (940), degreesby Archbishops still remaining of the Norman supplies (1093), us, in the portions about
"

with building, The

illustrations of the

characteristics prinpipal

of this

style.

in which the Norman Cc^hedral of Rochester is another building about commenced It be studied. was 1077, and the nave style may Its internal details is but little altered from its original appearance.
are

plainerthan those western doorway,which


external ornamentation the thirteenth

in

contemporary
a

French

is is uninjured, of the age. The

churches; but good specimen of the


crypt were Norman,

its rich

choir and is

rebuilt
and the

early in
The

century.
WincJieater

ground-planof

Cathedral

101

"

Peterborough Cathedral

"

Ground"plan*
.

transepts remain
work

unaltered, but

the

nave

was

overlaid the

with

pendicular Perwhich

by

William
was

of

Wykeham.
in

Chichester Cathedral has


remained

commenced

1082, and

nave,

-six yeare later. The unaltered, was completed thirty most extended eastward, as were was English churches in the building is a good earlypart of the thirteenth century ; and this peculiarity

completedtransition from the short to the elongated in the thirteenth century. We which into general use came choir, may here remark, that the eastern limbs of English churches were generally ended, whilst those of continental buildings belongingto the square that is to or more same rarely apsidal, say, semicircular, age were
indication of the

polygonal.
Nortoich than
*

Cathedral
any other

retains in

Norman original England. It was founded its


;

form with
in

less alteration

1094,by Bishop

A, Nave

B, Transepts ; C, Choir

D, Side-aisles ; E, Doorway.

GREAT

BRITAIN.

119

Losinga spireof

; it is 411

ft. long 315

later

date of the with the

instead it resemble
as are

with a by 191 ft. broad at the transepts, It has the French chevet tion terminahigh. English square choir, but in nothing else does ft. cathedrals of the age. Its vast the

continental its

length

compared
The

breadth, and

the bold

of projection

transepts,

distinctively Englishfeatures.
and ground-plan{Eng, 101)*
are nave

CaiJtedral

Norman. the

The

nave

retains

{Eng.102) of Peterborough its original appearance,


\m"^:^^^^,

except for
whitewash which aisles retains it
are was

the for

substitution colours The

of with sidenave

painted.

MLJ

^n^mi

JU^

vaulted, whilst the


A the

the flat roof of the earliest

basilicas.

great part of St.


was, nave,

Alban's
Norman

Abbey
;

till
one

recently,
of the

longest in
no

of England, consisting thirteen the

less than

bays, was
first Norman

extended
of

by Paul,

abbot, duringthe latter years and the beginthe eleventh ning


of the twelfth

Abbey, now a restored. lately By the beginning of


century
the Norman

century. This Cathedral,has been


the twelfth

style had become land, adopted in Enggenerally and had assumed an entirely
national character.
a

Durham

Ca-

ihedral is
it differs
on one

exampleof this,as from anything entirely


fine It

the Continent. of the

is, moreover,
ecclesiastical
its

finest

buildingsin England ;
or

western

is chapel,

an

galilee, extremely 102."


example

Nave

of

PeterboroughCathedral.

elegantand
of

characteristic

Cathedral was commenced by Bishop Anglo-Norman work. Durham in form the of a Latin about de Carilepho, William 1093, cross, and additions were graduallymade till about 1500 ; so that the changes which took between these dates can be well studied in of style place
it.

Venerable

of the it contains the tomb monuments, first buried at Jarrow. died in 735, and was those of There are four churches in England circular in plan viz., the Holy Sepulchreat Cambridge and Northampton; the Temple

Amongst

other

ancient

Bede, who

"

Church
It is

in

London, and the church


a

at Little

in Maplestead,

Essex.

in impossible,

work

like the

present,to

enumerate

all the

120 cathedrals Norman


and other

ARCHITECTURE.

features ; these for themselves to recognise of visiting and every opportunity churches parochial scattered
over

important churches enough has, we trust, been


; and
we

of

England containing
to enable

said

students
to

would

urge

them

take

the

and studying the abbeys,cathedrals, breadth and of England. length

architecture will not be review of Norman Our brief notice of the castles with which every eminence crowned in the time of William the was importance
successors.

completewithout
of any and Ck)nqueror first built ; in

strategical
his
some

The

keep,

or

main

tower,

was

the

part

103. -The

Keep cf Norwich

Castle.

{Beforeiticas restm-ed.)
to

instances

it stood

"alone ; in not

few, thanks

its

it great solidity,

additions have disappeared. stillstands, though all subsequent when These castles, fully completed by the additions of subsequent
were generations,

often of vast

the
outer

shape

of the
was

ground
outwork

extent, and The indicated.

of irregular form,as usually exterior ditch line of defence


a

(or

bailey) by an protected

surrounded
called

by
a

deep

called

fosse or

moat,

of a strong wall, barbican,consisting with turrets, for the defence of the great gate and diawbridge. The this outer baileywas external wall enclosing placedwithin the ditch, and wall
was

to

10 ft. thick raised

by

20

to

30

ft.

with high,

a,

a jxirapet{i.e.

and breast-high) towers were Square

embrasures here

e. openings on {i,

top of the parapet).


con^

and

there

above the walls,and

GREAT

BRITAIN.

121
etc. castle,

tained The The the

for lodgings
on was

the officers engaged in the defence of the and


to

tops of the great gate

turrets

of the wall hurl down


tower

were

and flat, upon each

the

defenders

of

the castle stood

them

missiles
on

their assailants.
rooms over

flanked

by

side,with

door of closed with a massive folding entrance, which was of c. a (i. falling gate, consisting provided with a fortcyHis

oak, and a strong

grating made of timber and iron with points spikesfor striking down in a groove of stonework, to slide up and in the ground,made the outer walls of the castle was inside the entrance arch). Within
and space; enclosed an complete,
an

open

another inner

ditch, with
court

wall, gate, and


which

towers
rose

from bailey), (inner

the the the

e. the large central keep (i. e . donjon (t. dungeon). In

tower

the

also called alreadyreferred to), the often was keep great haJl for

entertainment

dais (^.e. with the raised guests and retainers, end, where stood the table for persons of high rank. castles of England occupied The at the present day are principal and those of Dover, Windsor, Warwick, Almoick, Norwich {Eng, 103), the Tower of London; those of HedingJuim,Kenilworth,and others may of
at platform)
one

have them The known in the works whole

these equalled
at the

before

they

fell into flne

the

decay in
a

which Norman

we

see

present day.
of London White is contains the Tower.

Tower
as

parts 16 ft. thick,and


White Tower
one

keep, are keep,or donjon, of extremely solid masonry; the chapelin of the best preserved and most interesting
a

specimen of
of the

The

walls

of its age

extant, but

most

Cattle, a occupies space thoiA much of Norman is a a cathedral, near keep, good specimen s in The ruiuSihows Keep of Colchester Cattle, though dilapidated.
enclosure
the

of

of it is very much 12 or 13 acres.

modernised. RocJieeter

The

that it must

have

been

even

than larger

the White

Tower.

Gothic ArchitecUire.
First Period.
The
as
"
"

Early English,
**

known periodgenerally

as

or EarlyEnglish,**

less

commonly
III. The

Early

Pointed," lasted

from

about

1189,

the date of the accession of

of

Richard

I., to 1272, the date

of the

death

Henry

with other influences, crusades of the eleventh century, combined led to revolution in European architecture, and, in fact, in all the arts. a The which then styles Gothic, England was sprang up received
a

the

name comprehensive some

of

almost

centurybehind

of the countries

122
of the Continent in

ARCHITECTURE.

and onr earliest examples style, and strengthof the Norman. of it retain much of the massiveness which The chief points distinguish Early English architecture from of the preceding be briefly the buildings enumerated follows. as age may Walls of Early English buildingsare often less massive than the 'Norman, and are frequently strengthened with external buttresses, which
at this
"

the adopting

Pointed

were period

always set
the
or

Arclies.

In

large arches
the the

square archivoU

to the line of the walls.


e. (i.

the it

from distinguished

jambs

sides from which

which

portion as is heavily springs)

arched

succession of round a moulded, exhibiting

with mouldingsalternating
were

in the archiconspicuous stylehave wholly disappeared.The small arches and acutely consist of a are pointed; the piers lofty, generally slight, several smaller with clustered central shaft surrounded base a by ones, and foliaged capital {Eng.104). The or trtforiuniy over gallery volts of the Norman the of and the clerestory aisles, or row
,

deep hollows

; and

plainfaces

nave

windows

above

the tri-

forium, the
vaulted

high pointedroofs
exhibit ceilings,
a

degree of lightnesscombined with which solidity removes all appearance of ponderous weight. The line along the e, summit) of the vault apex (?*.
is raised

generally decorated mouldings.


"

with

104,

"

Clustered

from pillar

the Cathedral.

nave

of Wells

Roofs, There are specimens of existing


this era, with timber-work the open

not

any roofs of carved ous vari-

described

by

writers ; but in the church roof in which there is a groined

of

Warmington,
e. {i.

in

the ribs

bands the of

groinsor
of the and

of wood, and are lines) intersecting The vaultingare covered with boards. which roofs is of the vaulting, period groined of the choir and In of Windows Gothic Wells

Northamptonshire, running along the cells (^. e. surfaces)


this

of general roofing

Cathedral, Salisbury
are

transepts of Westminster
and in the which

Abbey,
Church
seen.

fine

mens. speciamples ex-

Cathedral the
most

Temple
also be the

of

London,

EarlyEnglishvaultingmay
are

features

style may

be studied readily

and English they are long,narrow, like this is seen window alone, one angle at the head). Sometimes but more are usually three, five,or seven grouped together. The for filling the heads of the between necessity up the vacant spaces several windows led their with ornamental so to grouped perforation

gradual progre^ss of the (consult p. 84). In the Early lancet-headed acute an e, with (i,

GREAT

BRITAIN,

123

origin of the tracery and foliationso largely employed in later styles. The smaller windows, when thus combined, called lights. The great window at Lincoln Cathedral, consisting are of eight windows combined is a good example. The or lights together, cathedrals of Salisbury, Lincoln and York, BeverleyMinster, Chichester, and Westminster Abbey, contain specimensof Early Englishwindows. York Minster possesses an Early Englishwindow, called the Five Sisters, undecorated which, althoughit consists merelyof long, openings, simple,
forms.
This
was

the

is almost The
a

unrivalled each of

for effect and


fronts

west larger
on

tower
rows

side

dignity. with central gable, include a pointed generally above the gable ; and enriched by one to rising
over

four

niches,windows, and arches


Cathedral contains
a

the

doorways.

The

west

good way doorgroupedround a Norman of of consists that three Peterborough large ; with clustered piers, arches, adorned architraves, of mouldings. The west front and a largenumber of SalisburyCathedral the richest is considered facade in this stylein Eogland. The sculpture,
Early Englishwork
however, is modem.

front of Lincoln

deal of

/"ooru7ay*." -Early English doorways are often beautiful ; the mouldings forming the head very are bold, deeply recessed,and often elaborately
carved.
the

The

west

doors of

of Wells

and

Salisbury

Cathedrals, the door

Salisbury Chapter House, of drals, Cathewest Ely and Chichester doorways of Engetc., are fine examples. The porches lish
cathedrals
are more frequently

than

mere

they are compartments of considerable called size, galUeeSy answeringto those 105." Early English. which used in the early days of the were rooms for the reception and known of penitents, Christian Church etc., by

doorways :

sometimes

the

name

of 9iartheoces.

were Steeples

greatly developedduring this


square
tower
a

churches

low

was

used

age. often with

In
a

Anglo-Norman
flat

roof,sometimes

terminated Towards

by

low

pyramid, and

was This, in the Early Englishstyle,

Spire.
be

the end

of the

occasionally gabled. very into a heightenedand developed and turrets period began to pinnacles
became
more

largely employed,the and flyingbuttresses

buttresses
were

slender three

and

ing, taperthe best

introduced. of

The the the

spiresand

of Lichfield Cathedral buttresses {Eng. kind. The distinctive enrichment most is


a

106)are

examples of the
tooth ornament.
new was style

Early English style


that the of

small

or perforated pyramid, called dog-tooth,

The

first great cathedral in


a.d.

built 1220

in entirely and

commenced Salisbury, the form of


a

finished

in

a.d.

1258.
between

It is in
nave

double

cross,

one having two transepts,

124 and choir,and


wide. The
west
one nearer

ARCHITECTURE.

the east is flanked

end.

It is 480 massive

ft. long by 232


square
towers
runs

ft.
mounted sur-

front

by

two
over

and by spires

pinnacles ; and

the central entrance

106."

Lichfield Cathedral.

an

arcade, above
as

which and

is the
one

great

western

window.

The
aisle.

porchis
which

wide

loftyas
nave

division the rest

of the north of the

The

or galilee spire,

is of rather

later date than and

of the ii^tersection

larger transept,to

church, rises from the and is the 400 ft.,

GREAT

BRITAIN.

y been

126

in England. liighest

The

interior has

injuredby injudicious

restoration ; the stained glass windows with which the clerestory were and the adorned the which once filled, are walls, colouring formerly remains

of all wanting; but, in spite of a masterpiece art.

these The

drawbacks, SalisburyCathedral
gonal octa-

Chapter-Himse{Eng.107) an

the with a central clustered pillar room supporting of the vaulted roof,is beautiful. very

ribs palm-like

107.

"

The

Cathedral. Chapter-House, Salifebury

Abbey erected by Henry III., belong to this style. The four eastern bays of the nave belong this and the Decorated to the transition between style ; they are the work of Edward who also built a chapel dedicated to the Virgin, III., removed for which was to make VII.*s chapel. Henry way
^

The

choir

and

transepts of

Westminster

the very elaborate west front of WeUs CatMdralf in the commenced in 1214 by Bishop Joceline. One were EarlyEnglishstyle, of the most remarkable features of this celebrated is the structure The
nave

and

126

ARCHITECTURE.

in the niches of the Upper part. They have figures varietyof sculptured Flaxman as marking the state been noticed by our great English sculptor in some of their execution. of art at the period They consist of figures, the round southern other Old
our

and others in high relief. Those on the detached), fully of the front represent the Creation,the Deluge, and portion

(i, e.

Testament

incidents Above

; those
are

on

the
rows

northern, events
of statues

in the

life of

Saviour.*

these

two

largerthan

108." Nave

of WeUs A

Cathedral. B

109." Choir

of Worcester C

Cathedral.

Arcade,

Triforium,

CUrestory,

life; and attended

to Judgment, gableis a high relief of Christ come and the twelve apostles, the upper arches on by His angels fi*om their graves, their either side being filled with figures starting and other faces and attitudes admirably expressinghope, fear,grief, and characteristic effective feature is the of light Another emotions. use which produceby their bold projection most a buttresses, projecting
near

the

"

"

See

of Iconography

the West

Frout of Wells

Cathedral,' by

C. R.

R.A, Cockerell,

GREAT

BRITAIK.

127
nave

and shade. strikingeffect of light he inferred


was

The
one

from 109

the illustration of

general aspectof the hay (Eng. 108). This

may cathedral the

not

finished till A.i". 1465.


we

In The the

Eng,

givea bay of
a.d. Cathedral,

an

almost 1203"1218.

contemporaneous work
the

"

choir of Worcester choir and

transepts of Lincoln

with Cathedral^

of exception

later date,are in the "arlyEnglish added at a somewhat presbytery of England received additions style ; most of the ecclesiastical buildings
at this

1189 period(a.d. of the finest

Some

a.d. 1307). of Scotland,including the buildings

to

choir

of

Glasgow
more

CcUhsdral,also

belong to

massive
The

character than

this age : their architecture is of a that of any of the Englishedifices noticed

above.

Crosses of Queen
at

Eleanor

belong to

the

end

of

this

period.
in

Those

Northampton are the best preservation. A good reproduction by the of the ancient Cross be seen Barry, R.A., Charing may Railway Station in the Strand,London.

and Walthani,Geddington,

the

and finest,

late Edward

M.

in front of the

Second
The second
known I.

Period,

"

The

Decorated

Style.
which in
was

style which
stage
as

succeeded

the

and Early English, architecture Middle


as

the

in the

developmentof Gothic
sometimes

England,is

the

Decorated,or
from

Pointed.

dated It is generally
"

1272

"

^the date of the accession of Edward

III. The Decorated 1377, the date of the death of Edward the dates from its that however, grew so gradually predecessor style,
to

given

approximate. The following Early Englisharchitecture. The arcftes are generally not quite so acute, and the mouldings are carried down to the base of the pieror jamb without sometimes being interrupted by a capital. The motUdingsare less boldlyundercut, and and are rarely used of more section than in the preceding style, regular and richness. effects of intricacy to produce the same as so striking different in The piersor clustered pillars manner are gi-ouped a slightly from those in the Early Englishstyle, the shafts beingjoined together which has a coninstead of detached ; the carving of the capitals, spicuous and is carried round of character, is more delicate, peculiarity in a wreath, instead of springing the bell or body of the capital stiffly from the neck-moulding.
above
can

only be looked

differences

Decorated distinguish

upon from

as

The them the

vaidts of the Decorated


in

style differ

from of

being divided

into

greater niunber

preceded compartments, and in

those

which

of the of the ribs. At the point of intersection multiplication bosses (t. of carving) introduced. e. small were masses constantly groins, roofs wooden this but at were as common they were very period ; Open

128

AECHITECTURE.

few remain. The roofs of subjectto decayor to destruction by fire, of Higham Ferrars the nave of the Church, in Northamptonshire, chancel of St. and of of the Mary'fs Leicester, nave corporation Ely

of the class referred are Cathedral, also a good though late example.
The wtndowa
are are

to.

The

roof

of

Eltham

Palace

is

the most

beautiful

feature of the Decorated


are

style.
greater

They
number

than the larger


of
"

Early

English,and

divided

into

lights the heads beingfilled with the tracery, which is of a flowing sometimes of strictly forms, sometimes outline, geometrical with the French of to some extent flamboyant. Some corresponding the most constructed with these beautiful windows of England are
gracefulflowinglines. York Minster, the Minster and St. Mary's at Beverley,and many other churches contain examples. The great west
window
at

York

is

an

fine specimen, but extremely of Carlisle in the

even

this is

passed sur-

by
of this Circular Fronts the and
was

the east window

Cathedral,which

is considered

to

be the finest Decorated the style, windows of

window

kingdom.
and sometimes
:

In the best windows

mouldingsof the
were

muUions used

tracery are
a

simple in
base.

mullion the principal section,

having

capitaland

sometimes Cathedrals.

as, for

instance,in
little from

Exeter,
those of

Chichester,and Lincoln
in buildings
more

the Decorated

stylodiffer

Early English;
some

of the beautiful One the {Eng,110),

forms were resorted to for effect, complicated and effective simplicity of earlier buildings fronts in this also of which

lost.

of the finest west


nave

Minster age.
towers

styleis that of York belongsto the Edwardian


that
were

so much were Spires without complete

admired them.

at

this time buttresses

they were
now were more

added

to

The

carried

higher

than

before, and
than

surmounted

by pinnacles.They
the small the
name

richly
right-

decorated

with angles exuberance a corresponding of construction. four the is of dog-tooth of the is the
most

not were now ever, and the walls theysupported. As

invariably plantedat
of the bud in prevailed round

implies, style
every detail of three or
as style,

of ornamentation
e, {i.
a

The the

ballflower

is the characteristic leaves)

enrichment

of the Decorated

and EarlyEnglish,

chevron, or

zigzagof

the

Norman. One and beautiful

specimensof
at

Decorated
de

architecture in
of the
nave

England

largeoctagonal tower

the intersection

built by Alan transepts of Ely Cathedral,

Walsingham,

to

supply the
beautiful

which had fallen down. tower placeof the old Norman of Ely Cathedral also belongs to this age. lady-chapel St. been
an

The

The
must

royal chapel of
have three

reignsof the

at Westminster,althoughsmall, Stephen's built during the extremely fine edifice. It was first Edwards, and therefore belongedto the ripe

The greater part has been age of English architecture. the crypt,carefully is restored, still to be seen, and serves

removed, but
as

the

chapel

vSSSS^

110."

York

Minster"

West

front.

Century.) (Fourteenth

130

ARCHITECTURE.

of Parliament. of the Houses Cathedral Lichfield (seeEng,

Among
the 106),

other

examples we
Church of

may

name

the Bristol, Abbey of Exeter Cathedral, Battle Abbey, and Tiatern nave Abbey. Many of and addition churches the enriched were chapelsduring by enlarged of this style. Excellent examples of its mouldingsand the pi*evalence

ornamentations
and A
monuments

are

to
our

be found

in

fourteenth in the many cathedrals and churches.

century tombs

in domestic architecture in England great improvement took place in the halls of castles and in the reign of Edward III., especially

palaces. The Bound Tower of Windsor was built by him for the table of the Knights of the Order of the Garter,founded in his reign. As of still have hall the the Palaco, Bishop's examples remaining,we at Bury St. Wells, and the gatehousethere; one of the gatehouses
Edmunds,
the and noted the hall at Edwardian

Penshurst,the earlier parts of BEaddon Hall, and castles of Wales, such as Conway, Caernarvon,

Chepstow^

Third

Peinod,

"

The
"

sometimes Style, Perpendicular


'

calleid

Third

Pointed:*
in

The the

stylewhich succeeded the Decorated considered Perpendicular.It is generally


"

to have
"

England is known as from prevailed


"

1377

the date of the accession VII the f. It


was

of Richard with the

II.

to 1547

the death

of

Henry
France. The

contemporary
are

the

Flamboyant
Decorated

stylein
placed re-

Its chief characteristics of the

rectilinear

lines,which

period. flowingtracery however, pervadedthe other features of Perpendicular feeling, tinuous buildings,the buttresses, towers, and piers beingall slender,and convertical lines being used whenever offers All this a possible. strong contrast to the dark shadows and raised mouldingsof the preceding
same
"

windows

of the

those and

elaborate than period. The stone roofs of this styleare more of any other, and display^ that peculiarly English feature,fan"

tracery

developmentof vaulting admittingthe highestingenuity


The

skill.

four-centred

arch, sometimes

called the

Tudor

arch,

to the latter belongs

The fine.

fronts
Those
are

part of this age. of buildings of the Perpendicular periodare

often very

of

Beverley Minster
best

and

bridge, King's College Chapel,Camand those of the Cathedrals of

perhaps the

examples;

of Winchester,
St.

Gloucester, Chester, of the

George'sChapel, Windsor, are also mouldings of this and which shallow than in the two are more style more regular ceded preit. Sculptured animals introduced as are ornaments, frequently often producing a grotesque effect. The three typicalspecimens of English edifices in the later development of this style YWs in are Westminster Henry Chapel, Abbey, St,

Abbey good. The

Church

Bath, and

GREAT

BRITAIN.

131

the Castle,and George's Windsor, near Chapel^ King's College Chapel, of the eastern limb Cambridge. Henry VII /s Chapelis a prolongation

in the roof ..111. Fan-tracery


"

of

Henry

VII.'s

Chapel,Westminster.
well the of
a

of the

Abbey,

and

is in fact the
name

as Lady Chapel,

as

sepulchral
nave, two

chapel of the

king whose

it bears.

It consists

1 32 and aisles, five small

ARCHITECTURE.

and can only be entered from the Abbey chapels, itself. The exterior is richlydecorated; the buttress turrets are considerable above the to a beautiful, height rising especially parapet, and pinnacles and endingin fi^iiala in Gothic {%. e, the tops of buttresses ornamented. The flying buttresses are also extremely richly buildings), ornate, covered with lions,dragons,and other symbolic creatures.* The chief beauty of the whole admitted to be is,however, universally is of the interior, which the groinedceiling the most exquisite specimen of fan-tracery the whole surface beingspreadwith a netin existence, work of lace-like ribbing {Eng.111). The mented Chapel of King's College,Cambridge, is not so richlyornafor as Henry VII.'s,but is remarkable beingone of the very without of which few Gothic churches the absence side-aisles, large of of Its vault fan-tracery givesan almost overwhelmingsense space. of that 's and for VII. to none yields Henry Chapel, except vigorous by any other building. unequalled mastery of the styleit is absolutely St. George'sChapel,Windsor, has a fine groinedfan-tracery roof, which The

entitles it to rank
Cloisters and

with

the other

two.

Lady-chapelof Gloucester
and
western

by
and

some

to be the earliest example of

tower.
an

Lady-chapel, nave,
immense number of

Cathedral,considered work, the central Perpendicular Cathedral, transepts of York


"

churches parochial

in especially
"

shire, Somerset-

Gloucestershire,Norfolk, and
further

Suffolk
at

examplesof the
of the the

style. The

open

timber
Norwich

be instanced as may roofs of St. Stephen* s


are

{Eng, 112) and examplesof one


The and
ness.

St. Peter's

Mancroft

among

the

best

features of this distinguishing


in Scotland of it with
are

period.
to

chapelsof Koslyn and Holyrood


The of pillars the
nave

belong
remarkable

this age,

combine

characteristic elegance
at

northern

Boslyn

massivefor their

beauty.
The the

Tudor,

Late decline in
in which

is the term sometimes to applied Englishstyle, the when Pointed style was beginning to Perpendicular,
or

Florid

England,
"

which It

it did not remarkable

do until

was Europe. of the same of the forms took the place repetition of and of the carved the earlier exquisitely foliage sculpture part extensive use of panelling another characteristic, was period.The more almost the walls of Tudor covered with it. Fanchapelsbeing entirely and in many clusters was cases employed, extensively tracery vaulting
a

in the rest of

years later than for redundancy of ornament,


some

constant

resembling stalactites mark the intersections of pendant ornaments the ribbing. The and often form elaborate, doorways are extremely That of King's CollegeChapel, the finest portion of the work. Cambridge, is an excellent example.
The between
*

of

exterior

of

Henry

VII. 'a

Chapel

was

restored

by Parliamentarygract,

1807 and

1822.

CkEAT The any ecclesiastical edifices of

BRITAIN.

133
are
"

this age

not

numerous,

"

few

of

and it is in the domestic erected after 1530, importance were 'can be best s uch and that the style as castles, buildings, palaces their private studied. were on Large sums expended by the nobility YII. residences. built handsome at Shene, in Surrey, a Henry palace which to which he gave the name of Richmond, retained by the town round of the trace a it, althoughscarcely buildingitself grew up

112."

at Norwich. Opeu timber roof of St. Stephen's

remains. window time of

It

was

in this the

from rising VIIL, Henry One

that the hay window e. a {i. projecting palace In the used. first extensively ground) was the close of the

before

styleand
of Tudor is

the

ment commence-

of the erected. built square

Renaissance, the
of the finest

greater

number

were palaces

examples existing

Hampton Court Palace,


and quadrangles, has
a

by

Cardinal
at

Wolsey.
the is

It consists of three

tower

entrance, flanked

angle.

The

gateway

by an octagonal turret at through this tower, and is formed pierced

each

by

134
an

AKCHIT"cT0RE" obtuse arch


a

with

oriel windows

(t. e. windows
a

projecting beyond
the wall. of the masonry The buildings
at

the the

front of

and supported by building battlement

corbel from

wall).
on

A
*

of open

tracery crowns
tower

the

rightand

left of the

have

been

modernised, but

113.

"

Wolsey'sGreat

Hall

in

Hampton

Court

Palace.

each with the

end

is

one

of the

with original gables,

The timber roof griffins. of sixteenth the early part specimens of carved roofs of

sides adorned sloping of the Great HcUl {Eng, 113), built in century, is one of the best existing this age. The finest in England, or its

GREAT

BRITAIN.

135

indeed

Hall. Both these are Europe,is the roof of Westminster of called hammer-heam The roof roofs. Crosby Hall, technically and London, is another good example. The "u'e-places chimneys of beautiful Tudor enriched ^with often carving and buildingswere sculpture. The chimneys towered to a considerable heightabove the and were to form an important and as roofs, grouped in such a manner featui*e of Tudor mansions. picturesque artists were Foreign constantlyemployed duringthe reignof Hemy in

VIII., and
and German

to

their

influence

is due

the introduction

of many

Italian

Oirolamo da architecture. decorative details in domestic the most celebrated. Treyiso and Holbein were employed They largely
the moulded brickwork There
are on

and

at that terrarcotta,

time

Continent. beautiful

excellent the old

medallions

examples of this gateway at Hampton

the in vogue on in the large and

Court

Palace.

Fourth
The

Period.

"

The

Trajisitional

Style.

is periodof the transition from Gothic to pure Benaissance Jacobean* and styles. It commonly divided into the Elizabethan and the latter of lasted in of the began Henry VIIL, reign part under various phasesuntil the reign of Queen Anne, in the early part of the eighteenth century. A few years before the death of Henry VIIL, Oiovanni da Fadova (John of Padua), an Italian architect of note, arrived in England,and his appointmentto the office of Deviser of His Majesty's buildings,"
**

in

1544,
With

was

the immediate

occasion

of the introduction
be associated of that

of the Italian of Theodore

Benaissance
the
or

styleinto England.
name

of Giovanni
of the
; and

must

Kave,
between

Kavenius, of Cleves.
mansion and

The

chief uvork of John

of Padua

was

Longleatjthe
1567

1579

Bath, in Wiltshire, built Maiquis of Theodore that Kave, Caius College,


and

Cambridge,erected
one

between

1565

1574.
and

of the finest

of this Englishpalaces
an

Longleat is considered period. It consists of three

each with stories,

order of its own,


windows principal

Englishfeature
the the The with cortiie

of the

it possesses the essentially being directed outwards,and

only internal quadranglebeinga back-court instead of the Italian Caius College, e. central (i. court-yard). Cambridge, is one of in England. most completespecimensof this EarlyBenaissance style and half the are Gothic, buildings gateways are richlyadorned
Italian details. The
"

(1574)is the finest. of reign Elizabeth were Thomas Holt, Bobert Smithson, and John Thorpe. The first built the Public Schools of Oxford, the gateway of which (1612) is a good example of the
Gate

of Honour"

The

chief

Englisharchitects

of the

Mr. J. H. Parker says, "This

is

no styk at really

all."

136 Benaissance early Elizabethan


introduce erected

ARCHITECTURE.
are, however, of the debased ; the rest of the buildings the first Englisharchitect to Holt it is (jk)thic. said, was,
a

all the orders into

singlefront. Smithson,
in

aided

by Thorpe,

the Nottinghamshire(1580-90), but is pervaded by generaldesignof which resembles that of Longleat, Gothic rather than Italian feeling. The followingbuildings also House, : Hatfidd House, 1611 ; Holland belongto the Transition period

WoUaUm

HaU

{Eng, 114)

1607 ; Cftarlton in Wiltshire


1613. and
are

They are all wanting alike

1577 ; Westwood, 1590 ; Bolsover, Burleigh, and elegance, characterised by a lack of simplicity
;

in

the distinctive

beauties

of the

Gothic

and

114."

Wollaton

Hall, NottiDghamshire.

styles ; yet they possess a to anythingof which more superior


Renaissance.
"

Italian

charm

of their

own can

which boast.

is almost

works regular

The

first and

Renaissance fame
rests

of architecture in command

England was at the expense Italy his design for on chiefly


I.
:

in

architect of the pure accomplished Inigo Jones,who studied the principles


most

of the Earl Whitehall

of Pembroke.

His

Palace,planned by

of James
a

(Eng, 115) was


part
of it

present Ba/nquetingHouse in Whitehall and the only singlefeature of that great project,

the

actually carried into execution. Many other buildings and different parts of England were in London designed by Inigo Jones. Of these, Si. PauCs, Covent Garden, was perhaps the most successful. It has a recessed portico in ant is,with very simplepillars, which of the to the outside gives an extremely dignified appearance

GREAT

BRITAIN.

137
the

building.
central which "We bom "Wren takes have about
was

The

inside

is somewhat the of

door

in order to allow away


now

the

meaning Inigo

buildingup of the altar to be placed at the east end, the portico. spoiled by
of Sir

arrived

at the time

1632, when

Jones's

Wren, who was Christopher its height. at reputationwas


and
a

for his mathematical early distinguished Great Fire of The 1666 opened for iiim acquirements.
an

scientific

splendidfield
for the finest
flagration. con-

as

and architect, Wren

to this circumstance

we

are

indebted the

buildingsof the
whole

metropolis.Within
a plan to presented

three the

days king for

of this disastrous of rebuilding


out ; but

the the

city.

This

it

was

not

found

practicable
to

carry

115."

The

Banquetiug House, Cathedral

Whitehall.

By InigoJoues.
some was

restoration
was

of aS'^ Pauls
to him.

and

of

other fifty commenced

churches

entrusted the

The present cathedral


were

after is the

Fire, and thirty-five years

spent

nine years in its construction. It

of the world {Ervg, and finest Protestant Cathedral 116). largest The ground-plan is a Latin cross, with nave, choir,and transepts. It is 600 ft. long from east to west, by about 250 ft.wide at the transepts. The outside of St. Paul's consists of two ordera t. e. one super-posed the of other. The has twelve thian Corinwestern entrance over a portico columns rise eight supporting an entablature, from which columns second surmounted entablature, Composite supporting a by a
"

pediment
ft.

enriched

with with
seen

sculpture. The
Corinthian from

western

towers

are

about is
a

250

high

decorated The

columns.

The

dome
a

triple
ft.

structure.

part

the outside

from springs

base 250

dllEAt from tbe

feRITAlK. is 404

139
ft.

pavement,
in many to stand

and

the

summit

high. Though

open

to criticism

is allowed St.

Peter's at

of its minor details and arrangements, St. PauVs of its class in Europe, foremost among buildings interior Home Its alone at present lacks excepted.
its exterior is

decoration,but

undoubtedly the

most

harmonious
has

and

which imposingcomposition

Eenaissance

architecture

yet produced.

1 17." St. Martin Vin-the-Fielde.

By Gibbs.

Greenwich
St. The

of Bow the steeple Church, and the interior of HoapitcU, other works. of Wren's the best considered are Walln'ook, Stephen*8, his design. after added of Westminster towers western Abbey were
Wren's death, in 1723, his pupilsHawksmoor Christopher the most Vanbrugh were promisingarchitects of the day; V"ut Sir

On and

140
neither of them

ARCHITECTURE.

genius. producedanything denoting high original works of Hawksmoor SL St. Gem^ge's, were Bloomsburt/j principal and in Lombard and in St. tlieEast 8 Woolnoih, Street, George's Mary* ; Palace, of Sir John Yanbrugh, Castle Hoiva/rd and Blenheim
The

James
middle and His

Oibbs, an
of the last

architect

who

rose

into

some

eminence

in the is

the time.

century, built St. Martin* s-in-tke-Fields {Eng, 117)

St"

of of the handsomest churches two Mary-le-Strand, columns of Corinthian octastyle (eight-columned) portico
accurate

merely as an copy RadcliffeLibrary at Oxford, also by Gibbs, classical buildings in that city.
The Sir William

fine if considered

of is

classic of

specially design.
best brated cele-

one

the

Chambers

and

Sir Bobert

Taylor were

the most

tion architects of the reign of George III. They carried the imitaItalian buildings of classic and modern to the greatest extreme, ings erudition and intimate acquaintance with the buildmuch displaying alone of antiquity, but less of that imaginativegenius which S ir William Chambers t o can give originality a building.. designed Somerset Hotise and a great many other buildings of the day,adhering in them after his death there was to the Italian style a ; but shortly The and Greece. gradual change to the earlier classic forms of Home brothers

endeavoured, with but small success, to imitate Greek forms in the AdelphiTe)race, the Screen qf the Admiralty,and other buildingsin London; much of the detail of their work, however,
of its internal finishing, and well-designed. was especially very graceful effective exterior in the in successful more They were producingan It is difficult Collegeat Edinburgh, with its fine monolithic pillars. his Sir Robert to understand his to what : reputation Taylor owes chief works were Gorhambury, Hertfordshire, and Hevingham HaU, Essex : he was well as an architect. a as NeiogatePrison, sculptor of appropiiate designed by George Danoe, is,in its way, a masterpiece and original father built His architectural character. of expression the Mansion

Adam

House.

Architecture
The
William Wood's Classical Chambers Revival

of the
of the

Nineteenth

Century.

present century, inauguratedby Sir in the latter part of the eighteenth century, was
features.
and The of publication and buildings, the
ten

at first marked
*

by

Italian

Dawkin's

and

Illustrations

of

Palmyra

in 1760, Baalbec,' of

first directed this interest

Englishattention
was

to the beauties

of Roman

sustained
at

by
on

Adam's Greece and

'Ruins Greek

Palace
years

of

the It

Emperor
was

Diocletian in

Spalatro,' brought

out

later.

the Stuart

series of works of Greek

commenced antiquities,
in

by

1762, and completed by Cockerell


to Roman

1861, which

forms.

The

Greek

led to the preference the favourite Doric became

GREAT

BRITAIN.

141

order, and

complete without

however a considered building, humble, was this classic a portico: rage lasted for many years. The imitation of classic forms was, however, destined to give way before a passionfor the revival of our of architecture, national style
soon

not

which

with

with mediaeval sympathieswere the Gothic to reproduce antique thought, exquisite had ages, which Eoman Catholic been
so

led many,

whose

rather

than of the ritual plicity sim-

work
ornate
was

middle of the
a

admirably suited
with of

to

the

religion ; and
coldness churches. Once

this desire

associated the

reaction of

against the
Protestant
the varied

Protestant
more,
a

worship and

and sculpture,

accessories

of

ritual form

symbolicpaintingand of worship, were

118.

"

BridgewaterHouse,

London.

By Barry,

place; the the from of congregation separated body more, enriched whilst the choir containing the clergy, the altar was with of mystic meaning, and glowed with many-coloured sacred sculptures Gothic Greek and became common as as spires pictures. pinnacles Boman and pediments had been before : but both the resuscitated and appropriate beautiful as they had been as the spontaneous styles, too often cold, and expression of national thought, were spiritless, order. in when they were wanting vitality, copiedto
once

introduced

in

Protestant
screen

churches, and

felt to

be

in their

the

To

avoid

confusion, we
then after

Classic,and
St. Fancras

to notice the chief,first of the propose of the Gothic buildings of the nineteenth century.

Church, London, built by Inwood


the
a

between Greek.

1819 The

and Ionic

1822, soon
Museum

is (1816),

purchase Elgin typicalexample of revived

of the

marbles

for the

British

142 order

ARCHITECTURE.

at Athens, and a employed in it is a copy of the Erechtheum of in imitation the that at Athens, forms small Winds/' Temple of with columns the steeple.To make it more caryatid complete, porches
'"

have the

been

added
on

on

the north

and

south

like those attached sideis, in Pall

to

Temple

the

Acropolis.The

Glvib House University

Mall

and the front of the British porticoof the Post Office^ order is employed. the same other examples in which are Museum^ Soane was Sir John perhapsthe most successfal of the architects of

East, the

the

earlyclassical

revival.

He

rebuilt the Bank


exact

of England^ the order


of that of the circular

of which, as it now stands, is an the of at Sibyl Tivoli. temple Holland, Burton, and ITash were

copy

three architects who of Carlton portico

erected

many

column form of the Corinthian ornate most was House columns the When Carlton was were pulleddown, employed. where they may still be of the National Gallery, used for the portico
seen.

important by Holland, the

classical

buildings.In the

House, built

Wilkins,
is the

another both

celebrated in the

architect classic and

of the
Gothic

early part
styles.
His

of

this

century, worked

piece master-

Gower Street. also He College^ porticoof University National the which failed from of want designed GaUery, mainly to a site which adaptation loftybuildingof requireda much more

bolder character.
Great Yarmouth. Sir Eobert

He

erected

the

Nelson

Monuments

at

Dublin

and

Smirke, architect

of the British

Museum, and

Hardwick,

architect of GoldsmitJis' HaU^ should also be mentioned. The chief and most original of all the buildings of the classic revival
was

St,

by Cookerell.
which

HaUt Liverpool, Ge.orge^s by Elmes, completedafter his death It is 250 ft. long by 140 ft. wide, and the order by it is ornamented is 58 ft. high. One the grand hall occupies
wide
recesses on

centre, with

either

side.

This

fine

buildingis

from the great halls of the ThermsB The of Rome. not copied, adapted, chief front has a portico with sixteen Corinthian columns, each 46 ft. high ; and althoughits generalidea is Eoman, it is carried out with

Greek
In in the

details.

successful buildings Edinburgh and Glasgow there are many classic styles.The High School of Edinburgh, by Hamilton, is perhapsthe best. Sir Charles Barry was all this the first to realise how ill-adapted time ; and he of our climate and our to the requirements copyingwas

reverted, with

much

success,

to

the

types

furnished He

by

the

best

palatial buildingsof
Traveller's Club, the
in introducing altered the two

the latter

Italian

Renaissance.

designed the
{Bng, 118),
a

Reform

Glvh,and
The
as a

BridgeuxUerHouse

the buildings free

Italian cortile in

slightly

form, with great success. deserves work, specialnotice

Halifax Toum-HcUl, his latest

adaptationof

Renaissance

GREAT

BRITAIN.

143

architecture.

and its compois excellent, sition building and roofs, by high-pitched possesses a spirited ; it is crowned conceived. of spire as it is happily as original species modern Renaissance of name we As may examples distinguished
The

detail of this

ClubyLondon, by by Broderick ; the first Ca/rlUyti the Liverpool Park Vulliamy; Hotise, Lane, by Smirke; Holford Iindia of the interior and the House, by Exchange^ by T. H. Wyatt ;
the Leeds

TovmrHaU,

Sir

Digby Wyatt.

As

specimenof

stillmore

recent date

we

may

119."

The

Houses

of Parliament, with Westminster

Abbey

in the

distance.

take

the

Royal Albert

Hall

no

of building

the

day has

more

fully success-

combined characteristic of
our

the skilful arrangement of plan and the bold treatment of early with the constructive dexterity Boman buildings

day
Hall

though
merit
to

it is inferior of the
a

in

refinement

architectural Albert of seats

many is in the form of


;

(i, e, awning) overhead


are

all borrowed the glass, modern

buildingsjust with a velarium amphitheatre, and the corridors, rows staircases, sloping but the from the Roman huge roof type,
Roman
terra-cotta

in of detail and The enumerated.

of iron and

external

and decoration,

the

mosaic

frieze

are

features.

The

originaldesign was

by Captain

144

ARCHITECTURE.

Fowke,

but

the actual

coDstruction

and

the

working designsare

due

to General

Scott

The
to

celebrated Horace
mediaBval

Walpole

was

one

of the

earliest to

attempt
;
y

revive the

at Strawberry HUl architecture, by his building

but
a an

given by the erection of ForUhiU Abbey greatest impulse was in which Mr. Beckf ord attemptedto reproduce vast private residence, old Gothic Abbey. It was completedin 1822, and caused a great
a

down It was sensation. pulled did most One of those who who Britton,

few

years

later.
this movement
on

to

promote
were

brought out
man

series of fine works

the

John architectural
was

of Great antiquities of

Britain,which
to

followed

by the publications
Btckman
taste and
was

Pugin

"

of real

however,
the the

than

these two

geniusand rare energy. for men of systematise


as an

did more,

intelligence
introduced
on

study

of architecture

art, and

he

it all

who

nomenclature

generallyemployed by
revived Museum

writers

Gothic

architecture. in Typicalbuildings the of ParlioffMntf The first was almost New

Gothic

are

Windsor
the the

Ccutk, the Houses


Albert Memorial, of Sir be

of

and Oxford,

rebuilt under entirely

direction
an

Jeffrey
adapted
as

of who gave it the appearance Wyatville(1826), monarch to the requirements of a modern ; and
a

old castle it may

taken

specimen

of such

Gothic

as on

was
a

designed before generalview,


but

Pugin's day.
its details

It
are

is not

without

effectiveness

lamentably inappropriate. The Houses of Parliament, by


of the Tudor age, and
owe

Sir Charles

Barry,are
of detail
to

in the Gothic

their

beauty

Pugin's own

other superintendence 119). Though fashion has now preferred (^??^. t his a nd time it to at was one depreciate styles, customary building, the finest efPort of the Gothic in England it is probably not revival, and the beauty of only, but in all Europe. In its plan,its detail, successful. it is especially its sky-line,

Oxford, from the designsof Woodyard, may said to represent the results of Mr. Ruskin's be fairly teaching. It of all in and that is then a was 1855, was good example begun
The New Museum of

considered
The
most ornate

to

be

most

advanced. in

AlheH

Memorial,
must critics,

Hyde
be

efPort of revived

architectural

Park, by Sir Gilbert Scott, the Gothic, though far from popularamong taken as representingfairlywell the

pointwhich
The with redeem Other
are new

the art has reached. Courts


are of Justice in the Strand, designedby Street, of be the this to style to be met purest example

considered
in

by many England.

The

details

throughout
of the
our

are

full of

beauty, and
to name,

the want

of effect in much
of note, which

examples
"

design. space only permitsus

the

GREAT

BRITAIN.

145

Bcvived

Gothic,
Scott, Hardwick. 1848. 1843. 1845. 1849. 1849. 1849. 1851. 1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. 1862. 1864. 1865. 1866. 1873.

Memorial Martyr's Lincoln's Inn Hall St George's Church St. Giles's Church Church Holy Trinity All Saints' Church Church Irvingite
"xeter

Oxford
London Southwark

College Chapel
...

Assize Courts St. James's Church


Town Town Hall
...

Cheadle Westminster London London Oxford Manchester Westminster

Pugin, Pugin.
Pearson.

ButUrfieU.
Brandon. Scott, JFaterhousc.

Street,
Oodioin, ScoU. Seddon,

Northampton
Preston

Hall
...

College
Cathedral

Aberystwyth
Cork Glaseoir

Surges,
ScoU, ScoU.

Uuiversity Midland Railway Terminus Keble College Balliol College


...

London
Oxford

BuUerfield,
JFaterhousc,

1867.
1867. 1868. 1869. 1881. 1887. 1881.

Oxford
Cardiff

Castle restorations Town Hall Roval Courts of Justice Cathedral Natural HistoryMuseum
...

Surges.
IVaUrhouse.
Street. Pearson.

Manchester London
Truro

London
...

Walerhousc.

It

is difficult to Our

England. revived practising


attention has

architects
drawn

of architectural art in present position be into classes, divided can no one longer Gothic,the other revived Classic ] and though great define the
once more

been

to

Greek

architecture

as

an

archseological study by the brilliant discoveries of Wood, Schliemann, and others,the result has not yet been to revive the use of Dorpfeld has Pure Eenaisfor modern Greek as the style nor Englishbuildings, such been as sance Burltngtoii employed; though buildings fi*equently Whitehall Court JETotue (Charles Barry),the ConsHiutiimal Club (Edis),
and (Oreen),
as

the

National

Liberal

Club

(Waterhonse), may

be

cited

successful
architects The

by

transitional
Anne.

examples; working in such styles,


best been
j is to

but

has been obtained very brilliant success of Benaissance, or in either free adaptations
as

that

work done and be


a

of the in the in

has and

no

doubt

Fran9ois I.,Jacobean, or Queen quarter of a century in England houses in the country erection of private
last
recent

of

in

London
at

great deal of
the

and

successful
usual the

Street

Architecture

seen

the Metropolis,
The

stylebeing
materials of much

mixed, or

any

rate

rendered. Renaissance, and freelyterracotta.

usuaUy red brick and South Audley Street and


in and Piccadilly works
recent

reconstruction many

of

of Arundel

Street,and

recent

Broad Street,may be referred to as of Mr. IToiman Shaw, Mr. Bodley,and

buildings examples. The Messrs. Oeorge

146

ARCHITECTURE.

and
tecture

Peto

furnish
which
we

prominent
have

instances
to

of

this
;

phase
but

of
the

English
most

Aixshi'

attempted
InstittUe,
owes

describe from
the

important
Mr.

is
to

the whom

stately
London

Imperial
also and

built

designs

of
all

CoUcutt,

other

successful combined

buildings,
with

distinguished grouping
of

by

refinement and

grace outline.

of

detail,

good

features

telling

If

new

and is

original
to

development expected,
are

of

Architecture States of
to
on

that America
its
:

is

to

be
the

really
country
A of

Modern where deal of

be

the
most

United

is

the

conditions has been

favourable
will be carried

appearance* the very of

great
the

building

and is

training
politan, cosmo-

rising
and

American
there
are no

Architects ancient all of them

very

complete
The with

and

traditions. marked
on

buildings
the and

the of

late
true

Mr.

Eichardson
He but
a

were

stamp

genius.
models,
exercised

formed
his work

his
is

style
full

mainly
novel upon

Byzantine
of

Eomanesque
art,
and has the

of

applications
his

older

profound
another

influence
American

contemporaries.
Mr. K. have M.
won

Recently
for him the the

designs

of

architect, Exhibition,
of
or

Hunt,
for of

cipal printinction disThe

buildings
of

of

the

Chicago
Gold
was

the

Royal by
of
him the

Medal
more

the

Institute

Architects.
and

style
the the

adopted handling
means

less

Renaissance,
and
are a

great

skill

in of

masses

of

his

buildings
effect

thorough
in these

mastery
works.

of

producing

architectural

shown

SCULPTUEE.

NOTE.

Students
to

of

Art

who

are

resident and

in

or

near

London the Room the

are

visit

the

British

Museum,
and Rooms

there
Galleries

examine
;

Statues of

recommended strongly ^-reliefs and Archaic

in
;

the the

Egyptian, "lgin
and

Assyrian,
Hellenic

Lycian
;

the

Sculpture
and the

the

Etruscan

Room,

Grseco-Roman,

Romau

Galleries.

In fine Court

the

South
of

Kensington
casts

Museum,
of many of the
casts ;

they

will

find,
classical

in

the
statues

Sculpture
;

Court,
the

collection
are

principal
from in the

in

North
of of

original
and Delia of the

sculptures
Robbia
best
ware

and

Jtaly,
Architectural

including
Court

many
a

examples
great
number

Majolica

and
of and

reproductions
of the

sculpture
sixteenth,

German^
seventeenth

Flemish,

Spanish,

and

French

manship work-

fifteenth,

centuries.

In of all

the
ages

Crystal which
These

Palace
may
casts

are

many
to

hundred

casts

of

sculpture
shrubs
cost best

of

all and Owen


of

countries

and

be

seen were

great

advantage
at
a

among

appropriate
Jones

architecture.
Sir

collected for and and France.

veiy

large
the

by

Mr.

and
in

Digby

Wyatt,

who

searched

secui-ed

examples

sculpture

Egypt,

Assyria,

Greece,

Italy,

References

to

Sculjtture
S, K.

at ;

the and

British
at

Mtiseum

arc

^narked
C.

B.

M.

al

the

South

Kensington

Museuin,

the

Crystal

Palace,

P,

SCULPTUEE.

INTRODUCTION. I carve) is the arfc (from the Latin sculpoy Sculpture hard materials but it has to mean all come or graving ; life in relief, of organic whether in representation i.e. fullydetached round The or statuari/ (from stare, to stand). its true IN of cutting
sense,
J

Statues

are

divided
statuettes

into five sizes


; and
are

"

size, and

either

small life" colossal, heroic,life-size, standing,seated,recumbent, or the surface. still attached


to

equestrian.
AUo-relievo Mezzo-rdievo
the
or

from i. e. nearlydetached high relief, i. e, fully or semi-relief, rounded, but raised slightly
out.

surface. from the surface.


used below kind of

i, e, BoAisihrelievoor low relief,

Intaglio Sunk-reliefor
or

eavoreUevo, i. e, hollowed
cavo-relievo. The low

Egyptians
reGef
sunk

relief

to peculiar

themselves, a very
creux.

therefore French
We

combining
to

basso^elievo and

intaglio.This
its

the surface,and is called by the


sense,

en bas-relief

propose includes : the


; the

interpret Sculpture in

widest

which

and of perfect chiselling figures groups of low whether reliefs, carving high or

stance subin any hard in marble, ivory,


or

wood,
as

or

any

other material enclosed

; the

plainmaterial
the which the nude

within

e. (r. chryselephantine were portions

moulding of statues noble a coatingof more gold and ivory)statues of


of

groups material the

of
"

such

Greeks, in
of weapons beaten into

ivoryand

the

and clothing
a

gold ; bronze and shape; terra-cotta


and
or

metal

statues, whether
and

cast

in

mould
;

or

statues
or

architectural
;

ornaments

bas-reliefs ;
cameos

wax

claymodels
or

engraved

gems,

statues plaster whether intaglios

; and

medals

coins,whether
USED

stamped or
SCULPTURE.

cast.

MATERIALS

IN

Marble.
on

"

For

statues

and

groups

marble
and the

is the

accoimt

of its
a

texture crystalline

of its

substance, which surface, gleaming


most

favourite

adnuts of

and high polish

absorbs

light equally. The

150
famous of marbles and The used the

SCULPTURE.

by

the ancients white.

were

the and

Paros,

from Pentelic,
were

the

mountain

Parian, from the island of Pentelicus, near


coloured marbles
were

Athens, both
also used.

of which

Black

harder than even Egyptians employed and Modem basalt, granite. porphyry, sculptors Carrara marble, from the generallyprefer the white fine-grained

substances

marble, such

as

neighbourhood
Bronze is the

of Florence.

metal used in sculpture.It consists of a principal the quality mixture of copper and tin, to the proporvaryingaccording tions of the ingredients. Bronze sometimes statues were giltby the bronze works There are unfortunately of ancients. not many original there times b ut few in the ancient British are a existing, examples Museum.

Gold,silver, copper, lead,and

even

pewter, which

is

mixture

of lead and

tin,have

been occasionally

employed.

used by the ancients much for small was Terra-cotta,baked clay, it and and affords freedom truth statuettes exact a to the ornaments, as artist's work vitreous in other unprocurable which it rendered glaze It was covered with materials. a durable. the In Italy in more its use was revived for busts and for

fifteenth and architectural France of and

sixteenth centuries
decoration.

In the latter Excellent Palace. At

century it
be the

was seen

introduced in the old

into

England.

examplesmay

ways gate-

quently Hampton present day it is very freemployed in the ornamentation of important buildings. burned and reduced to powder, Plaster of Parie (gypsum), when forms becomes mixed with on or eett, a paste which firm, being immediately it is much bulk of water ; for this reason used in making casts its own Court and architectural
a Alabaster, was

decorations. kind of gypsum


time much used

found

at

one

Tuscany and also in Derbyshire, tombs and for vases for sculptures on
in less durable
ornaments.

and

statuettes.

Limestone

and The

Sandstone, softer and

mateiials

than

marble,
Wood,

are
"

largely employed for architectural

woods principal employed for carving are, that of the soft is tough and durable,the oak, and the cedar. though of ivory was It was Ivory, The carving by the Komans. practised in the earlydays of the Christian Church, carried to great perfection

lime, which
"

when which

it

was

and used for statuettes,tablets, be


seen

other

ornaments, many
Museum. The

of

may chair of St. the been

in

the

South In

Kensington
the year 803

ivory

Maximian, made
at

in the sixth

century, is still preservedin


two

Cathedral
made
to

ivory chairs roughly gold.


Gems.
"

were

hewn

beautifully-carved has already to Charlemagne. Reference presented the chryselephantine of the Greeks, which were statues and of marble covered with out layersof ivory and

Eavenna.

^The

principal gems

used

by

ancient

engravers

were:

car-

PROCESSES.

151

sardonyx,agates, jaspers, garnets,beryls, the For cameos, rubies, amethysts, sapphires, topazes,and turquoises. above any other stone. preferred onyx was
Coins and Medals,
or
"

nelians, chalcedony, onyx,

Gold, silver, copper, bronze, and


are

occasionally

other metals

combinations of metals

used.

PROCESSES.

We For

may

now

describe briefly of

the various low

processes

employed in

the

different kinds
first makes his

sculpture.
on a

and high or StcUnes,Groups, small

design precededby a sketch on paper. He next makes a model of the required before size, having the objectto be represented is The moist whilst it is being worked, and when him. the clay kept it is allowed to harden. A cast is then taken of the model is completed it a mixture model of Paris. of liquefied by throwing over plaster the plaster-mould When obtained is hardened, the clay inside is so of the model remains. The interior pickedout, and an exact impression
is sometimes of this mould and plaster,
a

scale in

Relics in Marble,the sculptor clay or wax, which process

is then
as soon as

brushed

over

with is

varnish

and With and

filled with with this before the marble

fresh
him
are

this is set the mould the model in the marble.

is removed

and chisels,

of completeybc-^mt/e

produced.
The

the artist

beginsto work

cast

called scale-stools, alike ; a vertical rod exactly placedon two blocks, needle attached movable with a sliding so as to be adapted by a joint set at any angle and then fastened is then fixed to the block on which the cast stands,and the needle is adjusteduntil it touches a The rod is then removed to the block on certain point of the cast. the rough marble stands,and the marble is cut away until the which
"
"

needle

touches

it

as

it did

the

model.
and

A block.

mark

is made

on

the

two

of the model corresponding points

which is This operation, future until all the different surfaces of the is repeated called pointing,

work

from

the

outside

of the group,

marble the

are

when ascertained,
out

workmen

the figure or rough-out touches. from the

artist himself

givingthe finishing
sopie

It is said that
without

worked Michelangelo
model previous carved Indians,
or

of his st9.tue8

the marble the

and Assyrians,

any later the

design.The

Egyptians,

their temples figuresiji

from
In and

rock. living making Bronze


of plaster metal interior

instead of
molten

Statues similar preliminary steps are taken ; but for loam used is sand or Paris, making the mould, is poured into it. To prevent a too great weightof
of the mould is

of filled with cores usuallypartly When for only a thin coating of the metal. sand, which leave room of the cast is cold,the surface is perfected means a graving tool. by

metal, the

Another

method

(more frequently adoptedin

later

times, but

not

u^^-

152
known
to the

SCULPTURE.

is that called hy the French cire perdue; which ancients) model in clayor plaster the wax of Paris, and then consists in enclosing in the molten which melts and the takes its wax metal, letting place. out without Sometimes a bas-relief is batten previous casting: in that the form is obtained case simplyby beating or hammering until the beaten when proper shapeis produced: iron and bronze are sometimes cold. hot ; silver and goldwhen In modern times zinc, have been used for statues ; iron,and even tin, of other but they require a substance to protect them some coating For this purpose from the action of the weather. thin layer of a and can be bronze has a good effect, the easily appliedby process of electro-plating. in relief on metal is called cJiaeing The art of carvingfigures : the toreviic (from a Greek word signifying term to carve)has been applied
to all kinds

of metal work.
hand the without the

aid of any made. For

Carving in Woody Stone,and Ivoryis performedby previous process. Usuallya drawing of

objectis first

diamonds, fixed into iron instruments, splintered Gemrengraving, used ; the work is executed A drill is employed for are by the hand. and the of out cutting larger deeper portions the work, wluch, when with emery is polished finished, powder. Gems cut in relief are called those The which hollowed out intaglios. term are oameos is, cameo ; of sculptui'e used to denote the very small pieces in however, especially of different colours the colour stones having two being layers ; upper used for the object the under serving to be represented, as background. is the art of engraving the die or stamp used for coining, Die-sinking and for stamping thin plates of metal with designs of various kinds. The blank die is engraved in intaglio with the device required, by the aid of small steel tools. The face of the die is then hardened by heat, after which it is ready for use. of depositing is a modern method of Electro-plating by means of thin metal valuable works a a model. electricity layer Many upon of art are by this means successfully reproduced.
suitable for representation in sculpture are subjects necessarily life is almost excluded from Except as an accessory, vegetable infinite variety and richness of the details of foliage, its sphere. The and and the way in which, when flowers, fruit, they grouped together, intertwine and hide one that they should another, render it impossible in an be accurately imitation is forbidden. art to which exact represented It is only plants with that characteristics can prominent architectural be used accessories. Such the deeply-indented as was leaf so largely acanthus the and Eomans. Greeks employed by The noblest study of the sculptor form divine," is man, "the human and to produce a perfect statue is his highesttask. The human figure The limited.

SUBJECTS.

153

is made

up
can

of

an

infinite

sculptor humanity, in

find the

of curves and sinuous and the lines, variety imitate than to fine types of nothing more perfect be not prime of youth and vigour; but he must

120.

"

The

of Proportions

the Human and described

Figura.

As handed Bonomi.

down

to us

by

Yitnivius

by Joseph
must

content

with

mere

copying,
"

he form

ideal be

conceptions. Beauty
and the

of

represented by

modellingin
the

an

of aspire to the embodiment is plastic" that is to say, it may of Freely drawn infinity form. and outline,
one

ciurves,

oval,are

essentials of all fine

of

154?
the most human where The

SCULPTURE.

beautiful forms in which

such

outlines
most

are

to be

found, is the
; sculpture

body.

The

nude

figureis the

suitable

for

it should draperyis employed,

follow

the lines of the

body, and
also

not indicate,

conceal,its contour.
and represented figures, frequently mythological the brute of these with Next

ancients

combinations

form,

such

as

centaurs, satyrs,

animals, such highlyorganised the finest for horse the the and the as sculptor. dog,are subjects do not stand out separately, but partlj' Groups, in which the figures and should artistic genius, hide each other,afford scope for the highest form a rhythmicwhole, with all the parts well balanced a producing of in effect variety unity. pleasing deals with plastic form been As alone, it has generally sculpture disdain the of aid colour the and to probably supposed Egyptians, ; yet coloured their sculpture, also the Assyrians, except perhaps invariably of hard basalt or highly-polished those statues which were granite. It

minotaurs,etc.

to man,

the most

"

is known

that how

the

to ascertain

also tinted their statues, but far theyearned it in imitation of natur" John that Gibson tinted frame.
was,
on

Greeks

it is difficult In
our own

day, the celebrated


It
was

parts of several of his statutes.


be it is few since. be with acquainted fully

essential of

sculptorsshould

the

of the human justproportions up Greeks


a

The

Egyptians

therefore drew

canon

proportionswhich
us

believed,adopted by the
version,
as as

and

insisted especially
to

by Polycleitus. His
He

transmitted of Leonardo
so

by Vitruvius,has, with
human from

such exceptions

those

da and

Vinci, been adoptedever

composed the
of the from hand

body that
of the the

the face from hair should

" Nature has says, the chin to the top of

the forehead

the roots

tenth

part ;

also the

palm

the head

the chin to the

the chest to the roots

of

to the tipof the middle finger; wrist-joint the from highestpoint an eighth top of ; the hair,a sixth {Eng, 120).
*'

Egypt
be divided into three periods Old : The sculpture may the 3645 2668 to new b.c., Empire,to Empire, or Memphian Egypt, of a 332 B.C., and the Ptolemean Empire, to 30 b.c. It is principally should and the be the of studied c haracter, country mythology religious with it. The chief characteristics of Egyptian art of in connection and solidity gitindeur struggles ; the constant every kind are massive Egyptian with Nile the powers
were

of nature

in which

the inhabitants

of the banks

of tlie

and engaged precludeddreamy contemplation,

engendered

; L.
EGYPTIAN.
an

155
were

energy erected. The

and

self-reliance which
of

reflected in

the

monuments

earliest works

Egyptiansculpture (Eng, 1 22) are

remarkable

.iwtv^i^^yvr.-.iit

Rutoration.

121." MENEPHTAH.

Supposed to
Bas-relief. About

be Pharaoh
B.C.

of the Exodus.

1490.

for

freedom

from restraint and

power

of

nature idealising

which the

is

wanting in

later

productions ;
hand

for

they

were

executed arrested

before

archy hierin art

gainedthe upper

in

Egypt, and

all progress

156

SCULPTURE.

by condemning
artists
were

laws, and by imposingmodels which unchangeable repetition.The compelledto reproducein monotonous


it to result in the would of this
was a sameness

works
have

produced which
rendered ^x
that
not

it

tremely ex-

difficult to

their
the

dates, if it
name

were

is

sovereign reigning introduced. constantly cellence A fltriking proof of the exof early Egyptian
of the

sculpturewas
Paris waoden
"

afforded in the of 1867. A Exhibition


statue
was

there the late in


near

hibited ex-

lent and
at

by

M. the

Marietta MiLseum
"

now

Ghizeh,

Cairo

of

certain

Ra-em-K^

(some-

tiniea called the

Schoolmaster),
this injured,
a

Although
statue aH
;

much
now

is even

fine work

of
and

the the

body is
head
; the

well

modelled,

and

lifelike

natural

lips are
the eyes

parted
expression by the bits of

by

slightsmile, and
is

given to
of

insertion

rounded

to representpupils, i^oek'crystal in eyeballsof quartz shaded by bronze lids. A bright nail

beneath
visual
Tlie
tfi

each

marks crystal

the

point{Eng, 123).
bas-reliefsof the
^^ tombs
some

R*fi!lH^w"^
,^

^-^^"--^

^"^

-^^^^^MT^^

^^L

^^^^teV^^^

tW

TV

Memphis,
are

of the

which

in

are Berlin Museum, the earliest among

of

Egyptian works of sculpture{Eng, are 124).The figures


but

slightlyraised
the surface ; with

122."

Egyptian Statue

ia black basalt.

Heroic

size.

from

In the Bntish Museum.

they stillretain the


vivid
colours of

which unknown

they

were

till the

painted. The in fifteenth century, betrayed

ignoranceof the laws


these

perspective,
some-

groups,

EOTPTIAN.

157

carved, and have a gi*eat beauty; but they are finely ceased, historical value, as they are annals of the lives of the depictorial A introduced. in which of deities are figures the presiding
what
mars

their

be bas-reliefs may of these of the appearance at court in the obtained the admirable reproductions Egyptian the Crystal Palace, executed by a band of trained mechanics under the direction of Bonomi^ who studied in the very
accuiate

notion

from

best schools of and


an

Egyptianart"
These

the

temples

the tombs. intermediate of the old

bas-reliefsoccupy

art

the between position and that of the Empire Ptolemaic period. The great Sphinx qf Memphis (see Eiig,2) is a remarkable work, dating from the earliest timesi earlier probably than the earliest pyramid; it is hewn from
a

spur
were

of

the of of

livingrock.
feet

It is The
man-

172

feet

long by

56

higL
kinds
"

sphinxes
with the

various lion

headed, woman-headed, and

ram-headed,

body

or

dog.
avenues

siderable Con-

portions of
colossal the

the

of

granite sphinxesleading up to still at Karnak to be seen are temples and elsewhere ; the grand seated figures of the Pharaohs guarding the entrances in good at Kc^ykUc, IpacmUml, etc., are colossal The {Eng, 125). preservation erected by seated figures (70 feet high) at Medinet-Abou, one Amenhotep III.,
of which
;

is the the
"

world-famed
still
was

statue

of of

Memnon Barneses

larger statue
broken

II.
the

which

by

Camin
;

by

ses

"

of which fragments

remain

the court
and

of the

at Medinet-Abou temple

(65 feet figures huge the of same high) king carved out of the
the four

seated

the most are gigantic Ipsambul, of that ever were specimens sculpture rock
at

123." Ra-em-K6.
In

the Museum

at Ghizeh.

executed.*
in black of this

statue

of

this

monarch is
one

in granite,

the Turin

Museum,

of the best

works

of ai't

period.
be in impossible
a

It would
*

work

like the

present merely to
may be

enumer-

on Reproductions Palace. Crystal

small scale of many

of these works

studied at the

158
ate

SCULPTURE.

the various

contained Egyptian antiquities Museum. The

in the British
are principal

Museum,
colossal

the

fixed to the chest and the legs generally and of kings,divinities, statues priests ; connected together ; small tablets stelce tombs or or engraved either from bas-reliefs temples; either in relief or in intaglio historical inscriptions with ; sarcophagi, contain constructed to mummies, of boxes basalt, or stone, granite, of different kinds, such as with and covered hieroglyphics ; pottery and other art objects. vases), amphora (wine-vessels), cano]n (funereal

Louvre, and the Berlin the arms in which are statues,

124."

Egyptian bas-relief.

Rauieses

III. between

Tlioth and

Horus.

lound

at Luxor.

Baked
most

earthenware
remote

ages.

red

yellow ware, Egyptian pottery was,


or

in use were vases (terra-cotta) The Egyptians manufactured a and a shiningor polishedred

in red
ware.

Egypt
ware,

in
a

the

pale
finest

The of

however,
covered
was

the

sand, loosely fused, and


colours. the of
use

with

beautiful blue tint of oxide of copper. We


taken from the

fine a very thick silicious glazeof various sometimes given to this ware by
a

made porcelain,

may of

add
to

that

the most and

valuable

relic

Egyptian colossal

known sculpture

exist is the head


now

MemnoHy
Museum.

Temple

Memnon,

of the young in the British

EGYPTIAK.

159
to

tn the Berlin
the chief of necropolis

Museum,

in addition
a

the

bas-i^liefs it

tioned, alreadymen-

is Egyptianobject removed

tomb, discovered in 1823


was

in the

which
escort most

In

rangular quadround hieroglyphics, the mummy's are grouped boats,containing figures representing Owen to Hades, amphorae, etc. Jones characterised it as the specimen of EgyptianArt he had ever seen. perfect Emil Brugsch discovered a awe Herr the temple of 1881, near
tomb rises in the

Thebes, and

exactlyas

found.

centre, covei'ed with

about Deir-el-Bahari,

four

miles

from

Thebes, in which

the

mummies

125."

at Sculptors

work.

From

an

EgyptianWall-painting.
were sovereigns

of several of the most


"

celebrated of the Theban

found

Eing Amenhotepy 1666 B.C. ; I'hottnes /.,//.,and III, ; and including //. (the Great). There also found in the same were several illuminated papyri, and numerous cave mortuary statues, and since then many have been other important tombs discovered. Bronze Statues, with a leaden or other core, are supposedto have first cast in Egypt ; and it was been from the Egyptians that the be in the British Museum Greeks learnt the art. seen Specimensmay and other collections of Egyptian antiquities.
RoffiiesesI. and

Babylonaiid

Nineveh,

In the chapter on Assyrian ai*chitecture we have the important discoveries of ruins at Mosul, on the
with Tigris, which the the
names

alreadyalluded

to

rightbank

of the
and separably inin the
in

of the

French

consuls,MM.
Austin those

Botta
are

Place, and
many

Sir Henry English traveller. These

connected.

bas-reliefs resemble
an even

Layard, of Egypt

respects; but
more

they
and

have

greater

historical value, for

they are

varied
same

and lifelike,

less loaded with

deities. The

of ignorance

is perspective

of figures betrayed in them as

160
the reliefs at

SCULPTURE.

Memphis : fishes and boats are seen piledone above the with many and of priests in profile, rows other, and human figures soldiers {Eng. 126). But for this flaw,the Assyrian bas-reliefs would and are well carved be fine works of art. They are in very low relief, varied. The and finely Battles, sieges, are polished. subjects very illustration (Eny, 1 27) is part of Our and hunting incidents abound. from the north-west in the British Museum now palace a lion-hunt
" "

of Nimrud.

^jTECT'WII

*h

the lowed

king
by
and

In every scene is the principal


an a

umbrellaabove his

bearer

or fly-flapper,

by musicians,and
head
the who hovers the

Ferouher,

ity. winged symbol of divinmonarchs the Among in figure


are

the and

various chadnezzar. Nebu-

bas-reliefs

Shalmaneser,

Sennacherib,

Single statues
there is in but the
a

ai*e

rare

statue

of

Priest

largerthan
the nude

life

{Eng. 128)
Museum
;

British

human

figure

have does not appear to been studied in the East to any extent ; although many different animals are dered renity. fidelsurprising example is this early sculpture A marvellous with

of

the

Wounded

Lioness

{Eng.

129).
In addition to
126."
numerous

Assyrianbas-relief on
a

wall.

sculpturedAssyrian
and

slabs about

tablets, the
black

British

Museum

possesses
"

small four-sided

obelisk of

marble

lines of the cuneiform ten six feet high engraved with with twenty bas-reliefs, and sculptured representingthe tribute
to

character,
of offering

discovered which near was king by conquered races the It this aid is that in obelisk thorough hoped Kalah-Shergat. may of the cuneiform* character, as the Kosetta stone, also deciphering preservedin the British Museum, did of the hieroglyphic. the
"

There

are

three kinds

Assyrian. The

letters

are

of cuneiform the : the Persian, writing shaped like arrows, wedges, or nails.

Median, and tlie


The

meaning

of

PERSIAN.

161

127.

"

Assyrianbas-relief.
contains

Part of

Lion-hunt, from Nimnid.

The the of The

Louvre of

many

mens extremely fine speciprincipal being


at

the Assyrian sculpture,

four colossal
the

winged

bulls

the

entrance

palaceof

Khorsabad,

already described.

Assyrianman-bull, like the Egyptiansphinx, the was symbol of wisdom and strengthcombined. Assyrian gems, many of which may be seen at the British Museum, are The of great value. earliest are of serpentina, and are of a cylindrical those of later of agate, jasper, date are shape; either cylindrical in form or quartz, or syenite, oval ; they are with of the gods engraved figures
and the
names

of

the

owner

in

the

cuneiform

character.

Persia,
but few remains of Persian sculpture these few consist almost entirely of bas-reliefs on the walls of the palaces and the fronts of the rock-cut tombs. from The principal, the royal palaceof Fersepolis {Eng, 130),date 521 from 467 B.C., the goldenage of the about There
are
"

extant, and

Persian

monarchy.
Assyrian
and

In these bas-reliefs the working

of
many

Egyptian influence

can

be

of the signs has been discovered by Niebuhr, Grotefend,Rask, Lassen, Buraouf, Rawlinson, Hincks, Oppert,

Mdnaat,
can

and

others

before the numerous be fully deciphered.

still remains to be done in the cuneiform character inscriptions

; but

much

128." Statue of an AssyrianPriest In the British Museum


M

162

SCULPTURE.

their owd. In peculiarly but Persian works, are scenes frequently represented ; and the of the chase or of war, so common Egyptians, Assyrians amongst the unknown. almost see are entirely Everywhere we king and attended his in an attitude of dignified court by receiving repose, of horses, the homage of ambassadors, bringingtribute in the form ful raiment and vessels. These groups are camels, or costly probablyfaithof Xerxes. actual Darius of in the time scenes or representations of the animals and the They are remarkable for the lifelike rendering with which the human figuresare clothed, gracefulflowingdrapery Greek and contrasting influence, favourablywith the close suggesting and heavy Egyptian and Assyrian garments.
a

traced,combined distinctly

with

character

historical events

1-J9." "Wounded

Lioness.

Ansyrian.

In the British Musexlm.

Persian foot

noteworthy exception to what is a large bas-reliefs, group,


a as

we

have
out

said of
a

of

the

hewn

steep and
a

of repose rock lofty the other

at BehUtan
on

Kurdistan, which prostrateenemy, with


if about
at
a

in

represents a Persian
one

king placinghis
bow and

hand

raised their

to

strike.

Nine from

holding bound prisoners


the victorious had

together await
monarch, who
is

doom

little distance

supposedto be Darius
rebellion in 516
b.c.

after he Hystaspes,

quelledthe Babylonian
of
rence occurfrequent seen contending

Human-headed in Persian with


some

winged bulls and unicorns are sculptures.The king is sometimes

and

struggle he retains
unruffled

in the thick of the huge symbolic creature; but even his calm self-possession and of dignified expression

serenity.

PERSIAN.

163

On

facades of the rock-cut tombs, the king is generally represented worshipping Ormuzd, the god of Ught,the Ferouher or protecting with the wings hovering above his head in the form of a man spirit
the tail of
a

and the

bird.

The

Persians

form cylindrical

greatly improvedthe art of gem-cutting.They adopted of the Assyrians, but afterwards abandoned it for

130." Pepsiau

from bas-relief,

Persepolis.

of they engraved with figures The cylinder their gods,etc. signetof Darius I. has been preserved. in a chariot, warriors the steed,the It represents two one directing the

which conical,employingchalcedony,

other
above

A lion reared on standingbehind the driver drawing a bow. to await the dischargeof the arrow, hind-legs appears calmly the group hovers the Ferouher.

its and

Asia
The the

Minor

and

Syria.
influence of all any distinctive
bas-

of Asia Minor and Syria betray the sculptures nations,and cannot be said to have neighbouring of their
own.

character The

most

ancient

monuments

of Asia

Minor

are

the rock-cut

of Bogas Koei, in Galatia. reliefs at the town They consist of two of the the and is a grouping and costumes general style processions ; We the working of of the Babylonian and Persian. combination see

164

SCULPTURE,

Assyrian iDfluence
which of portals Nimrud.

marble chair, discovered in the same place, those of the has lions chiselled in relief upon it much resembling
in
a

At

the

of Nymphi^ village
a

near

Smyrna,

there

is

colossal bas-relief

of figure
conical

king, cut
cap
or crown

in

wall of
a

rock, wearing the


in

Egyptianpachent(a front). In Syria there are


on a

with

ornament spiral

also many relics of there wall of rock, north of Beyrout,

Egyptian and
are

Assyrian
ating commemor-

art

bas-reliefs in honour

of

the

victoryof Barneses

the Great, side

by

side with others

Assyrian triumphs.
The Jacob
Hebrews
no

doubt

employed

some

sculpture for
" "

we

read

of

but it was the grave of Bachel over a pillar principally erecting the and metals that and chosen in engraving precious cuttinggems the plate the brazen serpent, of gold excelled. The goldenCalf, people of the etc. stones the the for mitre, breastplate, engraved high-piiest's the cherubim

and

ornaments

for the

were tabernacle,

works

of this

class.
arts. have excelled in all the mechanical alludes to a chased silver goblet of exquisite Homer workmanship, and workmen from Tyre of invited native Sidon made Solomon by a ; "We read that the king when engaged upon the temple of Jerusalem.

The

Phoenicians

appear

to

of

Tyre
. .

sent

him

workman

'^

etc.,
made

an

also to grave any manner altar of brass,and a

silver, brass, gold, graving" (2 Chron, ii.14),"who molten sea supportedby twelve cast
of

skilful to work

in

oxen,"

etc.

In the ruins

coins and

(2 Chron. iv. 1" -22). of Phcenicia, which was Phoenician of Carthage, a colony found. medals have been frequently

Iv/lia

and

the

Countries, nciglibcntring
to

Sculpture in

India

is

chiefly accessory
almost

architecture,and

the

subjectsrepresentedare

religious. exclusively

of sculpture, in India, of architecture, The earliest monuments as date from the rise into power of Asoka, about 250 b.c. They consist the outsides of pagodas, rock temples, and of reliefs on principally i n topes ; groups or figures the round being almost unknown. In the ruined ancient On

Hindoo Goddesses carved


the walls

near Madras, there cityof Mahabalipooram, which fine are templeson groups of Indian

still stand

Gods

and

out
a

of the

rock living
at

in

high and low relief.

there are some remarkable pagoda bas-reliefs representing horsemen in which mounted are a tiger-hunt, the full reliefs The at the of entrance on charging gallop. great of Perwuttum

CHINA.

165
in which battle-scenes,

Dctgobaor
men are seen

Tope of
on

Sanchi

are

animated
Hindoo

armed

or on foot, elephantsor horses.* riding

Huge images of Buddha, and of


is In
a

abound divinities,
In

islands. part of India and the neighbouring


statue

Bamijan,
several

in every in the west, 90

120

ft. high, and

in

Ceylon there

are

ft. high.

temple of Boro-Buddor, in Java, there are no less than 400 All are able alike remarkin the external niches. small images of Buddha and of expression. for repose of attitude, dreamy passiveness
the

life in action, such as the bas-reliefs mentioned Siva, the Destroyer,whose work forbids repose, is, above, are rare. in violent agitation. with his six arms however, generally depicted female figures of India we see evidence of of the sculptured In many which is and character result of the systematic of the want the energy of the women of the East. Symmetry of form is replaced oppression
of Kepresentations is a graceful and the only expression simper, voluptuousness, of the in of soule. The Pagoda or a Beauty, goddess dreamy vague, in the the female seated caveand on an divinity elephant Bangalore,

bj

soft

temple of

EUora

are

instances

of this.

China
We
cannot

and without

Japan.
a

leave the

East

few words

on

the

art

of the

Chinese
groups

and in

Japanese,althoughthey never producedeither statues or stone or marble of important size. There are, however, many
of Buddha
in

colossal bronzes

Japan.

There

is

one

now

at

the

South

spread Kensington Museum, where may also be seen a fine Eagle with outBoth iron. wings, of Japanese workmanship, in hammered tortoisehave in nations always been proficient carving wood, ivory, tion but their power of imitaetc. : they are shell, wanting in imagination, in and proficiency colouring alike marvellous. are

Peru Of World
than the the and figures sculptured consist

and

Mexico.
of the
races early

groups idols

of the New for size


on

there is little to be

said ;
of rude

they are
or

remarkable
coarse

rather

beauty, and

bas-reliefs

the

templesand palaces.The

of pottery is of a different character ; some well is and Peruvian which has been Mexican ware preserved The and with modelled coloured,and ornamented peculiartaste. the of to oldest Peruvian terra-cotta indeed are objects equal anything
same

age

Mr.
"

never was attempted. producedin Europe ; but glazing American d iscovered t he celebrated a number traveller, Stephens,

with together

cast of this gateway is in the India section of the South of the Dagoba itself. a small model

KensingtonMuseum,

166
of
vases

SCULPTURE.

of various of the resemblance

carved shapes, Incas in Peru. the between

or

indented

with

curious patterns^in
a

the Tombs

And

later M.

fancied
Central

decorative

Oharnay has traced designof the Toltecs

of

America, and that of the Chinese.

Greek.

It
arts

and and
not

first became ideal art. Oriental an sculpture rules. The of fettered by dogmatic chief aim were sculpture the monarch in of the was reigning painting Assyria glorification ; well as monumental, did in Egypt, sculpture, as though religious
was

in Greeca

that

advance

the broke much from

Greeks,
to

who

beyond conventional earlythrew off


the trammels rules

types. It
the

was

far otherwise old that

with

yoke

of the

monarchies, and

loose from the and old


was

of routine.
but Assyrians,

It is true

they owed
the chiefly

Egyptians and
mechanical
narrow

they

borrowed

technical the which style In of the

of art, and, emancipating themselves traditions, rapidlyworked out an independent


own.

purelytheir

with the religion connected was Greece,as elsewhere,Sculpture of the the understood, is an Greeks, rightly mythology country ; and Greek
art

exquisite poem,
forms
of

is

translation

of the beauty. The imagination and he by priestly dogma, peopled his land with deities, forms instinct with life and embodying the elements in ideal human intellect. The Greek realised with exceptional the beauty of intensity his gods in the earth, the sea and sky, and, ascribing nature ; he saw
to

into visible of that poem Greek free-born was fettered un-

them

all that he
was

was

with the

which lord

highestin the noblest human typ^ to his ide^ he strove to giveexpression familiar,
best and

conceptionsin ideal
of

of impersonations
the

human

attributes. of and

Thus

Zeus,

heaven, became

embodiment

strength of

will;
;

Athena, the

protective goddess of wisdom

strength combined

of the waves, the goddess of female love and beauty. of In studying the sculpture of Greece,this double impersonation lost be the powers of human of nature and attributes must never

Aphrodite,born

sight of,and
with the has Greek

we

would

urge

those

of

our

readers

who with

are

unfamiliar

mythology,to

acquaint themselves

principallegendsof gods and heroes, upon been poured by the researches of modern

meaning of which a flood of light who have philologists,


the

GREEK.

167

in the thoughts of untaught races and forms their art.* by language The relics of Greek sculpturewhich have been preservedare fai' for detailed description.A summary of the principal too numerous and with a brief notice of the greatest masters schools of sculpture,

taught

us

to

read

the

inward

outward

assumed

their

their most

famous

works, is all
be
name

we

can

attempt.
into

Greek
which

sculpture may
the
wars

divided the death

four
been

periods. The
about the 490

to first,

general
; the

of arc/iaic has
time
to

given,lasted until the


wars,

Persian
400 the
B.C.,

second, from
b.c.

Persian
was

during which
400

Athens
the

the

leadingpower

B.C., to in Greece ;

Great, in 323 the fourth, B.C., in which periodSparta became the rulingcity ; and from the death of Alexander to the conquest of Greece by the Eomans, third,from
of Alexander
146
B.C.

First Period,
The date
on

earliest from

of sculptures

Greece
B.C.

of which

we a

have

any

knowledge
of Niobe

the

eighth century
tioned Sipylus, men-

They

are

colossal statue

Mount
in the Lion

and Iliad,
to

the be

famous

gate of Mycenm
in the reliefs of

{Eng. 131),supposed
still older this
can
:

gate Assyrianinfluence
be carved work made traced. distinctly

The
"

Chest
at

of Cypselus
660 had in
"

dating from
Corinth

B.C.

reliefs

partly cut

in cedaron

wood, and

laid partly

ivory, representing able myths. It was noticeas being probablythe Earliestattempt to give visible form to the word pictures
heroic of Homer and

gold and

131."

Sculptureon
at

the top of the Lion

gate

Mycenw. this chest and


to

Hesiod.

Paufcanins

(abouta.d.
have
come

176)saw
down

described it. The earliest names of artists which of a Samian family: Bhoecus, his

us

are

those

his grandson and son Telecles, the invention of the arts of modelling in clay, Theodorns, to whom Olaucas has been attributed. engraving on metals,and gem-cutting and Two small volumes, by the Rev. W. Cox" 'Tales of the Gods and Heroes,' 'Talas of Thebes and Argos,' will be found useful as an introduction to the study of the moi*o advanced works of Max M iiller, Grote, and others.
*
"

168
of

SCULPTURE.

Chios, who
bronze

is said
caster

famous

the art of smelting iron,was to have invented of the beginning of the seventh century B.C.

famous of Crete (about 580 were more Scyllis b.c.) worked their school at Sicyon; predecessors. They and to Italy (Magna Graecia), spread throughout Greece, and even

Dipoeniuand

than any

of their

many
to

statues

of

gods

found have

in the been

nesus Peloponattributed

and it. A

elsewhere

discovered in the Temple group and Pollux) Dioscuri (Castor at Argos qftJie

showing the transition from wood to more costly materials. It and the Dioscuri on horseback, represented iolaid carved in with was ebony, ivory. Spartan artists took up the work begun the wood by these Cretans, and developed
is
as

remarkable

and

ivory work into the chryaelepliantine quently 6. gold and ivory)statuary which subse(*.
became
so

cedar and

by the Theocles, representing


with the
was golden apples),

wood

the

A in group artists Heoyles Spartan adventure of

famous.

Hercules of the To about

(theguardians Hesperides
found in the treasure-house

of the

Epidamnians at
of

Olympia.
flourished
celebrated
tuary sancwas

Canachns
500 of of

Sicyon,who
the

B.C., is attributed

colo"sal statue

ApoUo, made

for the

Miletus, which Didyma near carried away the Xerxes. by fugitive famous for Ageladas of Argos was
statuesk

his of all

of athletes ; one Epidamnus, on a chariot


we are

of

Cleosthenes four of

with

horses,

was,

told,

the

admiration

Greece.
and Myron, the immediate Calamis, Pythagoras, fore-runners of Pheidias, may be

132. Mercury carrying a Kam. By Calamis. At Wilton House,


"

of his works copy of one the collection of Lord Pembroke, at Wilton


"

period. of representeda greater diversity his subjectsthan any previous sculptor; horses but his were especiallylifelike, human not so good. A marble were figures Mercury carryinga Ram {Eng. 132) is in
as a

looked upon
Calamis

artists of

transition

"

House. Calamis
; his works
were markable re-

Pythagoras was truer for delicacy of


at
071 a Syracuse, a

to

nature

than

execution

statue

of

an were

; his statue of the lame Athlete at Delphi, and his group

Philoctetes
of

Europa

BvU

at

Tarentum,

admired. especially

GREEK.

169
of
was artists,

(with employed generally hronze for his works, which compriseda vast variety of subjects, he athletes in vigorous although delightedin representing especially action. His Marsyaa in the Lateran his DUcoholus at Rome, and (disc his successful statues* most are thrower) {Eng.133), They are among full of life and animation, and give proof of consummate knowledge
Pheidias and
a pupil of Poljcleitus)

Myron, the

third

and

greatest of this group

Ageladas. 'He

of

anatomy.

The

famous

Cow

of

the

stood on Myron, which formerly of Athens, must Acropolis

also be work Of of Greek the


we

mentioned, but
have
no

of

this

authentic

trace.

the

ments now-existingmonu-

belongingto

the firstperiod

must we name sculpture, from the temple at sculptures

in the Louvre; the AasoSj now from the temples of metopes

Selinvs
museum

in

now Sicily,

in

the
^

at Palermo

; the

Harpy

Chimceray and
Xanthu8

Lion which

tombs, from

in ancient

Lycia,large
are

portions of
British Museum
the

in above

the

; and

all,

from sculptures
remains

the six

Temple

of JSgina.
The
were

of
in

temples
in

discovered

Selinus

1823. with

They
*

consist

of principally very
lief, high re-

metopes
one

of

limestone, adorned
a represented

in sculptures of which

or struggle between an Amazon after Myron. 133." The Discobolus, a goddess, and a warrior, and with another warrior a In the Palazzo Jfassimi, at Borne. a dying her foot on female figureplacing all lifelike, his prostrate body. They are and full of promise, and

their

chief
an

interest

consists
was

in their

being among
oS the

the

earliest works of Eastern may

in which

attempt

made

to shake

influence

art, and
add that

to

We producefreely-arranged groups and ideal forms. and much colour have are they supposedto remaining, 650
b.c.

date

from about

Casts

may

be

seen

in the British

Museum.

"

metope,

it will be
a

remembered, is

the square

space

between

two

in trigylphs

the entablature of

Doric

temple.

170
The
most

SCULPTURE.

remarkable
with

of the monuments
the Archaic

from
room

Xanthus

is the famous

in Ha/rpy tomb {Eng, 134),

of the British Fellowes

Museum,

discovered

in 1838. other relics by many to date from the sixth or seventh century B.C., and alike It is supposed Greek (thoughbearingevidence in arrangement and execution is purely the myth of artistic form in an of influence), representing Sir Charles

Assyrian

the

carryingoff

of children

who by Harpies,

appear

as

winged female

figures.
The 1811.

discovered in the year of the Temj)le of Mjina were sculptures They are at least a century later than those of Selinus or
above

Xanthus,
seventeen eastern

mentioned.

Amongst

and

statues were nearlyperfect western pediments of

fragments heaps of broken which belongedto the dug out,

the

Temple

dedicated

to Athena.

134." Bas-relief from

the Harpy

tomb.

In the British Museum,

The
are

restored by Thorwaldsen, were carefully statues, which original in the Glyptothek at Munich. now Complete casts of them, properly

arranged
The

as

meaning
are,

of the

pediment,are to be sculptureshas been

seen

in the British

Museum.

very

interpreted differently ;

they

the of victories. Those memorials on however, evidently western of which are we supposed to give an illustration, pediment, around the body of Achilles, fighting represent the Greeks and Romans who lies at the feet of Athena {Eng, 136). They are of Parian marble, and are so carefully the wrinkles of the nude porexecuted, that even tions full and of limbs rendered. The are moulded, are delicately of heads the attitudes the are gracefuland expressive energy ; ; but the Eastern rather them than all ; the the Greek

type, and

there

is the chins

same

smile
us

depicted

on

obliqueeyes and

sharp

reminding

GRlBEK.

Assyrian bas-reliefs. Quintilian tells us Gallon and Hegesiaswere that the sculptors
of these fine works.
the arrangement of the sculpture and hair is eminentlyconventional draperies and artificial; the pose of the figure is often stif^ and constrained, and a foolish smile is
not

of

In archaic

to unfrequently art

be

found

on

the faces.

As

made

from

tion progress, its gradualemancipathe trammels of conventionalism

executed be traced ; and the best works may towards the close of the period have been we retain no more of the artificial in reviewing, pose in treatment, than of to give increased value to the sense serves beauty which breathes through the whole
"

and

the conventional

struggling, expression.
Before of Greek
statues

so

to

speak,to

find

means

of

our closing

review
must

of the first period


name

we sculpture, one Apollo, the Argos),

two

fine

of

found

at Tenea

(between
island

Corinth of Thera. of Munich


at
a

and

other

in the

The

former

is in the

Glyptothek

; the latter in the Temple of Theseus Both are Athens. supposedto date from

very

earlyage.
must

Mention of
and

also be made

of the

fragments
in

sculpturefound
which
are

by

General

Cesnola
to

Cyprus,

of Greco-Phcenician resemblance and

origin,
the
mains re-

which

bear

some

Xanthus, Mycense, already spokenof.

found at

Miletus,

^^^

Second
We
now come

490"400 Period,

B.C.

to the age of the final development

of Greek Pheidias
wars

art, with

which

the

name

of sian Perof of

is

connected. insepai^ably

The

destroyedthe
and despotism,

last remnants

Oriental

ushered

in, alike in

and literature, politics, The Greece. great Pericles the

art, the
statesmen

goldenage
Cimon

and kind ;

encouragedgenius of

tragicpoets ^schylus

every and Sophocles

172
refined the

SCULPTURE.

and taste,and inspired public sculptors

architects with for its

their

glowing fancies ; and for a time Greece, with ihe leadingcountry of the world. became
Pheidias,the
B.C.

Athens

capital,
500

master-artist the rudiments

of this of

goldenage,

was

born of

about

He

learnt

his favourite

art

Hegesias of

136.

"

Icterior of the

Temple

of Zeus

at

Olympia.
under

Statue

of Zeus

by

Pheidias.

Athens, and
assumed years the

completed his
reins

studies

Ageladas.
was

When

Pericles

of government,

Pheidias

about

thirty-seveu

and he became the chief coold, in the prime of his genius, Under in his restoration of Athens. operator of that great statesman of Pericles, Pheidias the colossal Cimon, the predecessor sculptured bronze
as

statue
A.D.
on

of Athena the most

395

Promackus which stood as late (the defender), prominent part of the Acropolis (seeEng. 36).

GREEK.

173

It

was

upwards
the

of 50

feet

copied on

coins of Athens.

Athens, Pheidias had under workers in bronze, stone-cutters,gold-beaters, and

high, and was probablygilt. It is seen of public As superintendent works in him a whole army of architects, sculptors,
other in and artists, had any that of
must
was

although
the famous

he

may marbles

not

have

personalshare
he

sculpturing
of

of the
their which

Parthenon, he probablydesigned many

them, and
exercised The been the within
a

it cannot control
over

be doubted

production.
Athena,
have
tainly cer-

statue chryselephantine

temple, magnificentwork
from his Zeits
own

the

of art,

hand.

This, and

chryselephantineseated for the Temple of bis ous fammost were Olympia (Bng. 136),
statue

colossal of

works of the and which Pallas the

the former of calmness colossal be

was

an

ideal impersonation wisdom


"

and marble

the of
to

of figure

in the Velletri,
a

Louvre, is
copy,
"

supposed

late Roman

to us now latter, only known from copieson coins, was a realisation of Zeus, of Homer's ing shakdescription his ambrosial and locks, making
"

Olympus
embodiment
supreme

tremble of the

at

his nod national human

"
"

and

an

idea of the
pered tempower form divine

God, instinct with

by
of such

mercy,

"

surpassingbeauty, that
the late

it became

henceforth

type
as

of

masculine
tury cen-

perfection.As
it taken The
was an

the

fourth

objectof veneration
to have

at

Olympia, but
to

it is believed

been have

and Constantinople

to

there. perished

principal pupilsof Pheidias were Alcamenes, Agoracritns,and Colotes.


They
and of executed the Battle of Zeus of

of the Centaurs
at

137 "The

Venus

of MeloR.

the the

for Lapiths

the western

Temple
statues

pediment Olympia,and
of the lameness

In the Louvre.

many

gods.
loss of

That

Hephctstua(Vulcan) at
characteristic

Athens Venus

was

admired, especially
indicated Melos is without be in the Louvre
to
a

because

of the famous

god was
of
Melos,

dignityto the figure. The found in 1820 in the {Eng. 137),


after Alcamenes. In this with combined

island of

thought

copy

human figtire,

maturity and beauty are

female exquisite divine majesty

174
and

SCULPTURE.

self-reliance. The
statue at

most at

famous Rhamnus

work

of

Agoracritas
Colotes, a

was

his

marble

of Nemesis Elis.

of Athena
and At

PaeonilU
of Zeus
at

; and that of at this time sculptured

statue

the eastern

of the

Temple
the

Olympia with

the Contest between

ment pediPelaps

Oinomaus.

second onlyin importa school arose, ance Peloponnesus, of of which was to that of Athens, the rulingspirit Polycleitiu of His the Pheidias in of a workshop Ageladas. fellow-pupil Sicyon, were principal works

Argos, in

of athletes ; his celebrated Doryphoros


statues

(standard-bearer),of
which the
museum a

of posed supcalled

Naples
the
to
canon

contains
was

copy, of

Polycleitus,
has

which

reference

alreadybeen

made, and

of model served as a the beautiful tions proporof the human The

body.

colossal

phantine chrysele-

for her

image of Juno, temple at Argos,


"

by Polycleitusa
copy which is in Ludovisi
was

ble mar-

of the the

head

of

Villa
"

at

Borne

considered

his finest In
are

work

{Eng, 138).
statues
a a

the British Museum


two

of

an

athlete ing bindhis

and
138." Head of Juno, Marble. after^Polycleitus.

youth,each
fillet round
are

head, which
to be

thought
the Dta-

In the Villa Ludovisi^Rome.

copiesof
of

dumenos The of sculptures

Polycleitus.

metopes of the Theseium, or Temple of Theseus in the life of Theseus, treated at Athens, represent incidents for the with led the way the greatest boldness and freedom, which
friezes and
of sculptures of the Ionic of them

Closelyresembling them are the friezes the Acropolis, on wingless), Temple of Niklapt"ros(Victory,
the Parthenon. in the white marble and of Pentelicus.
casts

the first reliefs executed


are

Portions and of
an

in the

British

Museum,

of
a

them,

exquisitefigureof Winged Victory,which

adorned

parapet

between

GREEK.

175
the
ascent to

the

little The

in the Lord
name

temple of Nik^pteros Palace collection. Crystal


the

and

the

are Propylaea,

of sculptures the Elgin in in the British


one temple,

Parthenon, which were brought 1816, are preserved in the room year
Museum,
where may also be
seen one

to

England by bearinghis
small models
was

two
as

of time

the of

in its The the

and present condition,


on sculptured

it

in the

Pericles.
are

bas-reliefs
very the

the

frieze of
art ;
was

the

Parthenon

among

works gi-andest Panathenaic the

of ancient

they
held

represent
at

the

processionat

festival which
more

Athens

in honour

of Athena

portionof it which and to the goddess, peplos,


that The walls frieze

every consisted in

fifth year ; and


at

especially
a or veil,

of presentation

the sacrificeof animals four sides of is viewed

her shrine. of the


outer

occupies the
and cella^

the entablature below

of

the

from

by

the

light which

130."

Group

from

the Eastern

frieze of the Parthenon.

comes

between On the

the the

columns fifty
eastern

which

form

the

or peristyle

outer

colonnade.

peplos in point two


one

presence

the delivery frieze is represented of the of twelve deities {Eng, 139). Towards this
start

goes
meet

Both processions converge. side,the along the northern


at

from

the western
the The

end

"

other the and

along

southern, and

they

the

eastern

end

over

entrance.

procession

includes chariots, horses and


with jars, graceful infinite

riders, foot-soldiers, grave citizens bearing

and young olive-branches,flute-players,

lovelymaidens

carrying
than

beauty
are on

of action.

The
the

groups
and

on

the northern

disposedwith greater freedom


side,and
in

corresponding groups

the southern

the wonderful

grace

there

onward with rhythmic motion they move power in disorder." is the very epitome of "order Among all the and twenty-five mounted hundred figures {Eng, 140) who are controlling with which
their steeds in every varietyof action, althoughthere is an intentional of crowding, hurrying onward, there is no confusion, and each sense

detail is distinct and

clear.

176
The groups
on

SCULPTURE.

the

southern

side

represent the
and

more

formal
the

and

which was regularpart of the procession conveying the sacrificialvictims,attended their ordered progress, of Athens. cavalry

charged with
to

office of horsemen

precededhy

whoy from
On

are

supposed temple was


on

represent the trained


a

the

eastern

padiment of
Birth of

the

the representing

Athena,

and

the western

magnificent gix"up pediment {Eng,

Poseidon and Athena the contest between for the cityof Athens. 141), both in and the British Museum. in now ruins, are are They parts the Three These t he Fates and Ceres and portions, especially ThesiLs, from the eastern and the Ilisstis from the western pediment, Proserpine and to be the grandest admitted to be the finest of the entire series, are

140."

Bas-relief

from' the Parthenon

Frieze.

works
more

of than

sculptureever
another, it was
the

executed. exterior of

If Pheidias the the

worked

on

one

part
of

probablyon

pediments.

The

bas-reliefs

of the
and
are

on Metopes,

temple,represent conflicts

the Centaurs

Giants
in the

and the Lapiths, the Greeks and Amazons, and the Gods two original fifteen {Eng,142). Of the ninetysculptures, British Museum, where there are also plaster casts of many is said to which
casts

of the others. Alcamenes of


the these and sculptures of the earlier have been be the

groups, the

should
in the

of many of the finest studied in the original carefully author

time culminating

of the

periodwas

Museum, for they belong to the purity greatest age of Greece, when combined with the scieuce, and vigour grace,
British

GREEK.

177

of of

maturer

the

faults

without epoch, any admixture of the rapidly approaching

decadence. The eastern


when times the turned the

pedimentwas
was

much

mutilated

Parthenon into
a

in

Christian

early Byzantine Church, by a

hole
but

beingworked

the apse ; throughto light done at the greatest damage was

of 1687, by the Venetians, when a siege bomb-shell exploded a powder magazineplaced iu the temple. The

beautiful
the

statues
are

remaining,which
date from
be in in ascribed the the
masters

antiquitynow supposedto generally


of Greece, cannot
The the any VeniLs Venus
or
cr

of

golden age

with

certaintyto

of

the
to

above-mentioned. British Uffizi

of

Biaiie

Museum,
the

Genetrix Achilles

^'"M

.B

Louvre, and

Ma/rs

of the

Gallery,Florence, are

believed

to be of this date.

to sum up easy in a few words the peculiarities of this, the best age of Greek all would be to epitomise : to do so Sculpture

It is not

the excellences of

point out
energy
as

the
was

which those

ever, Sculpture. We may, howand of highdegree vitality thrown into such tures sculp-

of the

Parthenon, without

in the

the

least

dignity or sacrificing
or

anatomical

correctness

beauty of arrangement, and

artistic

and in balance perfection grouping which evinced,in the highest the union degree, of genius and skill. The draperies, which are most studied,fall in a multitude of carefully folds. and share The faces are idealised, crisp often expressed but slightly the passion by the of the actions of the figures. The execution gard work is extremely bold, combining a disreof and light Next
we

Vdi^.^^^

the with
to

most

formidable

technical
over

culties diffi-

perfectmastery
the of sculptures those Frieze Frieze of the of the

effects of
Parthenon

and composition. shade, modelling the


name

must

reliefs of the

Propyloea; the Temple of Nik^;

apt^ros; the
the Frieze

of

the Erechtheium

and

of

tJie Teinj^le of Apollo at Bassse,

178
near

SCULPTURE.

Phigaliain Arvsadia; the last was discovered in 1812 by a is now in the British and travellers, party of Eaglish and Germaa aided the it of Museum battles the Greeks, by Apolloand represents ;

142.

"

Que

of the

Metopes

of the Parthenon.

Artemis, with the Amazons, and of the Centaurs


are figures

with

the

for their life and energy, but remarkable the technical finish and correctness characteristic of the marbles Parthenon.

Lapiths ; the are wanting in


of the

Third

Period,400"323
the

B.C.

of One of the principal masters built the Temple of of Paros, who for the pediments the marble groups with TeUphus,and the Pwrsuit of if he did not execute, the designed, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus : the

Scopas sculptured the Combat qf Ac^iillea representing the Calydonian boar. Scopas also
later Attic in
was

school

Athena

Tegea, and

reliefs for the eastern side of the of Niobe and Iter Children group at Florence,has been ascribed both {Eng.143),in the Uffizi Gallery to him and to Praxiteles. of It has been said that the central figure this group the bereaved mother gazingup to Heaven with eyes full of reproachful than better mental appeal expresses any other agony work of art ever and Leochares were produced. Timotheus, Bryaxis,
"

"

the chief who

The flourished
were

in of Scopas, colleagues especially second great master of sculpture of


at

the Mausoleum. this 364


was period

Praxiteles,

Athens

about Venus

the

year

B.C.

works

the all

nude

admirers

from

qf Cnidus, which of Greece parts (itis said that

famous His most visited by his was the Cnidians valued

GREEK.

179

of their public debt,which Nicomedes highlythan the discharge the for this ApolloSauroctonos or Lizard statue) exchange ; {Eng,144); the Venus qf Capua, the Slayer; the Faun of the Capitol VentLS CcMipyge, both at Naples; and Hernies earring the in/ant discovered at Dionysus, recently Olympia {Eng. 145). The frieze the Choragicmonument around of Lysicrates (seeEng, 32) was also
it
more

offered in

by Praxiteles.

*%:-".* ^^T^

143."

Niobe

and her Children. In the

(Centralgroup.)

144." The In

Faun.

By

Praxiteles.

Florence. Uffizif

the

Rome. Capitol J

and pupil of Alcamenes) Cephisodotas (sonof Praxiteles, the grand and represents the transition between simple style of Pheidias and the vigourof Scopasand Praxiteles. His group of Irene with thi hoy Flutus marble copy of which is in the Glyptothekof a
"

The

work

of

Munich

"

is a

work, typical

in which

we

see

touch of human

weakness

180

SCULPTURE.

in the modifyingthe stern grandeur of the goddess. The Wrestlers, has UflSzi Gallery been ascribed to Cephisodotus. at Florence, In the Peloponnesus, the founder of a school He Lysippos was iconic successful with was statues ; and, adopte. portrait) especially (t. ing of Polycleitus, the canon he introduce a new the mode of treating human rather as they ought to appear than men figure, representing

145.

"

Hermes

tlieinfant Dionysus. carrying Casts


are

146.

"

The

Apoxyomenos.
In

After

By
as

Praxiteles.

in B. M.

and

S, K.

Lysippus.

the Vatican,

of the Apoocyome^ios famous works were a statue with a strigil, of which his arm a copy athlete scraping is in the Vatican, and his Sop/tocles 147),of which the Lateran {En"j. with Apelles the painter shared fine marble Lysippus copy. possesses a the Great. Alexander the privilege of representing of the school of Lysippus; and famous Chares was the most master

theywere. an {Eng.146),

His most

GREEK.

181
as

Aristodemns

and famous

Boethus
Drunken

must

be named
at

late artists of the and the Thorn

same

epoch.
of date In
art

The

Faun

Munich,

Extractor

the from

Capitolat Home, evidently


this time. works of this third its usual

the
seen

period,
course.

is

running

The

self-restraint of the best time


and ofE, that is
a

is

thrown visibly loss of follows. that the is More

ing correspondideal

and dignity

beauty

less individual,

divine,appears in the statues ; less conventional, the are and the whole less beautiful, draperies
faces

art, while
behind it

retainingan
the

astonishing
which it

degree of technical
in the possessed

has left excellence, time

loftyaims

of Pheidias.

Fourth
The
first

323"146 Period,

B.C.

school of Rhodes this

in position of Khodian

occupiesthe epoch. Agesan-

der, Athenodoms, and


group the Laocoon

masters,

Polydorus,a produced

{Eng,148)of the Vatican, which is said to express physical pain and better than other passion any
existing
Laocoon
one
*

group
was

of said

statuary.

The
to

by Pliny
; if so,
we

be of

block the

of marble

have three

not

original,
as

the

Laocoon of

the

Vatican The

is carved Farnese Museum work

out

pieces.
is another

Bull of

in the Farnese), famous

(or Toro at Naples, this period,

147.

"

Statue

of

Sophocles.

After

Lysippus.

In the Laterany Rome,

Tauriscus, of Apollonius and Tralles in Caria, foreign artists who The subject worked at Bhodes. of w ife the of of is Thebes, by the sons punishment Dircfe, Lycus king of Antiope for her cruelty Like the Laocoon, it is to their mother. full of dramatic life and pathos. by
The
*

famous
a

head

of the
a

Dying Alexander
of

in the TJffizi at

Florence
two their

Laocoon,

in priest

temple

bull, saw a Apollo, while sacrificing


to

rushed He his two sons. serpents coiline themselves round and all three died. in the folds of the serpents, became entangled assistance,
enormous

182
is

SCULPTURE.

supposedto
above similar The The
source.

be the

work

of Hhodian with

artists,and

The

Wrestlers

tioned men-

in connection of

is Cephisodotns

often attributed

to

of whom great artists, Pergamus produced many the chief. a nd were Isigonus, Fyromaclins, Stratonicns, Antigonus school

great general Attains

celebrated of

his

victory over

the

Gauls

(239 D.c.) by presenting groups

to sculpture

Athens, Pergamus,

148.

"

The

Laocoon.

By Agesaoder, Athenodorus, aud Po1ydora.".In the Vatican, of which have been found and

and
most

other

cities, many

famous is that called the Dying is evidently an Capitolat Rome, which of Pergamus. It representsa Gaul at

Gladiator

preserved. The 149),in the {JiJng,

originalwork by an artist the point of death ; his head

GREEK.

183

sinks
a

forward,
the

sigh, and
In this
;

his eyes shadow

are

dim

with is
on

paiD, his h'psare


his brow.

half

parted by

of death

period, the
difficulties
can are

art

of

Sculpture
for the and

is

course ease

courted

they
one

be the

overcome,

unrivalled

pursuing a downward sake of showing with what technical skill,instead of


on our

still

being
most

of

last

qualities to

force

itself

attention, is the

noticeable

the the which

Dircd
art

of
can

of this age, like Many of the works of bounds already quoted, manifestly overstep the proper of a complexity and extent Sculpture, and represent scenes only be properly rendered by the art of the painter.

characteristic.

149."

The

Dyiug

Gladiator.

In

the

Capitol, at

Borne.

At marble

Sidon

there

has

been of

recent

discovery of
are

series of
and

very
seven

fine of
are

which sarcophagi, three of Two the latter are design. show all richly sculptured and traces of the has reliefs illustrative long, of Battle mosaic at Pompeii of the

of
of the

Phoenician

Greek

Lydian They feet colouring. One, eleven chase and battle, recalling the
of Darius

form.

''

and date

Alexander,''
has

and

also

of the
on

friezes of the

Parthenon.

No

certain

yet

been

decided

for these

antique Sculptures.

Etruscan

Sculpture.
of
in their
as

As
were never

we an

have Asiatic

seen race

in

speaking
settled with
"

their

architecture, the
at
a

Etruscans but in

who

Italy

very

early date,
excelled

became the

assimilated
arts

all

mechanical bronze

such

the

neighbours. They chasing of gold and


of
armour,

silver,the

casting of

statues, the

manufacture

altars, tripods,

150.

"

Belief

from

an

Etruscan

tomb.

etc., for

which but

required;
character The
to
us

industry and wanting they were


great
the works Etruscan
stone

in

power the
out

of

imitation

alone and

were

imagination
of
a

force

of

indispensableto
earliest the

working
of

national which

style.
come

sculpture
manner

have in

down the

are

reliefs of
in the

tombstones

{Eng, 150),
characteristic
seen

which

figures are
art.

treated
many and
cases

realistic

of
in

Assyrian
heads, fore-

In head

the

upper

part of the

the

legs are

flat

skulls, and
somewhat with

represented in projecting chins,


later works
we

body is profile. The


are see more

full,whilst

low

receding
archaic

of the

an

essentially!^steiii
same

type.
combined is the

In

style
This
a

greater
a

animation of
a

and bearded

lifelike
in

expression.
low

case

with
now

figure

warrior

relief,from

tombstone,

in the

Volterra

Museum,

ETRUSCAN.

185

The Cbiusi the human


on

strange black

vases

of unburnt

clay,found
must

in

the

tombs

at

(the Clusium
heads sides of that of and the
an

of the

earliest Etruscan the

Romans), sculptures. The


The

also be

reckoned

amongst

Egyptian
Uffizi

lids of many of them represent and have some type, grotesque figures

handles.

and

in the collection, contain Gallery,Florence, many

Campana

Louvre,
curious the

specimens.
Terra-cotta

objectsare
called the of

also C(ere

very

numerous.

Perhaps
at
now

most

is that interesting

Cervetri, a

corruption

Lydian Tonib,found Vetere),and

Caere in

(themodern
the Louvre

151.

"

The

Lydian

Tomb.

EtruscaD.

In the Louvre,

{Eng. 161).
positionupon
of the

It
an

represents

murried The

couple
attitudes

in

semi-recumbent the treatment stiff, the drapery is

Assyrian figures betraysignoranceof anatomy,

couch.

are

and

and wanting in grace ; but with all these faults the group is pleasing The characteristic. pediments of Etruscan temples appear to have with terra-cotta reliefs, been adorned and the images of the gods were

often of the
In

same

material. Greek influence adorned became The with with still

Home,
was

before the

terra-cotta

largely employed.
Capitolwas
a

predominant,Etruscan pediment of the temple of


a

Jupiter on
surmounted material.

by

quadriga(a
bronze

chariot works

group four

and in terra-cotta, of the same horses) ancient.

Many

of the Etruscan

are existing

very

186

SCULPTURE.

Amongst them, the famous Ckinuxra at Florence, and the She-Wolf^ in the Capitoline {Eng. 152),are probablythe earliest. Museum, Home
The

finest
the

examples of largebronze
with of the in

statues

are

the

Orator Museum

in the of

Uffizi

Florence, the Boy Gallery,


and
at statue
now

the Goose

in the

Leyden,
of

called Mars, found Young Warrior, erroneously the Museum small of the

Todi, and
also

Vatican.
Etruscan

The

Museum of

Florence

contains

several

bronze

works
a

great

value ; of these the Idolino,probablya warriors carrying a wounded comrade, are

Mercury, and
the chief.

group

of two

Many sarcophagi and urns, in alabaster, terra-cotta, or stone, belongingto a later periodwhen Greek influence was sensiblyfelt in Figures of are preservedin different museums. every part of Italy, with high and the sides are adorned the lids, the deceased repose upon

152."

The

She-Wolf

of the

Capitol.

Etruscan.

the fate of the soul in the reliefs, representing

other

world, or
Some
be of

the these ideal

festive
groups

scenes are

in which of real

the

departedfiguredin
beauty,
and may

life.

artistic

almost

called

conceptions.
vetri anti^hi symmetry of the shape of the Etruscan exquisite to notice. entitles them They consist of vases glassobjects) (antique and chased enamelled of every description amphorae, goblets, flagons, etc.t glasses, The
"

* A cast la in the South Kensington Museum. are having been buried for centuries, t Most of these glasses,

stained with

thin

film, the
beautiful

result

of

mineral partial

decompositionof
Italians call this

the

surface,which

produces

colours. variegated

The

coating patina.

Roman

Sculpture.
artistic in art
;

The
to

Bomans

were

not,

strictly speaking, an
or

no say, they well able to appreciate the

created

ideal

original forms

people" that but they were

is

beauty
to
owe we

of the their

works

of

others, and

liberal

patronage

many
of

fine works after

by
the the

Greek

artists

produced
Greece
second which

subjugation

by
in

Homans^
to

and
those of

only
came

beauty
the
or

from

hand

Pheidia.s, Scopas,
The
most

Praxiteles.

important of these works are reproductions of the great masterpieces of the golden
age
name

of Greece
the

; of which

we

must

famous

Apollo Belvedere
"

in the Vatican

{Eng, 154)
sixteenth
and

found
at to
a

early
Porto
be
a

in the

century

d'Anzo,
copy of

supposed
;

after

Alcamenes

model

with

beauty: Diana the Stag {Eng, 155), in the


the best

manly

Louvre,

existing representation
fair-limbed

of the
and above

dess; godwhite in

all, the
of Herctdes

marble repose
for

statue

{Eng, 153), so
combination and

remarkable of energy,
to

its

grace, that

strength, Michelangelo
from
Venue in
"

pliability,
have

is said

studied
The

it. de^ Uffizi in

Medici

{Eng.

156)

the

ence, Gallery, Florthe of sixteenth


153."

found
in the

century Tivoli, and near


base of the
name

villa

Hadrian, bearing on its


son
"

The

Farnese

Hercules

(Colossal). of
Cmxualla.

Found

in 1540 In the

in the Baths

of CleomeneB of

Naples
school

Mvseum.

Apollodorus supposed to be an

Athens,

is

originalwork

of the

late Attic

"

ROMAN.

189
be time

Roman
: periods

sculpture, properlyso
from

called, may
to

divided
of

into

three

B.C.

to 14 to

the conquest of Greece from AugusA.D.); tus

the

Augustus (146

Hadrian

(14"138
to

A.D.); from

Hadrian

the

decline of the Koman

Empire.

First

Period,146
14
A.D.

B.C.

to

Following

the

brilliant

Attic school mentioned above, portance, school rose into ima Koman
the

of productions
or

which

were

iconic chiefly

portrait statues, and


These iconic statues
are

reliefs

historical events. representing

many
sonal perdress

of them

and spirited appearance

masterly
the

in* which likenesses,

and

of
most

the

person

depictedare

A rendered. faithfully Achillean second class, called statues, aimed at combining in one form the characteristics

of of

an

emperor in
;
one

and
one

god.y^Of those
Pompey Palace,Rome
the
Museum

statues,
the

Spada

wearing
Berlin
are 157),

of Ccesar, toga, in the of ; and one

Augustus in the Vatican


The

{Eng,
156." Venus de' Medici.

considered the finest.

In the Uffizi Florence. Gallery^ Lateran also contains a series of fine colossal statues of Germanicus, Agrippinay found at Cervetri Drusus, Tiberius , portraits
"

Claudius, Livia, and Augustus, Ccdigula, To the same periodbelong two marble Ravenna,
men one

wearing

in S. Yitale, sacrifice led to a represented being by six of Augustus, Livia and garlands figures ; and the other,

reliefs found

of which

BiUl

Tiberius. which in in Rome of erecting monuments To the custom prevailed and basof victories beautiful statues we owe very memory many of subject the fourteen statues reliefs. Of this class were tribes, by

190
the which Roman
were

SCULPTURE.

sculptorCoponilU, in
lifelike of portraits

porticoof Pompey's theatre, barbarians, accuratelyrendering their


the

157."

Marble

statue

of Augustus.

In

the Vatican.

and strongly-markedfeatures, The cUtar erected in honour of of Gauls. sixtyfigures

the

tragicsadness of their expressions. adorned with Augustus at Lyons was

ROMAN.

191

SecmiA Period, A.D. 14 to


The
new

A.D.

138.
to

who emperors school Roman

succeeded of

Augustus
to

did

much

encourage

the

sculpture. Under

their

was rule, sculpture

in the magnificent largelyemployed as an accessory carried was buildings everywhere erected,and the art of portraiture dis* The most finished technical skill was to the greatest perfection. and the of and stones, working precious played in the cutting marble of all kinds of metal, but this mechanical proficiency inadequately very architecture atoned After

for the simultaneous


unfettered

decline of the Greek

school

with

its ideal

and conceptions
a

freedom

of

great artistic long period, during made by Hadrian value was successful attempt was a partially produced, to revive Greek art ; but the cold imitations producedof the master^ of any attempt to of the served but to prove pieces antiquity futility it is extinct. revive a school after the spirit which animated this works the monuthe number of to ments belooging Among age are and Pompeii. Of these the fine bronze found at Herculaneum all in of Hermes, the Sleeping statues Faun, and the Dancing Oirls, The famous Centaurs the Museum of Naples, considered the best. are
which in black marble found
are

imagination. nothing of any

in

the

villa of

Hadrian, and
fine and
of

now

in
if

the

Museum, Capitoline
of the iconic statues value.

evidently copiesof Greek


are

originals,Some
great historic
of

excavated

also very

The called
drowned the The

Vatican
an

contains

an

extremely fine statue, worthy

being

ideal

who was work, of Antinotis (thefavourite of Hadrian), in the Nile, and master enrolled by his regretful amongst of

gods.
museums

from famous

this
are

time the

of

Europe contain many fine groups supposedto artistic activity. Of these the exceptional
Tiber and

date
most

colossal marble
in the Vatican
men

iVt^, the

Louvre, the latter

represented by
which

old
and

with

{Bng. 158),in which on beards,resting fiowing


surrounded group of

former in the the rivers are the urns from


and

theii' waters

and flow, the

by

emblems amd in

small
in

figures
:

marble

Cupid
erected

Psyche
honour

symbolic the the

Vatican. It
was,

however, in the

monuments

of

emperors att-ained to its arches


as

during the
of

period under

that discussion,

Koman the few

highest excellence.
and architecture,
of the

We
must

have
now

spoken of
a

sculpture triumphal
on

works

distinctive character

reliefs with

say which

words
were

the

they

covered.

^ These

actual historical and partlysymbolical, partly representing victories side by side with allegorical combined realism and the groups, of Oriental pictorial annals with something of the ideal beauty of Greek
were

192
works from of
a

SCULPTURE.

however, in one differing, anything previously produced. The plan


"

similar class

essential
hitherto

particular adopted of
figurea
on a

giving each
clear outline surface
was

flat

doned, abanan

and
was

tempt atto

made
a

introduce

greater

of variety by means ground, a graduated backthe figures in the

foreground
or

being

almost

tirely en-

detached, with
in figures behind result effect The erected the
was

lower relief The with crowded


met

them.
a

never

in Greek

works.

Arch

of Titus,

in memory of of salem Jeruconquest is

especially interesting.On one


side is of
a a

tion representa-

procession

the carrying away of the Temple, spoils amongst which figure the Ark and the
dlestick can-

seven-branched

; and on the other the Emperor is


seen

in his drawn

triumphal
by
four
rounded sur-

car,

horses,
warriors.

and

by
Column

Boman jan Tra-

The

Eny. (see
of which

44)
"

cast

in the Souths Kensington Museum is


now

time of

Hadrian, stands
the

on

erected before the bas-reliefs of weapons, with c overed pedestal


"

etc., and
continuous

itself pillar

is inclosed in

of spiral

bas-reliefs

forming a

representation of the triumphsof the Emperor, beginning

ROMAN.

193

with the passage


the Dacian
war.

of the The The

Danube, and

going through all


2 feet to 4

the events

of the

scale increases from

feet
as

as

sculptures go upwards,so
as

those below.

that those at the top may be column surmounted was originally

seen

readily
colossal

by

;^-

159." Relief from

the

Trajau Colamn.

statue

of

in Trajan(replaced
no

the seventh human

and

contains Column

less than

2500

century by one of and a great figures


is somewhat

St.

Peter),
of

number similar

horses The that of

{Eny.159).
of
Ma/rcu8 the

AureliiLS Antoninus
not
so

to

but Trajan,

are sculptures

good.

Third

Period,

From

the time

of Hadrian

(a.d.138) to

the Decline
After
were

of the

Roman

Empire.

the

time

of

produced.With
arts
was

of any kind very few fine sculptures decline the decline of the empirea corresponding

Hadrian,

in all the
an

inevitable.
go back
to

Strange to
Eastern

inclination

to

for a say, there was types in statuary. Once whilst of that


cause on

time
more

the

Egyptian

Serapisappearedin
of production of Marcus
numerous

monuments,
statues
was

the

Isis led to the liberal when the fine

worship of goddess. The


brief

patronage

Aurelius

the

of

revival,

executed, but it
destruction.
some

Statue of that Eqv^estrian was only a late effort

emperor of an art

the

doomed

Before

its final
on

decay,however,

Roman

was Capitol to speedy sculpture duced procon-

fine bas-reliefs

remarkable sarcophagi^

for artistic
o

194

SCULFTTRE.

cepdon
acioal
or

and

fine exeeation.

These Vatican

bas-reliefs representscenes
the future the
at

in the

life of the contain

deceased,and
The
j fine
ns man

to relating all^ories

state,

mythological groups.

Rome

and

Doge'sPalace

at Yenice

specimens.
attempt
even

Our

limits forbid
minor

to

countless

in antiqueart objects

the

passing allusion 'to the numerous publicand private


a

160." The

Gouzaga Cameo.
In the St.

Ptolemy

Land

Eurydice.

Roman.

Museum. Petersburg

collections of

Europe ; but we must nob close our notice of the sculpture of the heathen world without a word on the famous Portland Vase in the British Museum, and the of antiquity. great Cameos The Portland, in the Vom in a sarcophagus, found or was Barberiniy

EARLY

CHRlSTUi^. called the Monte

195
del Grano, about
Museum

-sixteenth
two

century, in the
from

monument

miles

Rome.

It

was

placedin
it here

the
on

British
account

by

the

Buke
white

of Portland, and we mention bas-relief figui*es with which

of the

beautiful

it is adorned.* the

The art of cameo-cutting was the Greeks and Romans. The

carried to
finest

by greatest perfection

existing specimenis thought to be the Gonzaga cameo which at St. Petersburg, now {Eng.160), sents repreof some heads and his the wife, probably royal personage The and is six inches long by four broad. Ptolemy I. and Eurydice, of almost Cabinet of Antiquities contains at Vienna cameo a equal
we

merit, and
inches
the who

must

also mention broad later

one

in the that

Louvre, which

is thirteen of

long by

eleven

; and

called

Cupid
There

and is

Marlborough collection, by Tryphon, a


lived
somewhat
a

cameo-cutter

Psyche in celebrity
in is
as

than

Alexander.
of

now

the

British

Museum

fine collection

eograved gems,
on

which

yet
are

The stones comparatively little known. out are of very great beauty; they were

these cameos from obtained probably


which

the

"ast.

Early

Christian

Sculpture.
Century.

First to Tenth

to imitative art. Chbistianity in its earliest form was antagonistic of the and the detestation The horror of image-worship, superstitious

observances

interwoven
to

with the

the

domestic

life of every

class in the

heathen

world, led
that the Venus

of all discouragement of His


were

of Christ,or representations remembered


contact with of the

attempts at visible apostles.Moreover, it must be

first Christians

brought

into

immediate

unholy rites of Isis and of Pan, and the graceful heathen with and Apollo; and temples on every worship desses, gods and godside,peopledwith ideal forms of beauty representing artists to clothe for Christian been impossible have it would ancient to some form not already in any human Christ appropriated ing cultivated physical the Greeks and Romans Whilst beauty,lookidoL of a perfect soul, garment a body as the only fitting perfect upon
" The Portland Vase in 1845, but has been so visible. A small number wre now very valuable.

waa

wantonly broken by a visitor to the British Museum, that the fractures are scarcely joinedtogether, ingeniously made were of facsimile copies by Josiah Wedgwood, and

196
the stern

SCULPTURE.

believers in a spiritual and God to be worshippedin spirit in every way to mortify the flesh, in truth, endeavoured regardingit be laid to aside without encumbrance murmur a a as an prison-house checking the growth of the immortal soul. This was, however, but
"

world into which the antique the natural reaction from the sensuality had fallen ; and with the decline of paganism the abhorrence of pictures less intense,the natural yearningof believers or images of Christ became visible representations of the Object of their love and reverence for some

asserted itselfmore and more, and Christian art,which reached gradually in the time of Raphael and Michelangelo, made its highest development had its first feeble efforts to give a suitable form to the ideal which latent in the minds of men. so long been be fixed with of Christian sculpture The date of the origin cannot any certainty. The firsttraces of it ai-e to be found in the catacombs. of martyrs, confessors, carved or The sarcophagi etc., were bishops, the cross, the such as paintedwith the symbols of Christianity of the the of lamb, Christ, immortality), peacock(emblem monogram Himself Christ the dove etc. Sometimes (embliBm of the Spirit), but in form these of the the tombs, as symbolic yet only figureson Good Shepherd surrounded or or by His fiock, seeking the lost sheep, wild of the the his heathen beasts the music as Orpheus taming by lyre. In the time of Constantino (fourth century)we first meet with historical representations of Christ, and find Him the sarcophagi on in the midst of His disciples, teachingor working miracles. Even at late a date, however, the antique type of youthful manhood is so in the latter the that a nd end of retained, only peculiar century was form which of countenance has been retained with certain adopted, modifications until the present day. statues were extremelyrare in the firstfour centuries of our Single is said to have had The Emperor Alexander Severus (230 a.d.) era. is made and occasional mention an image of Christ in his possession, Christ He had cured, but nothing of statues erected to by those whom of any of them. definite is known The only really importantexisting if indeed it be not as some Christian statue of this period, late aver seated is of bronze Peter in St. St. a Peter's, Eoman, large figure Home, which represents the apostle in antique drapery, claspinga and if in t he other in solemn admonition. one hand, as huge key raising of Christian Antiquities in the Lateran contains a marble The Museum of St. Hippolytus, statue the lower half of which belongs to the of Christian art. earliest period The Museum of the Lateran of early also possesses a number Christian sarcophagi Bomej ; others exist in the crypt of St. Peter's, elsewhere. That at Eavenna, and of Junius Basaus {Eng. 161), in the vaults of St. Peter's at Rome, dating from S69 A.D., is one of the best and purest of these works. The reliefs on this sarcophagus
" '

EARLY

CHiaSTIAN.

107

in of the grape-harvest side,the gathering by symbolical the other,a number of historical scenes from on the Old and New The porphyrySarcop/iagus Testaments. of Constantia, the daughter of Constantine,and that of Helena, mother of the same

represent

on

one

and figures,

emperor,

may

be

seen

in the Vatican much

the

latter is

work

of

powerful

conceptionand
are

brilliant execution.
a

to Sarcophagi belonging to

later date of S. church

to eighthcentury) (sixth

be found
at

in the churches the cathedral

Appollinare in Classe,and
at

San the

Vitale in the

Ravenna

; in the Franciscan

in Dalmatia, Spalatro
towns.

crypt of

of Ancona, and

in other

At

161.

"

Sarcophagusof

Junius

Bassus.

Rome. In the cryi^t of St. Peter's,

time

of their the

the production,
use was

influence sacred
more

of

couragW
an

of

sculpturefor
once

disByzantine art, which and was widely felt, subjects,


to

inclination

manifested

prefer symbolicto
a

historic

representations.The
of
to

result of this

tendency was
are

statuary ; and the^e later works


those After of the fourth what
we

inferior

decline in the art in style and execution

century.
said in

speakingof Byzantine architecture of of art by Byzantine artists, great services rendered to the cause the reverse, their influence was it will be necessary to explainwhy with of beneficial at the periodunder Constant intercourse review. of with the East imbued a theological spirit Byzantine Christianity
have the

19R combined gubtlety, and with religion,


fatal necessarily
to

SCULPTURE.

with

an

aversion

to

in consequently under progress ; and although, emperors, to adorn the from and

change in all matters connected which was religioussculpture,


the earliest Eastern
an

attempt
new

was

made

the

with capital

sculpturescarried
Rome
statues

away Constantine ; of Constantine self him-

by

and, later, of erected, it was were long afterwards, when


Teutonic

Justinian
not

until had ing breakof

the
races

dom-loving free-

gained
that

an

ascendancy in
more

Europe,

once Sculpture,

loose Easteim
an

from

the

trammels

became conventionalism,

ideal art capableof again which might producing works be art. high justly styled works In minor of sculpture,

however, such

as

the

carving of
of bronze

ivory, the

casting

vessels,etc., Byzantine artists

always excelled. The principal belongingto this ivory work

period

which

has

been

served pre-

is the Maximianus
now na.

Chair of Episcopal 546 (a.d. 552),


"

in the

Cathedral

of Baven-

of plates entirely of ivory covered with finelycarved arabesques and figures of


men

It consists

and The

animals of the

in low relief.

earlyChristians
double
with low

adopted folding
of which reliefs.
of the South

the

use

ivory consular

diptychs (t.6.
the tablets),
were

outsides

covered fine and

Many
102.
"

tian specimens of ChrisBoman be


seen

Leaf

of

carved

Ivory Diptych.
kind

works
in the

Second

Century. In the South Kensington


Museum.

may

Kensington
and work of the in with ninth

Museum
must

{Eng,162)
name

elsewhere.

As

characteristic silver

century
reliefs

we

the

High Altar of SanV

Ambrogio

Milan, which
embossed

is covered

gold

or

adorned gilt,

of plates s cenes representing

with

ROMANESQUE
from Golden the life of Christ.

PERIOD.

199 the Pala

"We hare

before roentioDed
at

(VOro^ or
wa?

of St. Mark's Altar-piece at

Venice

made

in the Constantinople

tenth

which Eng, 54a), (see century.

Sculpture of the Romanesque Period.


Tenth
In the dark

and

Eleventh Centuries,
the fall of the Eoman Empire,ih^ of antiquity, art works which had

ages which
of the

succeeded

greater
hitherto

number been

beautiful

as preserved thingssacred,were

wantonly destroyed ov

injured.
Upon the removal of the empireto Byzantium in the fourth century, of statuaryof any excellence entirely the production ceased ; the few in bas-reliefsexecuted were wanting or altogether true original power artistic beauty,and it was not until the beginning of the tenth century
that which the first faint all
more

illuminated
was

glimmering Europe appearedon


suitable than
walls that

of of

that

lightwhich
The

the horizon.

art of

subsequently painting,

for sculpture basilicas and works of

the decoration of

earlyBomanesque sculpture produced of a secondary during the tenth and eleventh centuries were entirely and drinking-horns. Of class, such as altars,diptychs, reliquaries, need only name these we the most remarkable. In the so-called of in the Castle Church L which on Rdiquary of U"nry Quedlinburg, the three Marys are represented at the feet of Christ, the coarse we see the the of of tenth unredeemed early part style century by any technical excellence ; in an ivorydiptych, datingfrom a.i". 972, in the 1 63), Christ blessing Hotel de Cluny, Paris {Etig, Otto IJ. representing his Greek wife the Princess Theophane, we trace and Byzantine influence in the careful finish of the execution and a certain grandeur of the Saviour. in the face and figure of this description, fine works however, date from the Many really
churches,
was

the flat surfaces of the


the

of the

first to

revive:

the

eleventh

century
to
an

belonging Ivory Tablet


as

amongst them Evangelarium, now


:

in the Bodleian

Book Cover, a of Munich Library ; an Oxford, in which Christ appears Library,


we

must

mention

in the

(theearth) (the sea)serving Him as a footstool ; and the covers and a MS. in the monastery of St. Gall. In these of an Evfingelarium of the kind we discover indications of the apd other productions
and Oceanus

Ruler

of earth

and

sea, with

the

of Gaea antique figures

200
future

SCULPTURE.

obtained by Teutonic artists : the attitudes and the faces well express passion, are life-like, figures energy, In the two and other emotions. advance centuries under notice some also made in the art of metal casting. The efforts of the enlightwas ened Bernward of instrumental in this Hildeshiem wore greatly Bishop
to

excellence

be

of the

163.

-Ivory Diptych of
In

Otto

II.

a.d.

972.

the Hotel de

Cluny, Paris. for the

adyance, and
Hildesheim
scenes

to

him

we

are

indebted
in

Cathedral,completed

a.d.

large bronze doors of sixteen 1015,* representing

"in and

of sacred which the


for the in
a.d.

from the Creation to the Passion of our Lord history, figures, though still rude, are full of life and character,
in the cathedral with
a

bronze column
"

executed

1022, adorned
Casta
ere

town, square of the same series of spiral bas-reliefs.

in the South

KensingtonMuseum.

ROMANKSQUE

PERIOD.

201

From
In reached the

A.D.

1100

to the heginningof the Thirteenth


at

Century.

twelfth

century,

which

period the
once

Romanesque style
more

its fullest

sculpturebegan development,
to architecture.

to

take

Christian sculptors high positionas an accessory of this period rapidly from Greek and Latin traditions, freed themselves and they illustrated the working under the direction of the clergy, of their chisel, by the noble productions enriching precepts of religion
both that the

The

outside
or

and

inside

of

the

cathedrals

and

churches
to

with

symbolic
the

historic the

sculptures.It
at

is not, of course,
once

be

supposed

art

of statuary sprang

occupiedin
of the

completed Eomanesque

it into the important position and Gothic styles : the artists

early middle

the renewal the rightdirection, and


was

both to learn and to unlearn,but ages bad much of its natural connection with architecture was a step in of plastic^art in every branch a great improvement alike in the treatment of figures, drapery,or
was a

noticeable

At foliage. and buildings

first there

certain

want

of

harmony

between

the

sister arts
an

but as time went sculptures, on, and the their combination fullyassimilated, produced of rhythmical beauty such as neither could have acquired impression their decorative
more

became

without

the other.

Germany,
"

We

find

Germany takingthe lead

in this onward

ment. move-

To relief on
work

the

part early

the Extern

of the twelfth century belongsthe famous which is a remarkable SUrne,at Horn, in Westphalia,
Descent

The composition the drooping is full of energy : the attitude of the Virgin supporting and the head of her dead Son well expresses mental of figure agony, harmonises St. John, though stiff, well with the rest of the group. of this period Saxony is rich in architectural sculptures ; the best
the representing
are on perhaps the figures

from

the Cross.

the

northern

portalof
the middle

the of

church the

of St. twelfth

Godehard

at

Hildesheim,
the

belonging to

century,
church
In
must

and

of St.

Christ and the at Hildesheim. also Michael's,


the

of figures

Virgin in the choir of the

Bavaria
be

noticed

in the crypt of Freising Cathedral huge columns of in that the fancy which as a prevailed specimen

and animals. district for weird combinations of men They are covered which have been variously with reliefs by a certain Master Luitfrecht,

interpreted.
of the finest of the thirteenth century belong many of the cathedrals of Germany. The Golden Gate of the Cathedral portals of Freiburg in the Erzgebirgedeserves special mention, as it is an To instance the

middle

of

the

faithfulness with

which been

Komanesque forms after

theyhad

artists clung to German laid aside for Gothic in Franco

202
and in other countries. of Hfe-like Scenes
; and

SCULPTURE.

from

the Old and


as

New

frameworks
a

such symbolic figures, the

lions and of the

Testament, set in are sirens, depicted

manner

treatment

human models. The

body shows
stone

great knowledge alike of


on

portionsof the anatomy and of antique


nude of the church of

reliefs
are one

the

pulpitand
and

Wechselburg
164)
Ahel is from

equallytruthful
of the

High Altar vigorous ; our


of the in

illustration

{Eng.

compartments

and pulpit,
at

represents
this

his Lamb. offering Bronze casting also greatlyimproved

Germany
The fame

period.

school of Dinant in the and

considerable acquired

earlypart
tury, cen-

of the thirteenth many works

portant imwere ters mas-

executed for cathedrals Khine

by
the

its of

various the

The provinces. remarkmolten


on

Font ol St. BartheJemyy


one

of the most

basin, like the


SQA

io Solomon's
oxen.

Temple, rests

twelve brazen
France,
to

"

From

France, and

find

Germany we turn a corresponding


sculpture.
twelfth
front of of the

athaneo
Tii tlio

in architectural

early part

century
164." Abel From the his Lamb. offering

belongsthe

west

St. GiUes,near
which with

of Wechselburg Church. pulpit frieze of which


is adorned

Aries in Provence, in antiquemarble columns are ture entablareliefs


scenes representing

an introduced, supporting

the from The

the life of Christ. of Burgundy ecclesiasticalbuildings The of the Pediment sculpture.


are

rich especially entrance principal

in architectural of the

Cathedral
which from The has

of Autun
a

is filled with and

weird

condemned, and St.


their
west

of the Last Judgment, representation Devils effect. are seen striking tearingthe Michael is introduced redeemed soul a protecting
a

fury.
front works

The
of of

name

of the artist of this remarkable

group

was

Oislebertns.
the the

Cathedral
late

of

Chartres school

is

one

of the
with

most

important

Romanesque

of Central

France.
an

the architecture and Jn its three portals

harmonise sculpture

204

SCULPTURE.

it is true, retain the formal pose of supplementeach other ; the figures, in the heads,which b ut the Byzantine style, we a new recognise spirit
are

of the Teutonic of the


same

type, and

full of life and Le Mana marks

energy.

The another

southern

entrance

Cathedral

of

yet

step in

aflvance in the

models, but
of Christ

direction ; the ornaments are copiedfrom antique life-likeand the heads of the figures are natural,and that
more

is full of

than

human

beauty.
work
a.d.

The

southern the
a

entrance

of the Cathedral

century, is
N^otre Dame transition The
are

an

of equally characteristic Bourges,which


Paris, executed
the late about

belongsto

the close of the twelfth


west

; and

front

of

at

1215,

is

specimen

of the

of

Gabriel

Romanesque to the earlyGothic style. which adorn the CathedrcU of Amiens so sculptures profusely of the angel rather later date. them the statues a Among and the Holy Virgin{Eng, 1 65) are of great interest.
"

from

of Italy, Italy, ^The architectural sculptures belongingto the early and Romanesque period,are inferior to those of France Germany. The sculptures of the west front of San Zsno, at Veroiia (about 1139), of future excellence, the Creation of the World, givepromise representing and are as specimensof the love of symbols characteristic interesting of the age. have been ascribed to two German masters, Kicolaus They and the close of the twelfth century Wilhelm Towards by name. of of works Benedetto of Antelami, Parma, produced a number considerable

Parma,
on

both

the but

of which the decorations of the Baptistery excellence, of The sculptures in marble and bronze, were the principal. pulpit of S. Amhrogio, in Milan, are good specimens of the life-like symbolic creations the close of the twelfth The* in of the

rude

period.
artistic series of

Towards
was

century considerable

activity
Gates

in Pisa. displayed

the

Baptistery, begun
scenes

Romanesque
and the combined with

of 1153, contain a series of sculptures senting reprefrom the life of Christ, etc., in which the perfected be studied ; style,freed from Byzantine influence, may
may be of recognised technical for which skill, the grace and elegance, the first to Fisano, who was became Italy,
so

earliest of the famous

first indications

direct attention in the thirteenth A the

to the remains

of ancient art in

famous

century.
was

great earlypart

advance

made

in the art of bronze in

in casting in Italy that of the

of the twelfth

transept of Pisa

century. The Cathedral,cast by Bonanno

bronze Ga4e of the southern

1180, and

Abbey of Beneventum, by in Italy, later date. The Cathedral belong to a somewhat Gates both Bonnanno and The Barisanus. by possesses
the designed celebrated The Toioer

Barisanus,the chief master

of bronze

casting
also

at Monreale

former

of Pisa,
be noticed in the

England,
"

mediaeval

sculpturewill

chapter

on

Englishsculpture,

Sculpture
From about

in

the

Gothic

Pernod.

A.D.

1225

to

a.d.

1400.

At

the

end

of

the
art

twelfth of the

century
of

marked

change

was

already
Crusades
of the
was
was

noticeable
were

Europe. modes ideas and drawing to a close ; the working of the new with them and introduced was side; by seen on thought every beginning of the thirteenth century a new style sprang tip, which of freedom with which reflection of the spirit a European society becoming imbued.
France,
"

in the

whole

Western

The

In

this

movement

France

took
are

the the the

lead.

The

statues

of

La

CkapelU at completed Gothic, in disappeared,and grace


front of Rheims

Sainte

Pa/ria which and

(1245
all

"

1248)
traces

first instances earlier

of the
has

of

rude

style

It is in the dignity are admirably blended. full the that Cathedral west (Eng, 77), however, The be studied. best development of Gothic sculpture in France may various of the of and the the of details grandeur arrangement beauty of the figures are alike the attitudes dignified unrivalled, are groups heads the of and is and and the natural, graceful, drapery simple many character. The full of individual Cathedrals are of Bourges, Beauvais, and Blois, also contain fine specimens of Gothic sculpture,and the Choir of the late of Notre iScreen* Paris is an Dame at important work Gothic period. of art efforts of Philip the Bold the cause did much The to promote invited the ablest of the dukes of Burgundy. He at Dijon, the home of the Carthusian artists of the day to aid in the decoration monastery. named Dutchman those his call who to a was Amongst responded His school. Claes Sluter, a great master, who founded an important in the the Monument to were principal works Philip the Bold, now and the of Museum of the the the at Chapel, portal Dijon, sculptures Moses Fountain monastery (1399) in the courtyard of the Carthusian full all well and character. of (Eng. 166) ; they are executed, Gothic The monumental of the period is worthy sculpture of France of careful the works most are perhaps the series important study; of reliefs on in the Church the monuments of St. Denis,

In

Germany
*

the

Gothic

style was
can

not be

adopted
at the

until

considerably
Palace.

cast

of part of this Screen

seen

Crystal

206
later than is
one

SCULPTURE.
in France. The

(1237 1243) in Germany, and its sculptures buildings are good specimens of the transitional style. In the south-west owing to their near neighbourhoodto France, the true provinces, home there are of great of the Gothic style, extensive works many the sculptures of StraahurgCathedrcU beauty ; of these we must name
Lieh/rauen Kirclie
at
"

Treves

of the earliest Gothic

166."

Moses

Fountain

at

Dijon. By

Claes Sinter.

the fine Tomb of Count Ulrich and his wife (about1265), {Eng, 167), and the sculpturesof Freiburg in the Abbey Church at Stuttgart, also be The Cathedrals of Bamberg and Nuremberg must Cathedral, mentioned contains
:

the

former, in addition
fine

to

much

architectural

sculpture,
ideal

several

beauty of the heads

monuments, of some of the

remarkable

for the

almost

figures. The

polychrome statues

GOTHIC

PERIOD.

207

of
must

Christy Ma/ry, and


take the

the

Apostlesin the choir of Cologne Cathedral,


,

Grothic In

high style.

rank

amongst

the

isolated works

of the

perfected

Sebald

middle of the fourteenth century flourished the sculptor Schonliofer of Nuremberg, to whom is ascribed the so-called

167.

"

of Figiires

Virtues

and Vices, from

the Oathedral

of

Strasburg.
the

BeatUiffd Fountain
Kirche, and
the other

of works.

Nuremberg,
The

the

of sculptures

Frauen

Cathedral

sculpturesof the southern Portal of of Mayence belong to the fourteenth century, when the
to belonging

decadence had already commenced. Of the bronze works of Germany


must
name

the Gothic

we period

the

Statue Equestrian

of St,

George in

the Hradschin

Square

208
at

SCULPTURE.

in the Conrad of Hochsladeii, Pnjgue,and the tomb of Archbishop of Cologne. and Shrines in precious with metals,adorned Many fine Reliquaries embossed were reliefs, produced in Germany in the period under carried discussion,and the arts of wood and ivory carvingwere to of both sington Kenbe seen in the South great perfection. Specimens may The of Hans Museum. names Brttggemann and Veit Stoss Cathedral
must

be

mentioned
a

as

master

carvers

of

Germany.
of times it

To

the

former many

is attributed similar both


to

carved of the

Altar kind.

in the In wood

Cathedral

and Schleswig,
was

works

mediaeval

customary

paintand
"

gildthe

carvings in

ecclesiastical

buildiDgs.
in the

Netherlands.
arts of

In

this country considerable advance


in the thirteenth painting
was

was

made

and sculpture

and

fourteenth

centuries.

The

school of Dinant in sculpture

succeeded of

in the sculptures Gothic

Porch the

by that of Tournay. The various Tournay Cathedral are good specimens of


; and

Netherlands in bronze

many

funeral

monuments

in

different towns
and sculptors

bear witness workers the

to the skill and

of Netherlandish art-feeling

of this the
a

period.
century
a

ItaJy,
"

At

of beginning
in and Italy,

thirteenth school of

revival of

all

the arts commenced

sculpture arose,
those of their of

the artists

of which

pursuedmethods
The

very different from worked


out
a

aries contempornational

in other

and countries,

purelyindividual

style. Pisano,who
the the

leader of this movement

earlyexcelled
time, Niccola

was Pisa,called Niccola Like most of the all his contemporaries.

Niccola

artists of his

combined he it

the
was

of professions

the

architect,

and, aided by his entitled; son Siena, Giovanni, he enriched the Cathedrals of Fisa, Orvieto, Pistoja, and Bologna with statuary,in which and art true were feeling grace
was

and the painter. But sculptor, to which prominent position

the first to

give to sculptme

combined
two

with

truth

to nature converts

and

of arrangement. simplicity and have be said to

These

zealous artists,
of the
stone

of the ascetic Franciscan

Dominican

form into
master

of
sense

vivid of

translated religion, may and marble the spiritual conceptionsof Giotto, the great fervour and with sacred painting.Inspired a by religious of the realities of the spiritual world,they produced figures Roman Catholic evil human forms full of terrible

good

and

the Cross,in the Cathedral of of the of Niccola's earliest works, and Lucca, is one gives promise marble in his famous displayed subsequently great originalpower

beauty or

idealised and spirits, The Descent from suffering.

covered

executed in 1260, and is It was of Pisa. Pulpit*in. the Baptistery the with high reliefs {Eng. 168),representing the Nativity, the and Last Judgment,in which Epiphany, Presentation, Crucifixion,
*

fine cast may

be studied

in the South

KensingtonMuseum.

GOTHIC
are figures

PERIOD.

209
ease, and

treated
we

with

the
as a

freedom, the

the

so to vitality,

speak,which

noticed

characteristic special

of the works

of the

The cathedral of Siena possesses a marble PulpU best age of Greek art. six years later than that of from the same hand, commenced masterly Pisa. Area The di San reliefs
are

instinct with
at

fervour. religious passionate

His

Domenico
:

of his best works In it he Niccolo


was

of the years 1265-67, is counted one Bologna, six reliefs relate events in the life of St. Domenic.

assisted

by Fra Ouglielmo. Later,Lombardi


the canopy, and Tribolo

added

base,

di Bari

contributed

and

Michelangelo

168." The

Adoration

of the

Kings.

From

the

in pulpit

the

at BapU'itery

Pisa.

By Niccola statues sculptured Perugia. The

Pisano.

for it.

Niccola's last work of Niccola


were

was

the

Fountain

at

immediate successors Amolfo di Cambric pupil

his work

son on

Oiovaimi, his

(famous for his brothers the Agostinoand Agnolo Florence), shall and Andrea we Orcagna,whom lastly
amongst the painters.
Qiovanni
Pisano
as

of the Duomo of Pisa, of Siena, Andrea later on find mentioned be may in the all the
p

introduced
west

new

characterised
of sculptures

the realistic; front

first

which stylein sculpture of it was employment which

the

of Orvieto Cathedral, on

210

SCULPTURE.

chief artists of Tuscany were employed. One of Giovanni's most del Fiore of Florence Cathedral : famous isolated works is the Mculonna and her face full is grand and dignified, of the holy mother the

figure

169." The

Campo

Santo of Pisa:

Designed by

Giovanni

PLsano.

About

a.d.

1820.

of earnest excelled
so

rather thoa^'ht in the


to

than A

passionate feeling.Giovanni
the of writings

especially
Dante
did

which allegorical sculpture

much

encourage.

symbolicalStatue

of Pisa, in the

Campo

GOTHIC

PERIOD.

211

Santo

The Campo Santo Pisa, is a fine work of the kind. the first of its kind, was by Giovanni {Eng,169). designed
at

itself,

170.

"

of Capital

one

of the columns

of the

Doge's Palace, Venice.


is
an

The

High AUa/r qf the Cathedral of Arezzo


the
same

extremely spirited
a

composition by

master.

Giovanni

executed

Pidpitfor

Sant'

212 Andrea
The

SCULPTURE.

at

Pistoja,
work

in which

he

took Pisano

his
is

father's the

Pisan

pulpit
hronze

as

mod^
GcUe
year Sa

chief

of

Andrea

southern

the
that

he worked Baptistery of Florence^ of which of Orcagna, the magnificent BalJcbcchino of


at

for
the

twenty-two
Altar
of

High

of Or

Michele

Florence,
in the world.

which

is, perhaps,
rich

the

finest

piece

decorativl

sculpture
Venice,
various
Verona

Naples,
artists

and

Rome

are

in monumental The Tombs


we see

sculpture by
of
the the

mentioned

above.

ScaHgers
introduction
is

th^ a^

are

remarkable

works,

in

which
art.

first

of

secular

of the
In

subjects in artists employed


a

ecclesiastical
on

Nothing

positive

known^

them. civic it
is is I erected, which building was in character, chiefly Byzantine of pillars,with on a long arcade
'

Venice Venetian

very

remarkable

called
the

Gothic,

carved

Doge's Palace. capitals which we peculiar treatment


At

though The facade rests are justly famous. give an engraving


fourteenth

As

an

illustration

of

their

(No. 170).
many
;

the

close

of

the
were

century
into

of
and

the
the
was

greatest
new

artists
in

of

the

Renaissance

rising
works of

notice

interest

art, awakened
end
to

by
of

the

their

predecessors,

spreading

from

end

Europe.
We
must

Enamels,
medieeval

"

say

one

word,
of

before
which

we

close
museum

our

review
and

of

collection

sculpture, on of Europe
vitrified
or

the
contain

enamels

every

private
art

specimens. glass
kind
was

Enamelling,
of various

or

the

of
on

producing
a

smelted
a

ornaments

colours between

ground, occupied painting. sculpture and


metal whole

of

intermediate

position

It for

largely
manufacture

employed
of

of

the and

middle other

ages

the

the throughout shrines, reliquaries,

diptycbs,
The

church

ornaments. Museum

South

dates, of century,
remarkable.

contains Kensington specimens many which Shrine a large Byzantine or Reliquary of of a in the with form dome, a Byzantine church

of different
the

twelfth the
most

is

England,
noticed in

"

The

the

English sculptures chapter on Sculpture in

of Great

the

Gothic Britain.

period

will

be

Sculpture
In

in

the

Renaissance

PeHod.

Italy

in

the

Fifteenth

and

Sixteenth
from
to
"

Centuries,

The

fifteenth century architecture, when of

"

^the transition
an

time
was

Gothic combine

to

sance Renais-

attempt
Greece the the
art

made Rome

existing
corre-

styles with those sponding advances


begun by Andrea by Ghiberti, Delia
of
age

ancient in

and

also

witnessed The
was

Italy in
in

of

sculpture.
century,
who
were

movement

Orcagna,
Robbia,
his the

fourteenth

carried

on

and

Donatello,
The
was

the
was

forerunners
the

Michelangelo and of sculpture, as


which

school. sixteenth

fifteenth
of of

century

golden
acteristics char-

painting.
this age

The

chief those

distinguish knowledge of the human a truer its and its expressions, motions, a more anat("my, laws and of composition the perspective, and accurately imitating antique models.
tlie statues

from frame
"

which
its of

preceded it, were

^alike of grasp

"

thorough
a

greater

power

of

In

the

early part
in

of
the

the

fifteenth

century,
and best the age

preference
In artist

was

fested manithis
new

for nature,
movement

latter
the of
was

part, for antique models.


lead
the
;

Tuscany
of the imitation

took

first

to

combine

something
close earliest with
a

easy

grace

of

Roman

sculpture with
cf Siena. His

of
are

nature,

Jacopo
a

deUa
to

ftuercia
the

works
more

marked

by
of

struggle
Lucca,
is

combine

mediaeval
of Ilaria

style
del

life-like in the

representation of
as

nature.
an

The

tomb' of

Carretto*

cathedral the

example
the

this

struggle;
of

his Fountain,
which

known

ForUa

Gala,
is
a

in

great

is considered of
nature.

his

finest

work,
was,

study

Jacopo
who
was

however,

typical surpassed
in the

result

square of his

Siena,
earnest

by

his

great

contemporary,
Lorenzo
the

Ohiberti,
artists of

successful

competition,

in which

and

da great day, including Brunellesco, Simone of the Bronze Jacopo del la Qiiercia, took part, for the designs

the

Colle,
Gates which subare

for tlienorthern
were

side in

of

the and

erected

1424,

These Baptistery at Florence. gates, and burnished, were are richly gilt

seqtiently followed
considered Old for Ghiberti's Testament

by

the

great

Western
The

or

Central
reliefs

Gates, which

finest work.t

ten

represent

scenes

in

history ; and, although the subjects are too complicated of sculpture, the fertilityof imagination displayed, the sense
*

cast

may

be

seen

in the

Palace. Crystal

+ A

cast

of these

gates

is in the

South

Kensington

Museum.

2U

SCULPTURE.

beauty, the easy execution, and the high praise bestowed them on
sixteenth

the lifeof the whole, entitle them

to

by Vasari, the great art-critic of the

of Michelangelo, the enthusi-istic exclamation justify of Paradise. Our called the Gates to be tiiey worthy illustration (Eng, 172) given six of the compartments able of tliis remarki n which is of the Isaac,Jacob, and composition, epitomised btory

century, and
were

that

EsMU. Of Ghiberti's John and the Michele isolated

works, we
and

must

name

the bronze
the

Statues

of SL
San

St. Matthew, Baptist,


at

aS'^. in the church Stephen, is considered

of Or

Florence.
of the

St. Matthew

po^e Christian

admirablyexpress figure preacher.

finest ; the face the character of the great

the celebrated Florentine Renaissance architect, also proBrunellesco, duced several fine works of sculpture. Of these the best is the bronze relief of the Sacrifice in the Bargello Museum, at Floi*ence, of Isa/ic, which was done for the competition for the doors of the Baptistery, in which, as we have seen, he was beaten by Ghiberti.

Donatello cultivated
traditions

was

famous

for

his

success

in
to

low-relief ; he the

strongly
to

naturalism, in
of the his

coutrHst

alike

antique

and

the too

great fondness

preceding age, and for pictorial treatment


works
are

endeavoured evident Head

to counteract

the

itithe works St, John

of Ghiberti.

Amongst
wonderful

best

his

of

tJve Baptist, a

emaciated tion of the great forerunner of Christ, represent** but with of zeal the St. Statne by fasting, George from iuspired holy ; the church of Or San Michele, Florence,a fine embodiment of the ideal Christian warrior,ready calmly to face suffering and death {Etig. 171). than any of these, Better known however, is his statue of GcUtanielata at of Fra Barduccio Padua, and the so-called Zuccone (bald a portrait head), Two Cheiichini,in one of the niches of the Campanile, Florence. beautiful original in in low marble, relief, carvings by Donatello, \Qrj of Christ in the tlieKeys to St. Peter,as KensingtonMuseum.

of Sepulchre, supportedby Angels, and the Delivering well as casts of the St. George, South in the are

who is supposed Bobbia,another great Florentine sculptor, to have invented the process of enamelling terra-cotta,flourished at this He is known for his works in terra-cotta, in period. principally high or low relief many specimens of which may be studied in the South Kensington Museum," and for the groups of Singers{Eng. 173)
"

Luca

della

in

marble, executed
Museum
to
some

for

the

cathedral Both mediaeval

of

Florence, and
Delia Hobbia but

now

in

the it of

National adhered
with
a

of that
extent
to

city.*
the

and

Ghiberti truth

style ;

they combined
a

of simplicity

a feeling,

dignityof

execution, and

Court at the Crystal Palace \" this famous work. Signors Cavallucci and ^olinier have compiled a in Italy. Catalogue of 350 examplesof Delia Robbia ware stillremaining
cast of

"

Part of the frieze of the interior of the Renaissance

llEXAISSA^X'E

ITALY.

215

their own^ peculiarly conception della Luca an by altar-piece the Virgin jRobbia,representing

The

illustration

{Eng,174) fs

from

worshipping
Several His chief

her

Divine
of his five his

Son. Luca's

members

family followed
Andrea,
devoted
so

profession.
nephew
also the
sons

pupilwas
whose

themselves of the

to

art,

that

it is difficult to

assign

the works

Delia Robbia

familyto
Two
to France

their several authors.


sons

of Andrea's and for

worked

in

migrated glazed
menced com-

terra

cotta

FrancoisI.
da

Benedetto
lifeas but abandoned in which One AUar church San
a

Hajano
in

worker it for

tarsia,

sculpture,

he

was

of his

very successful. is the best works

of
of

San

Bartolo
which He

in

the in

Sant*

Agostino

Gemignano, highly

is also also the elder

tomb

; it is rich in

designand

is

finished.

executed

the

pulpit and
His
was

reliefs of the brother


a

of Santa sacristy likewise lowers, fol-

Croce, Florence.
Oiovanni

sculptor.
Of Donatello's
numerous

Andrea
whom the
we

del Verroochio,
hereafter
tice no-

shall the His

amongst
chief.

was painters,

most

famous of
a

work, which
Horse in of the SS.
of

bears evidence bronze Coleoni of


e

clo'^estudy of the the Bartolommeo

is the antique, Statue the of

{EngA75),
church
at

piazza
Giovanni The

Paolo

Venice.
was

added the

of Coleoni figure by Leopardo after death. close of the teenth fif-

171.

"

Saiut George.

By Donatello.

Verrocchio's At

Florence, In Or S. Michele,

century ornamental

sculpture was

carried

to

great perfection

172." The

Central Gates of the

at Baptistery

Florence.

BjrL

Ohiberti, a.d.

1480.

The

upper six of the teu compartments.

218
in

SCULPTURE.

Tuscany;

and

churches

of Florence

many and

beautiful
other
towns.

monuments

were

t^rected iu'^tbe

173.

"

The

Siugers. B:is-reliefin
yow in the National

marble.

By

Luca

della Robbia.

Museum,

Fiorence.

Mino
Rome.

da
His

Fiesole

introduced
are

the the

Florentine Monuments

Renaissance

works principal

of Bernardo

styleinto Giutjni

174." The

Nativity.

Bas-relief in marble. In Florence,

By

Luca

della Kobbia.

220
and (1466),

SCULITURE.

Ugo (U69), in the church of the Badia, Florence, and Rome. in the crypt of St. Peter's, Po}^ Paul II. (1471), all of five brothers who were famous Antonio the most Eossellino, of the Cardinal Monument the Jacopo of splendid sculptors, produced much admired by the in San Miniato, Florence,which was so Portugal,
Count
of the Monument

175." Statue Horse

of Bartolommeo

Coleoni.

At

Venice.

by

Andrea

del Verrocchio.

Figureby

Alessandro

Leopardo.

Rossellino to execute he commissioned a similar of the relief Madonna in memory A circular one adoring is considered tJie Holy Infant in the Florence Gallery of Sculpture, Duke

of Amalfi, that

of his wife.

one

of his finest works. The only Italian school of the fifteenth

at century which approached

RENAISSANCE

IN

ITALY.

221

all in

the Venetian. was importance to that of Florence, of for the the Lombardi * the Buono paved family way

and

Bartolommeo Alessandro

Leopardo, to

whom

Venice

owes

her
are

finest works the Monuments

of

sculpture.The
of the

works principal

of all these

artists

That of Paolo. e Venice, in the church of SS. Giovanni the is in Lombardi, completed 1488, a splendid MocenigOfby composition,

Doges of Doge Pietro

however, surpassed,

in

by
combined. Hatteo
Florence.

that

of the

and delicacy of execution, grandeur of conception in the Andrea Vendraniin same church, Doge by the round and reliefs
are

Leopardo,in

which

in sculptures

admirably
his art in the

Civitali,of Lucca, is supposed to have


His best works
are are

learned

stillto be found

in his native

place.In

Cathedral
Pietro da
tftres

the

Tomb

of

Noceto, the Sculpfor the choir, now

and his sacristy, an octagonal masterpiece, marble temple containing in the the
"

Volto fame

Santo," with
of known

statue

of St. Sebastian,

The

Vittore
a

Pisano, as rests chiefly on painter,


well

his the the

medals,
fiuest best He

which of the

were

executed

since

days
made of

Romans. traits por-

medallion
most

ary contempor-

as

such princes of Italy, Lionello d*Este, Mala-

testa

{Eng. 176),Alfonso

V.

Aragon, Francesco three of the GonSforza,and


After zagas. artists devoted

of

176." Bronze

Medal

of

SigismondiMalatesta.
Pisano.

By
to the art of

Vittore

Pisano, many
themselves

medals. designing in in Italy, attained to a distinctive position The school of Milan and the works of Duomo, promotedby the consequence of the activity
the Certosa The most celebrated Pa via. monastery, near Fusina, Solari,Amadeo, Sacchi, and employed there were sculptors
or

Carthusian

greatest of all,AgostinoBusti,better known


The decoration of the marble about 1473. The architectural
*

as

Bambaja.
t
was

facadeof the Certosa


of sculptures the

commenced

portalhave principal

and his sons Tullio and Antonio. of reproduction one of the large windows of the Museum. Kensington Pietro Lombardo

t A

Certosa

is in

the

South

222
been skill

SriTLPTURE.

ascribed

to

Busti.

They

are

remarkable
decorative

for the

great technical
the interior

and displayed,

for the absence

of the realism

characteristic of most
that of the exterior.
:

of the works
The

of this

period.

The

of sculpture

of the monastery is even more worthy ascribed PiMn * of the high altar, of the

of study than
to

is especially beautiful Solari,

the agony Virgin is expressedin every line of her face and admirably with the peaceful figure, contrasting repose in death of her

Divine Bome

Son, and the confident hope in the uplifted eyes of the angels.
can

be said to have possessed Eenaissance school a scarcely the liberal of the and of sculpture, although princes patronage popes attracted the greatest masters to their capital. frequently in the fifteenth century of eminence The only Neapolitansculptor in the who executed several fine monuments was Angelo Aniello Flore, church of San Domenico at Naples. Maggiore

In the sixteenth the arts, and


it
was

century
to

we own

find Florence
sons

still

takingthe
this

lead in all

her

that she bronze

owed

nence. great pre-emifor

the colossal Unfortunately

cesco EquestrianStatue of Franto execute

Sforza,which
was never

Leonardo
even

da Vinci undertook

Milan,
the

cast, and
used

the
a

claymodel

was

destroyed by
was

the Gascon

archers, who
French

it

as

target when

Milan

occupied by

in 1499.

Andrea
sixteenth

Sansovino

attained His Gate his marble

great eminence
group

in the

century.
the
eastern

of the

Baptism qf

earlypart of the Christ {Eng,

177) for
one

of the

of his finest works


and Danti),
at

(itwas
group

Vinconzo

Baptisteryof Florence is considered finished nearly a century later by of the Virgin and in Sant' St, Anna

Agostino

Rome

is not

inferior to it.

during a long and active life, MichelangeloBuonarroti, producedthe and greatlyinfluenced all the finest masterpieces of modern sculpture which will be His arts. spoken of in the next division of paintings, the productions than of his chisel. work, are no less remarkable our his intimate The chief characteristics of Michelangelo were knowledge
of the anatomy
was

of the human
into into the The

form, and
The

the

power

and
at

fire which
one

he

able

to

throw

his works.

was great sculptor

of the

first to be admitted Lorenzo

Academy of
of
a

Art

founded
the

Florence

by

de' Medici.
was

mask

Farm's

head, hewn
name

in marble

when his
to

Buonarroti Florence. native town


which
was Peter's,

quitea child,is
work
a was

still

preservedin
his

XJflSziGallery,

The
was

which of

first made

known His is

beyond

statue

Cupid
by
one

cityhe

invited

fame soon : his of the cardinals.

spread to Rome,

Piet^y in St.
critics South

produced soon
his finest work.

considered

and after his arrival, of A kneelingfigure

by many at Cupid, now

"

dead

Piffd Son.

is the

name

given

to

of representations

the

Virgin embracing

her

RENAISSANOE

IN

ITALY.

223
and the

Kensington,
the church 1504 the the this the

and

group

of the
at

Madomia

Holy Child

in
y

of Notre

Dame
Duca

Bruges, were
at

among

his later works.

In

he undertook

his celebi'ated statue Yet

of David, which
famous

in the Piazza
courts

del Gran'

Florence,but is now
more

formerlystood removed of to one figure

of the Accademia. The

is the colossal in

oi Moses

{Eng,178)in

the old basilica of b'an Pietro celebrated

gates of Rome.

Vincolo, outside Westmacott, characterised sculptor,

of
in

of as one figure efforts grandest as original genius, is

it as conception tion. masterly in execu-

This
Moses in with is

colossal hand the

ing seated,hold-

one

tables of the the with

law, and
his

other

playing long

beard.
horns of

From curls

his clustering

springthe
to him

ascribed

by tradition,typical
and light; power his brow and eyes are full of and power his whole

majesty,
pose

the expresses of will and strength

severityof the stern law-giver of Israel. This marvellous figure


was

to

have
a

formed
ment monu-

part of
the

huge

II., design for which, by Michelangelo, is 177." still preserved. It


to
was

Julius

The

of BaptiF-m

Christ.

Belief from

the

Baptifiery of

Florence.

By

Andrea

Sansovitio.

to have

consisted

of

of with niches in the sides, with figures adorned a vast quadrangle, of colossal statues massive block surrounded a Victory supporting by and sibyls, from which a pyramid covered with bronze figures prophets should have sprung. at All that was the Victory, executed now was the Moses,* in the Louvre, and the two Slaves, Florence, now The Medici at Florence,built in the church of San Lorenzo chapel,
Casts of the Moses, the two Slaves,the in the South KensingtonMuseum.
*

David, and

the Madonna

of

Bruges are

178."

statue

of Moses. San

By

Michelangelo.
in Vincolo,Rome,

In the Church

of

Pietro

179." Tomb

of Lorenzo

de Medici

of {IlPensieroso), grandson

Lorenzo S(tn

of Dawn the figures

and Evening.

By Michelangelo. In

the Magnificent, with Lorenzo,Florence,

226

SCULPTURE.

by

order

of Clement In
; on

VII.,

was

adorned altar is is
a

with

nearly all by sculpture


and Virgiti de' the

Buonarroti.

front
one

of the

Holy
which and

Child

side of it is the tomb the tomb

of the group of GitUiano de^ Medici

Medici, in

the statue

of the Duke the other

over placed

of Dat/ allegorical figures

litght ;

on

of Lorenzo

(grandsonof

of the Dawn with whose and statue are figures Magnifico), Lorenzo^il of The known II statue as Lorenzo, Pensieroso, Evening {Eng, 179). is remarkable for the expression of intense melancholywhich pervades

180." The

Entombment

of Christ.

By Jacopo Tatti.

From

the

Sacristy of St. Mark.

it. of

Of the

allegorical figures all


"

alike full of

gloomy grandeur
"

that

Night
In the

has been National grace the


we

the most

admired.

of tender

and

peculiarto

works

Museum, Florence,is an Ivy-crowned Bacchus,full of the lassitude beauty,and admirablyexpressive other important self-indulgent god. Among Michelangelo's mention a bronze figure must of Pope Julius IL which
,

RENAISSiNCE
was

IN

ITALY.
a

227
revolt

executed converted

for the Cathedral


into
cannon.

of

Bologna,but destroyedin

and

Whilst
school

was Michelangelo

Sansoyino,after
a

in

great Venice, in which


much
a

the

master

sumamed working at Borne, Jacopo Tatti, with whom he studied, was founding
the influence
stern

of Buonarroti of the
master

was was

clearly
laid

perceptible ; but
aside and

of the

realism the

replaced by

after striving

sometimes altogethersuccessful,

bas-relief of the
Tatti's best

Entombment
on

which, though not picturesque in the effects, as producedpleasing of Christ {Eng, 180),considered one of
Gate of the of Sacristy St. Mark
at

works,

the bronze

Venice.

181.

"

The

Diana

of Fontainebleaii.

By Benvenuto works in the of

Cellini.

To Maria

Saphael
A the del
; and

of Urbino marble

one

or

two

attributed.

Statue is the

of Jonah

have sculpture in Cappella Chigi,

been

Santa

Popolo,Borne,
Elijahin
of

hand

certainlyfrom the great painter's own same place is said to be after his design
to copy

by

the Florentine imitators the

Lorenzetto.

Two without

who endeavoured Michelangelo, that Baccio inspiredit, were genius who AwiTnanati, Bandinelli's
are faults,

style Bandmelli, and

his

Bartolommeo of
means

both
most

Florence. without

for Duke Cosimo chiefly important works, though by no and

worked

the

Hercvles

Cacus, the Monument

to

228
Giovanni d^Ue
Bande

SCULPTURE.

N'ere,alid the reliefs round


Cathedral
his of the also
at

the

Choir

of
In
are

the all
too

Florence. muscles there is

work,

the

and prominent, marble copy corridor him.

want

and expression. The vitality of The of Laocoon Uffizi in is the

by

Ammanati's
were

best series tomb

the

of

productions allegoric
of Marco

figureson

the

Benavides,in the church of the Eremitani at Padua, and a


Monument Maria Santa Chiara
on

to

the the

Duke Urbino. Fountain

cesco Franof His


at

in
at

church

Neptune
Florence and

the

wanting in grace dignity, and has all the


Hercules
and

is

faults of Baccio's Cacus, Another


was

imitator
a

of Michelangelo d6

pupilof Sansovino
Pericoli,
he

named known
was

Niccol6
as

because Tribolo, in first his

always
of
was

tribulation.

One works make his which and

independent
for Matteo him
to

executed Marble
at

Strozzi,who
a

employed
San

Conduit

for

villa he

adorned

wit^

Casciano^ boys

dolphins. He afterwards sculptured two figures of and bas-reliefs for some Sibyls
one

of

the

doors

of

San After
was

Fethe pointed ap-

ironio,at Bologna. siegeof Kome, Tribolo

sculptorto
and of the
182."

the the

Pope,
Virgin,
in Casa
de-

finished the the Sansovino shrine Loreto. He

fine bas-reliefs had

Marriage of
of the

which

begun
the

Santa
was

rerseus

with

the head
In

ot Medusa.

^}

By.Benvenuto

Cellini.

the

dH Loijgia

signerof several
of which
IS

Fountains, one

Lanzij Florence.

at Fontainebleau.

RENAISsiNOE
Benvenuto
of
most

tS

ITALY.

229

native a Cellini, of the one Florence,was celebrated the world

workers
has his

in
ever

metal known.
were

Among
the

patrons
VIT.,

Pope
de'

Clement

Cardinal

Duke

Medici,the Grand Cosimo of Florence,and


I. of France. times He ence, at Flor-

Francois

lived at various

Siena, Rome, Milan, Naples, Padua, Ferrara, and


Paris.
are

In the

the of

Louvre his

there

many
the

works, of
remarkable

which is Diana

most

figure of high-relief called the {Eng, 181),


of

Nymph
It female with neck

Fontainebleau.*
a

represents
attitude
one
arm a

colossal
a

nude

in figure

bent semi-recum-

of careless grace, flung round the the


a good long-drawn

of

stag,and
of

is

specimen proportions of
form,
work,
in His

the

human

which

lighted. Cellini decelebrated most

however, is his Statue the head of of Perseus with


in the

Medusa,

Loggia dei

Lanzi, Florence
excelled such
etc.
now
as

in 1549) (cast {Eng, 182). Cellini principally in chased minor


vases,

.works,
salvers,
Salt-ceUa/r

celebrated

in the

Vienna,
enriched adorned of
a

at Schatzkamner in embossed gold and with enamels

figures high-relief and Cybele,and Neptune frieze of symbolic figuresof


with Hours and the

the

Winds, is
its
182tf." Mercury.
Bronze.

reallya
*

masterpiecein
are

Oasts
Museam

in the South

and the

Kensington Palace. Crystal

By Giovanni

da

Bologna.

In the National

Florence. Jluseinn,

2d0
way

SCtLPTURfi.
:

by

there is also a the same artist.*

SIhieldin magnificent

Windsor

Castle,said

to

be

After

Italy who
were

death, in 1564, not a singlesculptor arose Michelangelo's attained individual style. His immediate to an successors
more

in

little

than

imitators

of his

manner as

; and

among the

his later

GioYanni followers,
Douai whose in the in France

da

Bologna,known
Stefano
to

John

of

and in 1524),

works

entitle them

Giovanni's

is masterpiece

Mademo, are notica special the bronze on Mercury fiocUing


of A foot into
on

Bologna (born at onlysculptors


the

Wind,

National

Museum,

Florence, a miracle
the air.

The airyfightness. of
a

of the gods rests one messenger and is about to launch himself

the breath

bronze is
one

zephyr,
group of of his the

fine bronze

the

Rape of

the
:

SahineSy in
his Fountain work in is

the

Palazzo
at

Vecchio, Venice,
is considered of St,

scarcely

less celebrated Maderno's


convent

Bologna
fine

happiestcompositions.
chief the
statue

Cecilia in
for
a

of that their

saint

Bome, which
and

is remarkable

simplicity
and artists, aims of

and

wanting dignity
of the

to his other

productions.Both
which exists between that

these the
we

still more

followers

lost sightof the imitators,

true

and sculpture

distinction the the

provincesof
to notice

paintingand statuary. of this error in speaking


Italian is
a

It will be remembered decline time of of Greek

had

from sculpture,
a

of art ; and the history to that of Canova^ Michelangelo

of history

similar decadence

of the

styleof

the Renaissance.

Sculptureof

the Renaissance the rest

Period

in France

and

of Europe.
Benaissance contains and of Sculpture style may
a

The be well Statues from

developmentof
studied in the
the

the French

Louvre,
and

which

series of monuments The fine marble

belongingto
the

fifteenth

sixteenth in

centuries. his wife

of Peter d'"vretix Carthusian It

of

Navarre until
arose

church
was

Paris, date
the

GctXherine (TAlen^onf from the close of the

fifteenth French
*

century.
character
to

not

however, that any great artist


the

Benaissance

beginningof the sixteenth, capableof givingan essentially of the country. The sculpture
in Bohn's Autobiography is published

translation of Cellini's celebrated

Library.

RENAISSANCE

IN

FRANCE.

231

chief French sculptors of the early part of the sixteenth century were Michel Colombe, Jean Juste,and Jean Texier. The Louvre contains an extremely line bas-relief of the Strugglebetween St, Georgeand the

Dragfm^ attoibuted
and
was

to

Colombe, remarkable

boldness of
at work
on

conception, producedabout
his celebrated Tofwh

for delicacy of execution the time that Jean Juste

of Bretagne,in the church the forty-one on groups

by

which We
now

Anne qf Louis XII. and his toife, of St. Denis, and Jean Texier was engaged and bas-reliefs of the Cathedral of Chartres, he is principally known.
come

trio of great artists who have been justly called of French Jean the restorers sculpture.These were Goujon, Jean Cousin, and Germain Filon. Jean Oonjon was engaged from 1555 to 1562 in the decoration of still remain the Louvre; portionsof his work as specimensof his
to
a

easy, human in

style. graceful
frame, so much

He

adopted the
by
CelUni
a

tall slim in

favoured

of the' proportions and Frimaticcio sculpture The

painting. The largestand most

Louvre

contains is the

famous

few of his choicest works. marble group of Diana^ in

which^

of Hunting, with round the neck of a stag, the Goddess one arm adorned with bas-reliefs representing marine reclines on a pedestal full in is animals. of Henri IL : and relief a bust-portrait Another work the Descent from the Cross,two recumbent of the bas-reliefswe must name

Nymjjhs of
group from

tlieSeine,with

and unnaturally long, supplefigures, The Fontaine

fine

of Tritons and Nereids, Vegetable Market, is considered


St,

des Innocents, in the his bold treatment

masterpiece. The Doorways Goujon's


of good specimens in low the

Madou,

at

Rouen,
massacre

are

of

and projections
at

delicate execution
the of sculptor
as

relief.

Goujon was

killed,
de

while

work, in the
Cousin
Louvre
was as

of St. Bartholomew

Jean
in the

handsome

in 1572. Tomb of Pierre

Breze^at Rouen,

well

the Mausoleum

which {Bng.183),

has

been

de Chabot, now of Philippe called the masterpieceof

French sculpture of the sixteenth century. Germain Pilon was an industrious and able
finest works
were

sculptor, many
of Henri
of

of whose IL*
and

Monuments
Of these
we

of
must

kingsand
name

in the Cathedral dignitaries

of St. Denis. bear witness


female the

the Tomb

They
the

to

great vigour

and

knowledge

anatomy,

full of grace and elegance.The Louvre contains are figures double tomb, by Filon, of Bene Birague and his unfe, brated celejustly for the beautyof the bas-reliefs; a group of three female figures
;

a vase gilt supporting

of several bust-portraits

monarchs

; and

stone

bas-relief of St. Paul In t/ieNetherlands


*

preachingat At/tens.
but

few works

of

importance were

produced in

Casts of the uppor range of the

in the Crystal Palace. are sculptures

183.

"

Monument

or Admiral

Chabot,

By^Jean

Cousin.

In the Louvre.

RENAISSANCE

IN

GERMANY.

233 famous

the
the

fifteenth and
South

sixteenth

centuries.
at

The

Chimneyyiece of
of which is in and

carved

wood, in the Palais de Justice

Kensington Museum, Gnyot de Beaugrant, dating from the year 1529, fine specimenof the completed Renaissance styleof
; but

Drvges,a cast designed by Lancelot

Blondeel
an

is

extremely

decorative

ture sculpto

there

are

no

isolated statues

or

bas-reliefs in marble

be

enumerated.

of

Spain, Spain
"

Until
was

and Torrigiano confined

Stamina
to

arrived fine

from

the Italy, work of

art

mainly

the

decorative

the
were

Moorish
both in

artists. Alonzo Berruguete and influenced by the art of Italy, the were
in the EenaiBsance

Jaspar Becerra, who


are

of eminence only sculptors the assigned

Spain

period. To

the former

marble group of the Tra/nsfiguration the archbishop's throne, in the on cathedral of Toledo, and the Triumphs of Charles V. in the Alhambra ; and has
to

the

latter

formerlyin the
now

very chapelof

beautiful
a

Statue

of Our
at

Franciscan

convent

Lady of Solitude^ Madrid, but which

disappeared. Germany
the works principal produced in the in cathedrals and wood-carvings
stem

In

fifteenth and
astical other ecclesi-

sixteenth

centuries

were

buildings.The
of
the

realism

which

fifteenth century is
artists.

equally noticeable
school
was

Italian work distinguished in the productionsof first to imitation

German
and style,

The

Swabian

the

adopt the
of nature Ulm

new was was

in the work

of its masters

accurate

combined
the and

with

for beauty. Jdrg Syrlin of genuine feeling

greatest wood-carver
raised his art to
an

of Swabia.

He

disdained the aid of Cathedral

painting,
contains

position. TJlm independent

of his skill ; of these the Choir-staUs, to specimens superior many of kind the mention. deserve special everything previously produced,

fine

The and
ones

carved of
are

heroes of the heathen representing world,of Judsea, figures and the lower Christendom, are graceful, lifelike; dignified, finished with the greatest care, and display ledge thorough knowin the

which

of anatomy. The stone Fountain enriched with colour,is the was

only work

market-placeat Ulm, by this great master


trained

in any other material than wood. in his father's school, appears to have

Jdrg Syrlinthe younger, been his worthy successor.


to enumerate

It would
in

a require

volume and

merely
We

the various

fifteenth and few works


of carved with

churches sixteenth
the kind

cathedrals
the

of

carvings Germany belonging to the


the

fine

centuries.

must

only pause

to

notice

by

great Albrecht

Altar-shrine (1511) in the Landauer Benaissance and represents Christ as style,

such as the Dttrer, Monastery, which is in the Judge of the world, His

Mary

and

St. John

in earnest

at supplication

feet.

The

"k"tha collection of art-objects several Statuettes in wood contains by Diirer ; in the Museum is Albrecht there at Carlsruhe an exquisite

234
little from

SCULPTURE.

Group
the

in

of ivory, in high relief,

three

nude

female

figures
is
a

remarkable

there same great artist ; and in the British Museum carving, in hone-stone, of the Naming of St. John is attributed to him.

the

which Baptist, The

greatest German

sculptorin

stone

of

the

Kenaissance

period

184." Relief

Over

the door of

"

The Public ^Va/fs," Nuremberg.

By Adam

Kraft.

was

Adam

Kraft

of

Nuremberg.
for the road

His

works, although somewhat


of

overloaded,are remarkable Stations of the Cross, on

great power
to

expression.The
of St. death

Seven
at

the

cemetery
His way

John

Nuremberg,
of
our

are

among

his most fallen


seven

famous times

compositions. The
on

tradition will be

Saviour

having

to

remembered.

RENAISSANCE

IN

GERMANY.

235

Although the artist and given us a powerful


drama

of
is

our no

There

he has to tradition, strictly most touching realisation of the great closing less beautiful. Saviour's life. His Golgotha is scarcely the head attempt to produce effect by artificial means; has
not

adhered

eaiiWHBiiHiiJiiiiiiitiiiiiiiihiiiiib-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
185." Bronze Shrine of St. Sebald, Nuremberg.

By

Peter

Vischer.

exhaustion ; the thieves are natural of the Saviour droopswith human * lifelike. The reliefs of the Schreyer and and the Fasaion monument the altar in St. Sebald's Church, Nuremberg, well merit Scene above

study ;
many
an

and the streets and houses of Nuremberg are enriched with beautiful reliefs by this great master, in some of which there is touch of humour. Our
a

amusing

illustration the

latter

class,is taken

from

relief above

{Eng, 184),one doorway of the

of the

Public

Scales of

Nuremberg.
*

Casts

are

in tlieSouth

KensingtonMuseum.

236
At

SCULPTURE.

to any practised casting and the extent period onlj great ; His principal Peter Vischer. in this branch of statuarywas master work is the Tomb of SL SebcM at Nuremberg {Eng.186) enriched with and number of figuresof saints, apostles, a angels, amongst which the artist has introduced of the scenes his own Some ajre portrait.
was

Nuremberg alone in Germany in

the art of bronze Renaissance

the

"

of marvellous miracles, a few bold touches suffice to representations tell the tale; for example,we St. Sebald see warming himself at a fire of icicles, breath and almost of fancy we can feel the chilling
"

the white flames. decoration of the

The

canopy

of the with the

monument

combines

the

rich

Romanesque

pointedarches of the

Crothic

style.
The

only marble

work

is the Monument period


at Vienna.

of importance of the German Renaissance in Cathedral of St. Stephen Frederick the III.^ of

in Sculpture
As
we

the Seventeenth and


Italian
the

Centuries* Eighteenth

from the time the o f seventeenth beginiling century a new school arose, founded by Lorenzo Bernini,who has been proudlycalled the second Michelangelo.The faults to which we alluded in speaking Italian of the shared artists of the decadence were by this master,
seen,

have

declined sculpture rapidly

of

Michelangelo.At

whose
and
as were

works

have

been

too

much

vaunted.

In

the works

of

Bernini,

is sacrificed to effect ; and, followers, everything in the graceful of the successors of Fheidias,difficulties productions of his courted

in those

for the sake of displaying skill in overcoming them. Bernini's famous group of Apollo and Daphne {Eng. 186), in the Villa
when
"

only eighteenyears old, is a marvel of dexterous execution, but that is all. In his Bape of Proserpine^ all the faults of his in the same much later work a we see gallery,
he
was

executed Borghese,

styleexaggerated: truth is sacrificed to theatrical passion ; whilst the is greatest ignorance of anatomy and of the true limits of sculpture Giovanni The in in San manifested. of the basilica Fietdt, Laterano,
at

Rome, is
Italian the

one

of the best
not

examplesof
again Canova,
"

Bernini's
to

style.
positionof
a

did sculpture time of

attain

the

great

art

until
*

Antonio

the

contemporary
be

of the

great

Casts

of

great

KensingtonMuseum

many and the

statues

of

this

period may

studied

in the South

CrystalPalace.

SEVENTEENTH

AND

EIGHTEENTH

CENTURY.

237
to

Englishman Flaxman,
those of his
was

"

whose

works

stand out in

contrast striking

Canova Rome 300 visited travelled


on a

predecessors. born of peasant parentsat Possagno, near


a

"Venice. He
was

early gained the


with ducats. In

and prizefor sculpture, of pension


first 1802 he in 1815

in

1774

sent

to

Paris,and
mission
and
came

through France
from
to

the

Pope,
several

land, Engand

where
fine the and confirmed Flazman

he

executed

works,
others of On
as

opinion of
to

the
return
a

great
to

value

the

Elgin
convert

marbles.

his

Italyhe became

to the advanced of the day, views reUgious

and
money

spent
on

much of

time

and

the erection and


a

decoration
in his native
was

church and

village ;

made the

by

Marquisof Ischia wards Pope. He aftera

executed
statue

colossal St. the its but

of
at

Religionfor
Home,

Peter's

cardinals
the

objectedto

being placed there, and in high wrath sculptor

left the
1822.

Papal

States he

Venice, where
Canova's
and

for died in

works

are

markable re-

for

the

purity
186.
"

beauty of the figures, of the comthe simplicity position, and the finished
"

Apolloand Daphne.

By Bernini.

In the Villa Borghese. execution of every detail. life and works will be noticed in a whose and to Flaxman To him of raisingthe publictaste, and future chapter is due the honour No other what of the day so fully admire. it to sculptors teaching
"

entered

into the

of antique art, or spirit


to nature enumerate

realised

the

beauty
We

of the

and truth simplicity to It is impossible

of the best artists of the Renaissance.


all Canova's
numerous

works.

may

238
name

SCULPTURE.

the the

followingas

amongst

the Duke

most

* important

the

Tkrt^

of the Graces^ in the possession in


statue

of the Duke of possession of Paris, at Munich; Venus

Bedford; the Endymi"m, Devonshire, at Chatsworth; the

of

leavingthe Bath,
Palace ; Canova's

in

the
one

Pitti
of

Hebe,
most

beautiful he

works,

which

repeated

four times,in the possession of Albrizzi the familyof Venice ; Psyche , another favourite very
of work, in the possession Mr.

Blundell; Mars
in

and

Venus,
Palace

Buckingham {Eng. 187); the


one

Magdalene,

latest and most works, full of

his admired

of

pathetic
famous
of the

beauty ;

the the

Perseus,conqueror

Gorgon, in
the

head of the of Pope statue


XIII. in
an

Vatican ; colossal Clement

St.

Peter's,

extremelygood executed finely portrait, ; ifie and lastly, Sleeping


Li(m
the from the tomb of
same pope, considered to be this master's greatest work. Of etc., of groups,

Home,

which in
name

there

are we

no

casts
must

England,

Dasdalus and Icarus of his at Venice, one earliest works ; the Ton^
187." Mars
In

and

Venus.

By Canova.
Palace.

of Maria
Austria,
at

Christina

qf
a

Buckinyham
the

Vienna,

tion, composivery figures are admirably grouped; the TJieseus, of the Centaur,in the Volks-garten at Vienna, in which conqueror and strengthin the most thoroughknowledge of anatomy is displayed, action is admirably rendered ; and the Zephyrus carryingaway Psyclie,
in which in the Louvre.
*

beautiful

Casts of many

of these statues

are

in the

Palace. Crystal

SEVENTEENTH

AND

EIGHTEENTH

CENTURY.
use

239
of the

Oanova

was,

it is

to said,the first sculptor

claymodels

size of the work In

to be executed

in marble.

France^ in the
artist of his alike iu

remarkable
the Rubens

of the seventeenth century, we find a a risinginto notice, Pierre Puget, who was ficient proand and has been called architecture, painting, sculpture, and the French Michelangelo. sculpture, Unfortunately,
middle
was

however,
and power this of we

education

and deficient, in refinement

his

works, though full of

and finish. As instances of MUo of Crotona "md the Lion, name groups may Perseus Andromeda, and the Hercules in Repose, all in the delivering the agony In the first-named, of the victim in the claws Loavre. too vividly of the lion is almost expressed although the action ; and of the muscles is admirablyrendered, the effect of the whole is too real. painfully of the seventeenth and eighteenth Other celebrated French sculptors Antoine author of the Mausoleum centuries were Coyseyoz, of Cardinal of in the Louvre: the colossal Mazarin Oirardon, Franfoifl groups
are wanting promise,

the

"

"

of
in

Pluto

carryingaway

and Proserpine
"

the gardens of Versailles : Junction of the Seine amd Mame, Ouilianine Coustou,of the famous
Paris Elysees,
:
"

Apollocoming down to Thetis, Nicolas Coustou,of the group of the


in the Garden de

of the

Tuileries

:
"

Chevaux

Ma/rli in the

Champs

Cupid in in the Apostles,


and
of the

Bouchardon, of the charming group of Psyche fine statues the Louvre, and Christ, Mwry, and the Paris : Jean-Antoine church of St. Sulpice, Houdon,
"

Edm6

(well known in Schools of Art),the the portrait in the Certosa at Home, and statues of St. Bruno statue of the Thdatre Paris ; in the Molihre in of Rousseau Louvre, Fran9ais,

Flayed Man,

in the Louvre

and

of Washington at well combined.


In

in Philadelphia,

which

the

ideal and

real

are

decline took Germany, in the seventeenth century, a marked place in sculpture. The Thirty Years' War, which lasted from 1618
not until the close of 1648, checked all artistic effort ; and it was master the century that any great German arose, although several fine to monuments
"

such

as

those

of the
"

Emperor Maocimilian
were

at

Innspruck,
artists.

and the Elector Moriiz at Freiburg the first to Schltlter was Andreas
it still occupies. His work principal
at

erected Berlin

by

Dutch

give to

is the bronze

of the Great
a

Elector

of Saxony

Berlin

position EquestrianStatue considered {Eng. 188), justly


arose

the artistic

of art. masterpiece At the beginningof the


a

eighteenthcentury
for his true
sense

Oeorg Saphael

Donner,

master

famous

works are of conception.His principal power Rivera and of the Four qf Austria, on Chiif

beautiful,and the figures of Providence,


the

of the

Fountain

in the

of market-place

Vienna.

240
In

SCULPTURE.

AI01120 Spain,in the seventeenth century, the celebrated painter Cano gained considerable celebrityby his beautiful Altar for the
church

of

Granada, Lebrija,

which

he

designedand

carved

himself.

188."

Statue Equestrian

of the

Elector

of

Saxony. By

Schliiter.

At

Berlin.

It is considered

one

of the

finest

existing works
centre

Virfjin holdingtlieInfant Jeaua,in the


well executed.

kind : the is especially of the reredos,

of the

Sculpturein
The of influence

the Nineteenth
felt

Century *

of Canova
and

was

throughout the lengthand breadth


the their
ever

Europe.
of its liberal

He

Flaxman

revived
;

art

of

at sculpture to

the

time the
*

deepest humiliation
encouragement
statues

and
were

combined lessons,

with
true

they

ready

give

to

Casts of many and the Museum

of this

periodmay

be

studied

in the South

Kensington

CrystalPalace.

IN

THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY

IN

GERMANY.

241

had genius,

most

importantresults.
we

Foremost

amongst the immediate


Dane,
statues

fol Joinersof Canova

must

name

the celebrated

beautiful Bertel Thorwaldsen, who produced many from bas-reliefs.His talent received early recognition
was an

and who

Canova,
came

at

the of had

zenith
man.

of his

when reputation universal

Thorwaldsen
of

to Eome
a

unknown

Thorwaldsen*s excited of

first work

importance was
He appears
as

statue

which Jasotij
a

admiration.

to

have

for predilection special groups

mythologicalsubjects,
Psyche,
seen

is

proved by
to do

his

Ganymede earned
justiceto
Cathedral
in the

away the ideals of of

by

the

Cupid Ea^Uf
"

and

Achilles and
he
was

Briseis,
also able

etc. ; but

that

is Christianity

in his

great works

Copenhagen,

Christ and

John

in the preacJiing

Wihlerness,The Procession

series of bas-reliefs representing the into Babylon {Eng, 189),in the villa of Count

St, Apostles, The etc. Golgotha, Triumphal Entrance of Alexander the Twelve
to

Somariva combined

on

the lake of
sidered con-

Como

for the (repeated


one

Christianburg Palace at
works, and
in it he

Copenhagen), is
the
severe

of his finest

sim-

im
189.
"

1'.
Babylon. By

^^
Thorwaldsen.

^i

Part

of the

Triumphal

Entrance

of Alexander

into

with an easy grace of style execution medallions.Night and Morning, Of the Monuments world-famous. are by him, we must mention that at Lucerne (1821), with the famous Dying Lion, the symbol of fidelity I. at Munich, and in death ; the bronze Equestrian Statue of Maximilian at Stuttgart. the Schiller Monument Pietro Tenerani,who worked The best of Thorwaldsen's were pupils Amazon and Emile Wolff, author of the Wounded his assistant, as and plicity

beauty of form of His his own. peculiarly


strict

the Greek
two

at

Eaton

Hall, and
Heinrioh

Statue
von

of Prince

Albert

at

Osborne.

Johann
his treatment and

excelled sculptor,

in

another Banneoker, of Stuttgart, great also successful and in portrait-statues, was very

of female His

figures.His
William
on

busts

of

and Schiller,
very

Lavater,
valuable

of

Kings

Frederick and
group,

of Wurtemherg,are
the Panther which abound

likenesses.

Ariadne
"

collection at
most

Frankfort work.

copiesof
the his

famous

Towards

close of his

fine ideal statues, of which the best. are

Christ, John

a private everywhere is his life he produced many the Baptist, and Faith,
"

in (Eng.190),

242 Johann

SCULPTURE.

Oottfiied Sohadow, of Berlin,was


which style
to

the realistic His Monument

to return of the fii*st to of the Eenaissance. in the best period prevailed


one von

Count

der Mark, in the Dorotheakirche,at Berlin,

his best at Stettin, are and his Statue of Frederick tJie (ireat, among of also Wilhelm and His were works. sculptors note. sons Bndolph founded an important school, Christian Banoh, also of Berlin,who He followers. Schadow's of adopted the realistic one was greatest of the best masters the in manner style combined with the antique,

of the

Renaissance.

In

his

the happy working portrait-statues

of

190.

"

Ariatlne.

15y Danntcker.

At

Frajikjoi-t.
;
we

this double

influence is
His

noticeable especially
all the best and
men,

have

faithful but

idealised
are

in likeness,

which other

characteristics of erected

of the

broughtout. Germany,
and

Statues of JBiUow celebrated

LuUier, AWrecht
in various

subject DUrer,
towns
at

Schiller Goethe, and f


of

the Tomb

of Queen
attest

Louise,in the
more

royal Mausoleum
works complicated the Great
Berlin

{Eng, 191),are Charlottenburg


Numerous
the other monuments

instances doubt famous

of his faithful of Frederick

portraiture.
;

his skill in that

greatest of these
Drake

is without of which
was

in

Berlin,a small model


Friedrich

is in the South

KensingtonMuseum.
of the school.

another

master

IN

THE

NINETEENTH
are
a

CENTURY

IN

GEEMANY.

243
the

His

works principal of Kussia Empress ;

Madonna

and

Child, beJoDging to

of the Frofigures the eight colossal allegorical innces of Prussia, in the Royal Palace of Berlin ; the marble group on considered the Palace bridgeat Berlin,of a Warrior crovmed by Victory, to Monument of Prussian of the sculpture ; the one

masterpieces

at Berlin,the reliefs of Frederick William IIL, in the Thiergarten which are powerfully conceived ; and above all,the statues of Schinkel, life all alike full of nervous Humboldt, Ranch, and other celebrities,

and energy.

Ernst
him
at

of Dresden, iLietsohel, the

followed closely

Munich, and

of great power, who sculptor under He Studied sculpture example of Ranch. and vivid for his remarkable imagination was
was a

191.

"

Tomb

of Queen Louise.

By Kiiucb. his double

refinedfeeling for beauty. His


and Schiller 1^0
in

best works
; his Statue

are

Monument

GoetJie at Weimar

of

Lessingat

Brunswick,

traced ; be distinctly which the influence of his great master may ideal which in "^s Pteed in the Friedenskirche Sans beauty at Souci, and
of the

for the pediments combined are ; his sculptures pathetic feeling at Munich. Museum and at Berlin,and the Theatre Opera-house of great original power, who l^dwigSchwanthaler was a sculptor of Greek treatedthe worn-out mythology and of Christian subjects

legend in a fresh and truly spirit. He imbued poetical of his nndertook own with something energy, but he was
^reless about finished execution, and appearance of incompleteness.His
his works have

everything he

unfortunately
all
a

certain
are

productions principal

the

244
of the sculptures Figureof Bavaria Pediments
; and

SCULt"TURE. of the Munich Wal/ialla, of and Tilly Wr^de


;
a

colossal

ideal

the Statues world-wide

in the Generals* his

Hall, Munich.

August
Horseback

Kiss

made

a a

reputationby
at

Atnazon Exhibition

on

attacked

by

Lion,
now

exhibited

the

Great

of

1851, in Hyde Park, and

in front of the Museum

of Berlin.

192.-

Cupid. ByChaudet. for his

Ernst

von

Bandel
the

is famous

high,of
erected

Armiiiiusywhich top of the

stands

height,on

45 ft. hammered-copper figure, of sandstone 90 ft. in on a pedestal it was Detmold, where Grotenberg,near

in 1875. towards the close of the 18th

In France

century a

new

impulsewas

IN

THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY

IN

FRANCE.

245

followed the classical by Antoine Chaudet, who given to sculpture his and charming statue of producedseveral fine works, such as style, and a group of the Sheplierd Phorhas carryingaway the Cupid (Eng, 192), followers His Bosio, who were (Edipus, principal Francois young Yendome the reliefs for the famous executed Column, and designed Arch of Place the CaiTOUsel : Jean the of the' Qtuidriga Triumphal Pierre by Cortot, author of the group of Marie Antoinette supported in the the of the in Paris, 'ChapelleExpiatoire,' Religion, group
"

Pediment

of the Palais de Justice,and

the reliefson

the Arc

de

FEtoile,

representingNapoleon crowned

by Victory.

ment successful in the treatespecially Jacques Fradier,of Geneva, was in the in the Phryne (exhibited of the female figure, particularly in the and Niobe of and the Exhibition Great PaycheyAtalanta, 1851), trated and beauty is well illusHis power of representing Ix"avre. strength

by his Prometheus chained. the the few who have been able,whilst retaining Among
of the and
the

correctness

classical style, to combine


of the

it with

boldness and

freedom, were

Francis Bude,
and spirit, and

Dijon,whose
Fishemum

bronze

Young

Mercury is full of energy both in playing tvit/ia Tortoise,

of the Arc de Triomphe de in high-relief Louvre, group the Departure (Eng. 193). the Marseillaise, or as rEtoile, known is of school the Another master same FrancisqneBuret, author great of the Young Neapolitan Dancer, and the Neapolitan Improvisatoref the

Louvre. of the realistic style when most of his contemporaries As an upholder had abandoned it,we must name the of the fine groups Pierre Jean David, of Angers, author on contrast of the Pantheon Pediment of Paris,which offer a remarkable both
to

in the

General French sculpture of his day. Buonaparte and the in heroes of the Eepublic stern are represented a natural and life-like ideal figure of their native land. either side of a solemn manner on famous with David was successful especially portrait-statues ; the most in the Tuileries, of Condi at Yersailles, are perhapsthose of Philopoenien at Washington. of Comeille at Rouen, and of La Fayette Charles Simart,Foyatier(authorof the celebrated SparJouffiroy, of the Tuileries), tacus Ottin, and Cavelier,all produced fine ideal the

works

sculpture. from a single Barye,who revived the art of bronze casting skilful in in the early part of this century, was mould especially animals. of Paris contain many The gardens and museums rendering
Antoine
fine groups

of

by him.

Of these

the best

are

the

Theseus

and

Jaguar
AmMfie
Duke

devouringa hare.
Other of the latter part of this century were great sculptors of the
;

Durand, author
well known

figure of Religion on
of TJie

the tomb
a

of the
of

at Yincennes, and Johann d'Enghien,

Peter Molin,

native

Sweden,

for his

powerful group

exhibited at the Grapplers,

240 International
Exhibition

SCULPTURE.

of 1862.

Jean

Carpeanx is celebrated Baptiste

193."

The

Marseillaise.

Group by Fran9oi8 Rude. the Statues

On

the Arc

de

Paris. VEtoile^

for his group of Dancing, and Opera House in Paris.

on

the

Facade of

the

New

IN

THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY

IN

ITALY.

247

Perraud, Crank, Etex, Falgniere, Gumery, Aiiae,Millet,Thomas, Paul Dubois, Allar,Chapu, Barrias, exhibited and Gmyere, and J. L. Gerome, the painter, Cain, Clesinger
In
recent

Exhibitions

E.

G.

fine old

works, the chief characteristics of which


traditions modern and
a

were

freedom

from all the

often vergingon extravagance. daringoriginality,


of sculptors
note
are
:

Other

French

A. E. Belleuse

Carrier,

194.

"

Jenner

his inoculating

sou.

By

Monteverde.

E.

E. Tremiet,and greater Fremieuz, M. Heroic,K. de Saint-Margeaux, than any of these,Dalou, Guillamue, and Bodin, who, breakingloose for sculpfrom all the trammels of convention, inaugurated a new era ture,
in their subjects treating In many
a

and powerful

realistic

manner.

Italythe School founded by Canova and Thorwaldsen produced of different nationalities, besides those already noticecl sculptors

248

SCULPTURE.

of

whom

the and mention who of

Englishman
the Dutchman

John

Gibson, Kessel,
were

the

Germans among the


w*e

Wagner
chief.
Princess

a.nd We of and
to

Steinhauser,
must

also

Maria,
the Peri which

Duchess
Statue the of

of

Wnrtemberg,
Joan

Orleans,
the Throne group

executed
^*

of of
grave:
a

Arc True

at

Versailles,
Penitent

bringing
now

tears

the

of
a

Grace^^

adorns of Thorwaldsen.

her

Karl

Voss,

and

Xeri-

chan,
After him academic way
to

fellow-countryman
the death Canova of

Thorwaldsen,
into

the
mere

Classic

Revival
lifeless

instituted

by
with led tbe

and

degenerated
until

compliance

rules,
the

Lorenzo
of
a

Bartolini
modern in in

and Florentine his his Three Cain

Giovanni

Dnpr6

formation

Naturalistic

School.

Bartolini's Museum
at

style

is

well and

illustrated

Genii^
and

in

the in

Elsterhazy
the Pitti who side Jenner of

Vienna,
were

Diipr^'s
followed clever
as

Abel and
err
on

Palace.

They
many realism his

ably

by

Fanelli,
;

Costoli, they by
Pietro
and

others,
the

produced
too

undoubtedly
;

works

but

great

such

the

Reading

Girly

Magni,
above

inoculating Dirty
As

Son,
Forcadi.
to

by

Monteverd6

("ng.

194),

all,

7%^

Boy,
a

by

contrast

these

artists

we

may Tomb

name

Vincenzo

Consani,
Matilda rather

whose

Victory Tv^cany
modern

in in

the Lucca

Pitti

Palace,
are

and

of

the

Countess
Classic

of
than

Cathedral,
Good
at

characterised also been

by recently

feeling.
who

work

has

done

by

Bizzardo

Galli,

resides

Milaxu

Bntish

Sculfpture.
Great
Britain in be of

Amongst the in from

the

earliest

sculptures of
which

must

mentioned

strangely
the Isle the of

carved

stones

abound

Man,

Wales,
of

first centuries

Ireland, Christianity, and on


The of
a

Cornwall,

parts many and Scotland.


some

England,

They
pagan

date and
are

of them

Christian in Strathmore

symbols
\
on

are some

combined. of

most

interesting specimens

which,
other

comparatively

late date, centaurs,

lions, leopards, deer, and


etc.,
are

and processions of men afford and valuable information spirited style, oxen, and of the period of their erection. the costumes on manners But few specimens of Anglo-Saxon been sculpture have preserved. The Shrine St. St. found Alban's at of Amphihalusy lately Abbey, is the remarkable. It is and well most carved. conceived, finely among No has been in older statue than the sepulchral preserved England carved in
a

animals, with

195.

"

Effigy of the

Robert

of

Normandy.
; two
"

In

Gloucester

Cathedral,

time

of

William
of

Conqueror
"

cloisters

of

one Abbey Crispirms (died 1117) and those of St. Oswald and Bishop Wolstan (about the end of the eleventh

Westminster

of Vitcdia

in the nearly destroyed eflSigies, the other (died 1087),

(of uncertain century),in

date)
ter Worcesart.

Cathedral,
In
son

are

Gloucester of the

the earliest existing relics of monumental among Cathedral to Robert is a Monument Curthose, Irish Britain be the oak is
one

eldest of the

Conqueror. His eflSgy in coloured examples of sculpture in wood in Great British Sculpture, properly so called, may distinct periods: the Mediaeval, dating from
oldest

{Eng. 195).
divided
into

three
of

early part
from

the time

thirteenth
of

century
Elizabeth

to

the
to

Reformation of

; the

Renaissance,

the

Queen

that

Queen

Anne

from

the middle

of the

eighteenthcentury

the Modern, ; and the to present day.

dating

250
It
was

SCULPTURE. at

the

end

of the Crusades, when

acquaintancehad
made with of

been

the masterpieces

Continental
first fired ambition their

tects art, that Englisharchiwere

with

the with

of

adorning
and foliage when of its

ings build-

sculptured In figures.
century,
ture architecthe zenith in of

the thirteenth Gothic


was

at

beauty

land, Engthe
were

many finest cathedrals built the


or

and improved, mediaeval


umental mon-

best

architectural and
Great Britain From Wells

sculpture of
was

produced. perioddates

this thedral, Ca-

the noble of the west of which been have

tures sculpfront

already

described in the section ture. Architecon


In

judging of
we

the execution

must

consider that

theywere
sculpture
before the

produced
no

at a time when

school of
or

of

and existed, laws been that his

optics, perspective,
anatomy had discovered, so
"

the

artist bad
trust to but

nothingto
own

powers
was

servatio of ob-

Wells
the time when

thedral Ca-

finished at

Niccolb

Pisano
196.
"

was

reviving
in sculpture

In the

Chapter House
the

of Westminster

Abbey,

the art of

Italy,and completion of
cathedrals of

before

the

Chartres, Amiens,

and

Beauvais;

BRITISH.

251

work has, therefore, the merit of being the very of w ith earliest example a consecutive religious sculpture design. I. erected monumental Edward Stone Crosses, adorned with statues of his late wife Eleanor,wherever her body rested on its way from
and

its decorative

Grantham
crosses,
now

to

Westminster those
A
at

of

which

thirteen Abbey. There were Geddington,KorthamptoD, and copy of


one

of

these

Waltham

is at

only remain. Charing Cross

modern

of

them, by Charles Barry,


are

in London.

earliest specimensof of Henry III. and effigies


The tombs respective is very

EnglishBronze
of

Statues

the recumbent

Eleanor, wife of Edward

in Westminster

I., on their of Eleanor, which Abbey. The figure


the work

and full of simpledignity, was beautiful, who a goldsmith, (orTorelli), of sculptures Lincoln

of William

Torel
The

died about

the year

1300.

of a somewhat later date than Cathedral, those of Wells, are mark considerable in the to advance a thought but they are, unfortunately, much art of sculpture, injured. the Decorated of architecture When prevailedin England, style
statues
were

introduced

in

buildingswherever
near our

possible.In
for the

fine
are

window

in Dorchester

Church

Oxford,
Saviour's
the

instance,there
are

small figures of twenty-eight of the Lady Chapel in with scenes carved in high-relief Monuments the finest sepulchral that of

ancestors; and
all

Norwich

Cathedral date

keystones beautifully
of

from
of

Lifeof the Virgin, Some


from this

England

period;

Aymer

de Valence in Westminster

Abbey,

and

that of the BUtck

Prince in CanterburyCathedral,* are. amongst the best. of English mediaeval sculpture No works excel those remainingin of Westminster the ChapterHouse Abbey {JSng. 196). The small figures and the statues above the carved in the jambs of the entrance doorway, and the latter for door, are remarkable, the former for spirit same
"

beauty
Three
state

and

grace ; whilst each have been

is

well perfectly

suited to its

in position

the architecture. works

of the art of the door of All Souls' Sculptures


in Westminster which the

illustrative of the as by Flaxman in the reign of Edward of Englishsculpture IV. : the

selected

Oxford College,
from the back

; those

of the aich

over

"arl of Austen

of Henry V.'stomb Abbey passes and 's the of Monument VII. to the Henry Chapel; steps in St. Warwick Warwick. William (1464), Mary's Church, of the last-named the sculptor was work, which Flaxman
in
no

considered
The

respect inferior

to

the

of productions

his Italian

contemporaries.
works of Englishsculpture producedduring the reign greatest of

Henry VII. were the Statues in the Lady Chapelof Westminster, the of which number is said to have been 3000 : very few now original
great talent
and

those few suffice to give an idea of the the artists of of invention fertility employed.

remain, but

Casts

are

in the

Palace. Crystal

252

SCULPTURE.

During the reignof Henry VIIT., when


Reformation
were

the iconoclastic

of spirit

the

prevailed, many

of the finest works

of

English sculpture

destroyed ; but before his death, the arrival of the Italian Pietro and the contemporary of Michelangelo, a TorriggpiailO, gave a new
different

impulseto

the art ; and

to

him

we

owe

the

of Sculptures

the

197." Tomb

of Queen Elizabeth.'

In

Westminster

Abbey.
and accuracy
to

Tomb
them

of
in

in Henry YII., which, though superior those of the


are chapel itself,

execution

of Jproportion to The
fine

inferior certainly Elizabeth the work

vigour and
tomb

truth

to life.

Abbey

erected to the memory (Eng. 197) is said to

of Queen have
been

in Westminster

of twq

feRlTtSH.

253

John foreignersy

de

Critz

and

Maximilian

the researches prove that Hicholas Hilliard, work and the executed part of it,besides doing all the enamel of Mary Queen of Scots, of the Tomb gilding. The master-mason

Pontrain; but recent eminent atures, painterof mini-

almost
the No

which copy of Queen Elizabeth's, Cornelius Core. Abbey, was


a

her

son

James

I.

placedin

English sculptorof
produced which and sleeping, Tonib of Francis
but Monument prove with de

Keformation,
were

eminence of the arose, after the storm before the Kestoration, although a few isolated works that
a

the

artist

of England spirit have

was

not

dead
The
on

little encouragement would

revived.

the

Vere,in Westminster Abbey, and the figures of Sir GeorgeffoUis, also in the Abbey, by Hicnolas
more

famous have become under who would Stone, a sculptor of the latent which are circumstances, proofs power been
now

able favourhave

might
le

trained
at

to excellence.

The

bronze
a

EquestrianStatue of Charles
Hubert

Charing Cross,
Giovanni da

is

by

named foreigner

pupilof

of Cecil Lord Bologna. The effigy in the Carew Chapel the tomb his tomb at Stamford, and the figures on in BeddingtonChurch, are good examples of the monumental sculpture but often of them stiff and quaint, of the Elizabethan period some
"

/., SoBur,a Burghhy, on

showing great mastery


The
at this
art

of art. carried and Coins


to

in England was die-sinking Great of Seals the period. Many British in and

of

great perfection
are

that of the

preserved
of the
ponents exan

in

Museum prove that which Pisano Vittore (of sculptor


the
was Italy)

this branch Cellini

work the

were

great
As

then

in successfully practised

England.
struck
was

we illustration,

give an
was

James

Duke

of York

engraving(No. 198) of a Medal It made Lord High Admiral.


succeeded the Frenchman,
men

when of

modelled Director

by Thomas
the Mint. We have

Simon, who
now

as Briot,

to

notice the

who

present

school

of

in sculpture

England.

Gibbons, a sculptorof considerable excelled in wood-carving. Fine II., who especially


work
and
are

laid the foundations of the The earliest was Grinling mei-it of the reign of Charles

preserved

in

Windsor

and other residences other p^rts of St. Paul's Cathedral. Cajns Gabriel Cibber,a Dane^ was the author of the bas-reliefs on London and two fine allegorical the Monument of near Bridge, figures for the entrance-hall of the Bethlehem IFrenzy and Melancholy designed which for of a Lunatics, are Hospital truly terrible embodiments poeticalconceptionof madness. ^Few works of sculpture of any importance were producedin England William the of and James II., during reigns Mary, Anne, or George I. executed the Statues at Temple Bar, now John BnflhneU removed, of Dr, Bushy and others in Westand Francis Bird the Monuments

Petworth,

specimensof his Castle,at Burleigh,Chatsworth, of the nobility, in the Choir, and

254
minster

SCULPTURE.

Abbey,
none

and

the

in figures

the

Pediment

of

St.

Paul's ; but

they are
In the three and under
master.

of them

reignof

great merit. was George II.,however, great activity


had settled in London
:

of any

who foreigners,

by displayed Eonbiliac, a Frenchman,


He

Scheemakers
was

and

Buysbraok, natives

of Holland.

Roubiliac

by
and

far the

Bernini,
His in his

greatest artist of the three. in many respects to have appears


the Statue of Sir Isaac
a

studied
his the with

excelled

is masterpiece

Newton

prism

hand,

in

Library at Cambridge,which

is remarkable

19t?." Medal

struck iu honour

of James

Duke

of York.

By Thomas

Simou.

for life and Another the Monument

and vigour, work of the in

with

of nobility
is

famous

by

Roubiliac

of bearing. dignity of the on one Uloqueiice, figures

pose and

I)itke

Niyhtingale Monument
but its idea is Death and of the
was

in the

of Argyll,in Westminster same place has been


the conceits

Abbey.
much The

The

criticised;

keeping with
human

of the time.

design

by a away drapery in which title to of the the one highest positions among sculptorsof Britain is gained, in spite of such works this tour d^ foT"^' as His modelling of heads and his bis hands, perfect mastery over

kept

of the skeleton arm ; the execution it is wrapped is very fine. Roubiliac's

BRITISH.

\^

'

^y

255
. .

^-?^-'

^'^

material, and his power of throwing life into all that he touched, these qualities his great characteristics. In no works be better are can
traced British than in his statue and of
now Slidkeapearei

in the vestibule

of the

Museum. Scheemakers' and

Kujsbrack's
statues,

monumental

include principalworks for call but figures, hardly


famous

busts,
detailed

description.
trio, an Englishman, Joseph to General Wilton, acquired celebrity Wolfe in by his Monument Westminster and similar in which he works, Abbey, displayed many skill and much talent,but ignoranceof the true limits of his art. The and monument with to Wolfe, for instance,is crowded figures
Somewhat

later than

this

symbols
made

mixed

togetherin hopelessconfusion.

In

1790 Wilton
with

was

Keeper of the Royal Academy. Thomas Banks was the first Englishman who
poeticsculpture.He
would later, His models the
was

succeeded

ideal he

or

far in advance taken


on

lived of

perhapshave
notice

rank the

of his age, and amongst the master foundation his of the

had

Europe. Academy attracted


first groups,
a

exhibited

spirits Royal

of Sir Joshua

bas-relief of CcM^actactcs and

and in his of Claudius, is very grand. In this, and Love all alike remarkable FUvniSy a catching Butterfly, of form of the
j
an

Reynolds. One of his Favvilyin the jjresence the Golden Psyche seizing
for

symmetry
ary statu-

and

correctness

of

Banks outline.

intimate knowledge displayed excellence in for two of Greek

and appreciation of antique, but home he


met to

the true remained

with

no

encouragement
he celebrated of the and

England,and
years.

accepted
On his

invitation

Russia, where
one

return

he

produced his

loss

of

considered Briseis, established

the group of Achilles bewailing finest heroic statues of modern

times,which

employment. were monuments, sepulchral in which he did not escape the prevailing of his time error striving to combine and and introduce to a greater variety allegory portraiture, of subject than is admissible in statuary. Joseph Hollekens,a contemporary of Banks, although inferior to him in every other respect, excelled him in portrait-statues and busts, for which there was demand. an extraordinary John Bacon was industrious and successful sculptorof the same an the porcelainshepherds and time, who supplied the Court with much admired in his day,and executed several fine so shepherdesses of which those of Joh7i Howard and Br. Johnson, in portrait-statues,
brought
to

his fame

him

full

his commissions Unfortunately,

confined

"

St. Paul's

Cathedral,and
considered the Palace. Crystal

the

Monument The with


even

to

in Westminster CJiathavi, for Dr.


of

Abbey,
is in the
"

are

best.

model original
men
"

Johnson

None
to rank

of these

Banks except,perhaps, the restorer in the

are,

however, worthy
who sculpture, the

Flaxman,
Canova

English
of his

classic

excelled

boldness

and conceptions

beauty of his execution.

256
John

SCULPTURE.

Flaxman, the son of a modeller and dealer in plaster figures, born at York, in 1755. He commenced was studyiug at the Royal received regularlessons from but never Academy when only fifteen, Miss Denham, a lady whose genuine In 1772 he married any master. love of art was of the greatestservice to him. In 1787 Flaxman went elected and soon after his return to Italy, to England,in 1797, he was
an

Associate from

of the
was

in 1810 and of his art of modern

mician, Royal Academy. In 1800 he became an Acadeappointed Professor of Sculptureto the Academy, till his death in 1826 has the his labours been justly Canova's and Flaxman but in every branch called the author reliefs
were

that time
were

unceasing.
: even

bas-relief

Ghiberti's

too

much

like raised

paintings ;

English master

recognised fully

covered the tru^ limits of his art. The study of the relics of antiquitydisin Italy of the the at present century brought the beginning
contrast

betwe^

the

severe

of simplicity

Greek

reliefs and value Of the

the affected He
was

mannerism also
one

of those

of modern other

vividlybefore sculptors
; and

him.

of the first to best

at their true appreciate

Wells, Lincoln, and


are

cathedrals

his Lectures his


own

of sculptures on Sculpture

still the

in the
to

English language.
Collins at

work, the
to Lord

bas-relief Monument and Mansfield,


a

Chichester, the

Monument

that of the of

Group
of

of the

Michael Arclia7igel bis model

one

Statues Aix"llo, and Pitt,

WiUiam

Church, Hampshire, Barings^in Micheldever Satan, a Figure of Psyche, vanquishing Sir Joshua Reynolds^ Michelangelo, l^apfiaeJ, the most of the Shield of Achilles, are among

and original
to have

valuable.
been real

The

last-named, taken
18th into book
an

from

the

of the shield of Achilles


a

in the combined

of the united

Iliad

description (by some supposed


on

shield, by.others
one

ideal founded whole

various

of pieces of the of his He of

antique work

by

the

genius

of art, full work is universally allowed to be a magnificent poet), for less famous and imagination.Flaxman was scarcely poetic feeling

of both

designsof various kinds are preserved in the

than Hall

for his of the

supplied Wedgwood, the restorer of with for many art, designs groups, medallions,and bas-reliefs. Sir Francis eminently successful in historical and Chantrey was to those of contrast portrait statuary. His works present a striking
an

sculptures ; a fine collection London. UniversityCollege, English pottery to the rank

Flaxman, and
Sir Francis
at

in many is said to have been resemble

respectsthose
indebted
career.

of

Nollekens, to whom
and of ment encouragethe Sleeping

for assistance The

the

beginning
and

of

his

Children,in Lichfield Cathedral

group considered is (1818), of portraits among known


at

bronze composition. Marble and Bishop Ileber, are Washington,

William

Chantrey's finest Pitty George


works. of his

his well-known and

Edward

Bailey studied
manner.

under

Flaxman,

much acquired

great master's
considerable

He

is best his

Fountaiti, in the

PhilosophicInstitute

his group of JSve at the he showed in which Bristol,

by

poeticfeeling. In

public monuments

and

architec-

BtiiTtsa.

257

sculptures Baileywas not so successful. We may instance his ingham Nelsott on the column in Trafalgar Square and the Pediments of BuckPalace as proofs. of great genius,who John spent the Gibson, an Englishsculptor
tural

greater part of his life at Rome, is famous for his introduction of shown in London which at was colour in statuary his tinted Vetius^ this of 1862, having excited a warm the Exhibition controversy on with but in some three studied for Canova, Gibson years subject.
"

his master, whose respects he surpassed


Gibson Aurora and

fame

was

on

the

wane a

when

Gibson's first work of importance was unfasteningIter Sandal, followed by groups of Psyche borne left his studio.

Nyinpft by Zephyr,
the Hunter

from tlie Waves, rising his Dog, all full of severe

the and

Wounded

Amazon, and
Of

digni6edbeauty.

his

portrait-

and Queen Victoria statues, those of Huskisson, Peel,GeorgeStep/ienson, fine collection of his a On his death, Gibson the best. bequeathed are

199." The

SleepingChildren. By Chantrey. In LichfiddCathedral.


nation
:

and sculptures

models

to the British

they are

now

in

suite

House. of ffalleries in Burlington James Siehard Wyatt was


at Rome, principally

an

industrious His
on

where

he

died. he
was

executed

for the
a

Queen when
thorn from among

who worked sculptor Windsor at Castle, Penelope, visit to England,and his a in the

Xyinph taking of her Majesty, are

tlt^foot of Iter Hound, also


his finest works.

possession

of some fame who studied Sir Siehard Westmaoott was a sculptor the about He time as Gibson. succeeded Flaxat same under Canova at the Royal Academy in 1827. The Professor of Sculpture as man

works

by

which

he is best

known

are

his monumental

statues,such

as

Cliarles James Fox, in "Westminster Abbey, dral. Abercrombie and Lord CoUingwoodin St. PauFs Catheand of ^StVlialph of the Pediment of the British Museum, the Statue The sculptures of of Fox in BloomsburySquare, Canning in Palace Yard, and the Duke
those of WiUiofln Pitt and

258

SCULPTUftE.
on

of York
rests

the York
are

column, the Equestrian Statue of George lit,


same

at

Windsor,

by

the

ai*tist. The

fame

of Sir Eicbard

Westmacott

his havingbroken on principally through the habit so long prevalent with portraiture in monumental in England of combining allegory for eicample, In the Monument the to Sir RcdpfiAbercrovibie, art. hero is of instead a a supported by Highlander symbolic figure. dying

Patrick

Haodowell

was

an

Irishman the the Great

Readhig

Girl,exhibited at admired. He was


the foot of the the and

Exhibition
the

of considerable whose talent, of 1862, was versally unigroup

of sculptor Memorial. of the

representing

Europe

at

Albert author

Samuel
Westminster

Joseph was
Abbey,

fine Statue

of Wilberforce in

that
a

of Wilkie in the National

Gallery. He

found

employment as of great promise,was the author of HnBgrave Watson, a sculptor of Flaxman in the London fine the seated Statue of a University; Oxford College, ; group of Lords Eldon and StoweU,at the University in the fire and of a bas-belief to 2"r. Comieronj which was at destroyed the ChapelRoyal,Savoy,in 1864. Baron Haroclietti was Italian sculptor of merit who settled in an in his His colossal of Bic^iard Coeur de career. England early figure
Lion, in Old
Palace

his chief

modeller of busts.

Yard, Westminster, is
of Emmanuel

one

of his best works


at Philibert,

in

England.
tomb

His

Statue Equestrian

Turin, the

of EeUini in the cemetery of P^re Lachaise,the Grand AUar ofthe Paris,and Statues of the Emperor NapoleonIII, and the Madeleiiie, Dtike of Orleans,are also very fine.

John
and

known of the as superintendent Thomas, who is chiefiy the New the ornamentation Houses of carvers employed on few independent works, of which the producedsome of the

masons

liament, of Par-

marble

group

Queeiiof the Britons


will

rousing/*""
be

to Subjects
as

Thomas pi'incipal.

always
men or or

remembered
wood which and has of talent

the

revenge is the of that head

largeschool of
in the Gothic ranks

carvers

in stone many church


more

and

he

of which
a

helpedto form, and of geniushave some


built since
the the

appeared. Hardly
j and in
"

mansion

been

Revival, without

less architectural
"

carvingbeing

troduced in-

importantworks

as such, for example,

Palace

the decorations of Westminster He deserves of no small merit. that he did and the influence who died of Sir

have which in

included
he

statues, many
over

both special recognition

of them for the work


this branch

exercised

of art.

William
statues
:

Behnea,
in

1864,

was

successful with
in

portrait

of which

that

RobeH

Peel

London, and Cheapside,

of

GeorgeIV*
Other

Dublin, are

presentcentury are Bacchus, and Youtli at the Stream, the group of Asia on the Albert Memorial, with his equestrian portraits of Lord Harditige and Sir JamAs his best works. Ouiram, are among
J. H.
Ino and

of note sculptors of whose Dublin, Foley

the best. among of the latter half of the

BRITISH.

259
of of

Alfred
the best

Q,

Steveni,
of

an

earnest

student

Michelangelo,
the

was

one

of who

originators
in of

decorative

designs

present
combined
limits

century,
a

worked

bronze,
the

marble,
with
a

iron, and

silver, and
of the

thorough sculpture.
St. the

mastery
His finest

technique
work,
not

recognition
to

true

of
in

Monument
until

the

Duke his

qf Wellington,
death,
in Great the is
one

Paul's
most

Cathedral,
successful Sir
in

completed
of

after

of

pieces
E.
of the

architectural

sculpture
the

Britain.

G.

Boehm,

E.A.,

was

artist
at

of

Equestrian
Corner,
B.

Statue

honour whose

DiiJce
were

of WeUingt"n,

Hyde
H.
were

Park

London,

and A. W.

works

Monro,
E.

J. G. B.

chiefly portrait statues. Longli, L. Haodonald,


and and

Hoble,

J.

Philip,

Theed,
of such

Stephens,
statues

C.

B.
;

Birch
and

all noted

chiefly
works,
rharaoKa

portrait
as

busts

Benjamin
qf
the

sculptors, Spence, whose


Lavinia,
of and

the
y

Highland
are

Mary^
noted

Lcidy
for
their the for

Lakey

Daughter
Woolner,
his bust

remarkable
was

Thomas
work
;

R.A.,

imaginative power. and delicacy grace

his

portraits being especially


most

successful.

Among

the

important
who

of

living Sculptors
the bronze group

are

Sir

Frederick
An

Leighton,
Btrvjggliny

P.R.A.,
u"Uh
a

modelled
"

of

Athlete

of which Python was purchased by the Trustees Museum Chant the South in the Kensington Bequest, and is now ; rey Alfred of Queen seated Statue Victoria, Gilbert, B.A., designer of the and the in Piccadilly, London, at Winchester, Memorial, Shaftesbury

and

whose

Statuettes

of

Icarus in

and

Peraeua in
to

are

amongst
times

the

finest

pieces
A.B. of TJie

of

sculpture produced
author of the fine

England
etc.

modern
at

; Onslow

Ford,
statues

A.,

Monument

Shelley
Medea B.

Oxford,

and

Singer, Music,
of of The

Dancing,
The
; T.

; Hamo

Thomycroft,
show

B.A.,
earnest

whose ciation appre-

Statues

Mower,
A.B.

Reaper,
whose G.

and

his
of and who

Greelt

sculpture
A.,
;

Brock,
Hownds

A., author
in Leash

The

Genius

qf
are
a

Poetry;

H.

Bates,
much

Pandora
has

worthy
taste We for

of

praise
mention
B.A. known

G.

Frampton,
of

A.B.A.,

revived

beautiful
also

bas-reliefs.
as

must

sculptors
T.

note"

H.

H.
;
as

Armstead,
well
as

B.A.; George

Calder

Marshall,
well

and

Nelson

MacLean reliefs

Tinworth,

for

his

terra-cotta

of sacred

subjects.

American

Sc^ilj^ture.
sculptors
from artists time have
to

In whose and them

America

works
elsewhere.

successful many have exhibited been Most We of these may


a

arisen time in

of

late

years,

Paris, London,
many
of

studied

in

Italy, where
for
young. much the

still reside.

name

Thomas
resided work in
was

Crawford,
at
a

sculptor of
who
to

Kome,
Monument Ranch's

and

died

when

promise, who still quite


at

many His

years chief

Washington,
Monument the central

Richmond,
to

resembling
Great. Of

design this important


Statues and The
cast

well-known

Frederick

composition
at

of

Jefferson, Lee, and


Munich work
at

Patrick
the time

Equestrian Figure, with the been Kerry, had completed


of the
to

in bronze of

artist's

death

in

1857.
an

was completion sculptor of eminence. in Florence, was Hiram lived many Powers, who years admired Slave much in the Great in England ; his Greek was Statues His Eve of 185L after the Fall, and his Portrait his best FramJdin, Webster, and Waahingtmi, are amongst

the

entrusted

Bandolph

Bogers,
well

American

known

Exhibition of

Benjamin
He

works.

died

in 1873.

Horatio

Greenongh
elaborate colossal

is

best

known

by

the the He

MotiumeiU

mi

Bunker's

Hill;
and

the the

27ie Rescue, on group, of Washington, Statue

portico of
lived for

the

Capitol
years in

many

Florence, where
Edward
that
to

he

died

in

1852.

Sheffield
was

Bartholomew

began
Blind Honier He

life

as

he

colour-blind,turned
his his 1858. lived model best of work.

his attention

to

painter, but finding sculptura He went


him

Rome, Eve Rejjentant is


where he died in

where

made
most

celebrated. life in

His

lived

of his

Italy,

Paul

Akers
ideal

(Benjamin)
works Saint died in of much Elizabeth 1861.

many the Lion, and

he executed chiefly in Rome, where Pearl IMa and The Lost Diver, beauty. celebrated his most are ofUungan^ among

works. William His

He

Wwivan

Henry of Sa/inaria
R.

Binehart
is

life in Rome. spent nearly all his professional


one

of his best

works.

He

died

in

1874.

Thomas

Gould,
Adams

who

studied who

in

Wind;
aivd Bronze whose

John

Jackson,
Randolph

lived of

for his West Florence, celebrated of Eve in Florence, author

the dead Doors

Abel;
of the

Rogers,

Rome,

the W.
are

author

of

the

fine

Cleopatra

and

W. Capitol at Washington. Libyan Sibyl (Eng. 200)

Story, of Rome,
very

successful;

AMERICAN.

2G1
for his colossal

Thomas
Statue

Bell, who
of whose

resides in Florence,and is well known


his monumental work Thomas

Washington and
best of (pupil

Brown,
W.

is

CouPER

Kibke sculpture ; Henry of Statue General Scott; Equestrian well known for his charming Statues Ball),
an

200. -The

labyaa Sibjl. By

W.

W.

Story.

of

and Coming of Spring ; Psyche, in

mount

Powers

Jacob dent Ezekiel, who is resiRome, the author of the group of Religious in FairLiberty Florence Park, Philadelphia; Freeman, a pupil of Hiram in Floi-ence, whose Putii and friezes for chimneysculptured

Moses

262

SCULPTURE.

pieces
his The whose
a

have

been group, Samaritan of in

much Pecbce
;

admired and Harriet Cenci who has

Daniel
;

C.
I. S,
a

French, Hartley,

best the

known

for of

colossal

War

sculptor
in B.
;

Young
Statue

Hoshbr,
been much Tfie

pupil
admired

of

Gibson
;

Borne,
also

Beatrice

C.

IvBs,
Admonia works
statues

resident of A.

Rome,
whose

sculptured

Infant
is
one

Bctcehus

Lewis,
J.

Rome,

Marriage
celebrated

of HiawatJia
for the of Tim
carver

of
busts

her

best and

; ;
;

W.

Macdonald, Meade, Milmore, Palmer,


in
war
a

his fine

portrait
Statue

Larkin Martin Erastus

the the

sculptor
author

of

of

President
at

Lincoln Boston who

Soldiers' of The
cameos

Monument
;

well-known such of

John

Rogers,
Augustus and of

delights

subjects,
the

as

Picket

Guard;

Saint-Gaudens,
successful groups of The

sculptor
the

Statue

of
;

Hiawatha,
and J.

many the

at

Chicago
on

Exposition
steps
of the

Q.
at

A.

Ward,

author

Freed

Man,

the

Capitol

Washington.

BIOGRAPHICAL
CELEBRATED ARCHITECTS
AND

INDEX.
SCULPTORS

{DECEASED),

Am. Br, Dan. h.

American. British. Danish.


;

Fl,
Fr. Cfer. about
; Ar.

Flemish. French.
German.
;

Or,

Greek, Italian.

lU

Sp. Spanisli.

born

; d,

died

ab.

Architect

Gp.

Group

Sc.

Sculpture

; SL

Statue

Eq. Equestrian.
PAGE

Adam,
Adam,
AoELADAS

James,
Robert,
OF

Br. Br.

ar. ar.

b. at
b. Or, at
se.

Kirkaldy,

1780

(?), d. 1794.
d.

Designe*!
Adclphi Group,

Portland

Place London

140 140 168


...

Kirkaldy, 1728,
lived Rhodes
at ab. 520 80 ab. 440
b.c. n.".

1792.
Chariot

Terrace,

Arooa,
Or,
se,

Olympia
... ...

Agesander,
AoNOLO
OF

lived
It.
se. SC,

at

ab. Siena
ab.

Gp.,
Sc.

Laocoon
...

181

SiEKA,
Or.
of

Uved
at

1340.
b.c.

on

Facade,
at

Orvieto Rhamnus

Cathedral
...

209

Agoracritus,
Agobtino

lived
//.
se.

Pares

St., Neinesis,
" 1344. T"mb d. 1861.

173
Arezzo
...

Siena,

lived
Am.

between
se.

1300 in

of Bishop,
Diana dt
os

209 260 173


...

AKER8,
Alcamenes,

Benjamin Or,
se.

(Paul),
lived
se, near

b. ab.

Maine,
b.c.

1825, St.,
The

Endymlon

at

Athens

444

Venus Certosa

of
...

Mel

(?)
... ...

Ahadeo,
Amman

Giov.,
ATI,

//.

Paira, 1447, d.
It.
sc.

1522.

221 Tomb
on

Baktolommeo,
Benedetto,
of

b.

in

Florence, 1511,
at Parma
a.d.

d. 1592.
Sc.

at

Urbino
...

229 204 61 182 52


...

Antelami,
Anthrmios

It

sc.

worked
ar.

ab. 532. ab.

1190. St, 240


B.C.

Baptistery

Thralbs,
sc,

Or. at

lived
"
a.d.

ab.

Sophia, Constantinople
Warriors and
B.c.

Antigonur, Apollodorus,
Apollonius

Or.

lived
ar,

Athens

Pergamus
114. at 320

of

Attnlus

Rom,
of

lived
Or, at

ab.
sc,

Trajan
Rhodes
B.C.

Column ab. 80

Forurn,

Rome Bull

Tralles,
G^.
"c.

worked ab.
de

Gp.,

Famese

181 181

Aristodemus,
Arnolfo
di

lived
It,
sc.

Sieyon

Pupil

of Lysipptis
1310.

...

...

Cambrio,
Or.
sc.

b. Colle
at

Val
ab.

d'Elsa, 1232, d.
80 1420
B.C.

Sc,

Duomo,
...

Flor.
...

209 181

Athrnodorus,

lived
sc,

Rhodes
between

Gp.,
1470.

Laocoon Earl

Austen,
Bacon,

William, John,
E.

Br,

worked
b. in

"

of Warwick,
Man.
to

War\^ick

251 255 256 244

R. A., Br. R. A., Br.


,

sc.

Southwark,

1740, d. 1799.
Eve

Pitt, Guildhall
Bristol

Bailey, Bandel,

H.

sc,

b. at Bristol, 1788, d. 1867. b. at Ausbach,

at

the Fountain,

Ernst

von,

Oer. It.
sc.

sc.

1800,

d. 1876.
1559.

-"4nnirti""onGrotenberg
Bas-reliefs, Duomo,
Achilles

Bandinelli,

Baccio, R.A.,
It,
se,

b. in

Florence, 1488, d. lAmbeth,


ab.

Flor.

227
255 204

Banks,
Bar
MAN

Th.,
us, Ed. Sir

Br.

se,

b. in
at
ar. ar.

1735,
1180.

d. 1805. Bronze

"C*Briseis, London

worked
Br. Br,

Monreale
b. in

Gale,

Monreale
...

Barry,

M.,
C,

R.A., R.A.,

London,

1830,

d. 1880.
d.

Burlington
1860. d.

House
...

145 142 260

Barry,

b. in
Am.
sc.

Westminster,
b.

1795,

H,
1858.

of

Parliatncnt Homer

Bartholomew,

Edwards.,

in Connecticut,

1822,

Blind

264

BIOGRAPHICAL

INDEX.

Baetolini, h.,It.8c. b. nr. Sarignano,1777,d. 1850. Barte, Antoine, Fr. sc. b. in Paris,1795,d. 1875. Beaugrant,
Guyot db, Fl,
sc.

Cupid
Bronze

tk

Bacchants,Chatsworth
...

248 a45 233 233

figures of Animals
Madrid

lived at

Bruges,1529.

Chimtvey-pi^iee^ Bruges
Madonna,
Lord ChUdrtn Mansfield's Peter's

...

Becbrra, Jaspar, Sp. sc, Behnes, William, Bernini,


Gio. Br.
sc,

b. at Bacza, 1520, d. 1570.


b. in
sc.

...

London, 1795, d. 1870.

2oS

L., It. ar. "

b. at

Naples,1599, d.

1680.

Colonnade,St.

105, 23e
233 259 253 233 259 181 230 204 105 245 239 101

Toledo Transfig., Bebruquete, a., Sp. sc. b. at Paredes deNava, 1480, d. 1561. PortraU Statue b. d, Br, 1893. sc. 1832, Birch, C. B., A.KA., Bird, Francis, Br. sc. b. in London, 1667, d. 1731. Conversion of St. Paul, St. Paul's
... ...

Blondeel, Lancelot, Fl. sc. b. BoEHM, Sir G. E., R.A., Br. sc. BoETHUS, Bologna,
Bon NANO, Gr.
sc.

at

Bruges,1495, d.
Vienna, 1834,
B.C.

1560.

Chimney-piece, Bruges
Portrait Statue
...

b. at

d. 1890.

lived at

Sicyonab.
b. at

320

Pupil of Lysippus
1524, d. 1608.
St. of

...

...

Giovanni

da, It. sc.

Douai,
b. at

Mercury, Florence
...
...

7i5."c. worked

at Pisa ab. 1180.

Leaning

Toicer

of Pisa

BoRROMiNi, Francesco, Bosio, Francois, Fr. sc. BoucHARDON, Edm^,


Fr.

It.

ar.

sc.

Bissone,1599,
d. 1762.

d. 1667.

Churches, Rome
...

b. at
SC.

Monaco, 1759, d. 1845. at'Chauraont, 1698,

Vend6ine

Column, Paris
d^

b.

Cupid
St.
*

Psyche,Louvre
...

Bramante, Donato, It. ar. b. near Urbino, 1444, d. 1514. Britton, J.,Br. ar. b. at Kingston,Wilte, 1771, d. 1857.

Rome Peter's,

Cathedral

Bruogemann, Hans,
Brunellbschi, Brunellesco,
It.
ar.

Ger.

sc.

b. at

Husum,
b. in

ab. 1480. Schleswig, S. Maria

Antiq.,*kc. 144 Altar,SclileswigC. 208


99 214 178 103 221
142

h. in Florence,1377, d. 1446.
sc.

del Fiore, Florence

Filippo, It.

ar.

Florence,1877, d.
b.c.

1446.

Beliefs, Bargello
...

Brtaxis, Gr. sc. lived at Rhodes BuoNAROTTi, M., It. nr. k sc. b. Buono, Bartolommeo, It. sc. b. Burton, Decimqs,
Br.
ar.

ab. 380

Sc.

on

Tomb

of Mausolus
St.

at Castel

1475, d. 1564. Caprese,


d. 1881. Athenaeum

Rome Peter's,
...

at

Venice, 1410, d. 1470.

Churches,Venice
Club, London

b. in

London, 1800,

d. in London, 1701. St., Kitigson Temple Bar Bushnell, J.,Br. sc. h. ab. 1640 (?), b. Agostino It. Pa via d. 1550. Sc, Certosa, sc. near BusTi, Pavia, 1480, (Bambaja),

253 221 168

Calamis, Gallon,
Canachus

Gr.

sc.

lived at Athens
ar.

ab. 480
B.C.

B.c.

Bacc-horses for Chariots

..

...

Callicrates,
(yr.
of

Gr.

lived ab. 440

The
B.c.

Parthenon, Athens

...

...

87 171
168 240 236 246 229

"c.

lived in

iEginaab.480
sc.

St., Temple of ^gina


b.c

...

...

Sicyon,

Gr.

lived ab. 500

St. of Apollo,colossal

...

...

Cano, Alonzo, Sp. sc. b. Canoya, Antonio, It. sc. Carpeaux,


J.

at

Granada, 1601, d. 1667.

b. at

Possagnonear

Virgin and Child, Granada Hebe, Venice Venice, 1757, d. 1822.

B., Fr,
Gr. F.

sc.

b. at Valenciennes, 1827, d. 1875. Dancing, N.

Opera House

Cellini, Benvenuto, Cephisodotus,


Chalgrin, Chambers,
Jean Sir
sc.

It, sc. b. in

Florence,1500, d. 1571.
ab. 380
b.c.

St. of

Florence Perseus,
...

lived at Athens
ar.

The d. 1811.

Wrestlers, Florence
Arcde

179
110 140 256

T., Fr.
R.

b. in
ar.

Paris,1739,

Triomphe, Paris
Somerset House

Wm.,
Br. b. at

A., Br.
b.
nr.

b. at

Stockholm, 1729, d. 1796.


St. of

Chantret, Chapu, Chares,


Fr. Gr.

SirF.,
sc. sc,

sc.

Sheffield, 1781, d. 1842.


d. 1891.
B.C.

Lichfield Sleeping Children,


House
... ...
...

Paris,1833,
Fr.

Opera

247
180 245 263

lived in Rhodes

ab. 260
b. in

Colossus

of Modes

...

...

sc. Chaudet, Antoine-Denis, CiBBER, C. 0.,Dan. sc. b. at Flensburg,1630, d. in London, 1700. Madness, 8. K. Mus. Tamb Civitale, Matteo, It, sc, b, at Lucca, 1435, d. 1501. of Pietro da Noceto
...

Paris,1763, d. 1810.

St. of Peace, Tuileries

221

BIOGRAPHICAL

IND^ML

a
,
.

,265
,
.

PAOR

Ci^iEOiCENES, CooKEBBLL,
CoLOMBE,

Or, C.

ac

Uved

at Athens

ab. 160 B.C.

St., Venxis de' Medici


1863. 1514.

...

...

187
142 231

R., Br. Michel, Ft.


Gr,
ae.

ar. ac.

h. in
b. at

London, 1788, d. Tours, 1430, d.


ab. 80 B.o.

TaylorBuildings,Oxford
Louvre
...

George A Dragon, St.,


...

CoiXTTEs,

lived at Paros ab. 440 B.O.


ae.

St., Athena, at Elis

173
190 245 231 239 239 239 260 99 253 140 241 245 106

CoFONiirs,
CoRTOT, Cousin,

Som,

lived at Rome
ae.

St.,Barbariana
1843. Sc.
on

...

...

Jean"Pierrk, Fr.

b. in

Paris,1787, d.

Are

Paris d'Etoile,

CousTou,
CousTou,

to Philippede Chahot Monument Jbam, Fr. ae. b. near Sens,1501, d. 1589. Paris GuiLLAiTMR, Fr. ac. b. in Paris,1716, d. 1777. Marli fforaea,

...

Nicolas,

Fr.

ae.

b. at
b.

C'OYSEVox, Crawford,

Antoine, Fr. Toomas, Am.

It. ar. h. in Cronaca, Cure, Cornelius, Br.

Tomb of Mazarin, Louvre York, 1814, d. 1857. Washington Monument /itrozzi Florence,1463, d. 1508. Palace,Florence between Tomb of Mary,' worked 1480 " 1520. Q. of Scots ae.
ae. ae.

Lyons, 1658, d. 1783. at Lyons, 1640, d. 1720.

"Seine and

Mame,

Tuileries

b. in New

...

Dance, George, R.A., Br. ar.b. in London, 1740, d. 1825. NetogalePrison Danneckbr, Johann 1758,d. 1841. Ariadne, Frankfort von, Ger. sc. b. at Stuttgart,
David,
De

Pierre-Jean, Fr.
OF

ae.

b. at

Angers, 1789, d.
b.c.

1856.

Sc.

on

Pantheon, Paris
Paris Tuileriea,
... ...

Lorme, Philibert, Fr. Crete, (DoNATO


G. Gr.
Di ac.

ar.

h. at Lyons, 1500, d. 1577.

Th^

DiPiENUS

lived ab. 580

Dioscuri, Argos

168 214 239 242 110 248 245

DoNATELLO

Betti

Bardo), It. ac. b. in Flor.,1386, d. 1466.

St.,^. George

d. 1741. Perseus "tAndromeda, Vienna ac. b. at Essling,1695, KiLFii.,Ger. Warrior Drake, Friedrich, Ger. sc. b. at Pyrmont, 1805, d. 1882. crowned, Berlin J""/" dea Beaux Arts, Paris Dl^ban, Felix, Fr. ar. b. in Paris, 1798, d. 1871.

DoNNER,

...

Ddpr", DURAND, DuHER, DuRBT,

Giovanni.

It.

sc. se.

b. at

Siena,1817, d.

1882.

Cain

id

Abel, Pitti Palace

...

AnfeoiE, Fr.

b. 1789, d. in Paris,1873.
b. at
se.

Vinccnnes Religion,

...

A., (hr. sc. " pa. Francisque, Fr.


Br. DA,
ar,

Niimberg, 1471, d.
Paris,1804, d.
1862.

1528.

Altar-shrine, Landauer

233 245 142 218 98 222 256 259 144


...

b. in

1865.

Elmes, James, F1E8OLE,


MiNO

b. in
se.

London, 1782, d.

in La Madeleine Christ., St. George's Hall, Liverpool Tomb

It.

b. in Florence, 1400, d. 1486.

Filarbte, An., It. ar. b. in Florence ab. 1410, d. 1470. FiORE, Anoelo, It. se. b. at Naplesab. 1430, d. ab. 1600. Tomb, S.Domenico, Naples West. Abbey Flaxman, J.,R.A.,5r. se. b. at York, 1755,d. 1826. Lord Mansfield, Foley,
J.

0/ Pope Paul II. Maggiore, Milan Ospedale


...

H., Br.

ac.

b. in

Dublin, 1818, d. 1874.


1828, d. Balysinnin, 1793, d. Bussiire,
b. in
ar.

Eq., Lord
1865. S. 1863. New

Calcutta ffardinge,

FowKE, F., ILE., Br. ar. FoYATiKR, Denis, Fr. sc.


Garni EB, Jean

b. at b. at
ar.

Kensington Museum

Louis, Fr.
von,

Paris,1825.

in Tuileries Spartaeus, Opera House, Paris

245 110 109 213 258

Gartner,

Friedrich

Ger. b. in

b. at Coblenz, 1792.
1455.

Triumphal Arch, Ratisbon


Galea

Ghibrrti, Lorenzo, It. ac. Gibbons, Grinlino, Br. Gibbs, James, Br. ar. b.
sc. near

Florence,1378, d.

oftha Baptistery
Wood

b. at Rotterdam, 1648

d. 1721. (?),

carvings

...

Aberdeen, 1674, d. 1754.

St. Martin* s-in-the-Fields


...

140

Gibson, John, Br. ae. b. near Conway, 1790, d. at Rome, 1866. Venus, Rome Palazzo del Conaiglio, Verona GiocoNDO, Fra, //. ar. b. at Verona, 1430, d. 1529. Florence Giotto, It. ar. kpa. b. at Vespignano,1266, d. 1336. Campanile, GiRARDON,
ae. b. at Troyes, 1630, d. 1715. Gislebertus,Ger. ae. worked at Autun (Burgundy)ab. 1180. Pediment of Calh. Qlaucus OF Chios, Gr, ae. lived ab. 680 b.c. (?). Invented brons" coating

257
105 92 239 202

...

F., Fr.

Pluto and

Versailles Proaerpine,

...

167

266

BIOGRAPHICAL

INDEX.

d. 1572. So. on front of the louvre Jp.AN,Fr. se. b. 1535 (?), Am, b. in St of Washinfff^n sr. Horatio, Boston, Orebnouoh, 1805, d. 1852.

GouJON,

...

...

231 260
209

...

GUOLIBLMO,

Fba,

It.

se.

b. at Pisa ab. 1238, d. 1312.


ar,

Beliefs, Bologne
1858. Public

...

...

Hamilton,

Thomab,

Br,

b. in

HAK8EK, Theo., Dan. ar. Habdwior, p., R. a., Br. Hawksmoob, Nicholas,
Heotlrs
Heo
RSI

b. at
ar.

1785, d, Scotland, Copenhagen,1818.

Ediubni-gh High School,


Buildings, Vienna Goldsmiths' Hall, London
...

142

109
142

h. in London, 1792, d. 1870.


ar.

Br.
sc

b. in Notts, 1661, d. 1736.


b.c. B.C.

or

Sparta,
Juan

Or.

lived ab. 550


ab. 480

Churches, London St.,Hercules,in wood


... ...

139 168 171

...

A8, (?r. "j. lived at Athens dr,


sc.

Herrbra,

Sp. ar.
ar. ar.

b. at

St, Temple of jEgiva Santillana ab. 1530, d. (?). Eseurial,Madrid


1619.

...

107
...

Hilliard, N., Br. Hittorf, Jakob, Holland, Houdon, Huv4, Henry, Holt, Thomas,
Jean-

" pa. b. at b. at

Exeter,1547, d.

Tombof Assisted,
8. Vincent

Q. Elisabeth

25.') 110 142 1-^5

Ger. Br.
ar,

Cologne,1792, d.

1867.

de Paul, Paris
...

b. ab. 1740, d. 1806.

Claremont

House, Esher
Oxford Schools,

Br,

b. at York, d. at Oxford, 1624.


se. ar.

Public

...

J.-Antoine, Fr.

b. at Versailles, 1740,d. 1828. b. at


B.C. near

Jacques,
Br.

Fr.

1783, Versailles,
The

d. 1852.

VoUairc,Th. Fran5ais Madeleine, Paris


... ...
...

239 110 87

Iotinus, (?r. ar.

lived ab. 440


ar.

PartAeiwm, Athens

...

Inwood, William,
IsoDOBUA
OF

b.

Iaioonus, Gr.'sc. lived Miletus,


Jerichau, J. A., Dan. Jones, Inioo, Br.
ar.

at Athens

and

Highgate,1771, d. 1843. Pergamns ab. 240 B.c.


a.d.

St. Pancras, London

141 182 61
...

Warriors

of Attains

Or.

ar.

lived ab. 532

St. 1883.

Sophia, Constantinople

sc.

b. in

Denmark, 1810, d.

b. in London
sc.

ab. 1572,d. 1651.

Panther Hunter, Copenhagen Banqueting Hovm, WHiitehall SirD.

242 136 258 231 135 244 109 2.34 253 178

Joseph, S.,R.S.A., Br.

b. ab. 1800, d. in London, 1850.

Wilkie,Nat. GaL
... ...

Juste, Jean, Fr,

sc.

b. ab.

1477, d. after 1548.

Tombs, St
1560.

Denis

Kavr, Theodore, Ocr. ar. b. at Cleves,lived ab. 1802, d. 1866. Kiss, August, Gcr. sc. b. in Silesia, Klenze, Leo Kbaft, Adam,
Le von, Oer. Oct.
sc. ar.

Caitu

College, Cambridge
Berlin
...
...

Amazon,
1864.

b.

near

Hildesheim, 1784, d.

Pinahothek, Munich
...

b. at
sc.

Sobur,Hubert, Fr.
Or.
sc.

b. in

Niimberg, 1450, d. 1507. AUar, S. Lorenxo Charles I. Char. 1652 (?). France,d. in England,
,

Cross
...

Leochares,
Leonabdoda

ab. 884

b.c.

Sc.
b. at

on

Tomb

of Mausolus

...

...

Vinci, It, sc. kpa. Leopabdo, a., It. sc. b. at Venice Lescot, Piebre, Fr.
LoMBABDO, LoBENZETTO, Lough,
John
ar.

Vinci,1452, d. at Cloux, 1519.


West

Eq. St.,^orsa

222 221 106

ab. 1480, d. ab. 1540.

Tomb, Doge Vendramin

b. in
SC,

Paris,1510, d. 1578.
1541.

Front, Louvre

...

PiETBO,
It.
SC.

It.

d. 1512 (?). Tomb b. at Venice, 1440 (?),

b. in
se.

Florence,1494, d.
nr.

ofDoge Mocenigo Tombs, Florence and Pistoja


...

221

227
259 201
180

G. , Br.
Oer.
se, sc.

b.

Hexham, 1806,
340

d. 1876.

Luitfrecht,

lived at

ab. (Bavaria) Freisung


B.C.

Malta Marquis of Hastings, 1150. Carvings,Crypt of Cath.


... ... ...

Lysippus,

Or.

lived at

Sicyonab.
Br.
se. se.

St., Alexander

Macdonau), Maodowell, Madebno,


Majano, Majano,

Lawbence,
It.

b. at

Perth,1799, d. 1878.
1629.

Ulyssesand
Front

his

Dog

...

259 258 103 230 21.5 101 106

p., R. a., Br.


ar.

b. at Belfast, 1799, d. 1870.

Virginius"fchis
West

Daughter

Madebno, Cablo,
Ben.

b. at
se.

Bissone,1556, d.

of St. Peter's

Stefano,
Giuliano
di

It.

b. in

da. It.

sc.

b.

Nabdo
ar.

Lombardy, 1571, d. 1636. St. oi St. CeeUia,Rome at Majano, 1444, d. 1497. Annunciation, M. Oliveto Home b. It. at ar. Majano, 1432, d. 1491. Palaces, di,
b. in Pariji, 1598, d. 1666.
Palace

Mansabd,

Francois, Fr.

Versailles

...

BIOGRAPHICAL

INDEX.

267
Xnt

r AEOcrHETO,

Baron It
AuG. G^r.
ar.

Ch.,R.A. , //."c. b. at Turin,1806,d.l867. Richard Cmir deZum


se.

258 222

JiCHBi^NOELO, vIoiJTREKBAND,
tf MKSICLB8,

k pa, b. at C.
ar.

1475, d. Caprese,

1564.

Florenoe II Pemieroso,

DE, Fr.

b. at ChaOlot,1786, d. 1854. S.

St. Petersburg 111 Isaac,


... ... ...

ab. 430
Br,
se,

B.a

Prqpy/aea,Athens
ab. 470
B.C.

38 259 168 142 204 259 265 209 248 135 174 104

...

VtuK^RO, Mykok,

Alexander,
G^r.
*?.

b. at

Inverness, 1825, d. 1871. 8t., The

FounlaiUf BerkleySq.
... ...

lived at Athens
ar.

Discobolus

Nabh,

John,

Br.

b. in

London, 1752, d. 1835.

London DesignedRegent Street,


1140. Sir J, Sc.
on

NTicoT-AFS, Meistrr, Qer. se. worked at Verona ab. XoBi.", Mat., Br. sc. b. atHarknesa, 1818, d. 1876.
X01.1.EXENS,
Orc agna,

San

Zeno
...

Franklin, Waterloo

Pkce

J.,R.A., Br. se, b. in'London, 1737, d. 1823. Monuments, West Abbey Andrea (Cionb), It. sc. b. in Florence,1323, d. 1876 (?). Baldaeekino Maria, Phin. op, Fr.
se.

Orleans, Paihdva,

b.

Palermo, 1813, d. 1840.

Joan

ofAre, Versailles

Giovanni Or.
se.

da

(John

Pakonius,
Paluu)I0,

lived at
It, ar, Fr.

Wiltshire of Padua), ar, lived ab. 1560. Zangleat, St., Temple of Olympia Sicyonab. 430 b.c.
...

...

Andrea,

b. at Vicenza,1518, d. 1580.
b. in
ar,

Palaces at Vicenza k Venice Eastern

Claude, Perrault, Pbritzzi, Bald ass are, Phbidias, Gr. sc. lived Philip, J. Birnie, Br.

ar,

Paris,1613, d. 1688.
ab. 460
B.c.

Front,Louvre

...

107
103

It,

b. at Siena, 1481, d. 1537.


Friezes

Famesiiui, Rome

...

at Athens

of the ParthcTioii

...

172
259

St. on Houses of Parliament 1875. se. b. 1827,d. at Chelsea, Tomb Piix"N, Germain, Fr. se. b. near Mans, d. 1690. of Henri II.,St Denis It. lived 1491. Rome at to 1 471 ar. Pintbllt, Baccio, Palaces, Florence,

...

281 101 209 209 208 221

...

PisAWO, Andrea, PisANO,


PiSANO,

PiSANO,

It. se. b. at Pisa ab. 1280, d. 1359 (?). Sc, Facade, Florence Cath. Madonna del Fiore,Florence Giovanni, It. se. b. at Pisa,1240, d. 1320. Pisa NiccoLA, It.sc. b. at Pisa ab. 1206, d. 1278. Pulpit,Baptistery, Vittore at 1455. Malatesta d. I t. b. se. Verona, 1380, Medal, (Pisanello),
...

PoLTCLEiTUs, PoLYDOROS, Porta,


Giacomo

Or. Or.

St., The Doryphoros Ai^os and Sicyonab. 460 B.C. ab. 80 b.o. se. lived at Rhodes Gp., Laocoon 1539 (?), d. 1604. Villa Aldobrandini della, It. ar. b. at Porlezza,
SC.
... ... ...

lived at

174
181 103 260 245

P0WRR8,
PRADIER,

Hiram, Am. Jac, Fr.


Or.
sc. se.

se,

b. in Vermont, 1805, d. 1873.

Oreek

Slave
... ...

b. in

Geneva, 1792, d. 1852.


ab. 364
b.c.

Place de Concorde Strasbtirg,

Praxiteles, PuGBT, PuoiN,


.

lived at Athens
se.

St., Venus of Cnidus


1694. Milo and

...

...

178
239

Pierre, Fr.

b.

near

1622, d. Marseilles,
"

Lonvre Lion.,

Aug., W.N.,
Or, Or.
se. se.

Br.

ar,

b. in London, 1813, d. 1862.

Ptbomachus, Pythagoras,

lived at Athens lived at

Pergamus ab.
480
b.c.

240

Rheginm ab.

S. George's-in-Fields 144 Cath., St., Dying Oladia(or{1) 182 168 St.,PMloctetes


b. c.
... ...

Fonta Oaia, Siena 213 QvERCiA, Jacopo della, It, se, b. near Siena, 1371, d. 1438. St. of Jonah Ratoael, Sanzio, It. se. k pa. b. at Urbino, 1483, d. 1620. 103, 227 Berlin 242 Rauch, Christian, Oer. sc. b. at Arolsen,1777, d. 1857. Frederick the Great, Artemis ab. lived Samos 600 at b.c. St., Or. 167 sc Temple of (?). RBiBcns, John's 1841. St, Coll., T., Br, or. b. at Maidenhead, 1776, d. Cambridge 144 Rickman,
...

RiETSCHEL, Rinehart,

Ernst,
W.

Oer. Am.

sc. sc.

b. at Pulsnitz, 1804, d. 1861. b. in

H.,

St. of Lessing, Brunswick of Samaria Maryland,1825, d. 1874. St.,Woman


terra-cotta Bas-reliefs,

243 260 214 214 260

Robbia, Luca
Robbia, Andrea

della.

It.

se.

b. in Florence, 1400, d. 1482.


sc.

della.

It.
sc

b. in

Florence,1435, d. 1525.
Bronze doors

Bas-reliefs

...

Rogers, Randolph,

Am,

b. in 1825.

of the

Capitol, Washington

208
RossELLiNO, BoUBlUAC,
An.

BIOGRAPHICAL

INDEX.

(Gam.), It.

sc. m.

b. in b. at

Florence,1427, d. 1479.

L.

Francois,Fr,

Lyons, 1703, d. 1762.

Tomh, San Miniato Brit Mus. Shakespeare,

Ars de I'Etoile Marseillaise, Rude, Fbancois, Fr. ac. b. at Dijon, 1785, d. 1866. RuYSBRACK, John, M. Fl. sc, b. at Antwerp, 1693, d. 1770. Af(mumeTUs,yiefit Abbey San Gallo, Sansovino, Antonio a. da, JL
ar.

b. at

Mugello,1482, d. 1646.
1529.

(Con.),It. sc.

b. at

Sansoviuo,1460 d.

Rome Famese Palace, Virgin dsS. ^nna,Rome 227


242 254 108 239 207 243 178 163
... ... ...

Sanbovino, J. (Tatti),lU ar. b. Florence, 1479,d. 1670. Lih. St. Mark's, Venice 103, StetWn ScHADOW, Johann G., Ger. sc., b. at Berlin, 1764, d. 1850. Frederick the Ot., ScHEEMAKEBs, Peteb, Fl. SC. b. at Antwerp, 1691, d. 1769. Statues in West. Abbey SCHINKBL, K. Fbiedeich, Oer. ar, b. at Neusuppen, 1781, d. 1841. Theatre,Berlin Berlin ScHLtJTER, Andbeas, Ger. sc. b. at Hamburg, 1644, d. 1714. Great Elector, ScHONHOFER, Sebald, Ger. sc lived at Nuremberg ab. 1350. Fountain,Nuremberg
Schwanthaleb, SooPAB, Oer. sc.
ScYLLis
OP

Lud.,

Oer.

sc,

b, at Munich, 1802, d. 1848.


ab. 380 560
b.c. B.O.

Sc. at

lAwnich TFalhal/a,
... ...

lived at Paros

Gp., Niobe

and

GhUdren

"c. lived ab. Cbete, flfr.

%t, oi Artemis

Semper, Gottfried, Oer. ar. b. in Altona, 1803, d. 1879. Museum, Dresden Simon, Thomas, Br. med, b. in Guernsey,d. ab. 1674. Coins and MedaJs Tomb Sluter, Claeb, Fl. sc, worked in France ab. 1400. of Philip,Dijon Smirke, Robert, R.A., Br, ar, b. in London, 1780, d. 1867. Smirke, Sydney, R.A., Br, ar. b. in London, 1798, d. 1877. Conservative Smithson, R., Br. SoANE,
Sir
ar.

109
...

253
... ...

205 142 143

Sir

British

Museum Club
...

b. ab. Br,

1560, d. at Wollaton, 1614.


ar.

JFollaton

John, R.A.,
E.

b.

near

Spence, Benjamin Stephens, Stevens, Stone, Nic,


Alfred Br.

E., Br. G., Br.


sc,

sc. sc.

b. at
b. at

Reading,1752, d. 1837. 1822, d. 1866. Rector Liverpool,

Hall, Notts Bank of England


d' Andromache

135 142 259 259 2.59 2.'"3 260


208

B., R.A., Br.


b.
near

ac,

b. at

Exeter,1817,d. 1882. Angel of the Besurrection Blandford,1817, d. 1875. JFel. Mon., St. Paul's
Tomb St. 1588.

Story, William Stoss, Veit, Stratonicus, Street,


G. Ger. Or,

Exeter,1586, d. 1647. W., A^n. sc. b. at Salem, 1819.


sc. sc.

b. at Cracow

ab. 1438, d. (?)


"

West Abbey of Ed. Spenser, ofCleopatra Gp.,SahUatimi, Nuremberg


... ...

lived at Athens
ar,

Pergamus

ab. 240

b.c.

Warriors C,

of Attains

182 144 108 233 181 140

Edm., R.A., Br,

b. at

Woodford, 1824, d. 1881.

liondon of Justice,

Stuler,

Fribdr. N. Museum, Berlin ar. b.at Miihlhausen,1800, d. 1865. A}3G.,0er, Ulm Choir-stalls, Syrlin, Joro, Ger. sc, lived in Ulm between 1469 " 1482. Bull Famese ab. 80 Tauriscus Rhodes Or, worked at of b.c. sc, Tralles, Gp., Hertfordshire Sir b. in Taylor, RoBT.,j5r. ar, London, 1714, d. 1788. Gorhambury, Telecles, Or, sc. lived at Samos ab. 560 b.o. (?). *S7.in Temple of Artemis Tenerani, p., It. sc. b. near Carrara, 1789, d. 1869. TonibofPius F7//.,St Peter's
... ...

167
241
231

Tezier, Jean, Fr. Theed, Willlam,


Theocles
of

lived in firsthalf of 16th century. N, Spire,Chartres Cath. St oiHallam, St Paul's Br, sc, b. at Trentham, 1804, d. 1880.
sc. sc.

259 168 167 25S

Sparta, Or.
Or.
sc.

lived ab. 550 ab. 660

b.c. b.c.

in wood St, Hercules, and


...

...

Theodobus,

lived at Samos
sc, ar.

Thomas, John,

Br.

b. at

(?). Engraved Gems Chalfred,1813, d. 1862. Lady Oodiva


to 1617. Holland

Seals

...

...

Thorpe, John, Br. Timotheus,


Or,
sc,

lived ab. 1550


sc.

House
1844. Tomb

and

House Hatfield

135
..

Thorwaldsen, B., Dan. Torel, William, Br,


sc.

b. at

Copenhagen,1770, d.
ab. 380
B.C.

lived at Athens worked

Sc.

on

Triumph ofMausolus

of Alexander
...

241 17S

between

1272 k 1290.

Queen Eleanor,West

Abbey

251

BIOGRAPHICAL

INDEX.

269
PAGE

ToRRIOGlANO,
Tribolo

P.,
DE

It,

sc.

b. in
It.

Florence, 1470,
b. in b. in
sc,

d. 1522.

Ttyiah d. 1550.

of Henry
Fountain^
Blenlteim

VIL,

W.

Abbey

252 228 139 215 108 236

(Nic.

Per.), John,

sc.

Florence, London,
b. in

1500, 1666,

Fontainebleau

Vanbrugh,
Verbocchio,
ViGNOLA

Sir

Br.
del.

ar.

d.l726.

PaZacCy

Oxford

Andrea

It.

Florence,

1482, 1607,
1629. 1853.

d.

1488.

Eq. St.,
Villcu
"

Colwni Churches

(GiACOMO

Barozzio),
Oer. T.
sc. sc.

It.

ar.

b. at

Vignola,
1456, 1791,
Hebe

d. 1578.
Tmnb

Vij*cHBR, ViscoNTi, Voss, VCLLIAMY,

Peter,
Louis

b.
ar.

atNiiraberg,
b. at

d. d.
db

qf

St.

Sebald
...

J.,
k
ar.

It.
at

Rome,
1820.

Bestoratwn

qfthe
...

Louvre

110 248
...

Karl,

Oer.

Cologne,
London,
b. at Br.
sc

JSagle, Cologne Holford


1847.
1856. Sc.

L.,

Br.

b. in
Br.
sc.

1796

(?),d.

1871.
d.

Mansion,
Zwrf

Park

Lane

148 258

Watson,
Westmacott,
WiL.H"LM,

Musgrave,
Sir

Hawksdale,
b. in London,
at

1804,

Eldm,

Oxford
S.

R., R. A.,
Ger. Br.
sc. sc

1775, d.
ab. 1140.

Monuments,
on

Paul's

257
204

Meister, Wm.,
R.A,
Br.
sc.

worked
b.
at

Verona

San

Zeiw
...

\ViLKiN8, Wilton,
Wolff, WooLNEK,

ar.

Nor\iich, 1722,

1778,
d. 1808.

d. 1839.
General

NaL

Gallery,
West,

London

142

J., R.A.,

b. in
at
sc.

London,

Wolfe,

Abbey
...

255 241

Emil,

Ger.

b.

Berlin,
b.
at
ar.

1802.

St.

oiJtidUh,
d.

Berlin
...

T., R.A.,
Sir

Br.

Hadleigh,
b. at
E. Fr.

1825,

1892.

Portrait St.

Busts
...

259

Wren,

Christopher,
D.
OF
sc.

Br.

Knoyle,
sc.

1632,

d. 1728.

Prtwr",London JoantfArc
Castle

137
248 257 143 143
...

WuRTBMBERO, Wyatt, Wyatt, Wyatt, Wyatville,


R.
Sir

{Marie
b. in
ar.

d* Orleans),

b. Palermo,
at

1813,

d. 1839.

J.,

Br.

London,
b.
near

1795, d. Devizes, Ireland,

Rome,
d.

1850.

Flora,
India

Windsor

Digby, H.,
Sir

Br. Br. Br.

1820,

1877.
1880.

Office,Whitehall

Thomas

ar.

b. in b.
at

1807, 1766,

d.

ExcJiange, Additions,

Liverpool
Windsor

J.,

ar.

Burton,

d. 1840.

Castle

144

THE

END.

RtCHAKii

Clay

Boks, Liuited,

hOXDOU

ft BUKGAT.

OPINIONS

OF

THE

PRM8S

ON

THE

PlJiST

EDITION

"

It

is written and

in

pure

and
on

an gi'aceful English,well befitting

oi-igimlwork,
that far
as

it is marked

almost
so so

every and

page the

by

the
so

traces

of

conscientious
an

study which
is

is

rare,

more

because, so
We the
our

author

concerned, it is

and costly

unremunerative.
more

refer

to the

verification of
noble

and, yet quotations


of

to important,

i*eferences to the
National

collections

paintingsand

sculpturein
Journal. both

British Museum, Gallery, described objects


our

South

Kensington, and
"

elsewhere,

when

they contain
''The

in the text."

Art

book

commands and

admiration, unqualified
of research which
it

as

to

its

aiTangement
Western
'*

the

amount

evidences.""^

Mail.

With

regardto
held
A

the merits of the book


accurate

it may itself,
matter

be said that

it

is

comprehensiveand
are
"
"

The
. . .

is well

and arranged,

the facts theories.


"

without

any

attempt

to

fit them

into

pre-conceived

cademy.
said
to

We and

have
taste

enough
most

to

recommend

volume

much

in superior

form

of its class,easily written,


"

free entirely

from

and prejudice, ''The modem


. . .

full of

scholarly feeling." Standard.


in the whole and

author

takes

field of

Art, both
his
so manner

ancient

and

His

is style

easy

and unaffected, in it which


"

of hand-" thing any-

lias all linghis subject

that method
a

is

essential to

of claimingthe dignity

manual."

Art.

OPINIONS

OF

THE

PRESS

{continued).

*"

comprehensive
schools,
and

general styles
of is

idea

of

each

art

and

of

its
and

various

divisions, sub-

given

by
the

Mr.

D'Anvers,
to

his for

outline

has

the

further

merit

inciting Daily
Netos.

student

seek

further

information

elsewhere."
"

"

We

consider
advance

the

arrangement
similar
favour work

of

the that

ElemetUart/
has

Hiaiory
in

of

Art

decided

on

any in

yet

appeared
is that it

England.
the

The
. . .

great
first

point
in what

of

this

arrangement
and passes connected

engages
to

attention
into

is and

most

material,

from
with

stage

stage

regions
and

more

more

intimately
Lmidon
"

philosophic

interests

spiritual

beauty."

Quarterly.

"

Useful
is
at

enough
the it will
same

to

find

a.

place

in

the

library
and

of

the

student,
free from

the

volume

time

so

pleasantly

written for

so

judice preThe

that

form

suitable

gift-book
the
most

the

young. and is

greHat
with

subject
the

of

painting
detail.
. .

occupies
We
.

space,

investigated
that Mr. of

fullest
had

have

said

enough
he in
must

to

show
the

D'

An

vers

wide

field

to

cover,

and

have

credit

occupying
noticed,
described
.

it

well;

each

important
artist is

phase
mentioned,
of

the

history
the
nature

of of
the

Art

is

every

prominent
Those
. .

and

his

work

who

are

in

search

information
do better

upon
than

history

and

principles
the

of

the

fine

arts

cannot

possibly
"

begin

by

mastering

contents

of

this

volume."

Oheerver.

PAINTING

CONTENTS.

PAINTING.
PAGE

iNTRODTJcrrioN

"

Means
"

and IV.

Methods Materials"
:

of

Painting

"

I.

Form

"

II.

Colour

"

III.

Composition
in the

V.

Subjects

Painting

ClaMlo

Period

Egyptian*

10 Arabian
and

Assyrian,
Greek
Etruscan
"

Moorish

11

Amphorse
"

and

Vases, Wall

Paintings, Mosaics
at

....

12 16

Tomb

Paintings,Toilet Casket
Pictures, Decoration
East
:

Roman"

Mural in the
and
"

Pompeii, Mosaics

.17
. .

Painting

Far

Persian Chinese
Japanese

Indian"

Illuminated

Books, Decorated
of

Tiles, Portraits

21 28 25

Buddhistic
"

Pictures, Drawings
and Secular
and
a. d.

Birds, "c

Buddhistic

Painting
Early
^_"

in the

Early Chriitian
a.d.

Byiantine
900
.

Ages,

a.d.

60"

a.

d.

1800

Christian,
a.d.

60"
a. d.

28 31

Byzantine,

50"

1800

Painting
In

in the

Middle

Ages

Italy"
France

Florence,
AND

Siena,

Rome 1260
:

and
"

Venice,
a.d.

a.d.

1100"

a.d.

1440

84 41

In
The

Germany,

A. D.

1470

Benaissanoe Florentine Paduan JVeneiUin

of

Painting
a.d. a.d.
a.d.

in

Italy
a. d.

School, School,

1420"

1520

-^
" ' .

\^
.

,46

School,
Schools

1420" 1480"

about
a.d.

a.d.

1520

57
59
a. d.

1520 1480"

--"""^ Other
Umbrian

of

Upper Italy,a.d.
a.d.

1530
.

62
.

School,

1460"

a.d.

1510

63 66

Neapolitan

School, XVth School,


in the

Century
A.D.

LaterFlorentine

1490"

A. D.

1510

67

Painting

in

Italy
da

XTIth

Centnry

Leonardo

Vinci

and

his- School

69

Michelangelo and
lor^tine School

his School
in the

73

XVIth

Centnry
and

78
Ifmnen^ painleil in at Haicara in found
irax on

* In the National 10 portraits of young Gallery there an Men now 1200 to 1270), taken nrck-topped panels (A'o". from qf Mummies eases Probably e^ the second centttry a.d.

Egypt.

^ '(

IV

CONTENTS.
PACE

Raphael and
Ferrarese

his School

79 S9 89 93
104

Lombardic
Venetian

School, XVIth Century School, A.D. 1510" A.D. 1540 School, a.d. 1512" a.d. 1600

Decorative

Painting
XlVth Centuries

: Fainting in the Netherlands Early Flemish and Dutch Schools, XII 1520 1390" Schoolof Bruges, A.D. A.D. XVth Dutch School, Centuiy Early

Ith and

.107 107
114

Early Schoolof
Dutch
School

Antwerp,

A.D.

1490"

A. D.

1530

.114

of the late XVIth

Century

119

Painting in Germany:
Swabian

School, A.D. 1470" A.D. 1540 Augsburg School, A.D. 1490" A. D. 1545 1580 a.d. Franconian School, a.d. 1450"
School of

120 122 124 133 133

Saxony
XVIIIth

Decline of Art in Germany

Painting

in

Italy in the

XVnth

and
A.D.

Centuries
1690

EclecticSchoolof

Bologna,
School, a.d.

1570"
a.d.
"

A.D.

136 139
141

Naturalistic School, a.d.


Later Venetian in

1590"

1690
a.d.

1715

1770

Painting
'

Spain: School, a.d. Castilian School, A. D.


Valencian

1525" 1500"

a.d.

1660

143

A.D.

1700
1600"
D.

.145
a.d.

;
*

Madrid, A.D. Italian-SpanishPaintersof and his pupils, 1620" A.D; A. Velazquez


Andalucian

1700

.147
149 152 154 159

1690

'

School, a.d.
his

1520"

a.d.

1750
A.D.

Murillo and
Modern

A.D. pupils,

1638"

1750

SpanishPainters
Portugal
and
:

Fainting
Gran

in

Vasco

his School
in the XTIIth 1590"
A.D.

161 and XVIIIth

Fainting

in the Netherlands

Centuries

Schoolof
of Pui)ils Later Modern

Antwerp,
Rubens

A.D.

1720

162 168

Schoolof

Antwerp, A. BelgianSchool, A.D.

D.

1600" 1830"

A.D.
a.d.

1680 1894
:

170 173

Painting
Frans

in Holland

in the XYIIth his his


sons

Century

Hals and
and

176 177 Life


Scenes
.

Ilembrandt Later Dutch


,,

pnpils Landscapesand Battle Marine Subjects

Painters of Domestic
,,

181 .187 191


.

"

,,

,,

,,

and Flowers Architecture, Still-life

.194 196

Modern

Dutch

Ai-t

CONTENTS.

PACK

B"TiTal

of

Pftintiiigin Germany,
and his

a.d.

1810"

a. d.

1880

Overbeck School Genre Modern

School

197
198 200

of Munich Painters

German
in France

Painting
:

202

Painting

Early
Ponssin Claude
^lie

Painters and his

of

the

XVth
.

and

XVIth
. .

Centuries
'

203

School
.

207
209

le Lorrain
and in other

Sueur

Painters

of the

XVIIth

Century

.211 218

Painters Fi-ench French French Barbizon

Miniature
in the

Painting
School

XVIIItli
XlXtli

Century Century Century


1886

218 220 230 233 236

of the of the
a.d.

early
later 1830

School

XlXtli
"

School,

a.d.

^Impressioniat School
Painting
in Oreat

Britain

Illuminated Miniature Miniature

MSS.,

a.d.

600" 1526"

a.d.
a.d.

1500 1680 1860 and

239
242

Painting, Painting,
in

a.d. a.d.

1700"
the XVIth

a.

d.

248 Centurits .248 .252 269

Painting
Rise
of
a

England
Art
of the

in

XVIIth

National

in

England, Century
a.d.

XVIIIth

Century

F^rly part Early


The

XlXth

Water-Colour School

Painters,

1775"

a.d.

1880

275 279

Norwich

Modem
The

Landscape

and

Subject Painters

280 293

Pre-Raphaelites
Art
at

English
Hook

the

present

day

293 295

Illustrators
in

Painting

America

: A.D.

Colonial

Period,

1715
a.d.

"

a.

d.

1770
a.d.

297 1780
A.D.

Revolutionary Period,
Perio"l The of

1770"
A.D.

297 1870
.

Inner

Development,
A. D.

1780"
1894

.301 305

Present

Period,
:

1870"

A.D.

Biographical
With

Index

place

and

date

of

Birth"

and

date

of

Death

307

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAINTING.
EXO.

PA";K

Portrait 1.

of

Doge

Loredano.

G-iovanni Bembraiidt

Bellini
. .

Frontispiece
3

Example
Sons

of Chiaroscuro.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

of Rameses

II.

going

to

battle.

Egyptian
.

.10
.

Hunters

bringing home
of

Game.
Ch-eek

Egyptian
Vase

11 13 15

Last

Night

Troy.

Amphora.
Rhopograph
Part of the

Greek

painting
Ficoronian

of

still life.

Pompeiian

16 17 18

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Cista.

Etruscan

Wall

Decoration.
of Achilles

Pompeiian
and

Parting
Battle Feast Wild
at

Briseis.

Pompeiian

19 21 23 -21

of Issus.

Mosaic.
Indian

Pompeiian

Hastinapur. Japanese

Goose.
as

Christ
Christ

Orpheus.
by
of

Early

Christian

29 32

adored

Justinian.

Bt/zantine

15. 16. 17. 18.


19.

Sketch Madonna

Map
and

Italy in
Child.

the

sixteenth

century

33 36 38

Cimabne

Obedience.

Giotto of S. Domenic.
German Andrea da

Preaching
Wall

Florentia
. .

.39 42

Painting.
of the

20.
21. 22.

Adoration Battle

Magi.

St^phan
Paolo Masaccio
Fro

Lochner
Uccelli

44 47

of Sant'
from

Egidio.
Paradise.

Expulsion
S. Lawrence

48 .49
. . . .

23.
24. 25. 26.

giving alms.
of the of
a

Angelico Lippi
da

Coronation Portrait
Coronation Birth

Virgin,
Man.

FUippo
A ntaneUo

51

Young
of the

Messina
. .

.52
54 55

Virgin.

Botticelli

27.

of the

Virgin.

Ghirlaiulajo

LIST
GXG.

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Vll

PAOR

28. Judith

with

the head

of Holofernes.

Mantegna

.57
58

29. Crucifixion. 30. Annimciation.


31.

Mantegna
CriveUi

60

Preachingof S. Mark.
from Deposition
Francia

Gentile and

Giovanni

Bellini

.61
64

32.

the Cross.

Penigino
. .

33. Pieta. 34. Salvator 35.


36.

.65
68 71 74

Mundi.

Fra Leonardo Bazzi

BaHolommeo da

Last

Supper.

Vinci

S. Sebastian.

37. Part of the Cartoon 38. ProphetIsaiah. 39. 40.


41. 42.

43. 44. 45.


46.

47.
48.

49.
50.

Michelangelo MicheUiiujelo Holy Family. Michelaiigelo del Sarto S. Agnes. Andrea Vision of a Knight Raphael Marriageof the Virgin. Raphael La Belle Jardiniere. Rajjhael Elymas struck with blindness. Raphael Annunciation to the Virgin. Garofalo Madonna della Cesta. Correggio della Scodella. Madonna Correggio The Three Philosophers.'' Giorgiane S. Peter Martyr. Titian
" "

of Pisa.

75

76 77
80 82

83
84 86 90

91 92
95

97
99

Bella diTiziano."

TUian Tintoretto Pado

51. Christ
52.

borne to the Tomb.


in the house of Simon.

101

Feast

Vero)ie3"

103
.

53. Decoration
54. 55. 56.

of the Famesina

Palace. Jan
Jan

After RaphaeVs design

105 108 110 Ill


112 113 116

Madonna
Jean

and

Holy Child.
and

ran

Amolfini

his wife.

Eyck van Eyck

57.
58. 59.

VanderWeyden Virgin and the Holy Infant. Memlinc Sibyl of the Tibur. Lucas van Leyden and his wife. Massy s The Banker
Part of
an

Entombment.

60.
61. 62.

Abraham
River

at Ober-vellach. Altar-piece de Vos Gjrnelis Grapheus.

Jan

Hchoreel

.117 118 119

Scene.

63. Crucifixion. 64.

Bnieghel 8cho}iganer
Holbein

Jan

121
123 124

Hubert

Morett.

65. The 66.

Pedlar.

Holbein

Holbein Meyer Madonna. Diirer 67. Christ takingleave of His Mother. of the 68. Adoration Trinity. l"iirer The Knight,Death, and the Devil.' I"iiver 69. 70. Josephsold by his Brethren. Georg Pencz
'

125 127 128


.130
. .

131

Vlll

I.IST OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

71. Porlrait of 72. 73.

Young Man. Aldegnrer Princess Sibylla of Saxony. Cnmach The Fates. Nemesis, Night, and Destiny. Cartftens
a

132 134 .135


.

74. The

Three

Maries.

Annibale

Carracci GnUlo
Reni

13T
13S 140 141

75. Christ crowned 76.

with thorns.
Roaa

Landscape. Salcator
in Venice.

77. View 78.

C(nudefto

79.
80. 81.

from the Cross. Biheru Deposition of II. Sanchez-Coelh Isabella, daughter Philip IV. of Spain. Vdazqnez Philip del Mazo View of Saragossa. Martinez

144
.

14l"
150 151 153

82. Franciscan
83. S. John the

Monk.

Zurharan

Evangelist. Almxso
Eaters. Mnvillo

Cnuo

155 1 56 15S ICO 161

84. Immaculate 85. The 86. An

Conception. Mttrilh FortHuij

Melon

Italian Peasant.
Velasco

87.

Calvary.

88. Sketch 89.

Map of the Archbishop Ambrose


and

Low

Countries
the

in the seventeenth

century
Riflmis

.163
165
.

and

Emperor Theodosius.
Fourment.

90. Rubens 91. Cardinal 92. 93.


94. 95.

his second

wife,Helena

Rul^emt
. . .

.166 .167 .169


171

96.

Fhilippede Ch"impaupie Wife of a Burgomaster of Antwerp. Van iJyck Tlie Archery Meeting. Teniers The Knife-grinder.Teniers with his master Tlie Artist, Ryckaert and his Family. Cocx Luther as a Choir-boyin the Streets of Eisenach. Leys
. . .

de Richelieu.

172
.174
. . .

175

97. Portrait of
98.

Cavalier.

Frans

Hah

177
179 180 182 184

Sortie of the Civic Guard.

Rembrandt

99. 100.
101. 102.

Rembrandt Raisingof Lazarus. Lute Player. TerUnrh

Gerard The

Dou.

Don Steen

103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110.


111.

Dancing Dog. Morning Toilet. De Hooch : Evening. Landscape with Cattle and Figures Cnyp Landscape with Cattle. Rerchrm A Waterfall. Rnysdael Hohhema Landscape.
A

185 186 .188


, .

190

192
193
-.

Gale.

Bahhnisen

194
. .

Christ

under falling

the Cross.
von

Overtteck

197
199 201

Duck-shooting. Cleopatra. Hans


Section of the

Feter

Hess

Malart

112.

"Bayeux

Tapestry." Freuch

203

LIST
CNO.

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

IX

VJiOK

113.
114. 115.

Modonmi.
Tullia

Illumination. the dead

King

Retid II of Serviua TuUiiw.

:^04

drivingover

body

Fouquet

205
.

Mary, Queen
The The Ford

of Scots.

Claxiet Nicolas Poussin

20(5 208 209


...
.

116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121.


122.

Shepherds of Arcadia.
aande
Lorrain

preachingat Ephesus. Le Sueur. Triumphal Entry of Alexander into Babylon. Le Portrait of Samuel Bernard. BUjmtd Flower Piece. Momwyer Napoleon in his State Robes. Isabey
S. Paul La

.211 .213

Bnnt
.

214

215
216

123. 124. 125.


126.

Finette.

Watteau Lancret Chardin

217 219
221 222

Manhood. The

Industrious Mother.

Girl with
The

Spaniel.
Women.

Greuze David Crime. Vengeance pursuing

127.

Sabine

223

128. Divine
129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134.
135.

Justice and

PiwVhon

224
. .

Raft of the Medusa.


Stratonice.

Gdricaidt

225

Ingres Partofthe"Hemicycle." DdauKhe Veitiet Battle of Fontenoy. Hm-ace General Prim. Eegnault
Don
An

226 227
229 231

Quixote'sattack

on

the Windmills. Corot


Diaz

Gnstace

DorS

.232

Evening

in

Normandy.
Jean

234
235

136. 137.

Forest

Scene, Fontainebleau.

(JoingtoWork.
"

FrancoisMUlet
BenedictionaL"
Oodemau
.

237

138. From
139.

S. ^thelwald's

.239 240 241 .242


. . .

140. 141. 142. 143. 144.


145. 146.

147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153.


154. 155.

King David. Ettglish.Eleventh Century S. John. English, Fourteenth Centunj From the "Shrewsbury Book.'* English, Fifteenth century Edward VI. and his Council. Sixteenth English. century Sir Philip Isuac Olivier Sydney at Penshurst. Due d'Orieans. Jean Petitot Philippe, James I. Hoskins^afterVan Somer Sanmel George Monck, Duke of Albemarie. Cooper Duke of Devonshire (fifth). Cosicay
....

243 244 245 245 246

247
249
.

Procession of Queen Elizabeth to Blackfriars in 1600.


Sir Isaac Newton. KiieUer

Geerarts

251 253

Hogarth Age Beyiwlds The Ladies Waldegrave. Reynolds The Brook. Gainsborough Gainsborough's daughter. Gainsborough The Victors at Olympia. Barry
of Innocence.

MarriageContract.

257
259

261
262 264

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS.

ENO.

PAOE

156.

Maria. Death's The Nature Christian Lake London The Old Old

Wi-ight
Door. Horse.

of Derby
BUxke

.266
268 270

157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164.


165.

M"ydaiui of
Palace Turner

(children
at

Mr.

Calmady).
Beautiful.

Lawrence
....

271 272 273

the

Stothard

Avemus. from Gate.


near

Greenwich Fred. Norwich.


Farm,

Park.
Walker Old

De

Wint

277 278

Cottages
The

Crome

279
281 285 286

Valley

(h^idable Wilkie

166. 167. 168.


169.

Village Crossing
Uncle

Politicians.
a

Ford.
and

Mtdready
Widow Wadman. Ledie

Toby

287 291

Shoeing.

Land9eer
Cordium. Knox.
of Rossetii

-170. 171. 172. 173.

Regina
General Death Elizabeth

294

G'dhe^ii
in

Stuart the Attack of

299

Montgomery

Quebec.

TruinbuU
.

300 302

Southgate

Bowne.

Mnllyone

The

dale

and in

place
the

of

birth

of

Deceased Index
at

Artists^
the end

and

the the

date

of

deaths

are

given

Biographical

of

volutne.

Dogt; Leonardo
In

Loredauo.
the Xutionat

Hy Uiovanm (itdlery.

Belliui.

page [See

PAINTING.

INTRODUCTION:

MEANS

AND

METHODS

OF

PAINTING.

is the art PAINTING lines and colour, in such


a

manner

that in the

flat surface,by means of a on representing that is in nature to as they appear objects say, within certain limits, the pictureproduced shall, of
"

affect the
able to the hand

eye is

same

way mind

as

do

the

objects themselves.
of the the
nature to

To

be

accomplishthis,a thorough
The

education learn

mind, the eye, and

required. the eye how depicted, they appear,


I.

must

and

the hand

how

objects representthem.

of the

FORM.

In the

first place, the

painter must

accuratelyto represent the bulk and whether he must in motion at rest or organic or inorganic, ; secondly, acquire a knowledge of that portion of the science of opticswhich the laws of colour, light, embraces and vision, including Linear perspective *. e. the effect produced upon the apparent form and grouping of objectsby the positionand distance of the observer ; and aerial perspective L e. the effect produced on the brightness and colour of objectsby the various differences in the temperature, atmosphere, the painter must the laws of light etc. master light, Thirdly, and ahadcy the right treatment of which is a most important element
"

study the laws of form, and learn of every variety, of objects figure

"

"

in

painting.
The
term

chiaroscuro
been

(from two
the

Italian of

dark)

art given to together with their effect on colour. painting,drawing or engraving, of the infinite variety of effects of ^the faithful rendering of the sharp brightness and shade in nature
"

has

words, signifying lightand and shadow, light representing in fact,the expression, in It 'is,

contrasts, the exhibits in her


chiaroscuro de

subtle

combinations

and

rapid changes which


the Kembrandt

nature

moods. ever-varying

Amongst

greatest masters

of

Titian,Correggio,Rubens, were and Turner. Hooch, Velazquez,

{Eng, 1),Peter

PAINTING.

II.

COLOUR.

Lastly and
must

the painter must chiefly,


most

know

the

well

train his eye to recognizethe the most as vividlycontrasted what will be the result of the

subtle

of colour ; he gradationsof tint, as

laws

colours of

use only varied effects of harmony or infinitely

in nature, and learn not separate colours,but also the which may be obtained

contrast

by

their combinations. three of white

and blue, which the are primary colours are red, yellow, of tint is ation combina produced light.Every variety of these three. The secondary colours are of two or more tures mixof any two of the primary : thus red and yellowproduce orange ; accordingto the yellow and blue,green ; red and blue, violet or indigo, of each ingredient. The tertiary colours are those fine shades quantities of the secondary The compfeobtained by minglingtwo or more ones. nientary colour of any given shade or tint is that which will have to be of the light which added to it to produce white; for if the whole is absorbed by a coloured body were re-united with the whole of the light white lightwould result. it reflects, Bed is complementary to which violet to yellow. to hlvSy greeriy orange Contrast of colour is of great importance in heighteningin a picture The constituents the
are

force

of the
contrasts

colours
to each

contrasted other.

; any

two

of the

primary colours

good character of Ha/rmony of colour is the preservationof the same of in the whole to retain without a : it, colouring picture producing monotony, requiresthe greatest skill. Titian,Tintoretto,Giorgione, Paolo Veronese, Rubens, and Velazquezwere Correggio, amongst the
greatestcolourists.
The colour
or a
"

of or generalqualityof shadow, of light, The entire an picture. prevailing phrase a "high throughout
a

t"iie of

pictureis
are

the

"

low

"

tone

used

to

express

either

forcible

or

subdued

renderingof these

qualities.
III.

COMPOSITION.

is the assemblingtogetherof Covi]x"sitimi in the represented in such picture


a

the different that


as a

to objects

bo
to

manner

they shall

combine

produce a
engage The second
a

harmonious suitable share

impressionon
of attention.

the eye

whole, and shall each


have been Ixickground
to the

terms

the first to the given,


to

foreground,middle portionof
somewhat

distance,and
a

picturenearest
from

the spectator,
third
to

that

removed

him, and

the

that

farthest off.
IV.

MATERIALS.

Having

thus

given

we theory of painting,

outline of the leading of the slight principles will briefly the materials and proenumerate

'J. He

Jiurffomatter Jan
"

Hix.

1.

^Bzample of

Chiaroscuro

and shade) in (light

one

of Bembraudt's

etchings.

4
cesses

PAINTING.

employedin between distinguish


For brush

its

practice. In speakingof

the materials with. painted

we

must

those

drawing,
to hold

crayons the colour.

paintedon, and those of different kinds are

used;

for

a p^iintingy

1. For
"

2. For colours. 3. For and The

other similar substances or drawing on paper, parchment,ivory, and colours water used. chalks,charcoal, are ^pencils, wood and canvas and oil on tempera or distemper, painting
"

on painting

wall surfaces, dry colours, tempera, wax


do
not

colours^
any

fresco colours. so-called


are

lead-pencils employed in drawing


of

contain

lead ; but

made
a

graphite
of any

or

plumbago,

an

mineral

with
a

metallic stroke

lustre,somewhat
account

produces

clear

touch, which greasy thickness and required, peculiarly


of the
ease

opaque to the with

grayish-black

suitable for be effaced.


Black
on

rapid sketching on
is
a

which for

it may

chalk

bluish

or

material,used grayish-black
has made led to the
use

drawing

paper. of coloured The scarcity with various colours

chalks and

mixed

into crayons,

or chalk paaiely but though pastel

of

easily destroyed. works. It sketchingthe outlines of large broad stroke t o the that it so a adhering slightly produces ground may without be blown If,however, the ground be leaving a trace. away washed with lime-water and allowed to dry before the sketch is made, the charcoal will set. e. designs on Nearly all large cartoons (i. strong
never pictures

fade,they are

Charcoal is well suited for

paper modern

or

of paste-board times drawn

the in

full size of the

work

to

be

of executed)

are charcoal, although Kaulbach, the great used chalk. sometimes Cartoons coal drawn in charpainter, in the of have playedan important part history art ever since for his frescoes were exhibited at Florence cartoons in Michelangelo's

Grerman

fresco

1504

; and

some

of considerable with

value and
or

have

been

producedin
a

our

own

day. In working both implement made pointed


the shadows. In
matter

chalks

charcoal,the stumpy
used largely

bluntly-

of leather

paper, is

in

working

Water-colour

either In

of colouring Paiiithig, preparedcolours,consisting mixed with honey or gum-arabic,are used. The artist may wash-in a merely drawing in sepiaor Indian ink, or he may
it. the known quality

colour fully colours


are

drawings of

by

the

French

as

gouacJuey opaque

spreadover the drawing. By at Naples and elsewhere practised

this
on

sively method, which is extenthe Continent, glowing

be represented with truth and force. This borders can oil painting, and seems on softness and closely wanting in the peculiar of colour which the distinctive are depth transparent property of true

effects of colour

MATERIALS. water

colour.

In

England, it
present time

was

others,but
used.

at the

by Walker, Pinwell, and practised generally transparentcolours are more

In the middle movable


or

ages, wood it
was

was

principally employed as
it
was

the and

ground for
tion to destruccanvas,

easel first

pictures ; but, as

liable to rot fifteenth der

by
which has been

worms, not

in the supplanted
as

century by

was

used, it is said,by Rogier van


used requently executed
on a

Weyden.
on

Copper
a

unf

ground by
some

and painters,
even

few

have pictures Before


which the oil
name

been

marble, and

silver.
in
use, to

paintingwas

adopted,other

materials

were

tempera
A

of tempera or distempercolours has been given. In the colour is mixed with white of egg, glue or size. painting
are

colours painter's

called

ancients instead

appear to have been earths of oils. however, Unfortunately, in freshness and


soon

pigmente; those employed by the mixed with gum or or oxides, glue


colours
are so now

obtained

are

They and staining wall-papers, although the scene-painting executed of their pictures and in distemper, portions
Towards that union

wanting

peel off.

only used for


often wards. after-

old masters oiled them

by

the close of the middle ages, the Italians discovered of a as means using albumen, or white of egg, instead of size,
the of colouring matter, they obtained particles
one
a

between for than kind

better

substance

tempera paintingand
dissolved
too

less liable to be affected

by

damp
some

materials

in water. any

Paintings in

this

medium,

however, dry

quickly for
to

elaborate

and working-on,

require

of varmsh
in

protect them.

Fainting

Oils.
"

As

early as

a.d.

1000, linseed-oil
even

was

used
was

in

in Italy, and there are records which prove painting medium in Germany, in France, and in as a painting before the time of the Van Eycks ; but it was not

that oil in

used

England

until the fifteenth oil


was

century that the best method

of

mixing

colours

with

discovered

Eyck, who quicklyattained to a skill in colouring perhapsnever surpassed. The implements in oils are charcoal, for drawing required by a painter his sketch ; hair-pencils brushes knife and to to mix, or a palette ; a
by
hold his colours oil and colours ; and an mineral are mostly
as

the brothers

Van

easel earths

on

which with
on

to

rest

his

canvas.

His

and

oxides,such
canvas

substances, such
are paintings

cochineal,mixed
The

ochres ; or organic as white-lead and oil. Large stretched of


or

executed generally white-lesid.


on

on

frame
to

coated

with

ordinary mode
with charcoal of alike

procedureis
and

sketch

the

outline
own

the

canvas

and pencil,

every

artist has his

methods peculiar

working

mixing his

colours.

6
Oil

t"AmTlN(J.

it affords the from the great range and scope which painting, and the infinite variety of effects he is able to produce by the painter, of command, has for long been the favourite manner of important paintings number almost all artists, and by far the largest
means

at

his

which

have

been

executed

since the the

of discovery

this method it.

have

been

carried out in it ; yet there are the one on on hand, and fresco, Fresco of

certain

in qualities

which water-colours,

other,surpass
were

painting.
"

The

ancients

with acquainted very


wet

several modes
age that in remain

wall surfaces, and discovered at a on painting with plaster mixed when s ubstance any colouring it when dry. The
ienxi
"

remote

would

has been given fresh fresco an Italian word, signifying still wet or fresh. In fresco painting made to paintings a upon plaster is fii*st full of the be sketched the size to design subject represented, and a careful study in colour is made scale. The pigments on a small earths or minerals, as other substances would be injured are generally by the action of lime. The ground painted on is the last coatingof He which is laid on plaster, just before the artist begins his work.
"

first transfers surface

the exact The actual

outlines

of his

to composition

the

wet
some

smooth

by

pricking them

through
are

with transfer-paper
to be done

instrument. be made.

has painting

very

sharp and the rapidly,

greatestskill and decision


can

Any
are

necessary, as no subsequent alterations portionsof plaster unpaintedon when the day's process justdescribed is called /re"co inferior kind of mural an painting the in
A

work

is done
to

huonoy
water

The away. it from distinguish


cut
as

known paradoxically
are

frescosecco, in which

colours few Fuchs

mixed

with
are

laid

on

to

the
to

every called the

respectinferior

importance was

attached

dry plaster.Pictures those in frescobuono. to the discovery by Dr.

fresco secco

in

years ago great of a substance possess

which alkaline silicate), appearedto (soluble water-glass and durability to fresco-secco property of giving brightness Colours mixed with

water-glass

are

called

stereo

chromatic

painting. e. {t.

and many strong coloured), The


true

fresco is

works were executed important luminous a distinguished by singularly


a a

in them.

of quality

colour ; and the best Italian frescoes exhibit of execution which impart to them simplicity in oil. Hardly (perhapsunapproacliable)

breadth

of effect and

unapproached dignity

any specimens exist in this ation country,where the humid atmosphere is so detrimentiil to their preservand of dignity, the same breadth, simplicity, qualities ; but

though

not

the

same

brilliancy, may
which than
serve

be
so

seen

the South that

Kensington Museum,
will better

Raphaers cartoons in resemble fresco painting closely


in

they any other Jiccessible examples to of painting as idea fair of this mode English art-student a practisedby the great Italian masters. Examples, by Pinturicchio and o f and transfeiTcd fresco to Signorelli, painting by canvas, give the

MATERIALS.

X"oinemco ^National Two

Veneziano

where Gallery,

of fresco in its original state, may be seen in the is also a specimen ol fresco aecco, by Giotto
"

in S. Maria del Carmine, AfostleSf part of a work originally Florence in the Liverpool Institution. : other portions are Another was painting process employedby the ancients for mural that called encaustic, in which melted by heat appears wax to have the chief ingredient been and melting the colours. Paul for fixing Delaroche's the in the Palais des Beaux work, Arts, large Ilemicycle modern of times. And lastly, there is Paris, is an important example invented by Mr. Gambier fresco, spirit Parry,who used it in paintings in and Andrew's in St. Highnam Church, Chapel in Gloucester Cathedral it also Frederick Sir in his ton was Leigh employedby ; mural of the Arts and Arts Fea^e in the South War of of paintings in and the atid Foolish Wise Kensington Museum, Virgiris Lyndhurst Church. Town-hall Madox Brown of Manchester

likewise used
with
scenes

it in

from

of the of the earlyhistory that

his decoration

city.
Mosaic is painting
stone
or

piecesof

of glass

the ancient Romans ornamentation of churches. The mosaics in the Cathedral of Ravenna world-famous. At the presentday it is chiefly Italian art ; but an are and British artists have of late years produced Russian successful some

the art of producing designswith small square It was various colours. largely employed by for pavements, and by the early Christians for the

specimensof
the

which go to make The pieces of glass up called smalts and are and set in tesserce, technically in the same cement way as tiles in pavement. The Italians practise of kinds of mosaic work small pieces two the Florentine, in which mosaic

work.

designare

"

stone

or

shell of their natural

colours

are

used, and the Roman, in

which

of every variety of shade are employed. Many of the the old o f have been admirably masters greatest paintings reproduced in the latter kind of mosaic. Another kind of mosaic work has been introduced in the decoration

smalts

of the South
The
are

KensingtonMuseum, in which keramic tesserae are- used. i n figures the south court of eminent men connected with the Arts also executed in mosaic, both vitreous and keramic,from designs
P.R. A., E. Leighton, J. R. A., and Poynter, other well-known

by

Sir F.

artists. holds position fine art, and has been as a Paintingon jjorcelain in paintcarried to gi*eat in France. The processes employeil perfection ing and glass-staining on are porcelain, enamelling, very similar. The oxides or salts of metfils ground down to colours used are principally substance ; the dust,and mixed with borax or some fusing impalpable oil of turpentine, used for making them liquid mediums are turpentine, but now each artist mixed his own oil : formerly or colours, they spike

^_j

8
are

PAIKTING.

most

in obtained readyprepared frequently with hair-brushes


as

tubes

and

in fine

they are laid on clay or preparedmetal,


heat in under in and
an

like oil may method


to the

the laid

ease

either on colours, be, and fixed by exposure of


on painting

powder : the glazed


to

enamel

kiln. In another
are on

china, called

the colours glaze^ become

firing they the glaze is is done painting,


heat. special
ware.

unglazed surface of the china : in the groimd on which they are laid, them. A third known over as kind, poured Majolica coloured all with made to fuse togetherat a glazes
embodied appearance it somewhat resembles Italian lustre

In

V.

SUBJECTS.

paintermay represent are only limited by his of vision and imagination. He may be a historic, a a portrait, powers called what is The term a or landscape, genre painter. genre comprehends with figures all pictures which are not historic, those in especially
a

The

which suhjectB

which fruit game,


art
as

the

are figures

smaller

than

life ; also

of what and representations pieces, in And fruit, flowers, etc.). any or


courses are
or

architectural, flower,and is called eiill life(t e, dead


.

all of these

branches

of his

two

the

grand

adoptwhat is known open to the artist. He may ideal style, and attempt to express the highest idea

he may choose the realistic or or perfection, exhibit things exactly as they are, without alteration or improvement. Even the so-called genre painter has a either degrade his art by vast field of selection open to him, and may ennoble it by or recordingtrivial events or actions better forgotten, which will and the of immortalizing scenes bring thoughts feelings before the mind of the spectator. other times and other classes vividly naturalistic and style, The

conceivable

of natural

chief masters

of the

Dutch

such school, be taken


as

as

Gerard

Dou, Cuyp,
who of the

Metsu, Maas, and

adoptedthe goldenage
"

may realistic style ; and the three


"

Hobbema,

men representative

great Italian masters

and

The

Baphael,and Leonardo da Vinci painting ^Michelangelo, chief in the of the ideal style. Murillo, Spain, were apostles of Eclectics has been given to those artists who strove to comname bine
the excellences of both of idealism and

of

realism

of these the Carracci


from
as

familywere
Of

the most

eminent. time
to

which have landscape classified arisen the most important are generally such men and the Naturalists ; to the former belong the various and In

schools

time

the Romanticists
as

Gaspard Poussin

Corot, and
recent

to the

latter Hobbema

and

Constable.

has been applied to artists, Impressimitsts years the term from who nature French, exactlyas they appear chiefly depictscenes reference to any preconceivednotions of the canons to them, without of art. In their works there is little selection of
or subject, attempt

SUBJECTS.

at

composition,
representing

and

in modem

their life

e"Port8
even

to

be its

original
most

they

do

not

shrink

from

in

unpleasant

aspects.

We the

must

say

one

word,
to

before Kuskin vol. for III.

turning
has

to

the

history
the and
name

of

painting,
of

on

symbolic
*

art,

which

given

Grotesque
used,
sentation, reprecould in this

(see

Modern wide

Painters,'
a

chap,

viii.),
True
to

which,
art

rightly
is the

exercises

influence

good.
intelligible

grotesque all,
of

by
not
sense

symbols
be otherwise

easily

truths

which
are

readily

expressed.
Bwivct Death mid

All

allegoric
Deathy
the and
are

subjects
Albrecht fine

grotesque.
and with his which

Holbein's

of

Diirer's instances of truths of the


as

Melencolia the and power their

KnigJu,

Devil,
may

symbolic
consequences caricature of

representations

bring
the be any

great
minds

inevitable Coarse

vividly
every of

before
may

multitude. false

variety
cultivation

characterized
true

grotesque,

totally

unworthy

by

artist.

Painting

in

the

Classic

Period.

Egyptian,
Although
must

it

was

in Greece
to

that had

painting as
its

an we

independent
must not

fine art
over

really be
mention

said the

have

rise, yet

pass

without

work

of the

Egyptian painters.
with
was

Though
to

intimately connected
architecture, punting
commonest

The sandstone covered in with

form sunk
to

is the beneath receive

servient and also entirely subsculpture, tians. largelyemployed by the Egypcolouring of sculpturescarved in the the

but relief,
a

surface, the face of which


colours
or

was on
a

fine stucco

white

usuallyflat tints yellowish ground.


:

The

subject is
who size either is

almost

always

the

fication glori-

of the

reigning monarch,
of

invariably made
his followers.

greater
He
is

than

represented hunting, or driving in a war-chariot, or cutting


off the head heads of his enemies, each
quered conbeing symbolic of some The presents race. engraving reof King Bameses the sons II. following their father, who is mountain fortress storming a {Eng, 2). Egyptian painting displaysan entire absence of perspective, but the of the treatment subject is systematic. It forms, in fact, of combination a ground plan

and

elevation. land
or

The

background,
on a

whether
as

water, is shown
map, face is but in is
presented re-

it would

the
2.
"

appear buildings and

figuresare
the eye the

The

Sons

of BamcRes

II. going to battle.

elevation.

Though
in in full.

In the Time

temple of Ipsamlnxtl.
the nineteenth

always
In

the profile,

of

dynasty.

which
called genre
us an

were

executed

on

Egyptian tombs, dry plaster, represent w^hat


to

ings, paintbe thus

might

give
Those
not
a

subjects relating insight into the habits


have of
most

the

life of and

the

deceased, which
of the

customs

who lack

carefullystudied
which

the the

power

prevented

Egyptians. subject think that it was Egyptians from making

teGYl"TIAN but greater improvements in painting, "the within that class

11

they were
to

held it

back

by

determination
the limits of if
were

of

the

sacerdotal

restrain which
own

their sake." had

artists Fixed
to

recordingart, from strictly


too enamoured
:

might easily
be

wander
rules

they became
laid down it the
was

of it for its

the done

gloryof the
in the
same

reigningmonarch
way
to

and perpetuated, What

after generation do

ation. gener-

he did well, and we Egyptian much not he showed but admire the ingenuity with which can as absurd in trammelled as ventional conpossible one picture, and, although by effect. achieved a rules, ings paintpicturesque Egyptian really and the pictures must, in fact,be looked upon as picture-writing, than enlarged as nothingmore hieroglyphics. The British Museum contains a very valuable collection of Egyptian artist had

3." Hunters

bringinghome

Game.

Egyptian

Wall-

Painting.

which but are paintings, unfortunately rapidlydecaying, they have Of those artist been carefully seated at an these, copied. representing of provisions work ; a picture with fruit and flowers ; a group of men and several in which birds of various kinds are scenes cattle, driving

introduced,are

among

the most

remarkable.

Assyrian.
architecture.

Painting in Assyria appears to have been purely accessory to In the companion volume Architecture and Sculpture, on reference is made with coloured designs to the glazedtiles decorated lined the walls or formed the pavement, and to the painted baswhich reliefs which adorned the palaces. The colouring appears to have been and characterized by delicacy, richness, generalharmony of tone, but there is nothingleft to us in the shapeof pictures.

12

PAINTING.

Arabian
The copy
out

and

Mo"rish,

Arabs human

and
or

to Moors, forbidden as they were by their religions animal to the working forms, devoted their energies

beauty and of repose has never and sense been surpassed. harmony of colouring The decorations of the Mosque of St. Sophia at Constantinople (a.d. * and the Alhambra 1250 to 1350), of which have been some 590), (a.d. for studying reproducedat the CrystalPalace, afford an opportunity the principles of Moorish decoration in their fullest development. limitations the have referred, to to which we Owing, however, pictorial
a

of

and system of geometric

floral

which designs,

for

Art

never

flourished.

Greek.
It
was

in Greece
we are

Although
that

paintingfirst unfortunatelyunable
that from the accounts

became
to

an

refer

independent art. to any existing


ancient
at

it specimens,
remote

is evident

of various
executed
we are

writers
a

of great excellence were paintings In the early Greek vases age. individual character of the painter, as architect. and and which of considerable The
are

in Greece able
to

very

recognize the
and sculptor down
to us,

distinct from

the
come

most

ancient

specimens which
the various
museums

have

preserved in

of

knowledge of the true


in action and and grace; gradationsof
use

of the proportions

Europe,display human figure,


a

rightbalance feelingfor beauty


combinations
was or

but

with in repose, combined find no we attempt

genuine
subtle

at

limited such

to the

of of
"

of the painter colour,for the practice and black ; nor there are white, red,yellow, chiaroscuro
we all, as no

any

indications

knowledge of

is

displayedin
of

above ^and, contemporary bas-reliefs, of linear be


more or

find

trace

ation apprecican

aerial
than

perspective. Nothing,on
the

the other of

hand,

beautiful in which
more

system
are

of ornamentation

early Greek

vases,

other;or
of their Museum with

admirablycontrasted with each in spit'e than the figures or represented, spirited graceful
different surfaces
treatment.

conventional strictly furnish the


us

Different

vases

in the British
:

with

illustrations of these

remarks

the

Meidias

vase Apuleian Bajjeof cited characteristic be as amphora with the Frenzy of LycurgtLSj may 5) in the Royal Collection at examples. A fine amphora (iTny. Beneath with mythological Munich is richly a canopy subjects. painted left is the in the middle are Fluto and Persephone on Orpheuswith liis ;

of the subject

and ifieLeudppideSy

the

and lyre,

beneath

is Hercules

Cerberus, restraining
of the Greek
masters

Authentic
*

of the works descriptions


See

prove

that

companion volnme

on

Abchitectube

and Sculpture.

GREEK.

13

paintedfor the

of great size, were subjects, representing pictures complicated and of and were publicbuildings Greece, temples highly have been executed in to fresco, prized. The mural paintings appear and the movable in tempera on wood, the process known as pictures encaustic not having been in use until the goldenage of Greek art. movable
The is earliest artist of whom in the. celebrated
or we are

able to 450

at Athens Folyg^otUB(living
were

about of the Greek

give any whose b.c.),

detailed

account

ings paintprincipal
and in Poecile,

at portico

Athens

called the

the

Lesche

council chamber
the represented

templeof

Apolloat

Delphi.

In

the former

he

assembled princes

in council

after

4." The From


a

Last

Night of Troy.
at

Greek

Fase in the Museum

Naples.
scenes

the
wars

taking of Troy, and in of Troy, and the visit


in multitudes depicting

the of in

latter

series of
to

from

the

Ulysses
a

Hades. of

Ancient

--writers

agree

to Polygnotus great ascribing

command

and colouring,

power of does not

and life-like but he spirited manner; but profile to have attemptedany to have seem or figures, and in paintedshadows in anything but a purelyrudimentary manner; the paintings at Delphi the figures were arranged like those apparently and of the Egyptians in zones above one another, with no groups

assistance from
The
next

either linear
name

or

aerial

that of great Athens, who flourished towards the close of the fifth ApoUodornB and the first to combine of drawing with correctness was century B.C., of
a

connected

with

perspective. Greek painting is

rightdistribution

of

and light

shade.

Certain

of his

predecessors
"

14

PAINTING. to
some

Dionysinsof Colophon,for example attained the first who this respect, but Apollodorus was alike of tints and shadows. the gradations He of lived in Heracleia,*who by his pupilZenxis
"

excellence in

thoroughlymastered was, however, eclipsed


the latter

part of the

fourth form power

century b.c., and who was movable pictures.His distinctive


and of finish of imitation execution is
:

one

first artists to paint characteristics were grandeur of he also attained


to

of

the

that

marvellous

have been proved by the various him and his between Parrhasius, rivalry cotemporary of Ephesus. It is related, ja native amongst other anecdotes,that at a trial of skill between and Zeuxis Parrhasius, the former painted a like the bunch that on its exhibition the of grapes so exactly original birds came covered with a fine to peck at it ; and the latter a picture of the preserved curtain
us see
:

tales which

when the

Zeuxis

exclaimed,

"

Now
was

remove

your

curtain,and
! picture

let

this

the curtain masterpiece,"


most

found

to be the

of Zeuxis were his Hden^ in paintings the temple of Hera, at Croton, paintedfrom the five most beautiful maidens he could find ; his Infant Hercules strangling and his Serpents, Zeus and Marsya^ houtid. such transition took place in Greek In the time of Alexander, some shall have occasion to notice in speakingof the Italian as we painting of the and great seventeenth painters century, when imitative dexterity The chief finish were more highlythought of than inventive power. of of known this the refinement as ^were period painters period and his pupils, Pausias of Sicyon, PampMlns of Amphipolis, Apelles, Protogenesof Camirus, who, however, paintedat Rhodes, and who is devoted of his lalysus said to have seven ; years to the production

Among

celebrated

"

"

"

"

Nicomachus

and

his

brother

AristeideB of Thebes, for

one

of whose

less than "25,000 is said to have been given by Attains of no pictures of and Nicias who in Athens, Pergamus ; generally painted encaustic, celebrated for his female who was the Isthmian Euphranor figures ; ; of first the decline and lastly, Theon of Bamos, who was the to one cause of Greek It was,
art.

paintingto its fullest native of Colophon: he studied a development.He was, it is supposed, and afterwards first at Ephesus, at Amphipolisunder Pamphilus. His his feeling for grace and beauty of form, his chief chiaracteristics were of his colouring. His skill in portraiture, and the chaste simplicity his Venus Anadt/OTnene in which the goddesswas were masterpieces from the from her hair, the the water seen waves rising wringing drops forming a shimmering veil about her figure, Calumny, falling of Alexander and his portrait the Great graspingtJiethunderbolt of Zeus, After the death of Alexander, paintingin Greece declined. sensibly The still cultivated for several was grand style centuries;but a
however, Apelleswho
raised Greek
" "

It has
was

never

name

his

been definitely decided which of the several towns bearingthis birthplace, althoughit was most probablyHeracleia on the BUck Sea.

GREEK.

15 ^-"v^"^LIFbr"N'^,.
'

marked
of
a

shown was preference secondaryclass,known

for
as

realistic manner, such rhojx)graphicy


a

and
as

for
would

paintings
now

be

"

Greek

Amphora.

Painted

with mythological subjects.

In the Royal Collection at Munich.

called

genre who Pyreicns,


was

pictures.The most paintedshops and also in greatfavour in

was genre painter still life of every description. Caricature this degenerate age.

celebrated

Greek

16
In the National from
cases are Gallery

PAINTING.

eleven

the second in

century

a.d., found

dating portraits by Greek artists, in 1888 by Mr. Petrie in mummy

Egypt.
Mosaics of Greek and Wall Decoratioiis, have been
"

Greek remains
to

Although
art appears

there

are

no

existing
known walls.
main re-

mosaics,* the mosaic


to

to have

been and

the

Greeks, and

employed for pavements From the slighttraces


of

which

purely
"

decorative

Greek
the

painting

on

the

ceiling of
"

for Propylsea, skilled has in

instance
were

it is evident

that the Greeks the


art.
as

ly thorough-

true

principles
sion discus-

of ornamental arisen

Much
to

the

original

of this famous ceiling, appearance which lieved is, however, generally beto
6." Painting of stilllife. On
a

have
as

been
to

painted
imitate the
ments orna-

in

wall

of a
the

house

BhopoyrapK at Pompeii.

such

manner

in relief.

At been

Crystal
to

Palace,Owen
carry
out

Jones have very much of

endeavoured beautiful

amongst
the and
same

the

supposed by him principles obtained and Greeks, certainly


as an a

to
a

in favour

result,

although its

value

reproductionhas

been

collection

is afforded opportunity

questioned.In studyingcoloured
side.

uncoloured

Greek

architectural

side by sculpture

Etruscan.
The enthusiasm discovered with which in the the
numerous

Etruscans

cultivated

the

art

of

paintingis
been the

manifested

in the cemeteries

of

from the gradualdevelopment be traced. In the earlier specimens we the G reek see perfected may folds of drapery, lines, oblong faces,stiff limbs, and parallel straight which have familiar in of Eastern become with our we study sculpture ; The Etruscan the easy grace of Greek art. and in the later, language these paintings have not having yet been fullydeciphered, great historic
as value, representing

have which tomb-paintings and which in at Clusium, Tarquinii conventional to the Egyptian style

they do,
one

incidents

of the deceased death-bed

from

the

cradle to the

and, in wrestling, racing,


scene.

grave, instance in
"

daily life ing, dancing,feastincluding


from the
a

tomb in the

at

Corneto

"

They

are

mostlysketclies
of the
a

coloured,and vividly
more

their

festive generally

noticeable character, especially conversion belief in

modern

examples,betrays the Egyptian


"

Etruscans

from

the

gloomy

creed to the Greek

joyfulfuture
opus musicwni.

for the soul.

musaic, from Properly

ETRUSCAN.

17

The admitted call for We

vases

and

urns

found

to be of Greek

tombs in Etruscan are now and do and not workmanship, design the Ficoronian

generally
therefore after its

notice here. separate may, however, mention

Cisla,named

It is a bronze toiletcasket of cylindrical fii-st form, decorated owner. incised designs the arrival of the with of great merit representing

7.
"

Part of the Ficoronian Cista. PaUstruia in 1774 Now

Third century b.c. Rome. Kircherianoj

Found

near

in the Museo

and the victoryof Poly deuces over Argonauts in Bithynia, King Amycus. It was executed,we are told,by Novius Plautius in the third centuryB.C., and undoubtedly Greek influence {"n(j, 7). betrays

Smian,
No
ever greatnational school of painting

flourished in classic Rome

the works of Greek of history

produced

were

by principally

Greek

or artists, reproductions

in the to be distinguished in Rome the from the : Grseco-Roman, dating painting of Greece to the time of Augustus; the second, from conquest from the birth of Christ to the end Augustus to Diocletian ; the third, of the third century. The pictures found at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and tombs with those
near

Three periods are masterpieces.

in the

baths
are

of Titus

and

in the

numerous

subterranean

Rome,
or

in painted
"

eggj gum

glue), no
of the

true

tome although

distemper(orin water-colours mixed fresco picture covered, having yet been discoloured in walls The fresco. are plain
(J

/^'

i"
best and
to most

1"AINTING.

importantof
the first

the mural Roman

date

from

periodof

of Pompeii (supposed paintings collected in the are painting)

8.

"

Wall

Decoration

at

Pompeii.

museum

of

and Naples,

many that

of them of the

liave been

admirablyreproduced

in the

CrystalPalace.
known
as

The house

in Bulwer*8 Tragic Poet (described

ROMAN.
*

19
in

Last

Days
for the

of

discovered Pompeii '), and

1824-6, was

able remarkespecially

grace Homeric represented arid

of which most paintings, : amongst others,the Ma/rriage subjects of Pekua the a/nd Briseis Achillea parture Thetis, Parting of (Eng. 9), the Dethe Fall of Icarus, etc. The frieze of the atrium of Chryseisj

of its dignified style

9." The

Fartingof

Achilles and the House

Briseis.

From

of

the

to heft-om a Greek Painting.) {Supposed at Poet Pompeii. Tragic

(t. e, court) of the Pompeian Court


from house:
a

cubiculum
it

e, (i,

a a

small

room

CrystalPalace is copied opening from the atrium)of this


at

the

represents
Deserted

the Ip/iigenia,

her husband of this rooms

of Sacrifice her first-horn cJiild to Ariadne, Leda presenting adorned and other paintings, the less important Tynda/reuSy
celebrated
residence. The mural decorations of the

Battle

of

tJis Amazons,

The

20
''

PAINTING.

House

of

the above

Dioscuri
:

''

are

even

more

remarkable
sons

than the

those

enumerated
their of the
le

the

figuresof the
and Medea
"

twin and
are

of

Leda and

reining-in
groups
on

horses,on
and of

one

of the walls, are

fine ; especially her also

Perseus House of

Andromeda,
the Female

Children, found
be

piers of the
"

great central

peristyle,
must

scarcelyless beautiful.
mentioned,
on

/Th"
account ace

Dancer

the

several sev Palace. with

of which
Recent

elegance and grandeur of its decorative paintings, are copied in the Pompeian CJourt of the Crystal excavations have brought to light a large house
of
"

flowers, birds, singular beauty foliage, A in violent action. are represented ; many duck flies into the water with has a : an caught a splash octopus with bull : and a horse is struggling a a lamprey : a lion is attacking The the o f all is these paintings leading peculiarity intensity leopard. of their colouring, in Italy of accounted for by the well-known custom in the day-time; the lower portionsof the walls are darkening rooms always painted in the strongest colours, and the upper in white or thus affording of repose to the eye which can a sense very faint tints, be better felt than made described. been have to Attempts lately this of in residences. the modern principle wall-papers carry out The paintingsdiscovered in the Baths of Titus are considered to those of Pompeii ; they represent scenes from the life of surpass even and grandeur of Adonis, and are characterized simplicity by severe animals, fishes
of which

wall

decorations

composition. Baphael took

These many

Baths of his for

also ideas

contain for the

the

arabesques from
of of

which
;

decoration

the Vatican

they are
Koman in which

remarkable

imaginationand
excellence
are

harmony
to

colouring.
been obtained.

consisted so called, painting, properly considerable


seems

of portraiture, chiefly have

Marcus combined
artists the most

Ludius

was,

we

told,a celebrated
time of

painter and

decorator

in the

portraitand landscape Augustus, and appears to have


character of
; but

with truth of beauty of composition effects the never simplest got beyond

Roman
or

light and

shade,

rudimentaryknowledge of perspective.
Roman

Mosaics,
mosaic
or

Numerous
us.

specimensof
every
or
"

Roman

work

have

come

down

to

Almost Fauno

pavements
del

Pompeii Of these wall-linings.


of the

house

in

Herculaneum in

contains and

mosaic
"

the mosaic found

of the so-called

Casa

(House
of

Faun),
with

1831,

supposed to

represent
mosaic

one

Alexander's of the be

battles

of the Lxo7i crowned

{E^ig,10), and the circular found in Garlands hy young Cupid4,


the most interesting. among and perspecof foreshortening tive, famous have ancient been work. also

1828, in the house


Tlie former and Fine is

are Diosciu'i,

displays thoroughcommand thoughtto


copy of some Roman mosaics
a

specimens of

excavated

in

ROMAN

MOSAICS.

21 found
to

Africa, France, Spain,and


elsewhere in Great of

England.

Those

in

London
of

and

Britain,though inferior in execution,are

equalin

beauty

country.

"and power of composition executed They were probably remains of Roman

design by native

those Britons

other any under Roman work

The superintendence.

villas with

fine mosaic

10."

The

Battle of Issns, be
a

Mosaic

discovered at

to {Supposed

copy

of an

old Greek

Pompeii. Painting.)
in the

discovered
volume
on

at

Brading
a

and

elsewhere At

are

noticed

companion
of Issus,

Arciiitecture.
as

laid down

mosaic

a Salisbury, copy has discovered. been lately pavement,

of the Battle

Oriental

Painting.
and

Persian
We
one

Indian.
of Persian and Indian
to the

thought it best to treat the latter almost as owes chapter,


have

Art

in

its existence

former.

Persians Unlike the followers of the Prophet, the fire-worshipping works of their animal into forms allowed to introduce art, and were

22
many which fine

PAINTING,

tiles and other materials, on in specimensexist of paintings and and real human even symbolic birds, animals, figures
with the elaborate floral

alternate

designs in

which

the

Persians

still

refined feeling for colour and delicate delight. Persian form of with wonderful manual dexterity.At the present beauty metal is carried to great perfection on day enamelling by natives of in Cashmere. principally of have the Louvre Two latelybeen filled with galleries M. of art, brought by Dieulafoyfrom the ruins of interesting objects of Persia Darius in the palace King at Susa (b.c. 550). These include, of the beside the famous

artists combine

Persia,who

work

frieze of the -Archers


of decorative of
art

of the

Guard

and

that

of the

Lions, many
which brilliant In of
a

examples
bands

alternate

and palmettos mosaic

colours, orange, green, manganese,

of brick, in to panels applied lotus-flowers are depictedin and gray in a vitreous purple

enamel, the whole


the

forming a

of brilliant tints.

decoration

of tiles for

ornamental wall-linings, in They display that of

paintingon
these works

lacquered ware,
of delicacy

illuminated

books, and other small but rich specimens


artists excel. other

Persian colour-decoration, their India

which colouring is

nation, while

Oriental surpasses any those of their least rivals. at designs equal

Paintingin
and of of

chiefly accessory
richness
not

to architecture

and

sculpture,

is characterized

by

and and

detail,and

careful

though
caves

exuberance colouring, repose servile imitati9n of nature. The


of
as temples,

of the rock-cut sculptures

well

as

the outsides

private houses, are


the Star of

and brilliantly in Moorish ornamental

often

Like

Solomon

coloured. tastefully the decorations, palm is a


most

constant

feature of Indian

art, and
this

appears

to

have

some

important symbolic
worked-out

exception, elaborately treated in an foliage b eing rare, easy, supple without to strict rules. In the productions manner, any adherence of modern Indian ai*tists the effect obtained of use by the judicious marvellous. is whilst contrasts are neutralized, gold Glaring glowing colours are toned down by meanderinglines of goldso subtly interwoven with the design, that,in the words of Racinet, the great French writer decorative painting, we the whole as through a transparent on see web of gold." Among the best existing examples of Persian paintingare the * illustrations to the copy of the Hazm Ndvwh (thePersian abridgment from the original Sanskrit of the Ma/idbMrcUa, one of the two great of Ancient the rival between contest two India,relating epic poems both descendants of a King Bharata), which is the greatest families, of the Royal Libraryat Jaipur. The Razm treasure Ndmah its owes origin to the great Akbar, who, being convinced that the fanatical hatred prevailing between the Hindus and the Mussulmans mainly
patterns
are
"

With significance.

in Englishwith photographic of description reproductions W. by published Griggs of Peckham.

the

has plates

been

11.

"

The

Feast

at

HastiDupur. By Daswauth

and Bhora.

Sixteenth

century.

From

the copy

of the

Bazm

Ndmah

in the

Royal Libratyat Jaipur.

24
arose

PAINTING

from

mutual

endeavoured ignorance,

to

make

the works

of

the

former Akbar's lakhs with

for ti*anslation.
own

accessible to the latter ; and in 1582 selected the Mafidhknrata The Jaipur book, which is thought to have been 169 full-page miniatures,well-draw" copy, contains of Persian Art. in the highest style It is said that and four

illuminated of
true

than to "40,000) were paid (then more equivalent rupees who were Oriental magnificence the greatest to the artists,

of their and

time, and

included Akbar's

Daswanth
court.

and

Basawan,
another

the

most

brated cele-

paintersat

To

Bhora,

famous

artist,

in which YudhishDaswanth, is ascribed the miniature {Etiq. 11), with Krishna and Pandavas of the are thira, Maharajah Bharata, loose the seen holding a great feast at Hastinapur before letting White of Horse
on
a

his

year

of

wandering.
serve

This
as men
a

of representation

Royal banquet would


It will be noted

truthful sit

sixteenth-century transcript
apart from
the

present customs.

that India

the

women.

In the libraries of other Indian The and


scenes

Rajahs of
cost

are

of copies Ulwar

various

historic

works

illuminated. beautifully is said to have


over

which GtUistdn,

at Jaipur, at Amber, palaces indeed throughout India,are

and

is a copy of the of rupees. elsewhere in the Rajput States,


At
a

lakh

decorated

^ath

hunting-and

battle-

and

fresco.

of domestic life,executed in a kind of representations all the influence of Persian with art, combined They betray
to old traditions.

strict adherence

Specimens
but the few with
to
a

of

by independent paintings
have been exhibited instruction miniature
a

natives time Indian As

of

India

are

rare,

which

from

to time

prove

that

little encouragement and the and small

with compete successfully

Europeans.

instance of Delhi which well


as were

paintings ; the
the and Art

different chiefs ; and

series
at

might hope of this, we proofs may the of Emperor portraits of architectural drawings
Manchester in

artists

amongst
enamels

Treasures

1857,

as

the

and

paintingssent
Indian

from

Jaipur
of 1886.

and

other

Indian

States to the Colonial

Exhibition

Chinese,
The the of pictorial art earlyhistory in China
era,

is lost in
an

obscurity.In
the The India.

first

century of the Christian


Buddhistic
name

it received
statues

impetus by

importation of
first artist whose

paintings and
is Tsao middle

from

is recorded in the

the third century. Buddhistic Chang Sang-Yin, who lived much


are

picturesfor the
Wu

in Fuh-hing,who painted, The styleof temples. of the sixth

told,was

copied by famous especially

later artists.

Tao-tsz,of the
been of

century, was eighthcentury, we


for

for Buddhistic

and pictures

portraits.

His

too, are landscapes,

said to have

ancl vigour, extraordinary

IN

JAPAN.

25
Chinese date existing pictures and

fall of from In

beauty. picturesque
British Museum and

The

oldest

the tenth the

to the sixteenth

century.
is
a

interesting Japanese drawings, from the earliest years to modern times, purchased from Mr. W. Anderson, formerlyattache to the British Legation in Japan. Of the best Chinese mention White a EagU^ pictures we may attributed lived in the twelfth to the Emperor Hwei-Tsung, who century, and was celebrated for his drawings of falcons : Three Rishis *
very series of Chinese in the the and All
are

there

instructive

the

Wilderness, by Ng^an Hwui

of the

thirteenth

century; and

and Philosopher

Disciples by
costumes

Si-kin Kit-t8Z6 of the fifteenth century ;


Korean in character : distinctly addition In to these, individuality.
are

types and

of which is full of

drawing
are

of the heads

there

executed drawings of geese, eagles, cranes beautifully from sixteenth the the to twelfth birds, dating century. the pictures and all mentioned are Kakf'inono8,\ mostlyin colours, the which is on silk, on Philosopher, except paper. several other

In the sixteenth

century, a decadence
which precedence,

set in in the art of

China, and

Japan

then

took

the

she has maintained

until

to-day.

Japanese,
Though
that is the formed much in
to most

European might
no

eyes
on

the
more

art of

Japan

raenUiry and
result

undeveloped, yet
which the
at

careful be

rudimay appear it will be seen study,


to art

first decided

sight

put down
schools of of

ignorance
have been be the of

of intention.

Though

country,

many evidence

can progression

school have of each particular found, for the disciples traditions the Yamato be of their School

continued

through predecessors
of

centuries.

Thus

the works

of that school in the eleventh is to observed than fish, birds and in their

to the prostrong resemblance ductions truth More to nature century. of flowers, in all Japanese representations animals,

to-day bear

of pictures

human

figures.

Japanese picturesmay be divided into two classes : the Buddhistic, which display great richness of effect produced mainly by the free use of gold; and the Secular,which noted for calligraphic are dexterity. and in the latter the draughtsmanship,is In the former the colouring,
most
*

remarkable.
The
Rishis
were

Of

Buddhistic

which paintings,

are

somewhat

akin

creations of
and

who play a great part and superstition, philosophy


"

mythology which are pulled consist of Makimonos and Japanesedrawings pictures than fifteen out sideways from roils often many yards in length,and seldom more fittedwith inches deep : KaJcdnwnos, or hanging pictures, are which, when complete, and of the with the coloured tone silks Gakus, or borders of liarmonizing pictures ; metal fraines. Both Kak^rnonoi and stretched and framed in wooden or pictures
t Chinese Makimoivos
are

in the

of China

Japan.

rolled up when

not

in

use.

26
to

PAINTING

similar works

in the

India,
British

we

may

note

the

tale

of Eaiho in

and

the 947

in Museum, by an Shiuten-Dojiy the destruction in twenty-four dramatic narrates scenes of dates from RaikO and the a by man-eating ogre,

unknown

artist,which
a.d.

seventeenth

century.
The first painterrecorded of in the annals known
one as

of

immigrant
celebrated works very and known founded

royal descent,
a

Japanese art is a Chinese who Nan-ritl (or Shin-ki),


descendants
arose one
was

flourished in the
as

fifth century, and

of whose

also the

painter. In
no

the

ninth who

century
is said

of

Japan's
are

Kob6 greatest artists,


of the Chinese successful in the his however Kost^

Kanaoka,
Tao-tsz of

to

have
was,
we

taken

Wu

for his model. works

He

told,
men

delineation bear

and landscapes
are
a

of figures few followers

animals; but
as

only remaining
witness One of the the

Buddhistic
were

which pictures, the in the of

to his merit.

His

line.

disciples, Kasu-ga Moto-mitsu,


Yamato-Tosa for his

eleventh

century

school, still in

famed Mitsu-oki, belonged delicately-painted of adhered Another artists to the Chinese drawings quails. group and to themselves first Buddha of at to the glorification style, devoting imitatingChinese landscapes they have paintedbirds, ; whilst latterly and flowers. The of founded school, disciples the Takuma quadrupeds in the tenth century by Taknma of Tam^nji, producedchiefly pictures alid of his apostles. Buddha In the fifteenth century, a revival took place in the art of Japan, in the form of a return to the style of the Chinese of the Sung, Yiien and it is the art of this revival which is illustrated in : and Ming dynasties
to which existence,

the

British

Museum from

collection.

"A

vast

number material

of their than

pictures,"

Japan, miniscence more no composed slightreof vegetable such as a limb of bamboo a peony life, or pine, and or orchid, or a floweringbranch of plum or peach. Spirited * * * life-like sketches and of birds in most were equallycommon, emblematic the Chinese and to cases a o r conveyed Japanese poetical The for the motive." a meaning, that ensured lastingpopularity illustration which we give{Eng,12) shows that this love of birds has continued and fish were also to the present day. Mammalia, reptiles,
''are

says Professor

of SidneyColvin, speaking ambitious

the Chinese

school of
a

represented.
continues

"

Side

by

side with

these creatures and

of the natural

world,"

Professor
"

Colvin, "others
monstrous
"

or belonging to supernatural

mythicalzoology
and significance this school."

animals have

monstrous

men

of various

invention
were

abounded

in the

of representations
"

landscapes. Cascades, and silicic and streams rugged headlands ; peaks pools, ; towering side by side with the graceful fantastic pines and plum-trees, gnarled and stem of the or featheryfoliage pavilions bamboo; mansions crowning the heightsor bordering the expanse of an inland lake,and

They

also famous

for their

straw-thatched

in the valleys; these cottages nestling

were

elements

IN

JAPAN.

27
and reconstructed into
a

that

tlie Chinese

assorted landscape painter

pictures." of this Kevival, the principal Shiu-bnn, of the were painters fifteenth century, who is represented by a Chinese Landscape : Sesshin, versatile artist of the sixteenth century, by whom a Hotel* a7id are
Of the Children
when (painted the artist
was

thousand

eighty-three years

of

and age),

12:

"

wad

Goose.

Japanese DrawiJig,

Nineteenth

century.

two to

in which he chiefly excelled. Sesshiu went to China Landscapes, honoured with a command to paint in the Royal Palace, was study,
on

and,

his

return
was

to

Japan,

founded

the

Sesshiu
"

school

another

founder We
are

artist of this group of the Kano told that and Shiu-bun


on

afterwards called Oi-no-suk^, Motonobu," the died who in the at school, 1559, age of eighty-two.

his

paintedfans

were

chosen father The

as was

ceremonial

giftsto
a

the

Emperor
carried

Shogun.

Motonobu's

Kano

Masanobu,

of pupil

; whose brother and the old traditions.


*

his descendants

for several tions generaof the Kano earlier works

One

of the

seven

gods of good fortune.

28 school
are

PAINTING.

in monochrome, and occasionaHy frequentlyexecuted of with washes colour the : heightened with the greatest dexterity elaborate workmanship and a freer use later paintingsdisplay more of gold. Of the TJkiyo-ye-riu, or Popular school of Japan,the works of which distributed of book-illustrations, have been engraved on by means was Hoku-sai,"the wood, playing-cards, etc., the most famous disciple closes artistic genius of the Japanese race," whose name most powerful the first was a long line of those talented book illustrators of whom

Moronobn, who
works and the
were

died

between for is from


a

1711

and

1716.

As He

most

of Hoku-sai's been in

executed Museum

on wood, theyhave engraving*

destroyed,
1849. In

sketches original British

his hand kakemono

are on

rare.

died

silk

by

Hoku-sai

representing

Demons Before
must

tryingthe bow of TamPtomo, closingthe brief sketch


the Ko-rin the

of the

mention of

founded school,

part

seventeenth
; the

century, who

work lacquer founder


was

Shij5or naturalistic Mam-yama-Okio, who, born


in the
art

of art in Japan, we history by Ogata Ko-rin,of the latter famous for his was specially school of Japan,of which the in

1733, brought about


to

beneficial revolution So- sen, the

of

painting,and

which

belonged

monkeys

of Japanese Landseer, celebrated for his representations Kishi established Ganku and lastly, the Do-ko, school, by
as

better known
one tigers, somethingof

Oan-ku, who
of the style

is

famous especially Museum.

for his His

drawings

of

of which the

is in the British

followers

adopted

Shijoschool.

Painting

in

the

Early

Christian About
A.D.

and

Byzantine
"

Ages.

Harly
The

Christian,

50

A.D.

1300,

to be found in the are earlyChristian painting of which decorated were Catacombs, the walls, recesses, and ceilings In the first two centuries, with simple frescoes. the hatred owing to could recall the old idolatry, which of everything symbols alone were forms and limited these to not to were even employed, appropriated of the Eoman deities. As the power heathen and "mpire declined, the love of art innate in every with it its monopoly of art-forms,
"

first examplesof

native

of Greece of

and

Italy
"

once

more

asserted
a

third and

fourth centuries, althoughstill to

its sway ; and in the certain extent hampered

by
to
now

the early Christians were reviving idolatry, permitted with somethingmore than formal adorn the Catacombs signs. We find Christ or as representedas T/ts Good Shepherd, Orphetts
The
art

the dread

"

of

Wood-cuts

were

in Japan in wood-engravingwas practised first printed in colour about the beginning of

the thirteenth ccntuiy. the eighteenth century.

EARLY

CHRISTIAN.

29
Our of illustration

taming
affords
the church

tJie Beasts
an

with S.

his

Lyre,
second

etc.

{Eng. 13)
from the first
at
a

example
of

of this

class Via

fresco;it

is taken beneath of the

catacombs

Calisto, on
This is

the church

Appia, Home,
one

of S. Sebastiano.

also contains
to

of portraits

Christ, which

supposed

have

been

executed

Christ as Orpheus. Fresco from the Catacombs of 13. are scenes Tainting. The surrounding pictures from Ceiling
"

S. Calisto, Rome. the Old Testament.

somewhat
the Via advance

later date.

In

the

of paintings

the

Pontian

Catacombs

on

Portuensis,dating from the fifth century, we note a from the differs essentially of Christ,especially, the portrait chief istics characterChristian type. The old Greek idea,and is of a purely exhibited in the Catacombs, are a of earlyChristian painting as
:

further

simple earnestness

and

and majesty,

grandeur

of

littleinferior to the frescoes of the best age of the old

but composition Empire,combined

30
with

PAINTING.

their what we peculiarly may call a spirituality artists strove to express their belief in the immortal the

own.

The

tian Chris-

soul

animating
it is their

even

poorest

and

most

distorted

human

forms, and
these

which givesimportanceto spiritual significance Mosaics.


time of
"

earlypaintings.*
in the
to
a

of the State became the religion Christianity no Constantino, Christian painting, longer condemned When

subterranean churches

life, was

called

upon

to

decorate

the vast

basilicas and

to the new worship. At first tempera and appropriated but these encaustic colours were exclusively employed by the artists, Christian mosaics The only existing soon were supplanted by mosaics. fourth of certainty attributed with any degree the to century are those the ceiling of S. Costanza, near on Rome, which are of a purely

decorative it is with

character. and

The S. be

mosaic the

in the tribune fourth the


now

thought,perhaps from
S, Praxedia of the

dates, century. It representsChrist


and ApostleSy
so

of S. Pudenziana

Pvdenziana^and

above

them

the emblems its true

damaged that succeeding historic pictiures centuries attempts were made to produceimportant in mosaics; but the intractability led to a general of the material for the simplest subjects. As further and advance we preference further from the times of persecution, note an we ever-widening difference between and the church the paintings of the Catacombs
evangelists ; but
it is date cannot

much

determined. readily

In the fifth and

mosaics.

This

difference is well

illustrated

by

the

mosaics

on

the

Triumphal Arch of the church of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, at Rome, dating from the second half of the fifth century, for in them the which had unconsciouslyinfluenced the artist of the antique spirit is almost extinct sepulchres symbolism is gone ; ; the old Christian instead Faith rises of scenes and death, above which of suffering and, in have of the Saviour enthroned we triumphant, representations surrounded The glory, by the redeemed. Virgin does not appear to
have In been until represented the latter

part of the fifth century.

the sixth century were produced the mosaics of SS. Cosmo e mention Damiano, considered the best in Rome, and deservingspecial of retains the as being amongst the last in which the figure Christ

quiet majestycharacteristic
the saints appear
rows parallel

of the groups

Catacomb and

and portraits,

in which

in natural

instead a'ttitudes, in Rome

of the stiff

subsequently adopted.
of the tribTine of S.

The

mosaics

Agnese

(625 638) are


"

the heads of the Saviour,and good specimens of the transition period, the Virgin,being purely conventional,whilst some of the figures are and free from dignified, graceful, Byzantine stiffness. Those in the basilicas of S.

ApollinareNuovo,
now

and

S.

Vitale,at Ravenna,
of S. Paolo
at

are

of is

specialimportance
*

that

the

church
many

Rome

Copiesin
seen

water-colours and

be

in the South

photographyof KensingtonMuseum.

of the Catacomb

paintings may

BYZANTINE.
as they are destroyed,

31

the

only existing specimenswhich


space under
was

give
with the To

just
these ninth

idea of the way in which every available brilliant decorations,in the centuries

covered

notice. the della

century
those the

belong the mosaics


the tribune

of S.

Prassede, on

Hill,and Esquiline
on Navicella,

above

of the church

of S. Maria

Caelian Hill.

Of Illuminated
us

an Manuscripts,

unbroken

series have

come

down

to

earlyChristian times, many of which giveproofof considerable and true feeling for all that is best in antique art. imaginative power in the Vatican, a parchmentTo this class belong the Book qf Joshua the seventh roll more than thirtyfeet long, dating from or eighth century, but supposedto be a copy of an earlyChristian work of the period we have been reviewing;and the celebrated Virgilof the work of the fourth or fifth century. Vatican, an original of Charlemagne was the great period for manuscript The time illuminations fine specimens are preserved in the National ; many
from

library
Tours.

in

Paris,the British Museum,

and

the Libraries

of Treves

and

Byzantine.
Soon branched and the after

Christian art conquest of Italy by the Longobai-ds, of the Late Roman off into two schools, the names to which
the

Byzantinehave been given. The foundations of the latter are the supposed to have been laid early at Byzantium (Constantinople), attain but it did until of the Eastern to importance not seat Empire ; the periodof the deepest the sixth century. Its predominancemarks
decline of Italian art vital
"

the which, however, still retained, though latent,

spark which was to be again fanned into flame in the thirteenth which, century. The leading characteristics of Byzantine painting, it has retained unchanged to the present day, with Oriental tenacity, the use of flat gold grounds instead of the blue hitherto preferred, are of the human a stiffness in the treatment figure,rigidconventional devoid of beauty replacing forms utterly the majestic types of the Late Roman school, artificially-arranged folds, draperiesin long straight
" "

and

great
hot

neatness

and

carefulness
to the to have

of execution. of

The Romans

controversy as

personal appearance
been that
on

Christ, the
"

maintaining Him
a

the He

'*

fairest of the children


no

of
"

men," and the Byzantine Greeks


exercised the
most

had the art

beauty of
both

important
accounts

influence
a

person, of the East and

West, and
limits of the

in

great
more

measure

for the difference in the schools.


most

treatment

of sacred forbid

subjects by
us

the artists of the two than


name

Our mosaics

to

do

the much

important original

Byzantineschool.
have been

Those

of S.

Sophia at

Constantinople,
of their

althoughmany

still retain destroyed,

32

PAINTING.

splendour :
the the

our

illustration

{Eng. 14)

is from with

the

porch, and
Oriental

represents
to servility,

Emperor
enthroned Until the

Justinian Redeemer.

doing homage,
century, Venice
of Saint all its of

truly
little
we

thirteenth

was

more

than
an

Byzantine
of

colony, and in the mosaics studying the Byzantine style in


mosaics, dating from
the the
near

Mark's

have Other

opportunity
Western be studied

purity.
; in

tine Byzanin in that The

time

the

Normans,
the

may

cathedral
and in

of Monreale, various

Palermo of

city ;

buildings

Southern

Capella Italy and

Keale

Sicily.

14."

Christ

adored

by

Justiniao. S,

Sixth

Century.

Momic

in the Porch

of

SopfiiOf Constantinople.

Monreale
as

mosaics how

liave

been
a

admirably illustrated, and


of dramatic power

deserve
be

study

showing
artists

great yet
were

mastery
fettered

could

attained

conventional rules, and whose by many of representing the human rude. As specimens figure was power very of colouring they are magnificent. The of the Byzantine school are principally manuscript illuminations of Boman do for notice. and call not works, copies special any to In their painting, Byzantine artists attained purely decorative considerable mosaics their are ingenious proficiency; geometrical very in pattern and centiu-y always good in colour, but from the thirteenth

by

who

Byzantine

art

gradually declined

in both

technical

and

inventive

power.

'jy^/

ji^^. iMiJf,

H,
^ZMAJ

W^r-^
1^-L
m
u^

liS^
M

(?\;to4*^'

^jSii
i'mldVc
r t r

3
sixteenth

15.

"

Sketch

Map

of

Italy in

tbe

century.

34

PAINTING

Painting
In The

in

the

Middle 1100"
A.D.

Ages. 1440.

Italy. A.D.

of Sir Austen publication Henry Layard'srevised edition of has done much of Painting of tbe Italian Schools Kugler's Handbook to familiarise English readers with recent continental criticism on in no Italian Art. SignorMorelli has of late years called in question, of some of the well-known measured terms, the ascriptions masterpieces that his remarks of Italian Art ; and so much have been the to point if not all,of his several of our best critics have agreed with many, at least a novel re-baptisms. style, Signor Morelli's is,if not a new of criticism in art. He judgespaintings by the peculiarities application well-authenticated of draughtsmanship, and visible in original drawings such as the formation of the ear, the head, and the eye, and paintings, throwing examination he has succeeded in overby this system of analytical been pointed previously expressed opinions ; but,as has many Could The Edinburgh Review,' for October 1892, out by a writer in lateral Morelli |":ove the infallibility unaided method of his scientific by colhe evidence,he would necessarily destroythe claim of Uie men wishes to serve all." to beingartists at Reference to abstruse arising between questionsof authenticity critics would, however, be out of place in an Elementary History of istics do more touch on the leadingcharacterArt which cannot than lightly
* ' * "

of each of

school

but

it is

none

the less essential that the student the

should learn to discriminate

between

authentic pictures undoubtedly


imitators. led
to

great
of

masters

and

works
art

by

followers and
in

A up

careful
to
a

study

the- various

movements

Italywhich
succeeded
it

the

Renaissance

judgment
elsewhere.

on

will repay the student by the many schools which

him assisting

form

just
and

in

Italy

In the tenth

and The

eleventh the few

Italian society was centuries,


art
was

still utterly

and disorganized,

of decorative practice the rudest

almost in

entirely
the
worst

discontinued.
fonn of

pictures produced were

either

antique or .the Byzantine style, of the twelfth century, however, the the beginning as types. As early
of reproductions

Republicsof Upper and Lower Italygained strengthand stability, whilst a new and independent of art gradually itself, developed style which alike the the and Late a Roman, style Byzantine displacing be called purelyChristian, its rapidgrowth mainly and which owes may
"

to the
vere

patronage of the Church.


"

In the

mosaics

of S. Maria

in Traste-

at Rome
a

Rome,

and of the basilica of S. Clemente, also at (1139 1153), did marked improvement is noticeable ; but the aH apparently

IN

FLORENCE.

35
of the thirteenth of
"

not advance when and the their of

fusion

further until the commencement of the two conqueringraces


"

century,

the Arabs had become predecessors the Latins in 1204 Constantinople by into Italyof artists well acquainted with all the technical processes of painting, unable them to turn to the best account. although Henceforth the history is the historyof individual men, of painting alike of the new art was to which a fact significant promoted position and of the new freedom enjoyedin the Kepublics. Allusion political has been already made to the importantpart taken in the revival of by the famous Niccola Pisano,* and there can be no doubt sculpture that he greatly of art. in every branch influenced his cotemporaries The
was
"

Sicily the Normans, and the conquest complete, had led to the immigration

distinctive feature of this


^as

in which revival, in her


*

Tuscany
of the
as

took

the

lead,

remarked
'
"

by

Mrs.

Jameson

Lives

Early Italian

Painters

"

that

art

became

imitative

as

well

although in the first two centuries the imitation was as much as real; the art of lookingat Natui-e had to be learnt
her imitating The could first Italian

representative, imaginary
before the

acquired.'' to take part painters

be

in the

new

movement

were

of Siena, Buenaventura of Lucca, Berlingieri of Florence,and Andrea Arezzo, Maestro Bartolommeo Tafi (the all of whom greatestmosaic- worker of the thirteenth century),

Oixinta of

Pisa, Goido

Margaritoneof
the

followed
the
^

with Byzantinestyle,
new

certain

modifications

of significant

of the stirring the few National

life in art.

Among

is in the

remain, there by Margaritonewhich now paintings The and Child,with Scenes Gallery Virgin (No.564) is,on
the

from

the Lives and

qf the Saints,which

as important,

showing

istic every account, most characterstate of art at the end of the of Florence who (1240 1302),
"

thirteenth In has form of been and

century.
of Qiovaimi
"

the works called in

Cimabue
a

not
we

with altogether

justice the
"

founder in

of modern

Italian

painting,
the

recognize

very

decided adyance

representing

still of action, althoughhis figures are expression the the long-drawnByzantine type. Of his existing paintings
a

are principal

colossal Madonna

in

the

Bucellai

chapelof

S. Maria

fine water-colour a copy is in the Crystal in the of the same Child town Palace) Academy ; ; and of the frescoes on the vaulted ceiling and above the walls of the nave of S. Francesco the upper church of which the best are the at Assisi, Kiss qf Judas,the Ma/rriage at Cana, the Deposition from tlieCross,and and Child, in the National Joseph a/nd his Brothers, His Madonna

Novella, Florence
a

(ofwhich
and

Madonna

{Eng,16), Gallery may


the hew As
must

be studied
'

as

an

indication

of the

dawn early his

of

birth of art in Florence.

of Cimabue who cotemporaries Jaoobns Toriti, author of name


*

were some

influenced
fine mosaics

by

work,

we

in the tribunes

In the

companion volume,

oi) Abchxtkcture

and ScVLrruBs.

36
of S. Giovanni author in Laterano of mosaics of and

PAINTING

S. Maria

Maggiore at
and

Borne

OioYanni

Cosmato, sopra Minerva, Borne

in the latter church

in that of S. Maria

; Oaddo

Virginin the
cathedral the chief famous

cathedral
;

at Florence

of an Ascension Oaddi, the painter of the and the in Coronation a Pisa, qf Virgin the Dnccio di Buoninsegna of Siena, and, above all, executed Paseion
a

of the Sienese school of this period, who painter from the series of paintings, representingscenes

of

Christ J the

Entry

into

JeruscUein, etc.,in the cathedral

of

Siena, and

Id.

"

Madonua

and Child. In

By Cimabue.
the yational

Late thkbeeuth

century.

Gallery.

other minor

works, in which

he

for perhapsdisplayed greater feeling


than Cimabue himself.
two

beautyand Ugolinoda
We Italian have

knowledge of
four

form

The his

National

Gallerycontains

pictures by

Duccio, and

by

cotemporary

Siena.
now

reached of

the

second

stage of the developmentof the


to

school

and painting,

shall have

between distinguish

two

IN

FLORENCE.

37

into which it branched off in the time of Giotto. We stillfind styles the but artists of Tuscan no are lead, Tuscany taking longer one mind. school was of one of the other, Siena. The Florence h"ul-quarters
"

The
I

Florentines
extent

and from

their the

who followers,

derived
were

their

certain

earlySienese masters,

practiceto a for distinguished

and richness of composition ; the Bienese, for I vigour of conception \ warmth and grace in the treatment of feeling of single At the figures.

Ihead

of the

new

Florentine

school stands known


as

who was the (1276 1336), first Italian painter from Byzantinetraditions, to free himself entirely and who exercised a lasting influence on art in every part of Italy. Giotto began life as a shepherd-boy on Accordingto an old tradition, his native place, and his artistic genius the mountains near Yespignano,

Ambrogiotto Bondone,

Giotto

"

was some

first discovered ten


or

by ^mabue,
years

who

him, surprised
of his

when

a a

child of

twelve
a

old,drawing one

sheep on
at
once

pieceof
took him

smooth
to his

slate with
own

stone. sharply-pointed

Oimabue
master

home

in

Florence,and
Giotto

taughthim

the rudiments
; and

of his art. his earnest


natural un-

It

was

not

long before

his surpassed

study
is

of nature, and steadfast resistance to all that was false or in art, effected a reformation in painting the value of which over-estimate. In

it

to impossible

knowledgeof
to have

form, of chiaroscuro,
been deficient ; but

and

of

he perspective,

is

allowed generally

his force of

his power of preservingrightbalance in complicated conception, of natural for his and character, expressing feeling groups, and

grace

of action

harmony
as

of

entitle him colour,justly of the true ideal

to the

high

to him position assigned

the founder

of Christian style

The cotemporary and friend of portraiture. the h^id of the school of allegoric as painting, the latter does of that of poetry. The following works by this great master : may be taken as typical the historic paintings from the lives of scenes representing thirty-eight the Virgin and Christ in the chapel of the Madonna delF Arena at Padua the in of the lower church frescoes S. Francesco at over Assisi, ; the tomb of the saint {Eng. 17), from the life of scenes representing
the restorer
at

art, and

of

Dante, he stands

"

of which two of the best are the Marriage of S, Francis to saint, and the Death S, the celebrated known Francis as Poverty, of mosaic, ; the Navicella, in the old basilica of S. Peter,Home, representing a ship with Christ walking on the the disciples, on a stormy sea containing waves preserved, (still though much restored,in the vestibule of the

that

present S. Peter's) ; the Seven


ronata at

in the church Sacrame7its,

of the Inco-

in which !N'aples,

Giotto

departedfrom

his usual
a

symbolic
qf Dante, Podesti

styleand painted actual wood in the on paintings


was by Giotto,

scenes

of human

Florence

and life; fine A Academy.


a

series of small the

Portrait

discovered in 1840 on Several of the works at Florence.*


^

wall in the of

of palace

Giotto,and many
on

of those

by

Becent writers have thrown

doqbts

itsauthenticity.

38 Italian artists who

PAINTING

flourished at

or

near

the

time

to

which

we

are

have been reproduced in chromo-lithography referring, by

the Arundel

Society.
The studied the

generalcharacteristics
at the National

of the

which Gallery, of

Italian painters be well early may is tolerably rich in specimens of

various
a

earlyschools
Coronation

Giotto,and

of the

Italy and Germany. Tioo Apostles, by his of school,are Virgin^ by a disciple

17.

"

ObedieQce. In the Lower

By Giotto.
Church

Early fourteenth century. o/S. Francesco at Assisi.

of the class to which Institution


to
:

we

allude.
are

Two

works

by Giotto

are

in the Liverpool the

they
at
a

the

Presentation In hue thinner

of S. John

Baptist

Zacharias, and Salome


del Carmine of and lighter
;
more

with

tJiehead

Maria
are

Florence.
roseate

both from Santa of the Baptist^ the colours Giotto's paintings than in those and of
are

his

cessors prede-

they

were

mixed

with

preserved. Not
was

Giotto

but only in painting, famous. The Campanile at


some

very well and architecalso in sculpture ture,

medium,

Florence adorn

was

built from
are

his be

and designs, his hand. by

of the the

which sculptures of Giotto's

the base

said to

Taddeo

Oaddi

was

chief

and scholars,

his works

are

IN

FLORENCE.

39

"

important producedin the earlyhalf of the fourin successful in historic subjects, was century. especially which he cTisplayed and for and truth a more great feeling beauty, than Giotto. and chiaroscuro Four thorough knowledge of colouring pictures of his school are in the National Gallery. The frescoes in the Novella in the cloister of S. Maria at Florence, Cappellade' Spagnuoli which illustrate the newly-instituted festival of the Corpus CJvristiand from the life of S, Domenicy were scenes formerlyascribed to him, and also to Simone di Martino, but they are da attributed to Andrea now
m"^
toonthHe

considered

the

18.

"

The

IVeacbingof S. formerlyattributed
Florentia.

Domenic
to Simone

againstthe Heretics.* Fragment of the fresoo di Martino, now ascribed to Ain"RBA da


Florence, Novella^ About
a.d.

Ill's.Maria

1340.

who Florentia,

is known in the

to

have Santo

executed
at

the

frescoes in the

chapel

of San

Eanieri

Campo

Pisa, and who probablybelonged

to the Sienese school.

"Andrea di Clone called Orcaglia,t althoughhe did not study under works markable reare : his Giotto, was greatlyinfluenced by his paintings
"

for their grace, energy, and and the Last Jvdgrtvent are paintings
*

His principal imaginative power. in the Paradiae, CappellaStrozzi,


to the dress of the order

in allusion black and white, The dogs in this picture are {Domini Canes), t The shortened form of his sobriquet L'Arcagnuolo.'
*

40
in S. Maria
Novella

PAINTING

The at Florence. twelve in piecesby large altar-piece

Gallerycontains a in the Orcagna, representing


with Virgin, nine other

National

the Coronation centre, in three divisions, of the life of the with connected Christ, which scenes
over

them.

The
at

were formerly placed !^orenca for Pietro S. originally painted Maggiore, Triumph of Death and the Last Judgment in the Campo Banto

It

was

Pisa, which

attributed now others to Vardo


to

for many to other

years

rendered

name (h*cagna's

famous,
the

are

to the painters ; by some Daddi, whose work in Santa Groce

and Lorenzetti, and these

by

Ognos-

the santi,however, hardlyjustifies him.

of ascription
was

fine frescoes
his also

Another
success

famous

follower of Giotto
master.
at

so Oiottino, some

called from
must

in

his imitating

He

took

share in the

paintings

of the church be imitation worker

of S. Francesco

Assisi.

Stefano Plorentino

mentioned, on account of the great improvement he effected in the of form, although no work be ascribed to him. can existing Other painters influenced by Giotto were Giovanni da Milano, a fellowwith Taddeo Gaddi
;

Jacopo

Aretino of Arezzo, the author Spinello Santo Oiovanni at Pisa ; and lastly, Campo
Taddeo.
of the importance of late years. recognized The
art of Siena

his pupil ; and of several of the frescoes in the and

di

Casentino

Agnolo Oaddi, sons

of

has only been fully period Yasari's partiality for his fellow-countrymen with brevity, with the result that led him to treat the Sienese painters until quiterecently their work has not been properlyappreciated. of which the members Of the Sienese school, aimed rather at spiritual form, Simone di expressionthan an exact imitation of corporeal

of this

Hartino, known
the

as

Simone
was

Memmi,
the

cotemporary of Giotto

and

friend
:

of Petrarch,

chief. chief

remain ascribed is
an

the frescoes in the


to

de' Cappella

Very few of his works now in S. Maria Novella, Spagnuoli


are

formerly thoughtto
Andrea 1315

be Simone's da him
can

work,

now,

as

we

have

seen,

Florentia. he be

In the

Palazzo in

Pubblico, at
with the and

important fresco by
year
;

of the

Virgin a/nd Child


studied

Siena, of SaintSf
of

the

but

best

church death

S.

Francesco, at Assisi.

Ambrogio
was

Lorenzetti the most


series and

(thedates
famous of
a

of whose

birth

are

known) un-

works Good

are

Government

family of artists. His principal of allegoric the RemUs frescoes, of representing the Results of Bad in 1337Government, painted
at Siena ; and to him

39, in the Palazzo


Pietro Lorenzetti
Santo
at

Pubblico
are now

and

his elder brother in the

Pisa, formerlyascribed
di

ascribed, by some, the frescoes to Orcagna by Vasari.

Campo

Taddeo

Bartolo, who
and this school.

Volterra, Arezzo

Padua,

painted at Pisa, Siena, S. Gemignano, upheld, if he did not advance the


work of Matteo

reputationof
noticed for the

The

da

Siena The

is to

be

sentiment which religious

it possesses.

Madonna

IN

FRANCE

AND

GERMANY. ; his

41

deUa

Nievey of the

Massacre

of

year tfie Innocents


"

National

which Gallery, school and of

of the Sienese best works.

of the representations the Assumption of the Virgin in the all the most characteristic qualities displays fifteenth the his be reckoned century," may
at

1477,
and

Siena

Pacchiarotto
whose school, and critics. ascribed A

Del

Pacchia
works have

were

two

paintersof
confused

the

Sienese time shall

lives and

alike

been

Virginand Child

in the National

by at Gallery,

historians
one

to the

artists was, notice further Whilst

former, is now givento the latter. The fame far outshone however, by that of Bazzi, whom
on

of these
we

amongst
of

the followers of Da

Vinci.

making rapid strides towards perfection advance in TJmbria, in Tuscany, a simultaneous was taking place Eome, Venice, and other parts of Italy. The early Florentine and schools were distinct for it to be necessary to not sufficiently Umbrian of the latter of the first masters the : and particularize peculiarities influenced by Giotto. school were Pietro the Boman Of these, greatly remarkable of the most the in the church Cavallini was Crucijbdon ; his best existing considered work, is now Assisi, formerly thought to be by Pietro Lorenzetti. the close of the fourteenth Towards century great progress was
the
art

paintingwas

Eome, and many artists rose into fame. Fabriano,who, however, belongsto the Umbrian
made His is
one

in

of picture of the

the Adoraium finest

cf

Of these,Gentile da the chief. was school, the Kings,in the academy of Florence,

specimensof the earlyschools,and like existing loaded with gold. He was all his work is somewhat a good colourist, of form. His pictures and excelled Giotto in knowledge are poeticin of their in the those of a nd than freer treatment feeling, subjects of his cotemporaries. many between the Byzantine styleand the new In Venice, the struggle and it was lasted long, not until the latter half tendencies in painting broken. of the fourteenth century that the yoke of tradition was finally of the fourteenth century, and Viccolo Semitecolo, Lorenzo Veneziano method. the first Venetians to attempt the new were

In

France
A.D.

and A.D.

Germany. 1470.
in painting
trace

1250"

Before

we

enter

on

the

of history
cross

Italian

the fifteenth

century,
of the France
new

it would
movement

be well to

the

Alps,and

the in and

development Germany
twelfth and
cen-

in the rest of

Europe.

Mural

with great success was painting practised in the Romanesque period* eleventh (tenth,

42
and turies),
even

PAINTING

adorned churches were insignificant village with frescoes. The works in C^ermany of this description principal from these of Michael's at centuries those the S. on are dating ceiling
most

the

Hildcsheim

; and

those

in the
to

choir been

and

left aisle of the cathedral before

at

Brunswick,
Nicolas There
at chapel

supposed Chapelat Soest


Ramersdorf,
are

have Bonn
a

executed of Schwarz

1250;

in

the the

; in the church

Bheindorf, and

the remains

: it Aix-la-Chapelle

{Eng,19). in the cupolaof the cathedral of toith tioenty-fov/r We Elders, Christ represents
near

of

mosaic

19."

Early fourteenth Wall-painting. German. Bonn, at Ramersdorf^ In the Chapel near

century.

know Hhine
traces

too, from
was

miniatures, that the castle of Upper Ingelheim on the which bore strong adorned with frescoes of historic subjects,

of Byzantine influence. at S. Savin and Tournus are In France, the frescoes of the churches rather the follow works All these remarkable. the most antique among than and the and Byzantine style,
as
are

and in the figures, dignity architectural

by a simple earnestness distinguished their by powerfulcolouringand appropriateness


monastery of
ITotker
to
were

decorations.
"

of those of the the monks, especially and Tntilo (orTuotilo) St. Gall in Switzerland,of which The

industryof

the

most

celebrated,
"

caiTied

the

art

of

manuscript painting

the

IN

GERMANY.

43

in perfection greatest the fashion to The rise of the pure underwent


to

the middle
or

paintmovable

In the same ages. easel pictures. architecture


"

periodit

became

Grothic

of style of

it will be ^which,

remembered,
was

largemodifications
progress

when
fiat

unfavourable
were no

the

in painting

in Italypractised the north of Europe.

Frescoes
were was

to decorate required longer


narrow

for the walls surfaces,

reduced in
a

to

great measure

atoned

proportions painting ; but the decline of mural for by the growth of the art of glass"

in the Gothic period. The perfection and Germany such, for example, as those of the Cathedrals of Bourges, Chartres,Rheims, and the Sainte of Paris,in France, with those of the cathedrals of Strasburg, Chapelle _Cologne,and Eatisbon, in Germany are all the work of the best and are Gothic period, to integral essentially parts of the buildings which they belong. The miniature of the Gothic periodin the north of Europe painting of consisted principally illustrations of the ballads of the troubadours ; and the first evidence of what can be strictly called a school of German of Wolfram Parcival is met with in the von Eschenbach, painting who the of of Cologne a poet of the thirteenth painters century, speaks and Maestricht in highlycommendatory terms. The earliest school of art in Germany was that of Bohemia, which, under the patronage of the Emperor Charles lY., flourished for a short time only at Karlstein,near Prague,in the fourteenth century. Its Theodorich artists of Prague, ITieolaQS Wormser and were principal Kanz, who were employed to decorate the walls of the castle and church which was staining, finest paintedwindows

carried to

of France

"

"

"

Italian of Elarlstein. The Karlstein for Charles IV. The and school of

Tonmuuio
attained to
about
a

da

Hodena

also

worked

at

Nuremberg
An

fifteenth centuries.
was

in the fourteenth high position at Imhof by one of its unknown altar-piece


,

masters,
^re four which are

probablyexecuted
of
an

1420.

In

the

Berlin

Museum

the Virgin a/nd Saints^ representing altar-piece at painted Nuremberg in 1400. Wilhelm of Herle, commonly called Meister Wilhelm of Cologne, is, has whose down to however,the earliest German name come us. painter To him are ascribed, fine pictures in the Pinakothek of Munich some ; his principal the L\fe qf Christy a large altar-piece, work, representing in the Johannis Kapelle in Cologne cathedral ; and several easel in which full of life and character, the in are pictures, singlefigures the various galleries The National of Germany. Gallerycontains a S. Veronica by Wilhelm of Cologne. Stephan Loohner, or Meister to have been the as he is called, said,but perhapserroneously, Stephan, pupilof Wilhelm, was another and greater master of the same school : the famous in the cathedral of Cologne, ascribed to altar-piece formerly Meister Wilhelm, is by him ; it represents the Adoration of the Magi and Jier Virgins with and S, amd S, his Gereon Ursula {Eng,20), KniglUs

wings

said to have

been

44
on

PAINTING

Israel the exterior. on wings, and the Annunciation Meckenen^ who flourished at the end of the century, if all that is
the

VOn

said

of him

of the be true, must have excelled all his predecessors, some as him. attributed to of this time in the Munich best pictures are Gallery

The

Master of the
the in in

from subjects

Lyversberg
Presentation

LyversbergPassion,so called from a series of eight of Herr formerlyin the possession is in National our Cologne, represented Galleryby a tlie lemple has been confused with Israel : this painter
Life of Christ

IN
von

ITALY.

45
is also in represented the

Meckenen.

The

Master

of Liesbom

where are two pieces, of Saints, from the high Gallery, figures which executed the in of the about was Liesborn altar-piece Abbey

National

middle
^

of the fifteenth works of the

century.

schools are on earlyGerman mostlypainted panel, with gold grounds, and are for depth of colouring and distinguished careful execution of details. Their chief fault is want of beauty of atoned for by the nobility extent of the design: but this is to some o f of the heads. In technical of i n the expression many use dexterity and tempera or water-colours they excelled all their cotemporaries their works often fine effect as predecessors, an as having oil-paintings.

The

Decorative
The

Pairvting,

decorative painting of the middle separate ages would repay study; but our limits only permit us to pointout that,at first purely
the designswere geometrical, of heads The of birds and

gradually complicated by the introduction of the use beasts,finally leadingto the profuse
formed the
so

grotesque element, which


art.

distinctive

a was

feature
a

of Gothic
and

pointed or

Gothic

decorative
architectural

painting of

styleof ornament of peculiarities

in reproduction architecture

Gothic

and foliage, heads of heads, flowers, sculpture.Human of of with endless an animals, wings butterflies, frets, variety zigzags, and other ornaments, were monize as to hargrouped togetherin such a manner alike with the lines of the building and its decorative sculpture:

Renaissance
A
REMARKABLE

of

Painting

in

Italy.
and of painting history period. Of

difference exists between


architecture the had left

the

that of the two the

and sculpture

during the
so

Benaissance

revival

latter arts the Eomans of letters altered


to revert to

current

remains that,when many of men's thoughts,it was

natural

the

actual models

existingabundantlyin Italy ;

done. In painting the case ent differwas and, as we seen, this was in a constant fluenced instate of development,which art was was : the if but not interrupted classic revival. the We wei by may, and the consider the fifteenth century as a transition period, please, have sixteenth
to
as

the Benaissance
a

period ;

but the terms


at

must

not
so

stood be underit is

characterize occurred the that

revival the

of classic modes

all

complete as
sidered con-

iiiat which fifteenth fourteenth

in

sister arts. of with Giotto


at

By

many

writers

Benaissance
even

in Italy began early in painting the


commencement

the

century, or century.

of the

PAINTING.

Painting in Italyin

the

Century. Fifteenth

The fifteenth century was intellectual activity^ a time of exceptional and the progress made in scientific discovery of great importaiioe was to the arts of painting and sculpture.As we have seen, a considerajble advance had been made and imitation in the thirteeath in expression still unpractised, centuries ; but was oil-painting linear perspective little cultivated, was was portraiture fectly very imperand branch an as understood, independent landscape painting, of art, was not even attempted. At the beginningof the fiifteentkthe scientific study century,however, the introduction of oil colours, of perspective, for frescoes form and colour,and the constant demand
on an

and

fourteenth

extensive in

led scale,
the every

to

movement progressive

in

Italywhich

culminated schools another


arose

sixteenth

century;

and

during this development

on

side,characterized

by

element of art. 1450 Until about Venetian lead ; but from that date the Umbrian, Bolognese, and Paduan schools rose into almost equalimportance.

excellence in one or find Florence still we

takingthe

The Florentine School.


The in the artist who contributed
most

a.d. to

1420"
the

a.d.

1520.

of Florence pre-eminence

earlypart of the fifteenth century was, without doubt, the of the Lorenzo Ghiberti, in whose school the leadingpainters sculptor which Giotto of nature the imitation He perfected day were formed. had introduced, and the of anatomy, mathematics sciences applying the to his name the art of Of can we only geometry design. pupils almost who directed his attention : Paolo principal exclusively TTcoelli,* to the studyof perspective, the great value of which he illustrated in
his

frescoes in the monastery of S. Maria Novella at Florence of remarkable which ifoali and in the Drunkenness is especially qf several easel pictures, of which, the Battle of S, "gid{o,is in the one National Gallery {Eng,21); others are in the Uffizi and the Louvre.
"
"

Piero de' Franceschi, commonly called Piero della Francesca, of the Umbrian the study of perspective did much to systematize school, ; a Baptism of Christ and two Portraits by him are in the National
but who excelled in colouring, da Panicale, who sacrificed composition to detail, executed several fine works in the church and baptistery of Castiglione d'Olona,and in the Brancacci in Chief among theseChapel the church of the Carmine at Florence. the painterswas Tommaso Guidi,commonly called Masaccio;he was ' of than and be with better Cimabue, pupil Masolino, justice might, the father of modern Italian painting styled decessors ; he excelled all his prein

Gallery. Hasolino

exercised

most
*

and chiaroscuro, and knowledge of form, perspective, of his influence the art on important country.
Paolo di Dono, called Uccelli from his lore of birds.

48
Masaccio when
was

PAINTING

born

at

Castel

S.

Giovanni, in the Val


Masolino
at

d'Amo, and
in his the of coes, freschurch In

quite a boy worked

under the

the in

frescoes the

Brancacci

Chapel,

Carmine, Florence.*
Masaccio gave and the

proof of
influence the human

able remarkof GhiTheir

powers, berti is very chief the


treatment

traceable. distinctly
are

excellences of the the

admirable

nude

figure
"

of foreshortening judicious

the

tremities, ex-

happy

rendering of
and the the

the

the flesh-tints, character The his its of the

animation

varied skilful whole.


a so-

heads, and

of grouping and composition National called Portrait


own

Gallery possesses
of this

great master
writers
ever

from doubt be
gretted re-

hand, but
that

some

authenticity.It
Mtisaccio of

is

to at the

died

early
saccio Matheir

age who

Masolino twenty-six^
were

and

the
a

first Italian
treatment

painters
to

gave

natural

landscapebackgrounds. of Masaccio' s greatestcotempoTwo


raries

(both monks)

were

Guido

di

Pietro,of
be
22." The

called Fra Fiesole, cojnmonly may


as

and FilippoLippi, who Angelico, taken the


two

Expulsionfrom
Ab.

Paradise.

of the representatives into which the painters great cl^isses became of the imitators

By Masaccio.

In tht Brancacci
a.d.

of the Renaissance
to

divided,and

Florence. Chaj)elf

1425.

which

the

name

Mystics
:

or

and Idealists,

Naturalists,have

been

given
"

names

still retained
been
as

by

their followers and

the former

said that Masaccio finished these frescoes after Masolino^s the latter survived the foimer by nineteen years, this is works impossible.As these frescoes ** may be considered to be the most important in painting it will be serviceable to give executed during the fifteenth century," been assigned a listof them as they have by the latest authorities. By

* It has commonly death ; but inasmuch

Masaccio.
The

By

Masolino. S. Peter.

Preaching of from Paradise, Expulsion Healing of the Cripple at the Beautiful The Tribute-Moihcy. Oate, and Besuscitation of Petronilla. The BcstiscOation of the King^s Son. ished (Fin- Fall of Adam and Eve. ) by Filippiuo Lippi. By Filippino Lippi.
The
Th4i Infirm healed Peter and John, S, Peter

by

the Shadow

of SS,

baptizing.
John alms. dislrilnUing

SS. Peter and

Peter in Prison visited by S. Paul. ^S*. S. Peter freedfrom Prison. Crucifixion of S. Peter ^ and SS. Peter ajid Paul brforc Nero.

IN

FLORENCE.

49

being those
nature

cultivated onlyfor the sake of


who and highest best in
at

that

is

those who latter,

aimed

to an end,and studied beautyas a means of all that end the expression furthering the material and spiritual world ; and the the exact imitation of beauty for its own
"

23.

"

S. Lawrence In the

givingalms. By Fra Angelico. a.d. Chapelof Nicolas V. in the Vatican.


with

1447.

sake, and
Fra of

studied everything connected earnestly

the

theoryand

of their art. practice


called Angelicoda Fiesole,
name

entered (theBlessed),

from the holiness of his life II Beato the order of the Predicants at Fiesole at the age of

twenty, taking the

Giovanni, and

devoted

long

and

life to the cultivation of religious peaceful art, never painting any but and never sacred subjects, acceptingpayment for anything he did. His principal works frescoes in the convent of S. Marco, and the are church of S. Maria Novella at Florence, and in the chapel of Nicolas V.
E

50
in in

PAINTING.

the Vatican

(Eng. 23)\

an

easel

the picture,
formed

Coronation

qf the

now Virgin^ Glory suiTounded

in the Louvre S. Domenico

; and at

the Adoration

by Angels (which once


both Fiesole),

in altar-piece

Christ the predella of an in the National Gallery.

of the Magi, and

Many good works by him are in the Florentine Academy of Fine Arts. for their elevated religious sentiment, They are all alike remarkable the grandeur and ideal beauty of the figures, and the loving finish of of his own Fra Angelico'sworks the outpourings were every detail. of his passionate the expression devout love of spiritual beauty ; spirit, and characterized not the exact and, although powerfuldrawing by
imitation
of nature of

cotemporary masters, they have

charm

and

pathosof their own, and combine in the highestdegreethe two of ideal art and pictorial expression requisites power.
"

great

FilippoLippi presents both in his life and works a striking of the received into the convent contrast to Fra Angelico. He was his frescoes, Masaccio Carmelites as a boy when at work on was and, if he did not actually lessons that from receive master, he certainly followed his style. According to a popular tradition, which recently have shown discovered documents to be erroneous, life was one lippi's it is said,he ran long romance. Becoming weary of convent life, away
Fra and sold as a slave in captiveby African pirates, months' his master's favour he won Barbary. After eighteen captivity his of with a charcoal,and, as a reward, portrait piece by drawing divided between received his liberty.His life was the pursuit of
to

Ancona,

was

taken

and pleasure and oils,


were

of art. of

He

was

one

to

cultivate the
his easy grace

sensuous

of the firstItalian masters to paintin His principal side of art. merits

and grandeur of his in grouping. He was also amongst the first he often displayed and to introduce backgrounds, genuine landscape considerable of his works were but nature of knowledge spoOed ; many in his sacred personages. by a certain want of calmness and dignity The Academy of Florence contains many of his finest pictures, painted

his

mastery

chiaroscuro, the breadth

and figures,

for the church his


own

churches

and

convents

of that
was

Coronation

of

tJie

Virgin,which
in

city ; and formerlyan

among

them

is the

in the altar-piece

of Saint the
:

Ambrosio

Florence,in which
are

the artist has

painted
to

in the portrait National Vision her the

right-handcomer
four the
a

(Eng, 24).
sacred

In

Gallerythere
of
the

ascribed subjects
an

Lippi to presenting
John
the

S, Bernard

with Virgin seated,

Angel

Holy Child;

beautiful

Annunciation; and S.

Baptist and six Saints. Crowe and Cavalcaselle doubt the of the second and third of these ; but, on the other hand, authenticity logue Lippithe Adoration of the Magi, which is in the catagive to Filippo ascribed to Filippino those frescoes, s numerous Lippi. Of Lippi' from the lives of S. John in the cathedral of Prato, representing scenes the Baptist and S. Stephen, are considered the best ; the Lamentation the death of S, Step/ten is especially fine : those in the cathedral of over

62
are Spoleto

PAINTING

also much
:

admired.

Filippo Lippiwas

the

great colourist

of his age
for it
on was

he

he

also a greatreformer or rather a degeneratorin art, was who, by givingan undue prominence to drapery, brought

the decline in sacred historic painting. Antonello da Messina, although belonging, to the strictly speaking,

25." Portrait of

Young

Man.

By Antonello
In the Louvre,

da

Messina.

About

aj).

1470.

Venetian

school, must
of the

be

mentioned

here

on

account

of

his

duction intro-

of mixing oil-colours. The method improved Flemish National Gallery possesses by him a Salvator ifwwSt, a Portrait of a another Portrait Young Man, and a small Crucifixion of a Yout/t,by ; him is in the Louvre and three important Gallery {"ng.25) ; pictures of these the Head are preservedin the Berlin Museum qfS. JSebaatian
"

and

Mado7ina

and

Child

are

considered the best.

IN

FLORENCE.

53
fifteenth

As
name

great Florentine
tiie following
"

of painters

the

century,we

must

also

who copiedhis style and excelled Lippi, Lippi's adoptedson, Filippino in his peculiar merits ] he was the author of the Crucifixion qf S, Peter^and other fine frescoes in the Brancacci often so Chapel, He also painted importantworks in the Strozzi chapel referred to. him in S. Maria works several

Novella, Florence, and hy him in the National

in

Home

and His

Prato. and hest

There

are

Gallery.

pupil Baffitellino
grace.
works
are

del Oarbo Benozzo


be

executed many
the Gh)ZZOli, in two easel

of paintings

pupilof Fra
Campo

singularsweetness Angelico,whose
at

frescoes twenty-four studied

in the

Santo
"

Pisa, and

Hape qf Helen, is of a Christian painter to represent a


meant to

in the pictures as interesting being


a

National
one

style may Gallery. One, tlie


earliest it
was

whose

of the

classical for

subject ;

attempts probably
that

decorate

small

chest

private use,

and

shows

art had pictorial

Andrea

its way from the church to the private home." del Castagno, who has been said to have learnt the secret of made

mixing
carried National

oil-colours from it to Florence.

Antonello
None

da

Messina

in

Venice, and

to

have

of the

ascribed pictures
on

affords any Gallery


TolefUino
a

signsof advance
of Florence in imitation him

in the to Andrea the processes of their

cotemporaries. In
of Niccolo

the cathedral

is

an

equestrianportrait
statuary: it forms
a

painted by

of

companion to

of Hawkwood picture by XJccelli. Alessandro from the name of the goldsmith Filipepi, commonly called, with whom he studied, the pupil of Filippo was Botticelli, Lippi; he is similar for the
was one

famed and of He the

introduction of the
as life,

of ancient

mythology into
to

sacred

subjects,
figure

first of the circular

Florentines Venus One

depict the

nude

size of

in the Ma/rs cmd Madonna his studio.

in the

National

Grallery.

painted several

and pictures,

executed

by

his

in pupils

more were many famous of his most works is

his Coronation
are

now of tfie Virgin,

in the XJffizi {Eng,26).

Eight works

to him assigned

Domenico

master,

Gallery. called Ohirlandajo, the fact that his first from Bigordi, made for his skill in is remarkable garlands, goldsmith,
of all the the technical processes o colouringf his frescoes. He the movement Florence
"

in the National

his command portraiture, and for the brilliancy of


to have

of

painting,

carried

on

and works

advanced
are a

begun by
"

be said may Masaccio : and

his most the from S, Francis the

famous

series of frescoes in the Sassetti


at

Chapel in
of
the
scenes

church

of the

S. Trinity the

of

which

the

Funeral

is considered

the finest

and

the frescoes the The Louvre

Life of
the

Virgin {Eng, 27) and


Novella. and the The

representing Life of S, John


contain many

in Baptist his

choir of S. Maria

Florence

and galleries

churches, the
in pictures,
men

Berlin
which

Museum,
he

of paintedthe portraits
in Florence.
a

several of of the most

eminent
a

of his time

National

Gallery possesses

bust

Portrait

of a Girl,and

Portrait

of a Youth,

54
Lnca

PAINTING.

the to promote of those who did most was one Signorelli of of the of the sixteenth Florentine school development great painting form, of which he acquired century,by his earnest studyof the human of with absolute command thorough anatomical knowledge, combined that the has been called in : he expressing justly knowledge painting forerunner of Michelangelo.He was of Piero della Francesca. a pupil

26.

"

The

Coronation of the Virgin. By Sandro


In the

Botticelli. About

A.D.

1500.

Florence. Uffizif

His most famous works are the frescoes in the Chapelof the Virgin in the cathedral of Orvieto,representing the LfOst Judgment of which the best part, is the Wicked coat out of Heaven, in which the foreshortening
"

is most which

daring: they
we

were

exhibition at Florence
shall

of

completed in 1503, shortlybefore the celebrated Cartoon of Fisay to Michelangelo's


He
was one

refer. presently

of the artists called to

56
Home

1"AINTING

by Sixtus lY. to decorate the Sistine Chapel. His work there is second only to that of Ghirlandajo. Other paintings by him are the of Monte Siena ; and near Oliveto, 24/e of S. Benedict, in the convent
frescoes
National in the church of Loreto

and

the

Duomo
a

of

Gortons.

The
a

and Nativity,

Gallery possesses three works by him, The Triumph of CJuiatity.


del
one Pollainolo,

Circumcision^

Antonio

of Ghiberti's assistants in the ornamentation

gate of the Baptistery at Florence, produced several fine paintings. The Martyrdom of Sebastian,in the National
of the second bronze

Gallery,is acknowledged
brother
the

to

be
are

his

masterpiece.
to

Antonio

and

his

Piero

del PoUainolo

said

have

been

body They were and their knowledge of this branch of art had considerable sculptors, their painting. They were influence on the first Italian artists to
and

dead

for artistic purposes.

the first to study also celebrated as

abandon tempera in favour of.oil mediums. Andrea del Yerrocchio, sculptor, wood-";arver Lorenzo
with took

celebrated di
that

as

the

master

of Leonardo
He is said
an

da

Yinci, of

painter,was and of Perugino,


in
conunon

Credi, a talented
life as

artist whose
to

style has
been

much

of Leonardo.

have of the

the

first artist who The

from plaster-casts
is the

aid to the

studyof form.

Baptism

of Academy,
Cosimo

in which Christ,

Leonardo

paintedone

in the Florentine angels, of

gold
the

in

only undoubted work from Andrea's brush. use Bosselli, a follower of Masaccio, noted for the profuse his pictures. His named who after him, Piero was pupil,
who assisted him the in the Sistine

di

Cosimo,
Death

and

is to be noticed for Chapel,

in landscapes

of

Procris in

in the National

When

1474

such as that in his background of his pictures, Gallery. Sixtus lY. had completed the erection of the chapel

for artists to decorate called after him, he sent to Florence it. Those who the call were answered Botticelli,Ghirlandajo,Kosselli and

Signorelli ; and,
frescoes which

under
this

the

direction

of the

first-named,they executed
art

to

at the close of the fifteenth


*

to the day testify century.*

excellence of Florentine

The

is a list of these workA following On


the

Left

Wall.

Michael

hearingaway
On
the

the

body of Moaes.

Journey ofMoses and Zipporak. (Signorelli


or

(SalviatL)
Right Wall.

Pinturicchio ?)
in

chio or PinturicBajitis^n of Christ. (Penigino Egyi)t. (Botticelli. ) ?) Drowning ) (Rosselli. Tanjttation ) of Clinst. (BotticellL Moaes reading the Law : Adorafion, ami Peter Andreto. (Ghirlandajo. "{; Callingof ) Destruction oftlie Calf, (llosselli.) Sennon on the Mlmnt. (RossellL) Fall of Korah and followers.(Botticelli. ) Investiture of ^\ Peter. (Perugino. ) Publication ofthe Ten Comnia7idments,and Last Supper, (Rosselli. ) Death of Moses, (Signorelli.) lUsurrection: (Ghirlandajo.)
Moses's Miracles

of Pharaoh,

PADUA.

V"
CalifoknI'^-

57

The

Paduan

School

A.D.

1420

to

about

A.D.

1520.

in the

Although Giotto paintedhis frescoes in the Arena Chapel at Padua beginningof the fourteenth century, and Giusto di Giovanni, a Florentine Justus of Padua, painted his as by birth, but known little in the the Coronation qf the Virgin^now charming triptych in a.d. 1367, yet it was National Qallery, not till the middle of the
fifteenth century that the true Paduan school was formed. The foimder Francesco Squarcione, the is due the merit of reviving to whom was of the pieces masterstudy
of

antique
liarity pecu-

sculpture.The
school
was a

of the Paduan

turesque sculpthan

rather

of treatment pictorial form, the compositions

of

its

masters

sembling re-

bas-reliefs rather than


teacher
"

paintings. Squarcionewas more


a

than

painter
have had

he is said to less than no


ants; assistone a

137

pupils or
and

only
him,

picture by

of 8" Jerome group and other SainU^ at

Padua,
rests

has

been His

served. pre-

fame

his

on principally been the having

master

of

Mantegna.

Marco
the

Zoppo, a Boalso aided in lognese,


development
art.

of
28." Judith vith the head of Holofernes.

Paduan the

By Mantegna.

Andrea
was er

Mantegna jmintgreatest
of
are

Drawing
the fifteenth

in the

Flai'ence, UJjizi,

of the north

Italyin
a

century. The
executed

most

remai-kable
the 1485-92 and

of his works for the

series of nine cartoons

in

tempera,of

in the conquestqf Ga/td, painted Triumphs qf Julius C"zsar after Court Palace in of Mantua Duke now ; Hampton
"

the

frescoes in the

Chapel of

S. Cristoforo in the church

of the Eremitani,

PAINTING at
scenes Padua, representing

IN

VENICE.

69

and S. James, Christopher that on the high altar of S. Zeno at we name altar-pieces, may from the predella of this altar-piece, Verona, the Grucifixion {Eng.29), The National Grallery and the Madonna of Victory in the Louvre. and the Trivmvphof Scipio, contains an earlyHoly FamUy^ abnost in and and two S amson a monochrome, DelHah, sculpturesque allegoric and AiUiimn, of Summer The Triumph,executed in tempera on figures is especially if not the last, as valuable, beingone of the latest, canvas, a complete picture painted by Mantegna. In all these works he diisplayed with ancient Eoman art, a richness of imagination, acquaintance of design, and a knowledge of form, chiaroscuro,and pera power spective, which entitle him to the high rank universally assignedto Of his
j

in the lives of S.

him, and
most

account

poraries.The

for the wide influence he exercised over his cotemeffect which sculpture had upon his style is evident in
:

of his works of

he

was

the first painterwho


numerous

engraved his
to

own

None

Mantegna's

pupils attained

remarkable

and other Veronese, Ferrarese, eminence,but many Venetian, Milanese, his with more masters copied or less success. peculiarities We must here mention The National Verona. Bono di Perrara
and
a

Francesco

of Bonsignori,

Gallery possesses
Vittore

Bono, who
Senator

pupilof by Bonsignori.
was a

S, Jerome in the Desert,by Pisano,and a Portrait qf a Venetian

The
We
sons

Venetian
turn to

School

A.D.

1480"
we

a.d.

1520. brothers Bellini,

must

now

Venice, where

find the

of much a painter merit, foundingan important Jacopo Bellini, reached their fullest and harmony of colouring brilliancy development. tonello da Messina, already mentioned, who introduced into Italy the mode of m oil-painting practised by the Van Eycks and Memlinc,* influenced the style able of Giovanni Bellini, who, in his turn, had considerVivarini influence on of whom The the principal Antonello. exhibited in was Bartolommeo, who executed the first oil-painting
school in wluch
"

of

Venice
must

laid the firstfoundations of the Venetian also be noticed here, though he adhered
"

tempera painting. The National Vivarini, figuresof SS. by Bartolommeo


brother Antonio

school. Carlo Crivelli of to the old method Child and Gallerypossesses a Virgin
Peter and Jerome less than

Vivarini, and
which

no

eight works
one

by his by Carlo

Crivelli, among
*

the Annunciation

{Eng,30) is

of the finest.

Modem writers doubt whether Antonello really visited the Netherlands at all. da Brugia," "Giovanni mentioned thought to have been by Yasani is now Memlinc and not Yan Eyck. The

60
His and

PAINTING.

works may be the introduction

recognized easily by
of flowers and fruits,

their elaboration

of ornament

birds.

30."

The

Annunciation.

By Crivelli. the

a.d.

148(J.

In the National

Gallery.
His
a

Oiovanni /"

Bellini

pictureswere

greater of the two brothers. painted in oils,and are characterized by


was

best

spiritual'

31.

"

The

Preaching of

S. Mark. after his death

Begun by Oil-painting. by his brother Giovanni.


In the Brera, Milan,

Gentile Bellini, and 1507. a.d.

completed

62
combined beauty of expression, and
in the and galleries churches

PAINTING

with

truth to nature

and Most

brilliancy
are

transparency of coloming hitherto unattained.


of Venice
we
:

of them

theyconsist
an

of porprincipally traits

in the sacnsty altar-piece in the Academy, and a Madonna of S. Maria de' Frari, a Madonna in SS. Giovanni and Saints in S. Zaccaria ; his largealtar-piece e fire that destroyed in 1867, in the same Paolo perished Titian's PeUr Ma/rtyr. Another extremelyfine work is a picture in S. Salvatore, The National Gallery contains several fine specimens Christ at Emmaus, of the Doge Leonardo bust portrait of Bellini's style Loredaiio (see : a Madorma with and the death a ChUd, a Landscape frontispiece), of S. Peter
must
name

and Madonnas, of which

and Christ*s Agony in the Garden^ MaHyr, TJie Blood of the [Redeemer, of his brother-in-law, which reminds us of the work Mantegna. Oentile
younger and less

Bellini's works
Giovanni

are

of inferior

; they are of style.The best individuality


now

brother

characterized
are

importanceto those of his by greater softness


S. Mark

in the

Brera

at

Milan

Cross,in the Academy of Venice.


said to be for
some

and a Miracle In the National Gallery is a

{Eng. 31);
The

that of Girolamo in the Council

McbUuini.

Alexpreachingat andria, qf the portrait brothers worked together


a

series of

Hall of the Ducal Palace of Venice, at of in 1177, which were i llustrative the Venetian wars pictures time fire in

unfortunately by destroyed of Venice the great painters


Giovanni Cima da
had many

1577, and

were

by works replaced

by

of

later

period.

celebrated

scholars, of whom
the chief. We

Giorgione and
must

noticed, were Titian, to be presently


Oirolamo Conegliano,

also

name

da TJdine, Vittore Mocetto, Oiovazmi Lazzaro Bastiani, Mansueti, Marco Marziale, Carpaccio, and Marco Basaiti, all Venetian artists who Catena,Previtali, Bissolo,
"

Martino

were

influenced

by

the

Paduan

school,and

of form severity artists may

with

Venetian is best

softness of
known

be studied

in the National

Germanized

who Italian,

somethingof its colouring.Many of these a Grallery. Jacopo de' Barbaij, for his engravings, wdrked at

combined

several fine pictures. Venice, and there painted

Other Schools
Before
time. in

of Upper Italy. A.D.


the Umbrian school
we

1480"
must

A.D.

1530.

turningto

notice several towns

which, besides Venice, playeda part


Bartolommeo
formed

in the
to be

Montagna,
his best
on a

Brescian
are

Vicenza, where
was

works

of paintingat this history by birth, though resident found, was a painterwhose


that

style
y-

blendingof judicious

of

Mantegna
founder

and
of

of

certain cotemporary Venetians. Vittore Pisano called (frequently


Veronese which
are

the Pi"anello),

the

is better known school,, by his medals than his paintings, however of great merit. His Anthony and S. George in

the National

Galleryis

one

of his best known

works

; Lord Ashburnham

IN

UMBRIA.

63

also possesses a S. Eustace wUh a Stag ; and frescoes from his hand are in S. Anastasia and S. Fermo Oirolamo Liberale, Maggiore at Verona.

dai

Libri,and
are

Paolo

Morando
also of

also may

flourished all be

at

Verona, where
in the di

their

works

still

: they preserved are

studied

National

Gallery,where Borgognone, a
which
are

native

Stefano, called pictures by Ambrogio at Pavia. His paintPiedmont, who worked ings, either in tempera or fresco, best seen at Milan. are
founded To him the is school
now

Vioenza
in the The who
was

Foppa

of

Milan

in the

middle

of

the
gether to-

fifteenth century.
National with

ascribed

the Adoration

of

the

Kings

attributed to Bramantino, who, formerly Gallery, and followed Foppa'sstyle. others, Borgognone school
was

Ferrarese in the

upheld by Ercole
Dukes
of

de' Soberti de' Orandi,

service of the Hamilton in 1496


;
"

Ferrara, and
The who

painted both

at

Ferrara

and
He

Bologna.
died

In the National

there Gallery

by

him

(from the

and collection)

are a Last Supper Israelites gathering

Manna.

Cosimo

Tura,

Cossa,whose works Squarcione ; Francesco and other painters by Lorenzo Oosta and ;
de' Orandi.
a

influenced by was have often been ascribed to his pupilErcole di Oinlio


be

Costa, whose

fine colouriut and

he is portraits, paintings. He There The is a Madonna chief work

sought in Bologna,was imagination. Though successful with poetic noted for the landscapes introduced into his chiefly
must

best works

full of

was

friend

of

Francia, and

collaborated

with

him.

and Child enthroned by him in the National Grallery. of the Virginand Child of Grandi is a largealtar-piece the in Baptist,
same

with

S, William and

the National

Gallery ; and
di Cesare

27ie Conversion
.

ofSaint
The
The

Paul

in the

Gallery.Ercole
A.D.

died in 1531

Umbrian

School

1460"

A.D.

1510.
as

mountainous

district of the

now Upper Italy,

known of of

the and

Duchy
other
cared The

of

Spoleto(the favourite
for

resort

of

S.
a

IVancis school

Assisi

was religiousdevotees),

home

of

painterswho
form.
of

rather
its In

spiritual beauty than


coloured of the the

external from

of perfection various
we are

peculiarstyleof
members,
the works
is due

this school is the reflection of the mode

thoughtof
sources.

by earlyUmbrian
and of of

influences Luca

external reminded school

masters,
to

Giotto, Uccelli,Masaccio
atore merit the characteristic

To Niccolo Signorelli. the Umbrian


"

alike of di Liberits distinguishing

giving

spiritual expression more of his reputed pupil, Pietro Vannucci, commonly called Perugino from his long residence in Perugia,the and close friend of the greater Baphael. master for his purityof colouring famous and his Pemgino was principally He several times of his the knowledge perspective. changed style, result probably of a constant wandering from one studio to another :
^a

characteristic

in fullydisplayed

works

at

one

time

he studied under Yerrocchio

at

with Florence,

Leonardo

da

64
Vinci and Lorenzo and
the

PAINTING

di Credi.

Among
Peter, Pitti To

his earlier works his best

we

must

notice the
j

the frescoes in the Sistine Investiture with

the Baptism of Chrut^ Chapel, representing


manner

of S.

belong

Madonna Pietd a

four

Saints,in the
; the

{Eng,

32),in the

Vatican ; a Descent from the Cross Palace ; and the Assumptian, in the
the

Academy,

Florence

Manriuye of

Virgin (the design of

which

32.

"

from Deposition

the Cross.

By Perugino. a.d.

1495.

In the IHtti

Florence. Palace,

adopted by Raphael) at Caen; an Ascension in the at Lyons, and, above all,the frescoes in the Cambio Perugia. The National Gallerypossesses three of his paintings a
was

afterwards
of

Museum

"

Madonna

adoring Hapltaeland Tohit, worthy


and

tlie Infant

Christ,vnth

tfie ArchangelsMicliad

and

attributed, a Madontia

Child witlh SS. remarkable for an and softness of colouring seldom

it has often been Eaphael, to whom and Child urith S. John, and a Mad"mna and Francis Jerome. Perugino'sbest works are enthusiastic of expression and a grace earnestness of energy of
what surpassed ; they are, however, someThe and composition variety. Apollo

wanting

in

66 and

PAINTING

ascribed to Raphael,is now Marayas in the Louvre, till recently Morelli and others,to be the work of Perugino. thought, by also here mention We di Biagio, must Bernardino called Pintoricollio,
was

who

Sistine the

and s pupil, Perugino' Chapel, and executed in the Libreria

who
some

probablyassisted
fine frescoes in Catliedral of

his master the

in the

cathedral

of

from Spello; and, Siena, scenes Life of Enea Silvio Piccohniini, considered his masterpieces; and of which the best, the Virgin between SS, Jeronve several easel pictures, is in the Academy and at Perugia. The Augustirie, specimens in the do National do this not to whose talents have Gallery justice master, only recently been fullyrecognized. Many drawings by him are still of the ascribed The
to

Perugino and Baphael.

di Pietro, called Lo Spaniard, Giovanni Spagno, was, after famous his best work most is an EvUhroned Eaphael, Perugino's pupil ; MaAlmiim with
m

Saints

in
are

S. Francesco

at

Assisi.

His

Ecce
not
as

Homo

and

Agony

the Garden than


was

in the National

Gallery.
to superior,
"

Greater

Perugino,
whose

these,however, and equal,if Fi-ancesco known Eaibolini, of Bologna


"

either of

chief

characteristic did not


turn

was

his

fervent
to

fSrancia a piety. Originally smith, goldpainting until


executed many late in life.

Francia His his earliest

his attention he of

style is
are

but pictures are in oils, for richness distinguished His scattered

also

frescoes of Lom-

colouring and
The

earnestness

of

expression.

works, principally painted for the churches

bardy,

now

throughout Europe.
a

National

Gallery

three, two of which are possesses the Virgin and with other S. Anne
Pieta, in which
considered Francia's Morelli the

beautiful

Saint8, and
the

griefand
The

despairof

altar-piece representing its lunette,containinga mourners are admirably


Bologna, are,
been ever, how-

expressed {Eiig. 33).


favourite
the

frescoes in S. Cecilia, at

the best of this master.

pupil,Timoteo
considerable
of

to have

exercised work

Viti, has now second influence,


and he has well

proved by
that
to

only to
risen their

of im-

Perugino, over
fervour.

Raphael,
His

therefore

of IK)rtancein tlie history

art.

works

express

religious

In the fifteenth

century the
"

school

of

Naples rose
the

into

considerable
of Flemish

importance.
and Umbrian

Its distinctive

was peculiarity

blending

and featiu-es, the details,accessories, of the works of the Van

of

reminding us The chief artists of tliis school masters. to by Umbrian which Eclectic the term Antonio wo perhaps apply were may Lo Zi7igaro (tlie work is a whose Solario,surnamed Gipsy), principal series of frescoes illustrating tlie Life of S, Benedict, in S. Severino at Oiovanni Amato. Naples ; Silvestro de' Buoni, and his pupil,
those
"

grounds landscapebackand the figures Eycks,


"

"

"

IN

FLORENCE.

67

The later Florentine School.


One other

a.d.

1490
latter
enter

"

A.D.

1510.

great Italian
to

master

of the befoi-e Porta


we

part of the fifteenth


the

century
lonuneo Cosimo Vinci the with admirer lead him it is the he then
two
"

remains also

be

noticed di

golden
as
"

age

of of da

painting. Bartolommeo
called

Pagholo,commonly
della and

known II Frate the

Fra
the

Barto-

Baccio

pupil

Rosselli, although the cotempoi*ary of Raphael, Leonai'do


and

Michelangelo, belongsin
deserves and of revival irreverence classic
art

feelingto
were

Early

Florentine his

school, and
the of

for recognition special which and

his earnest associated The

to opposition

licentiousness

in

day
and

literature.

friend

enthusiasm

Savonarola, the great Florentine Eeformer, he shared his for a pure and holy life, an enthusiasm sincere enough to
"

to sacrifice to the flames

some

of his until

works. early in four

Influenced,
took

believed, by the violent death of Savonarola


of
a

1498, Baccio

vows

monk

in 1500 of

return
a

to his true
man

not ; and vocation,aroused

by

did years afterwards the exhortations of Raphael, influence of these of both. Fra Bartolommeo distinctive

young

one-and-twenty.To
of the

the mutual

master-minds, we

Raphael
initiated the

owe many value of the friar the taught

greatest excellences

and perspective,
are

of into many secrets characteristics of Fra Bartolommeo' s works

Raphael
"

colouring.The
the beautiful and

expression
"

of

those of the Madonnas faces, especially

the child-angels,

grandeur and

and the beauty of the architectural grace of the drapery,* the Madonna delta name works, we backgrounds. As typical may in the Misericordia at Lucca ; the S, Mark, and the SaJ/vator Mv/ndi Pitti the

Palace, Florence
Belvedere
at

{Eng,34);
The

and

the Presentation House the


same

in the

in Temple,
a

Vienna.

Grosvenor from is
as

contains Gallery

small but very


is to be

interesting Holy Family


Bartolommeo the

great

hand.

It
our

that Fra regretted Collection.

yet unrepresentedin
Bartolommeo Cosimo is that

National Mariotto

Intimately connected they


His entered into
was

with

life of Fra under

of

his fellow-student Albertinelli, similar in his

Rosselli. many famous

In 1509 works. friend.

and conjointlyexecuted partnership, very

Albertinelli

styleto his

more

in the Uffizi at Florence, painted dui'ingFra BartoVisitation, from the world, is considered to be his lommeo's temporaiy withdrawal

masterpiece.
To the
sum
"

up
we

century
account
*

find Paolo

since the progress made imitation of nature been

laws

of

had perspective

by

Uccelli,Piero

beginning of the fifteenth no longer imaginarybut real : fathomed and turned to practical de' Francesci, Luca and Signorelli
have

the

Fra

Bartolommeo

been

useful in

invented the promotingthe better

wooden which jointed figures (lay-figures) study of the fall of drapery.

"4.--Salvator

Mundi.

By

Fra

Bartolommeo.

a. D.

1516.

In tfiePitti

Palace, Florence.

PAINTING

IN

ITALY.

69
effected in types of

their

followers

great improyements had


correctness, and

heen

and form, anatomical physical beauty, by Masaccio his followers at Florence,by Squarcione at Padua, and by Mantegna at Mantua Fra and of in the works beauty had been embodied ; love for spiritual Angelicoat Florence,of Perugino at Rome, of Francia at Bologna, of Fra In Bartolommeo
at

Florence in Venice been works

whilst

the

true

of principles and of the

colouringwere
others.

carried out

by
were

the

Bellini,Vivarini
be combined

had a word, the way Cinque-centomasters, in whose excellences The


names

paved for the advent


to

great

all the

divided amongst their

given

to the

predecessors. and Quattrocento Pre-Eaphaelites the fifteenth of painters century.

Masters

have

been

Painting
Thb age been

in

Italy

in

the

Sixteenth
was

Century.
what much the had

early part
had done

the been

sixteenth century
for Sculpture.

for Painting
we

of Pericles

to prepare

the way

by

many

have now we century ; but the men in their that the connection individual, genius, is liable predecessors of them the have the very
a

have workers earnest to consider were


As between The

seen,

in the fifteenth
so
so original,

them

and

their

to be

lost

sightof.
of

would

have been of

enough

to raise the
some

of any one appearance of the painting periodto


we master-spirit, single

rank highest {Be


same

; but

instead

group

each original geniuses,

pursuing some

great aim
endowed

; each

witn inspired
same

divine love of ideal


that

and beauty,

with

power

of

embodying
traced and

ideal in

masterpiecesof
of the

undying
trammels

perfection.We the _o|.tradition,


form,
the
to arts

have slow

the

off gradual casting

laborious have each

painful winning
of
in school ; but blended

of the secrets

of working-outof individuality of science, and their application


seen

excellence
some one

design,and we painting, forming


we

the

the various elements distinctive characteristic


these elements in the works da
as

of of

have
one

now

to examine

they
of the

appear five greatest masters

when

into of
"

harmonious
"

whole

Italy

Leonardo with

Kaphael,Titian,Correggio
command
over

^and their

Vinci, Michelangelo, each of whom united followers,


excellence special
in
some one

every

art-element

particular.
Leonardo da Vinci and his School.

Leonardo
and
to

da

Vinci,the pupilof
school. He

Andrea

Verrocchio, was
been
a

the head

of

the later Milanese have been and versatility

endowed
were

appears with exceptional beauty of

to have

universal

genius,
His

person.
a

sculptor, thorough practical knowledge of architecture, mechanics, anatomy, botany and kindred sciences.
energy
was

alike

he unparalleled;

musician, poet, painter,

and

had

70
The
son

PAINTING.

of

notary, he
to have
on a

was

bom

at

Vinci,

1452, and spent the early part


first painting seems his father's estate

of his life in
a

Florence, in indefatigable study. His


near

been

Chimoera,executed
wood. had

for

peasant

on

pieceof

While

with
"

Verrocchio

he

which a picture completed in the Academy at now


master
was

that master

begun

Baptism qf Christ,

afterwards of
His
an

Florence. the age of thirtythe future At invited to the court of Lodovico Sforza, then Begent, Duke of Milan, and was intrusted by him with the foundation of Art Milan. at Academy

Last Supjyer {Eng, 35), paintedin oils on a wall in the refectory of the Cbnvent of S. Miiria delle Grazie at Milan, now nearlyperished and almost entirely executed in 1498. This was by decay, repainted, world-famous picture combined all the best characteristics of Da Vinci's
and style,
ever

must

have been

one

of the

grandestworks

that Christian

art

of the of many cartoons produced. Fortunatelythe original heads, and several fine copies (one of the best of which, by Marco a d*Oggiono, pupilof Leonardo's,in 1570, is in the Boyal Academy, idea of the London),have been preserved, enablingus to form some impressive solemnityand beauty of the original. The painter has

chosen to represent the moment

when,
ran

at the words

"

One

of you courage

shall

betray Me,"
The from

thrill of horror

head of the

Redeemer,
the groups

full of Divine with

through majestyand
human
are never

the

assembled

disciples.
to
dure, en-

yet expresses human

sorrow,
on

weakness

pain ; whilst
and

either sides

and shrinking rendered with a force

of character
never

dramatic
The

pdwer

perhaps
the and

surpassed.
and
a

accusation

affects each

manner,

the

glanceis enough for impetuous Peter, or the dark


we see

equalled, certainly in a different disciple of the gentleJohn, recognition

work

how

Leonardo, whilst
and subjects
a

In this great gloomy Judas. adopting the traditional styleof traditional

treatment

of sacred

the the

type of the Saviour's


of of
x

face,has given to the whole


A sentiment

of dignity
"

L^U

hitherto unattained While the elements of art.


statue

result

and an elevation expression of his completemastery

of Lodovico
years

famous equesat Milan, he executed a trian was Sforza, which destroyed by French and completion,
is
now

soldiers
In

few

after its returned

only known

by

Leonardo's
1499

sketches for it. Leonardo


a

and executed many important Holy Family,called the Cartoon qf of the most celebrated. St. Anna, now in the Royal Academy, is one of mediaeval of the masterpieces A second, supposedto have been one
to Florence

works

; of these

cartoon

of the

art,
the

was

cartoon

with (composed in comj^etition


as

Cartoon

of Pisa)known

the Battle
over

of the

Standard, and
of Milan

Michelangelo's representing

Both these great works but we still possess Leonardo's are lost, unfortunately of a group preparatorystudies for the picture. A copy by Rubens of four horsemen from Leonardo's cartoon in the Louvre ; is preserved

Victory of

the Florentines

the Duke

in 1440.

^^/L

(t,

72
and there is also he
an

I"AINTINGI

engraving by Edelinck.
; but

In 1514

lieonardo

paid a

short visit to Borne

whither
Chiiteau the of his

the last years of his lifewere spent in France, and where he died, at Francis I. in 1516, accompanied
near

Cloux,

Louvre

attributed

Of the various works in now Ambroise, in 1519. in reality from the hand^s to him, many were worked full of
so

pupils ; he
him

himself
was

but he unfinished, with studying

and often left pictures slowly, and supplied those grand conceptions, very

that a whole school of with so many great designs, workers would not have sufficed to carry them out. in the of Leonardo not unfrequently occurs Although the name from works his hand of public the undoubted are catalogues galleries, has few. Dr. Richter, who given many years to the close study of the and attributed to him and to his numerous sketches, pictures drawings, the works to be unquestionably following manuscripts,admits only

from

the hand

of the great master


In ike In In In In In

The Annunciation. Adoration of the Kings. S. Jerome.


Last

In the

Supper.

Mona Lisa. Madonna amid the Rocks. Viergeaux Rochers.

Louvre,ParisjNo. 158* (hisearliest work). Florence (inmonochrome). Uffizi, the Vatican,Bonne (inmonochrome). S. Maria delle Orazie,Milan (wall-painting). the Louvre, Paris. the National Gallery,London. the Louvre (similar to Nat. Galleiypicture).
"

Among

the doubtful

are pictures, generally accepted,

La Monaca. Head of Medusa. Portrait of himself.

In the Fitti In the

Viergeau

bas-relief. S. Anne.

La belle F^ronniere.

Falace,Florence. Florence. Uffizi, Florence. In tlie Uffixi, the in of Lord Mon9on.\ Fortnerly possession In the Louvre, Paris.
In the In the Louvre, Paris. Louvre, Paris.

Holy Family with


S. John the

Baptist.

The

Portrait of Bianca
attributed
to

Ma/ria
an

Sforza in
undoubted
a

the work

Ambrosian

Libraryat
is

Milan, by many
Morelli

considered whom

by Leonardo,

by

Ambrogio Freda,
there is
a

of Milan, by painter
was

little-known but excellent of the Emperor signed portrait


collection at Venice.
on

Maximilianjdated 1502, in
the The author stillremains Painting

the Ambras

Leonardo
the of Art of

of several learned

chief
of

a valuable characteristics of Leonardo's

treatises ; his book aid to the student. works


"

are as we

truth
have and

tone,

mastery

and chiaroscuro, grandeur of design, the Last

said in

speakingof
expression ;
be termed
a

Supper
"

elevation of

sentiment

dignity of

whilst those of his reflection of his

for what may pupilsare distinguished in the spirit, especially transparency of

their

and shadows, and lights

the sweetness

of the

of the expression

faces of their
*

figures.
in the Breraand the

"Wrongly ascribed
a

t Sold to

to Loreuza di Credi. dealer in 1888 for "2620. are Replicas

Hermitage.

IN

tTALV. the his

73 pupilof Leonardo,
settled at he

Bernardino
learned really

Luini,who
his art under works

is

commonly called Borgognone. When


a

Milan,
Christ

however, Leonardo's
to at

had

great effect on
National works. His

style.

The

diaputhiguoith tlieDoctors,in the Leonardo,is


Milan,
he
one

formerlyascribed Gallery,
frescoes in the Brera likewise

of Luini's from

best

fine; very that easel few so pictures speaking, painted, comparatively be properly it is by his frescoes alone he can appreciated. notice Andrea of Leonardo, we Solari, Marco must Of the pupils da Sesto, and Cesare Andrea FranceBco MeM, Salaino, d'Oggiono, and for pleasure, who painted nobleman Giovanni a Beltraffio, lastly, the fresco of the Virgin and be reckoned whose works among may ascribed to his master, Leonardo. Child at S. Onofrio in Rome, formerly Oaudenzio Ferrari, not a pupilof Leonardo, was greatly although School. influenced by him, and takes a high place in the Lombard and his frescoes of S. Paolo at Vercelli, His L"zst Supper in the refectory in the the altar-piece and Varallo,especially in the churches of Saronno
collected

various

churches, are

but

latter, are
The be named fame

among celebrated
as

his best works.

Giovanni Antonio
of Leonardo's He worked had
are

one

peculiarmanner.
of that fifteenth in the

II Sodonia,must sumamed Bazzi, who caught much of his cotemporaries, at Siena, and chiefly again raised the somewhat still to
scenes

School,which

declined be from
seen

at

the

close of the
S, Catharine

century. At

Siena

his

from Deposition

t/ie Cross in the works


two

Academy ; several chapelof S. Catharine of


and galleries from frescoes with banner victorious his and

the

Li/e of

in the fine the

other Siena, in S. Domenico ; and In the Yilla Farnesina, Eome, churches. hand The

Alexander with

Roxana,

preserved the Marriage of for mercy Wife of Darius pleading


are
"

Alexander,

His
now

S.

{Eng,

36), and

in the the

Sebastian,paintedon a processional Florence, ranks Uffizi,


account

of his day,on amongst the best productions the

of its of

beauty and

touching expressiongiven

to

countenance

the

youthful

martyr.
aTid Michelangelo Th6 his School.
A.D.

1490

"

A.D.

1565.

(usuallycalled architect and sculptor.* has been spoken of both as an Michelangelo), find him taking and We have now we to consider him a as painter, rank and, in amongst the first and greatest of his cotemporaries, the force and grandeur of his conceptions, his anatomical knowledge and all his predecessors. and both them of drawing,excelling power chief attention to light his who unlike Leonardo, Michelangelo gave
Buonarroti Michelagniolo great Florentine,
"

and

shade

and

colour energy

"

devoted in

his life to the His

study of form

and with

the the

of expression
"

action.
on

are figures

stamped

Id the

companion volume

Architecture

and Sculfiurb.

36." S. Sebastian. In the

By Bazzi.
Fiorence, UJizi,

a.d.

1515.

PAINTING

IN

ITALY.

75

impressof
and best

his

and bold, profound,

grandeur expressionin sculpture.He

awful

all their

original genius,and have a mysterious His mighty spirit own. found its easel pictui-es as despised unworthy

37.

"

Part

of the Cartoou From the

of

Pisa.

By Michelangelo.
Antonio.

..D.

1504.

en(/ravin(/ by Marc

of
the

great man
kind
are ever

fresco paintings, the greatestworks of large without he assistance of any executed which produced,
; and

his
"

"

kind,

instinct with

the and

same

energy

as

that which

we

have

seen

to

characterize his statues

bas-reliefs.

76
first Michelangelo's under is consideration
was
"

t"AlNTlJJG work the of

importance in

the

branch

of art

now

lost unfortunately

alluded to. It of Pisa, already been Baccio it is said, destroyed by having,

Cartoon

Bandinelli, one
has been very

of the great
at

rivals painter's
a

; but

the Earl of Leicester of Florentine

possesses, at his seat well

Holkham,
Arno

copy of the

which portions, principal

engraved.
the

soldiers
remarkable form

bathing in
for the

group called to unexpectedly A few

It

a represented

battle,and
the human after

is

of knowledge displayed extraordinary

in every completionof

decoration

of

the (Entj. 37). years this cartoon, Michelangelocommenced, in 1507, the the vaulted of the Sistine Chapel,Bome, ceiling by of Pope Julius II., command

of attitude variety

finishingit
is

in

1512.

This

which undertaking, stupendous

considered

Buonarroti's
the
most

masterpiece and
eidstence,contains
two

powerfulpieceof paintingin
more

than flat

hundred than

figures nearlyall
life. four The the

larger
central

portionof
into

is divided five small former Sun diate the and of

ceiling largeand

compartments, the

containing representations the Creation qf the Moon, the Creation qf


its imfneand In the from the .the the

Adam, the Fall and

consequetices, scenes Dtltufe ; the latter, Book of Genesis. between and small windows
recesses

these
of

compartments
are

above

Ancestors
in calm of the
corners

qf awaiting t he expectation Coming Lord; and in the four


of the
are ceiling scenes

groups Christ ,

38."

The
A.D.

Prophet Isaiah.
1507-12.

from By Michelangelo.

the

various

deliverances
"

In the Sistine

Chapel.

of

the

peopleof Israel,
Death,
The

viz.

Jlolqfemesand
and the Brazen and Goliath, Serpeni, of the work united are portions by of figures position they occupy,
numerous
a

David Judiili,

llamans

various
the

architectural

designsenclosing

gray, bronze, or

brightcolour,accordingto
to

the the

the groups into admirably serve in the least obtrudingthemselves necessary relief without upon attention. The combined and genius of an architect, sculptor throw

which

IN

ITALY.

77
admirable. alike The figures of and grand, dignified,

painterwas
the

to producea result so required all are prophets(Eivg. 38) and sibyls

39." The

Holy Family. By MichelaDgelo.

a.d.

1504.

In the

Florence. Uffizi,

full of individual
a

character
a

; whilst

those

in the

minor

groups

display
with in

for beauty and feeling

tenderness

of sentiment

met rarely

78
the works of the
an

PAINTING

the

stem

and

rugged

author

of Moses

and

the

I^ast

Jtulgvvtiit,
Between years 1534 and

1541, Michelangeloexecuted
tlie
**

his Last
to

Jiuhjment as
command
at

for altar-piece Paul III. of In


moment
"

same

in chaj"el,

obedience

the

of

Pope

this

comjwsitionthe

from Me, saying, I)opai*t f ire of the ! In the deemed everlasting picturewe see the repart upper in every varietyof attitude anxiously the sentence awaiting of mercy ; and in the lower the condemned, writhing in anguish and is pervaded with evil demons. Tlie whole scene convulsively struggling of the blessed ; even by horror : there is no joy in the countenances and the Virgin,standingbeside her Son, turns away her head with an of sorrowful allowed lous to be a marvelexpression dismay. Universally effort of human inferior in Last is t lie skill, Judgment beauty, if
not

the

Judge is sented repreye cursed, into

has and

in power, to the paintings of the vault. In it,the great master broken the traditions of Christian art, loose from all completely his chief aim appears
to

have

been

to

prove

his

knowledge

of

muscular

developmentat
the most the

all expressing

every stage terrible of human

of human fear

and life, and

emotions.

his power of Powerless rage, alike

terror, doubt, and

struggle between
scene.*

hope, are

admirablyrendered

in this awful

of importancewere two frescoes s only other Michelangelo* paintings in the Pauline and the of the S. Peter Crucifixion of Chapel, Rome, C diversion of S, PauL destroyed They are now nearly ; but the British Museum The contains National
some

old

after engravings
an

them.

of the EtUombnieni picture critics do not various though by Michelangelo, admit its authenticity. Ilia most easel pictureis the /A"/f/ importiint of the Florence the in Uffizi, Family 39). He assistetl {Eniy, year 1504, his pupil, Sebastiano del Piombo, in his great work, the Raising of

Galleryhas
be

unfinished

of Christ,said

to

Lazarus, execute"l for Ciulio de' Medici

in best

1517-19, by making various


were

drawings and
Of

studies.

other pupilsthe Michelangelo's of


an

HarcellO

Venusti
out

and
thing some-

Daniele

called da Volterra. RicciareUi, of independent stylo church his


own

The

latter worked

from
The

ilve Cross, is in the former

of the

Descent ; his finest work, the Trinitii dc' Monti, at Ronae.

be studied in liis Christ may in the National Temple, Gallery.

drivingthe

Trailers

from

the

TJic Florentine School in the Siaieenth


We may

Ccntuin/.

who few painters hero mention a upheld conveniently sixteenth the of Florentine of art during parf the reputation century. del Sarto a Andrea e. tailor), called Andrea (i. commonly d'Agnolo, excellence considerable as attained to of a Michelangelo, cotemporary
"

Sovoral

engravingsof

the Last

J^tdgmenl arc

in the British Museum.

IN

ITALY.

79
fine Servi

and enriched Florence colourist,


of which altar-pieces, famous the

with

Historyof

many S, John of the

frescoes original

and

in the

Scalzo,and
His S.

the

Life
his

Benizzi in the church of S, Filippo Madonna


of Pisa
a

(which contains
The National and

del

Cathedral

are Sacco) among is also a (Eny, 40),

the best. tine work.


to be of

Agnes,in the Gallery a Uoly


was

contains

fine He

said Portrait, erroneously first


to apprenticed
a

himself,and

Family,
studied

was

goldsmith;
His works than of from

afterwards
and

formed

paintingunder Piero from a study of the great of and Leonardo, Masaccio, Michelangelo
more

di

Cosimo.

however, style,
Ghirlandaio
any

instruction
in

received

from

Piero.

Francesco

Bigi, commonly
and Chapel,

known under

as

first studied Franciabigio, Albertinelli.


He
was
a

the Brancacci
of Andrea

then
was

friend

A Portrait of a by him. is in the National Youth, by him, Gallery. of a pupil was Jacopo Camcci, called da Fnntormo (hisbirthplace), del Sarto
:

del Sarto, and

influenced

Leonardo, of Piero di Cosimo, and of Andrea


for his
one portraits,

he

is famous his Bronzino


was

of which

is in the

National

where Gallery,

pupil, AngioloAllori,called Bronzino,may also be studied. and influenced in his painting by Michelangelo, was greatly
the friend of the famous Florentine
most

over more-

painterand chronicler, Oiorgio


and Painters, Sculptors

Vasari, whose
Architects
'

Lives

of

the

excellent

is

so

well known.

Bw^hacland
Baffaello Sanzio
to

his School.
critics
:

called Raphael), is considered by many (usually

be the

of all greatest

painters.
was an

He

was

born

at

Urbino

in 1483
some son

his father, Oiovaimi whose title to fame

Santi,
has been

Umbrian

painter of

note,
; and

by eclipsed

that of his famous

earliest works the young were painter's exponents of the school in its highestdevelopment. After of the Umbrian influenced is works known other alike every have
as

peculiar style
Santi,he
was

by

Viti

then (already noticed), of his earlier

apparent in many
hitherto the the

by Perugino,whose manner works, then again by Viti. His


into three distinct the he

usually been Peruginesquemanner,


three

divided the

styles
"

Florentine
universal his

and

Roman

"

adopted at

of his life. different periods


a

Raphael,like the
excelled
with
man was

of his age, was master-spirits in architecture, sculptureand

genius;
associates.
no

and painting, him and


to

endowed No artist

qualitywhich
so

could

endear

inspiredsuch
exercised

universal wide
are us

confidence

and affection,

has

and
even

lastingan
now

whose
What

we spirit

met
our

strikes

in principally
even

art as Raphael, by upon of art. at every turn in every branch his character is the of bination comstudy

influence

of the
met rarely

of qualities highest in the

the mind

and

heart

"

combination
to
so

with

greatestmen,

and

perhaps never

full

PMNTJHQ

"

IN
an

ITALY.

81

extent

as
a

in

him

and

in the

great musician

Mozart, who

may

well

be called the works of

kindred of

others, even

though working in a different sphere. In spirit, of the most gifted masters, we find the
or

influence of the intellect those of the

of the

affections

whilst predominating,

in

Kaphael they are

blended inseparably

highest faculties which produces the harmony pervadingeverything from his hand.

it is this union ; and beautiful and unrivalled He exhibited in the


,

highestdegreethe combination
of In sometimes representation,

of the powers of invention with those \ ^' ) called the /ormativeand imitative qualities. of portraitiu'e, and force, fidelity is

moral invention, composition,

for feeling

spiritual beauty, he

by surpassed

none

; in

grandeur of
and of the

alone, whilst in fulness designby Michelangelo he is only excelled by the riclmess of colouring
Venetian
school. It will be

of best

chiaroscui'o
masters

than allude in the most impossibleto do more cursory works. to the chief of EaphaeFs numerous manner Although he die"l he executed less than 287 pictures at the earlyage of thirty-seven, no and 576 drawings and studies, in addition to the series of frescoes in the Vatican Of the lion and elsewhere. under the principal is a Perugino,
two

executed paintings in the Virgin, The

Caronain the which is

of

the

Vatican,

studies

for which

are

Oxford

collection. the influence

beautiful One

Vision the

of

Knighty under

hung
of is
a

original drawing for it,in

National

bears Gallery,

trace

Viti's In

{Ertg, 41).

of his earliest

works independent

in the Cnicijixion,

of Lord possession

Dudley.

1504, at the age of twenty-one,Kaphael, eager to improve himsolf the by studyof greater works than those of Perugino or Viti, repairetl of Leonardo in the cartoons to Florence,and found all that he required
da Vinci which excited Michelangelo, the influences to Peculiarly susceptible and his enthusiastic alike of the admiration, and
new
w

old

Florentine

schools,Raphaers transcendent

genius

manifested

itself

/ perhapsin nothingso much as in his marvellous power of assimilating and with his own best so to speak, fusing, giftsall that was peculiar and in the works of others,building up therefrom and highest a lofty his own. independent style essentially of the first period of Raphaers life, Madonifui with Of the works a
SS, Jerome
th" the
most

arid Francis, in the Berlin Museum, and the Marriage of in the Brera, Milan, are Virgin (known as the Sposalizio), among

attended

{Eng. 42) we see the Virgin Mary's former Joseph by five youths, flowerless reeds whose the is suitors, disappointment symbolizedby Ansidei famous which they hold. In the year 1505 he paintedthe the gloryof the National Madwmay now Gallery. This picturewas from the Duke of purchased Marlborough for "72,000 the highest for a ever paid picture. single price Of the ^mntingsexecuted at Florence, in the master's second manner,
esteemed.
In the

last-named S.

by

five maidens

and

"

82
we

1?A1NTING must name,


as

celebrated,the especially
Florence Uffizi,

(ofthe

in the Goldfinch), in the

; the

Family,

Pinakothek, Munich;

the

del Card"iUM Madarma MadoTma of the Tempi in the Madonna famous

41."

The

Vision
In

of

the N^attonal

Knight. By Raphael. Galleiy.

uD.

15C0.

Madmitia

{Eng, 43); Lord Cowper's Paiishanger Raphael(ofabout the year famous from the it to more 1505), distinguish paintingby that artist ill the same collection ; aS'.Catherine, in the National Gallery; the in the an JSiitombnientf now altar-piece, Borghese Palace, Home ; and
Louvre, known
"

as

La

Belle Jardini^e
Little

known

as

the

In

ITALY. the Pitti

83 Palace,

the Mculonna

del BcUdacchino

(of the Canopy), in

J^^^^^.,

42."

The Marriage of the Virgin. By Raphael.

a.d.

1504.

In the Brera, Milan,

Florence,which
famous 1508.

to belongs

the close of the second Madoiiiia

and period,

the

more

Panshanger

Raphael, the

delki Casa

dated Nlccolinif

43. -La

Belle

Jardiniere. In

By Raphael,

a. D.

1507.

the Louvre.

PAINTING

IN

ITALY.

85 called
to

by magnificentsuite of the temporal apartments in the Vatican, whicli wei*e to commemorate of of three walls and the Papacy. The stnnze (i.e. spiritual power of and them from the the corridor case, stairto or leading gallery rooms), of thirteen compartments, or loggie, with small and consisting covered with frescoes by the great master were himself,and cupolas, his his after designs. by pupils the Stanza della Segnatura,Raphael represented In the first room, the four great intellectual pursuits in symbolicscenes the' walls on the Theology,Poetry,Philosophyand Jurisprudence, and adorned with four of with the ceiling figures allegoric same, appropriate The of called the Holy the fresco Theology (also DisptUeo/ symbols. divided into is the the two Sacrament) portions; containing upper Pope
Julius II. to aid year in the adornment of the
"
"

In

the

middle

of

the

1508, Baphael was

Rome

heavenlyhost,and the lower the Eucharist on of them an : by forty-three figures, portraits many the fresco of Poetry representsParnassus, with Apolloattended the by and the chief of the poets : that of Philosophy Muses (or the School of Plato and in which Aristotle occupy the centre, with Zeno, Atfiens), well-known and other Greeks, with Epicurius, Diogenes,Aristippus, their pupils, introduced : and that are portraits amongst whom many of Jurisprudence, Decretals ; Justinian IX. the out giving Gregory Roman Laws, made by order of e, the givingthe famous Pandects (i. Justinian three allegoric of Roman from the writings jurists) ; and
the altar surrounded

with Holy Trinity

figuresof Prudence, Fortitude completed in 1511.


In the

and

Temperance.

This

chamber

was

next, the Stanza


We
see

deir

Eliodoro,the frescoes
a

are

more

strictly

historic.

the

of Heliodorusfrom the Expulsion


as

Temple,in which of Bolaena,

Pope

Julius

II. is introduced
at which

spectator ; the Miracle


of the liordes

the Mass representing is said to have the Beliterance In the third the taken

the miracle

of the Host bleeding smd of Attila, of the have

of the place;the Discomfiture


"

of

S, Peter

in all of which forth. deir

the power

Papacy is

shadowed or directly indirectly

chamber, the Stanza


"

Incendio, we

the Fire in

Borgo

Vecchio

power, in the groups of terrified naked the Oath of Leo III,,and the Leo from which IV. frescoes in
a

in which

work, full of the highest dramatic consummate knowledge of anatomy Raphaeldisplayed


a

marvellous

figures ; the
over Victory

Coronation the Saracens the Sala di

of Charlemagne,
in the time of

The

fourth

room,

known

as

Costantino,are

In the

executed after by Raphael, designs of the there are loggie cupolas


are

his death
no

by

his

pupils.
for dramatic

less than

fifty-two subjects,
alike

called

"Raphael's Bible,"

remarkable

Viewed and majesty of execution. as the interest, beauty of design, of of production a singlemind, they stand alone as a proof Raphael's

unrivalled

and versatility

creative

genius.

The

decorative

paintings

86
ftnd omam^ntAl

rjknmsG

in whirk pli."t^"r-work kinrL* of the Roottn


*till exi^t work^

tiiese ptctnrK

jltp

frmned

iraiiii

im^jnAli^
(n\if^
are wfrTfT

rif th^ir

Umon^

pmoti
oat

of tbe

great "U54a''s life


wkidi br

the

r;irt"v"Tw

/"r-ven

of the br

eleren). origiinl
:

'k^i"rneii
are

hy

ai^i exemt^ Haf"h:\el

hmk^elf. as:?ted

;^ri4 whuh

in t^ie .S'"nth

MiL^eiim Ken-^ington

they were

piqiiis, origindlT

41"

Elymn"

fftnick with blindncRs.


In

the South

Cartoon by Raphael. Museum. Kensington

a.d.

1515-10.

for the for tapostiip^ ih'Hifrnci] wore (AW/. 44). The tsiix'stries Michiel

Sistiiie
woven,

Chapel, by
under the
now

order

of

Leo

X.

of superintendence in the Vatican and Dresden


;

(/oxcion,at Arras, in Flanders, and are van also preserved in the of them are M^prodiictionH
(hiHcrifH. Seven accoHHiblo of the

Berlin

and copiesafter them, are so readily designs, orifjinal need only add that they represent the following that we
in the

" known Tho wricB of drawiiigH as RaphaeVs Sketch-hook liaH recently been ascribed to Pintiu-icchio.

Academy

at

Venicti

IN

ITALY.

87

scenes

from
:

the

Lives

of the

treated with great dramatip Apostles,


The birds

power
The

Miraculous

Draught of

Fishes {greater pari by Raphael.

in th^

believed to be the worjc of Giova^mi da Tiding), Christ's Charge to Peter {the figureof Christ only by Haphael). the Lamo Man S. Peter and S. John healing {greater part by Giulia The Death of Ananias {mostof the heads by Raphael),

foreground are

Bmmiu)),

Elymas the Sorcerer struck Tvith blindness {partby Raphael)^ Paul and Barnabas at L(ystra {executed by Penni). at Athens (most by Haphael). Paul preaching
These
seven

cartoons

were

Kubens, and
cartoons The
The

have

remained
"

in

of bought by Charles I.,at the suggestion since^ The fouy ever England missing

had for

subjects
S.

of Mai-tyrdom Conversion

Stephen.

of S. Paul.

The

S. Paul in Prison. of the Coronation

Virgin. (The originaldesignis in

the

Oxford Museum, )
com*

from the subjects before KaphaeFs death. menced shortly residence his in Bome, Baphael During A frescoes of the Farnesina

second

with series,

Life of Christ, was also

painted the

famous

Palace, in which

he gave

proof of the love of

which characterized his latter years, by choosing for antique subjects the he Galatea which a ssisted of was (in representation Triumph greatly by many critics by Giulio Romano), and the Historyof Cupid cmd Fsyclie, have his his designs. been executed a fter to entirely supposed pupils, by Besides these vast mural paintings, his architectural works already and the diligent alluded to * share he took in the researches then going
" "

on a

amongst the ruins of ancient Rome, Raphael found


series of easel magnificent several of of himself),
some

and pictures, altar-pieces,


we can

which

only name
noticed.
are no

and of which Families and


into which he
we tinguished,

have

been already of which

produce portraits (including the most important, Taking first the Holy
to

time

Madonnas,
threw find
:"

there

less than he

and fifty,
was

all the

fervour religious

for which

dip'

The

Holy Family with

the Palm-tree.

In the the the

Bridgwater Gallery,
in Bridgwater Gallery {replica Louvre). National Gallery.

ab. 1505. In The Virginwith the Diadem. (Early Roman. ) The Ansidei Madonna. 1505. In In The Virginand Child. (La Silence.) The Garvagh Madonna. In The Madonna di Foligno. 1511. In ab. 1518. The Virgin with the Fish. In The Hohr Family of Naples, ab. 1513. In The Madonna of the Bndgwater Gallery. In della Sedia. In The Madonna 1516. di San Sisto. 1519. In The Madonna
*

the

Uie Lourre. the National the Vatican. t?ieMadrid the Musctim.

Gallery.

Naples Gallery. the Bridgwater Gallery.

the Pilti Palace, Florence. the Dresden Gallery.

In the volume

on

Architecture

and ScrLnuRF.

88
The is last

PAINTING

named,
"

now

the greatest treasure


famous

of the world.

Dresden
"

perhaps Kugler, is one of the most wonderful creations of RapfaaelV famous the most ChriM are pencil."Of Raphael's other altar-pieces once bearing His Cross (known as Lo Spasimo di Cecilia) liaving Church of Maria del the S. at to at Palermo, now Spasimo, belonged
says
"

the most

paintingin

the

The

GJallery, Virgin,"

"

Madrid, which
his death and

is in

his last and figuration,

every best

respect
oil

and the Tra^umasterpiece; left which unfinished was at painting,


a

carried at his funeral


of the possession

with the colours still wet Vatican.

it is

now

the most
we

valued
name
"

Of

his smaller

paintings

must

S. Cecilia. 1516. The Vision of Ezekiel. The S. A

In the

Bologna Oallery.

Visitation.

In the Pilti Palace^ Florence. In the Madrid Oallery, In the Lmivre In the Lmivrc. in {replica the

Margaret, ab. 1516. 1517. rchnngelMichael.


of his

Behxdcre, Vienna),

And

that portraits,
of
a

of

in hiniself, and Roman

the

Louvre of Bindo

; the

in the Munich

Barberini

Rome, Gallery,
beautiful

those

Gallery;
which
death

Maiden, and

Fomarinay AUoviti,in the of Julius II. (a


X, wiih
tvco

of replica On the

is in the National of did

and Gallery), age of

of Leo

Cardinals, all in the Pitti


mourned.
memory
were more

Palace,Florence.
at

Raphael
one

the death

all Europe thirty-seven


so

Never

man's

create

vast

void

"

never

was

fondly cherished. with religious veneration, as regarded

In the words

of

Kugler,
had

"

His

works

if God

revealed Himself

throughRaphael as, in former RaphaeFs pupilsand


of his excellences Giulio scholar was in
our were

days, through the</