Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 170

Prof.

IzabeIIe PauIina dos Santos


Verbo to be (Present Tense)
Vamos iniciar estudando as estruturas mais simpIes da Ingua ingIesa, como
por exempIo o verbo "to be".
GRAMMAR
TO BE (ser ou estar)
My name is Ken Beare and I'm a teacher. My address is Green Street, 19 and
my teIephone number is 89951263. I'm 39 years oId and I'm married. My daughter,
Katherine, is two and haIf years oId. My wife, Barbara, is ItaIian. She is a bank teIIer.
SimpIe present tense
SinguIar 1 pessoa I am I'm

2 pessoa You are You're

He is He's
3 pessoa She is She's
It is It's
PIuraI 1 pessoa We are We're

2 pessoa You are You're

3 pessoa They are They're
ATTENTION
O pronome neutro it, aIm de substituir um nome (coisa ou animaI), tem
tambm a funo de sujeito de expresses impessoais. Usa-se o pronome para no
se deixar o verbo sem sujeito. Neste caso eIe no deve ser traduzido.
It is raining.
It is Iate.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: to be + not.
You are not You aren't
- Question form: inverte-se a posio do sujeito e do verbo.
I am Am I?
Exercises
1. (Esam -RN) "It's possibIe to controI infIation but it _______ easy."
a- is
b- are
c- isn't
d- hasn't
e- be
1
2. " ___ is raining hard."
a- It
b- She
c- He
d- We
e- You
3. They ____ very rich peopIe, but I ____ more inteIIigent.
a- are - are
b- is - am
c- were - is
d- are - am
e- is - are
Past Tense
WhiIe John Smith was going to schooI this morning, a car knocked him down.
His right Ieg was broken just beIow the knee. Some peopIe who saw the accident
Iaid him in a comfortabIe position on the pavement and teIephoned for an
ambuIance. WhiIe the peopIe were waiting for the ambuIance, the driver of the car
that knocked John down covered him with a coat and tried to comfort him.
SinguIar 1 pessoa I was

2 pessoa You were

He was
3 pessoa She was
It was
PIuraI 1 pessoa We were
2 pessoa You were
3 pessoa They were
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: to be + not.
You were not You weren't
She was She wasn't
- Question form: inverte-se a posio do sujeito e do verbo.
I was Was I?
Exercises
1- FiII in with the past of the verb to be.
a- The tower high and firm.
b- He an astronomer too.
c- It onIy after a few years that he became interested in Mathematics.
d- The students not different from the others.
e- Those peopIe born in Pisa.
2
There to be
Text:
(JiII) Is there any miIk Ieft in the fridge?
(Terry) Nope, sorry! I finished that Iast carton Iast night.
(JiII) Hmm. What about that orange juice? I need to drink something coId before I
head to the office.
(Terry) There's stiII some juice. There's aIso a Ieftover cheese sandwich from
yesterday. You can have it - I'm not that hungry.
(JiII) A sandwich. this earIy in the morning? I don't think so. (opening the fridge)
Oh, we're compIeteIy out of fruit! Where are aII the strawberries?
(Terry) Strawberries? Hmm, I ate those. Here, have a banana.
(JiII) Thanks. Let me make a Iist right now of what we need - I'II stop by the
supermarket on my way home tonight. MiIk, fruit, coffee.
(Terry) No, we have pIenty of coffee. We need brown sugar, eggs and fIour. I'm
gonna make pancakes tomorrow!
A juno do advrbio there com uma das formas do verbo to be exprime, em
ingIs, a idias de que h aIgo ou que aIgo existe. Apresenta-se tanto na forma de
singuIar quanto na de pIuraI (diferentemente do verbo haver, significado existir,
que, em portugus, impessoaI) e concorda com o objeto a seguir.
Present tense
SinguIar there is
PIuraI there are
Ex: There is a statue in New York.
There are great schooIs in Canada.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: there is not (isn't); there are not (aren't)
Ex: There is not a boy in the room.
- Question form: is there?; are there?
Ex: Is there a boy in the room?
Past tense
SinguIar there was
PIuraI there were
Ex: There was a girI in the park.
There were many peopIe in the concert.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: there was not (wasn't); there were not (weren't)
Ex: There was not a boy in the room.
- Question form: was there?; were there?
Ex: Was there a boy in the room?
Future tense
There wiII be
Ex: There wiII be many peopIe in the party.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: there wiII not (won't) be
Ex: There won't be a boy in the room.
3
- Question form: wiII there be?
Ex: WiII there be a boy in the room?
The verbs have got and have
Existe outra estrutura verbaI que tambm exprime a mesma idia do there +
to be, o have/has got. Seu significado traduz mais a idia de posse. EIa, diferente
do there + be, deve concordar com o sujeito que a precede.
Ex: The house has got a bathroom. = There's a bathroom in the house.
The rooms have got baIconies. = There are baIconies in the rooms.
Assim como have/has got podemos usar ainda have/has, sendo que a 1
forma mais comum no ingIs britnico e a 2 no ingIs norte-americano.
Ex: The hoteI has 30 rooms and the rooms have baIconies.
Tambm usamos have/has, tanto no ingIs britnico quanto norte-americano,
para expressar atividades.
Ex: They have breakfast.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: have not got (haven't); has not got (hasn't got)
Ex: The tabIe has not got a box.
- Question form: have got?; has got?
Ex: Has the tabIe got a box?
Exercises
1- (CESESP-PE) In 1975 . a great, fIood in Recife.
a- there were
b- there was
c- there are
d- there is
e- there has been
2- . hot today.
a- It is
b- They are
c- There is
d- There are
e- There isn't
3- . pIenty of time. Don't worry.
a- It is
b- There are
c- They are
d- There is
e- There isn't
4- . a man on the corner across the street.
a- They are
b- There are
c- There is
d- There aren't
e- There isn't
4
5- . smoke without fire.
a- There is
b- There aren't
c- There are
d- They are
e- There isn't
PLURAL
A taste of ItaIy
Frank Mackondy is the manager of this friendIy takeaway food shop. He seIIs
home-made hot and coId ItaIian food: soup, pizza, pasta dishes, and saIads. He aIso
seIIs different kinds of sandwiches; for exampIe, chicken, turkey, saIami, beef,
cheese and egg. There are served hot or coId, too.
Frank's party sandwiches are a speciaIIy. One sandwich is big enough for
thiry peopIe!
RuIes
Para formar o pIuraI dos substantivos acrescentamos s ao singuIar.
Ex: scientist - scientists
Aos substantivos terminados em: s, ss, sh, ch, x e z, acrescentamos es ao
singuIar.
Ex:
Bus Buses
Kiss Kisses
Brush Brushes
Watch Watches
Fox Foxes
Topaz Topazes
Aos substantives terminados em ch que so pronunciados com som de k, no
pIuraI segue a regra geraI.
Ex: monarch - monarchs
Substantivos terminados em y
Quando precedidos de vogaI, acrescentamos s
Ex: boy - boys
Quando precedidos de consoante, transformamos o y em i e acrescentamos
es.
Ex: century - centuries
Substantivos terminados em o
Quando precedidos de vogaI, acrescentamos s
Ex: radio - radios
5
Quando precedidos de vogaI, acrescentamos ES
Ex: tomato - tomatoes
Doze substantivos terminados em f ou fe, mudam o finaI para ves, o restante
dos substantivos terminados em f ou fe seguem a regra geraI.
Wife Wives
Life Lives
Knife Knives
WoIf WoIves
SeIf SeIves
CaIf CaIves
HaIf HaIves
SheIf SheIves
Leaf Leaves
Loaf Loaves
Thief Thieves
Sheaf Sheaves
Existem outros substantivos terminados em f que admitem as duas formas
de pIuraI.
Scarf Scarfs/ scarves
Dwarf Dwarfs/ dwarves
Hoof Hoofs/ hooves
Wharf Wharfs/ wharves
Staff Staffs/ staves
Kerchief Kerchiefs/ kerchieves
PIurais irreguIares
Man Men
6
Woman Women
ChiId ChiIdren
Ox Oxen
Foot Feet
Tooth Teeth
Goose Geese
Louse Lice
Mouse Mice
PIuraI dos substantivos compostos
Quando houver justaposio de dois ou mais eIementos formando uma
paIavra nova, estabeIecemos seu pIuraI obedecendo regra do Itimo
eIemento.
Ex: schooI + room = schoIIroom = schooIrooms
poIice + woman - poIicewoman = poIicewomen
Substantivos compostos Iigados por meio de preposio formam o seu pIuraI
fIexionando o 1 eIemento.
Ex: mother - in - Iaw = mothers - in - Iaw
Artigos e adjetivos em frases no pIuraI
O artigo definido the mantm a mesma forma no singuIar e no pIuraI.
Ex: The book is on the tabIe.
The books are on the tabIe.
Os artigos indefinidos so empregados apenas no singuIar.
A - usado diante de paIavras iniciadas por consoante - a fiIm, a year, a
house.
An - usado diante de paIavras iniciadas por vogaI e h mudo - an AppIe, an
hour.
Ex: An astronomer is a scientist.
Astronomers are scientists.
Os adjetivos mantm a mesma forma para o singuIar e pIuraI.
Ex: I want to read an interesting book.
I want to read interesting books.
Demonstrativos:
SINGULAR PLURAL
This These
7
That Those
Ex: This is an important research.
These are important researches.
That fiIm is funny.
Those fiIms are funny.
SpeciaI cases
AIguns substantivos so usados apenas no pIuraI. O verbo, neste casos,
tambm vai para o pIuraI.
Ex: riches, goods, cIothes, pyjamas, gIasses, trousers, scissors, etc.
Mas h substantives terminados em s, usados com o verbo no singuIar.
Ex: news, Mathematics, Physics, PoIitics, etc.
The news is (are) interesting.
Os coIetivos, por serem considerados pIurais, so usados com o verbo no
pIuraI.
Ex: peopIe, pubIic, cattIe, poIice, etc.
The poIice are Iooking for the murderer.
AIguns substantivos apresentam a mesma forma, tanto para o pIuraI quanto
para o singuIar.
Ex: sheep, fish, corps, shrimp, moose, saImon, bison, offspring, deer, species,
trout, etc.
AIguns substantivos terminam em s mas no apresentam pIuraI.
Ex: amends, aIms, boweIs, congratuIations, thanks, contents, goods, intestines, etc.
Quando exprimem uma idia unitria, Iogo a concordncia verbaI no
singuIar.
Ex: The NetherIands, The United States, The United Nations.
Substantivos incontveis no tm forma no pIuraI, a no ser que estejam
especificados (a bottIe of miIk/ bottIes of miIk).
Ex: information, knowIedge, weather, furniture, cIothing, miIk, water, roe, Iuggage,
etc.
Exercises
1. (PUC) Five . packages were sent to South America.
a- thousand
b- thousand of
8
c- thousands
d- thousands of
e- aII are correct
2. (PUC) O pIuraI de sister-in-law, child e armchair :
a- sister-in-Iaw, chiIdren, armschairs
b- sister-in-Iaw, chiIdren, armschair
c- sisters-in-Iaws, chiIds, armchairs
d- sister-in-Iaws, chiIdren, armchairs
e- sisters-in-Iaw, chiIdren, armchairs
3. (UNIP) The pIuraI of Iouse and mouse is:
a- Iouses - mouses
b- Iice - mice
c- Iice - mouse
d- Iouses - mice
e- NDR
4. (UNIP) O pIuraI de buzz, country e sheIf :
a- buzz, countries, sheIfs
b- buzzes, countries, sheIves
c- buzzes, coutres, sheIves
d- buzz, countries, sheIves
e- buzzes, countrys, sheIves
5. (UNIP) The pIuraI of brother-in-Iaw is:
a- brothers-in-Iaw
b- brother-in-Iaws
c- brothers-in-Iaws
d- brethren-in-Iaws
e- it has no pIuraI
6. (ITA) The United States . a big country.
a- is
b- are
c- have
d- a e b corrects
e- aII are right
7. (UNESP) AII these words foIIow the same ruIe to form the pIuraI, except:
a- pIuraI in "ies" - daisy, Iady, baby, city, fIy
b- pIuraI in "es" - watch, church, negro, dish, brush
c- pIuraI in "ves" - wife, haIf, caIf, chief, Ieaf
d- pIuraI in "s" - cow-boy, vaIIey, key, way, day
9
e- change of internaI voweI - goose, tooth, foot, Iouse, mouse.
8. (UNB) . are found in cats and dogs.
a- Louses
b- Lice
c- Mice
d- Mouses
e- Geese
9. (ITA) AII these words foIIow the same ruIe to form the pIuraI, except.
a- pIuraI in "ves" - Iife, seIf, Ioaf, woIf, thief
b- pIuraI in "es" - kiss, fox, topaz, hero, negro
c- pIuraI in "s" - boy, toy, pIay, baby, radio
d- pIuraI in "s" or "ves" - scarf, dwarf, hoof, staff, wharf
e- change of internaI voweI - man, woman, foot, goose, Iouse
10. Which of the foIIowing groups consists of words wich do not form the pIuraI in
ves.
a- sheIf, caIf, thief
b- Ioaf, woIf, haIf
c- chief, reef, proof
d- Iike, knife, Ieaf
e- eIf, dwarf, scarf
11. Put into pIuraI: "I saw a fox, a donkey, a sheep, a woIf, and an ox in the zoo.
a- I sew foxes, donkeys, sheep, woIfs and oxes in the zoo.
b- I saw foxes, donkeys, sheeps, woIves and oxen in the zoo.
c- I saw foxs, donkeys, sheeps, woIfs and oxes in the zoo.
d- I saw foxes, donkeys, sheep, woIves and oxen in the zoo.
e- I saw foxes, donkeys, sheeps, woIves ad oxen in the zoo.
12. "The chiId cut itseIf with that sharp knife."
CoIoque no pIuraI as paIavras grifadas:
a- chiIdren, those, knives
b- chiIdren, these, knives
c- chiIdren, these, knifs
d- chiIds, those, knives
e- chiIdren, thats, knives
13. "A goose is a strange animaI", no pIuraI ficaria:
a- A geese are strange animaIs.
b- Goose are strangers animaIs.
c- Goose are strangers animaI.
d- Geese are strange animaIs.
e- Geese are strangers animaIs.
10
14. . are generaIIy big animaIs.
a- Ox
b- Oxes
c- Oxen
d- Foxen
e- Fox
15. Find the correct pIuraI form:
Her foot did not move.
a) foots
b) fots
c) feet
d) feetes
e) foot
16. A: How many _____ do you need?
B: What I need is 12 ____ and 12 _____!
a- dishs - dishs - gIasses
b- dishes - dishes - gIass
c- dishies - dishies - gIass
d- dishies - dishies - gIasses
e- dishes - dishes - gIasses
17. Put into pIuraI: "the mouse was caught by the cat."
a- The mice were caught by the cats.
b- The mice was caught by the cat.
c- The mouses were caught by the cats.
d- The mice were caught by the catties.
e- The mice were caught by the cattys.
18. (MACK - SP) The pIuraI of "That wise EngIishman keeps his goId watch in a
safe" is:
a- Those wise EngIishmen keep their goId watches in saves.
b- Those wise EngIishmen keep his goId watches in a save.
c- Those wise EngIishmans keeps their goId watches in a safe.
d- Those wises EngIishmen keep their goIds watches in safes.
e- Those wise EngIishmen keep their goId watches in safes.
Gerund and present participIe
Formao: Infinitive to think
Gerund, present participIe thinking
Para formarmos o gerund ou o present participIe, acrescentamos ing ao
infinitivo sem o to.
RuIes
Verbos terminados em e
Os verbos terminados em um s e perdem esse e ao acrescentarmos ing.
Ex: to Iive Iiving
11
Exception: to be being
Verbos terminados em ee seguem a regra geraI.
Ex: to see seeing
Verbos terminados em y.
Os verbos terminados em y seguem a regra geraI, independentemente da Ietra
que anteceder o y.
Ex: to enjoy enjoying
Verbos terminados em cosoante-vogaI-consoante cvc. Se o verbo tiver uma
nica sIaba, contendo como Itimas Ietras uma consoante c, uma vogaI v e
uma consoante c, dobra-se a consoante finaI.
Ex: to get getting
O mesmo ocorrer se o verbo tiver duas sIabas, sendo a Itima tnica e
composta de cvc.
Ex: to begin beginning
Verbos terminados em ie
Ao acrescentarmos ing aos verbos terminados em ie, mudamos o ie para y.
Ex: to die dying
Aos verbos terminados em ic, adiciona-se um k antes do ing.
Ex: to traffic trafficking
ATTENTION 1
Nos verbos terminados em x, y e w, no se dobra sua consoante finaI, mesmo
tendo a terminao cvc.
ATTENTION 2
Um verbo na forma "ing" pode permitir tradues variadas de acordo com a
funo que este estiver exercendo na orao.
Ex: They are missing the sheer joy of Iiving in the present moment.
Infinitivo
She is a caring mother.
Adjetivo
Exercise
1- Put the foIIowing verbs in the ing form:
a- to go .
b- to do .
c- to Iearn .
d- to reIax .
12
e- to Ieave .
f- to gree .
g- to Iove .
h- to determine .
i- to study .
j- to pIay .
k- to stay .
I- to try .
m- to drop .
n- to regret .
o- to forget .
p- to sit .
q- to Iie .
r- to faII .
s- to say .
t- to enjoy .
u- to pay .
v- to worry .
Present continuous tense
HeaIth and happiness:
According to an OId Russian joke, it is better to be poor and heaIthy than rich
and unheaIthy. Good heaIth is obviousIy important; if you do not enjoy good heaIth,
the quaIity of Iife wiII suffer. And there seems to be a Iot of agreement these days
about how to achieve and maintain good heaIth. The experts teII us to cut down on
fat, eat pIenty of fibre, do Iots of exercise and avoid stress. But aII this is much
easier said than done: Nowadays, the pace of Iife is so fast that we seem obIiged to
choose "junk food" and "convenience foods" instead of taking time to choose
wiseIy. We are often too tired to exercise properIy and we suffer increasingIy from
stress. PeopIe shouId try to ensure that they get a baIanced diet. MineraIs and
proteins are essentiaI to good heaIth, and these are provided by a variety of
foodstuffs. ReguIar and sufficient exercise is aIso a necessary precondition of
fitness. PeopIe in sedentary jobs are particuIarIy prone to obesity and heart disease.
Last but not Ieast, we shouId avoid stress. Frustration and anxiety Iead to stress
and to stress-reIated iIIness. NevertheIess, we must somehow find time to take
better care of ourseIves.
Formao: verbo auxiIiar + verbo principaI
To be (present tense) + present participIe
I am Iiving
You are Iiving
He
She is Iiving
It
We are Iiving
You are Iiving
13
They are Iiving
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: nega-se o present continuous tense coIocando-se not aps o verbo
to be.
Ex: He is not (isn't) reIaxing.
- Question form: a interrogao se faz com uma simpIes inverso: o verbo passa a
anteceder o sujeito.
Ex: Are you studying?
Empregos do present continuous tense
O present continuous tense o verdadeiro presente, descreve uma ao que
est acontecendo neste momento.
Ex: Look! It is raining.
geraImente acompanhado de:
Verbos no imperative: Iook, Iisten, etc.
Certos advrbios como: now, at present, at this moment.
Exercises
1. Look out! The bus ____________________, so we need to hurry.
a- are coming
b- is coming
c- are comying
d- is comying
e- is comeing
2. (Vunesp -SP) Marque a aIternativa correta:
Many countries ________with nucIear reactors.
a- is experimenting
b- experiments
c- experimenting
d- wouId experiment
e- are experimenting
3. (ITA-SP) "I know that PauI ________in the garden at this moment."
a- has worked*b- is working
c- works
d- was working
e- has been working
Past continuous tense
AnimaI farm
An unproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse. They rushed back and
Iooked through the window again. Yes, a vioIent quarreI was in progress. There
were shoutings, bangings on the tabIe, sharp suspicious gIances, furious deniaIs.
14
The source of the troubIe appeared to be that NapoIeon and Mr. PiIkington had each
pIayed an ace of spades simuItaneousIy.
TweIve voices were shouting in anger, and they were aII aIike. No question,
now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside Iooked from
pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but aIready it was
impossibIe to say wich was wich.
(From AnimaI Farm, by George OrweII)
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
To be (past tense) + present participIe
I was shouting
You were shouting
He
She was shouting
It
We were shouting
You were shouting
They were shouting
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: nega-se o past continuous tense coIocando-se not aps o verbo to
be.
Ex: We were not (weren't) singing aIone.
- Question form: a interrogao se faz com uma simpIes inverso: o verbo passa a
anteceder o sujeito.
Ex: Were you singing aIone?
Emprego do past continuous tense
Descreve uma ao que estava acontecendo no passado, quando uma outra
ao passada ocorreu.
Ex: They were screaming when Sarah appeared.
Descreve aes passadas que estavam acontecendo simuItaneamente.
Ex: WhiIe the girI was singing the boy was pIaying the piano.
Para expressar uma atividade em progresso antes e, provaveImente, depois
de um momento particuIar no passado.
Ex: At 8.00 this morning. I was washing my hair.
Para descrever uma situao ou atividade durante um perodo passado.
Ex: Her eyes were shining in the Iight of the candIes that were burning nearby.
Para expressar uma atividade interrompida no passado.
Ex: We were dancing when the music stopped.
Para expressar uma atividade incompIeta no passado.
Ex: I was reading a book during the fIight.
15
geraImente acompanhado de conjues temporais: when, whiIe, as, by the
time etc.
Exercise
1. Conjugue os verbos entre parnteses no past continuous tense:
a- WhiIe he (to shout) she (to run) away.
b- WhiIe they (to quarreI) I (to reIax).
c- As the boys (to study) the teacher arrived.
d- By the time they (to sit) on the chairs the man took the photo.
e- I (to Iook) through the window when he came back home.
2. (UFGO) The warbIe . to fIy away when the scientists arrived.
a- is trying
b- was trying
c- tries
d- try
e- were trying
Future continuous tense
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
To be (future tense) + present participIe
I wiII (shaII) be Iearning
You wiII be Iearning
He
She wiII be Iearning
It
We wiII (shaII) be Iearning
They wiII be Iearning
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: a forma negativa se faz acrescentando-se not aps o auxiIiar wiII.
Ex: The Iady wiII not (won't) be pIaying the cards.
- Question form: interroga-se coIocando-se wiII antes do sujeito.
Ex: WiII you be working tomorrow?
Emprego do future continuous tense
Descreve uma ao que estar acontecendo em uma determinada poca do
futuro.
Ex: Tomorrow I wiII be running.
geraImente acompanhado de adjuntos adverbiais de tempo: tomorrow,
soon, next, week, next month, next year, in a few days, in 2001 etc.
Exercise
1. SuppIy the future continuous tense.
a- They (to go) to the cinema at this time tomorrow.
b- When September comes she (to traveI) to ItaIy.
16
c- Soon it (to appear) again.
d- In a few months you (to study) for the "vestibuIar".
e- Soon you (to enjoy) your Iife again.
Pronouns
Who do you dress for?
"When I was young, my mother chose my cIothes. Now I dress for myseIf, but
I aIso want to Iook attractive to other peopIe - speciaIIy my husband. I don't wear
certain coIours Iike BIack and yeIIow because they don't suit me and Patrick doesn't
Iike them. At work, of course, I have no choice - I have no choice - I'm a tour guide,
so I have to wear the company uniform. At home I usuaIIy wear casuaI cIothes.
Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
subject form object form possessive adjective possessive pronoun
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves
Os pronomes pessoais (subjective case) so usados como sujeito apenas
nas setenas:
Ex: She goes to schooI every day.
Tambm pode-se usar, em Iinguagem formaI, os pronomes pessoais de
sujeito depois de paIavras como than e as:
Ex: Brian is more beautifuI than I.
17
Os pronomes pessoais (objective case) so usados como objeto direto e/ou
indireto e tambm aps preposies.
Ex: He is going to buy her a house. (objeto indireto)
I know him. (objeto direto)
Em Iinguagem informaI, podemos usar os objective case seguindo paIavras
como, than e as:
Ex: IsabeIIe is more beautifuI than him.
Outro uso para os pronomes objetivos ocorrem em frases excIamativas.
Ex: She won a nice present. Lucky her!
Os pronomes possessivos nunca so usados antes de substantivos, ao
passo que os adjetivos possessivos so usados sempre antes de
substantivos.
Ex: My mother is out there./ Those shoes are mine.
Podem ser empregados com a paIavra own para nfase:
Ex: She bought her own car.
Os pronomes refIexivos so empregados como compIemento de um verbo
para refIetir o sujeito deste na mesma frase.
Ex: I hurt myseIf.
Os refIexivos devem tambm ser empregados, obrigatoriamente, a seguir
desses verbos refIexivos.
Ex: absent (from); avaiI (of); betake (to); pride (on);/ She absented herseIf from
cinema.
Quando usados como enfticos, os pronomes servem para dar nfase ou
reaIce.
Ex: Kate herseIf made a dress.
By + refIexivo, o sentido de "s", "sozinho".
Ex: I Iive by myseIf.
As expresses each other e one another, so usadas para expressar a idia
de reciprocidade.
Ex: IsabeIIe and Anders Iove each other.
Interrogative Pronouns:
PRONOUN USE EXAMPLE
Who Quem - funo de
sujeito
Who's that girI?
Whom Quem - funo de
objeto
Whom did He seen at
the airport?
Whose De quem - funo de
identificar o possuidor
Whose dress is this?
Which QuaI - apresenta
sempre uma escoIha
Which food do you
prefer?
What Que - usado em
muitas construes
What kind of person
you are?
AIguns advrbios interrogativos:
When = quando Why = por que
Where = onde How = como
18
- Formas compostas de how:
How deep How taII How many
How far How oId How high
How Iong How much How often
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
SinguIar PIuraI
This These
That Those
Os demonstrativos this e these referem-se a aIgo prximo no tempo ou no
espao e esto associados a aqui (here) ou agora (now).
Ex: This is the book I am taIking about.
Where did you buy these shoes?
J os demonstrativos that e those referem-se a aIgo distante em reIao ao
espao ou ao tempo. EIes esto associados e aIi (there) ou ento (then).
Ex: Is that your book over there?
Those chiIdren by the swimming-poII are mine.
ReIative Pronous:
Os reIative pronouns so aqueIes pronomes usados quando queremos
identificar aIgum ou obter maiores informaes sobre aIguma coisa. So paIavras
referidas a termos que j foram mencionados anteriormente na orao.
PRONOME TRADUO FUNO REFERNCIA
Who Quem/que Sujeito Pessoas
Whom Quem/que Objeto Pessoas
Which Que/quaI/o quaI/a
quaI
sujeito Coisas e animais
Whose Cujo/cuja/cujos/cujas Objeto
(reIacionar dois
substantivos)
Pessoas, coisas
e animais (no
importa)
Who (que): empregado quando queremos nos referir a um sujeito
(pessoas).
Ex: The man who Iives on your fIoor wants to taIk to you.
Whom (que, quem): SemeIhante ao "who", contudo utiIizado para se referir
ao objeto direto (pessoas) ou como compIemento de uma preposio.
Ex: The poIiceman whom Robert saw yesterday is my uncIe.
Which (que): Se refere tanto ao sujeito quanto ao objeto, porm s utiIizado
quando essas paIavras se referirem a animais ou coisas, nunca a pessoas,
como nas duas formas anteriores.
Ex: Where is the book which I Ieft here?
Whose (cujo): Pode se referir a tudo: pessoas, animais ou coisas, porm seu
detaIhe que essa forma pronominaI indica posse.
Ex: Do you know the boy whose father is dead?
19
Where (onde): Refere-se a um Iugar fsico.
Ex: That is the schooI in where I studied in 1998.
Exercise
1. (FMU) "Its too hot in here, Let's refresh . with a drink of coId water.
a- myseIf
b- yourseIf
c- yourseIves
d- ourseIves
e- themseIves
2. (MED. SANTOS) Peter's wife said: "My husband wants me to seII my bycicIe, but
he won't seII .
a- hers
b- his
c- yours
d- its
e- theirs
3. (MACKENZIE) I think of . too much. My aunt thinks of . as weII and often
forgets to think of .
a- myseIf - me - herseIf
b- myseIf - herseIf - herseIf
c- me - me himseIf
d- me - me herseIves
e- I - heseIf - herseIf
4. My brand new transistor radio just broke. CouId your brother try to fix .
a- it me?
b- for me it?
c- it for me?
d- me it?
e- for it me?
5. Every man has . own rights and obrigations.
a- its
b- him
c- he
d- his
e- himseIf
6. (ITA) . car is this? It beIongs to Evans.
a- Who
b- Which
c- What
d- Whose
e- Whom
7. (PUC) . of them gave uo studying?
a- Who
b- Whom
c- Which
d- Whose
e- What
20
8. (ITA) . is your brother Iike?
a- How
b- Who
c- Whom
d- What
e- Why
9. (FUVEST) . such a siIIy remark? I did.
a- Who did you make
b- Who makes
c- Who did
d- Who made
e- Who did made
10. (GV) . weeks wiII he stay here?
a- How much
b- How Iong
c- How many
d- When
e- How
11. . cIoud is a sign of rain.
a- Thise
b- These
c- Those
d- Anyone
e- That
12 . does not beIong to me.
a- These
b- Those
c- That
d- This
e- c and d are correct
13. ". were the days" was a popuIar BBC program.
a- This
b- That
c- Theses
d- Those
e- Thats
14. . women are Iooking for you.
a- Those
b- That
c- This
d- There
e- b and c correct
15. . is what I want.
a- Those
b- These
21
c- That
d- .
e- Theses
16. (FGV) "I know the girI . wrote you this Ietter.
a- whose
b- whorn
c- which
d- who
e- what
17. (ITA) Mary's book, . is in . pIace, was brought to . by . father.
a- Which - its - she - his
b- that - his - her - his
c- who - its - her - her
d- that - his - she - her
e- which - its - her - her
18. (UNIP) The bus . goes to Cairo Ieaves from here.
a- it
b- what
c- who
d- whose
e- which
19. (UNESP) That's the businessman . daughter suffered an accident this morning.
a- whose
b- that
c- whom
d- which
e- who
20. (PUC) The book . I was reading yesterday was a detective story.
a- whose
b- what
c- whom
d- who
*e- which
SimpIe present tense
SociaI contrasts
CaIcutta, said Robert CIive, founder of Britain's Indian Empire, is "the most
wicked pIace in the universe. "His words stiII ring true. The city's eIite Iive in
Iuxurious mansions attended by white-gIoved servants. MeanwhiIe, the poorest of
the poor bareIy survive on the streets; some seII their bIood just for a few pennies
to get by. Yet something about CaIcutta's grim confIicts and compeIIing contrasts
attracts and inspires a yeasty mix of poets, revoIutionaries and romantics. Quips
renowned movie director Satyajit Ray, a CaIcutta resident: "Who wants to make a
fiIm about Geneva?"
INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
22
Live Lived Lived
SimpIe present
I Iive
You Iive
He
She Iives
It
We Iive
You Iive
They Iive
Note que o simpIe present formado retirando-se o to do infinitive. Perceba
que somente nas terceiras pessoas do singuIar (he, she, it) h um acrscimo
de s no havendo variaes nas demais pessoas. justamente peIo fato de
no haver variaes no verbo, exceto na terceira pessoa do singuIar, que
praticamente no existe sujeito subentendido em ingIs, pois se
dissssemos, por exempIo, Iove, querendo dizer amo, este verbo caberia
tambm para outros sujeitos (you, we, they).
O verbo em ingIs s aparece sem sujeito quando este j foi anteriormente
mencionado, e a repetio fica deseIegante.
Ex: I Iove and hate.
Sujeito
SpeciaI RuIes (3 pessoa)
Os verbos terminados em ss, sh, ch, x, z, e o recebem o sufixo es nas
terceiras pessoas do singuIar.
Ex:
Press Presses
Wash Washes
Watch Watches
Wax Waxes
Fizz Fizzes
Go Goes
Verbos terminados em y precedido de consoante: transformamos o y em i e
acrescentamos es.
Ex: to try - tries
Verbos terminados em y precedido de vogaI: acrescentamos apenas s.
Ex: to pray - prays
23
Empregos do simpIe present
Expressa uma verdade uma verdade geraI ou cientfica.
Ex: The earth moves around the Sun.
Expressa uma ao habituaI.
Ex: I often go to the movies.
Advrbios que geraImente acompanham o simpIe present:
AIways (sempre)
Never (nunca)
Often = frequentIy (frequentemente)
SeIdom = rareIy (raramente)
UsuaIIy (usuaImente, geraImente)
GeneraIIy (geraImente)
Sometimes (s vezes)
Sundays
Mondays
Tuesdays
On Wednesdays
Thursdays
Fridays
Saturdays
Once
Twice
Three times
Four times
Day
A Month
Week
Day
Every Month
Year
ATTENTION
Se observarmos esses advrbios de tempo que acabamos de aprender,
possveI notar que aIguns deIes indicam tempo definido (every day, on Sundays
etc) e outros, tempo indefinido (aIways, seIdom etc). Esta contastao importante,
pois a partir deIa que saberemos quaI a posio do advrbio dentro da orao.
Advrbio de tempo (definido): coIocado no fim ou inicio da orao.
Ex: Mary visits CaIcutta once a year.
Once a year Mary visits CaIcutta.
Advrbio de tempo (indefinido): coIocado antes do verbo principaI.
Ex: Your Iover is aIways thinking of you.
24
verbo principaI verbo principaI
Exercise 1
1. SimpIe present or present continuous?
a- You (to have) to hurry up. The bus (to come).
b- Jane aIways (to study) Maths at this hour, but today she (to
pIay) tennis.
c- At this moment Edward (to do) his homework whiIe Doris
(to make) a cake.
d- Some contrasts aIways (to attract) and (to inspire) poets.
e- Listen! AIice and her husband (to quarreI) again.
f- Everytime he (to get) angry, he (to bang) on the tabIe.
g- Be quiet pIease! They (to try) to reIax.
h- You certainIy (to know) that aII objects (to faII) at the same
speed.
SimpIe present - Negative and Question forms
Ns vamos aprender agora como negar e interrogar o simpIe present. para
esse momento gramaticaI que pedimos uma ateno especiaI de sua parte, pois em
ingIs a negao ou interrogao dos simpIe tenses exige um verbo auxiIiar que
tem a funo nica de expressar o tempo da ao. O significado dessa ao dado
peIo verbo principaI. Nada difciI, apenas uma questo de treino.
Lembre-se: o verbo principaI expressa o significado o auxiIiar carrega o
tempo.
Negative form
Formao: sujeito + auxiIiar do/does + not + verbo principaI no infinitivo sem
o to.
I do not (don't) run
You do not (don't) run
He
She does not (doesn't) run
It
We do not (don't) run
You do not (don't) run
They do not (don't) run
O sufixo s ou es, normaImente acrescentado ao verbo na Terceira pessoa do
singuIar, passa a ser acrescentado somente ao auxiIiar do/does.
O auxiIiar no deve ser traduzido, serve apenas para identificar o tempo do
verbo, uma vez que o usamos to somente no simpIe present.
No confunda o verbo to do com o auxiIiar do/does. Este verbo tambm
precisa do auxiIiar, como os outros.
Ex: I do the Iesson - I don't do the Iesson.
Question form
Formao: auxiIiar do/does + sujeito + verbo principaI no infinitivo sem o to.
Do I run?
25
Do You run?
he
Does she run
it
AIgumas paIavras interrogativas usadas na question form:
o Why (por que)
o When (quando)
o (At) what time (a que horas)
o Where (onde)
o How (como)
o What (o que)
Ex: When do you come here?
Exercise 2
1. MichaeI _____ TV to radio.
a- prefer
b- don't prefer
c- doesn't prefers
d- doesn't prefer
e- don't prefers
2. Radio and TV _____ peopIe enjoy Iife.
a- doesn't heIp
b- heIps
c- heIp
d- don't heIps
e- doesn't heIps
3. Every morning, SaIIy _____ TV, but her brother _____ to the radio.
a- watches, Iistens
b- don't watch, Iistens
c- doesn't watches, Iistens
d- don't watches, doesn't Iistens
e- doesn't watches, doesn't Iistens
4. I __________ to schooI everyday, but my brother __________ his bike.
a- waIk, ride
b- waIk, rides
c- waIks, rides
d- waIks, ride
e- don't waIk, don't ride
5. The students __________ to the radio, but the teacher__________ TV.
a- Iistens, watches
b- Iisten, watches
c- don't Iistens, doesn't watch
d- doesn't Iisten, don't watches
e- Iistens, doesn't watches
26
6. (FEI-SP) A forma negativa gramaticaImente correta para "The camera uses an
opticaI system" :
a- The camera doesn't use an opticaI system.
b- The camera hasn't used an opticaI system.
c- The camera can't use an opticaI system.
d- The camera didn't use an opticaI system.
e- The camera won't use an opticaI system.
7. (Fatec-SP) "In what country _____ Mary and her famiIy Iive?"
a- does
b- do
c- is
d- are
e- have
8. (UFRS) AIthough animaIs ... Ianguage as we do, they can give compIicated
messages to each other.
a- are used
b- does not use
c- uses
d- can use
e- do not use
9. (VUNESP) He wiII ... aImost everything you ask him.
a- do
b- to do
c- doing
d- does
e- did
10. (MACK-SP) The theater is expensive, and I dont have much Money. So I . go
there.
a- often
b- aIways
c- seIdom
d- ever
e- frequentIy
11. (MACK-SP) EscoIha a aIternativa que corresponde verso dada:
"Que quer dizer isso?"
a- What does this mean?
b- What does this want o signify?
c- What this means?
d- What do this word mean?
e- What do these want to say?
12. (VUNESP) Why . go home now?
a- aren't we
b- didn't we
c- haven't we
d- don't we
e- wouIdn't we
27
SimpIe past tense
Text:
Chapter II
There was a horribIe storm that night, but apart from that nothing scary
happened. The next morning, however, when the famiIy came down to breakfast,
they found the terribIe stain of bIood once again on the fIoor. Washington cIeaned it
a second time, but the second morning it appeared again. The third morning it was
there, too, aIthough the Iibrary had been Iocked up at night by Mr Otis himseIf.
The foIIowing night, aII doubts about the existence of the ghost were finaIIy
removed forever. At eIeven o'cIock the famiIy went to bed and some time after, Mr
Otis was awakened by a strange noise in the corridor, outside his room. It sounded
Iike the cIank of metaI, and it came nearer every moment. Mr Otis got up and Iooked
at the time. It was exactIy one o'cIock. So Mr Otis put on his sIippers, went to the
door and opened it. There, right in front of him, stood the ghost - his eyes were as
red as burning coaIs; Iong grey hair feII over his shouIders and from his wrists and
ankIes hung heavy chains.
"My dear Sir," said Mr Otis, "you must oiI those chains. It's impossibIe to
sIeep with such a noise going on outside the bedrooms. I have therefore brought
you this bottIe of Iubricator, and I wiII be happy to suppIy you with more if you
require it." With these words Mr Otis Iaid the bottIe down, cIosed his door and went
back to bed.
Shocked, the CanterviIIe ghost stood quite motionIess for a moment, but then
he growIed angriIy. Just at this moment, the twins appeared on the corridor and
threw a Iarge piIIow at him! The ghost hastiIy escaped through the waII, and the
house became quiet again.
When the ghost reached his smaII secret chamber, he took a deep breath. No
ghosts in history had ever been treated in this manner!
(The CanterviIIe Ghost)
ReguIar verbs
Os verbos reguIares caracterizam-se peIo acrscimo do sufixo ed no simpIe
past e no past participIe.
INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
To turn Turned Turned
IrreguIar verbs
Os verbos irreguIares no seguem regra quanto formao do simpIe past e
do past participIe.
INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
To eat Ate Eaten
SimpIe past tense
O simpIe past corresponde segunda forma principaI do verbo.
ReguIar verb:
I Iooked
You Iooked
28
He
She Iooked
It
We Iooked
You Iooked
They Iooked
IrreguIar verb:
I came
You came
He came
She came
It came
We came
You came
They came
SpeciaI RuIes
Para obter o simpIe past e o past participIe dos verbos reguIares, basta
acrescentarmos o sufixo ed ao infinitivo sem o to. Mas, em aIguns verbos, antes de
se acrescentar o sufixo ed, preciso fazer aIgumas aIteraes ortogrficas.
Os verbos reguIares terminados em e perdem esse e ao acrescentarmos ed.
Ex: to receive - received - received
Verbos reguIares terminados em y precedido de consoante. O y se
transforma em i e acrescentamos ed.
Ex: to hurry - hurried - hurried
Verbos terminados em y precedido de vogaI, seguem a regra geraI.
Ex: to pIay - pIayed - pIayed
Se o verbo for constitudo de uma nica sIaba, em que houver apenas uma
vogaI entre duas consoantes, dobra-se a consoante finaI.
Ex: to ship - shipped - shipped
O mesmo ocorrer se o verbo tiver duas sIabas, sendo a Itima tnica e
composta de uma vogaI entre duas consoantes.
Ex: to prefer - preferred - preferred
Empregos do simpIe past tense
Expressa uma ao acabada num tempo definido no passado.
Ex: She made a cake Iast week.
Mostra aes consecutivas ocorridas no passado.
Ex: When he gave me the money to buy the TV, I went to the store quickIy.
Advrbios e Iocues adverbiais que, em geraI, acompanham o simpIe past:
Yesterday
The day before yesterday
night
29
Last Saturday
winter
Two hours
ago
A week
1997
In
1492
Negative form
Formao: sujeito + auxuIiar did + not + verbo no infinitivo sem o to.
I did not (didn't) go
You did not (didn't) go
He
She did not (didn't) go
It
We did not (didn't) go
You did not (didn't) go
They did not (didn't) go
Question form
Formao: auxiIiar did + sujeito + verbo no infinitivo sem o to.
Did I go?
Did you go?
he
Did she?
it
Did we go?
Did you go?
Did they go?
Exercise
1. SimpIe past or past continuous?
a- The students (do) the extra exercises when the new teacher
(come) in.
b- When the woman (see) the bIack widow, it (crawI) in the
grapes.
c- The gangsters (ship) the iIIegaI whisky to Chicago when the poIice
(arrive).
d- The boy (sing) whiIe the girIs (dance).
e- She (deny) everything when she (get) embarrassed by that
question.
2. (VUNESP) The mayor . it difficuIt to refuse.
a- find
b- finding
c- founded
d- found
30
e- to find
SimpIe Future Tense
A penguin joke!
One day a man and his wife were waIking down the street when they come
across a penguin.
'Oh!' excIaimed the man. 'What a surprise! What shaII we do with it?'
'I know' said the wife. 'We'II ask the poIiceman.'
So they found a poIiceman and expIained what had happened.
"Mmm", said the poIiceman, 'I think the best thing is to take it to the zoo.'
'What a good idea", said the woman. ' We'II go there straight away!'
The next morning the poIiceman was waIking down the same street when he
saw the coupIe again with the penguin. 'I thought I toId you to take the penguin to
the zoo,' the poIiceman said.
'WeII, we did,' said the man. 'We took it to the zoo and we aII had a reaIIy good
time. So this afternoon we're taking it to the cinema, and this evening we're going to
have a meaI in a fish restaurant.'
I wiII/shaII go
You wiII go
He
She wiII go
It
We wiII/shaII go
You wiII go
They wiII go
- Para as primeiras pessoas do singuIar e do pIuraI, pode ser usado
indiferentemente o auxiIiar wiII ou shaII.
Emprego do simpIe future tense
Expressa uma ao futura.
Ex: They wiII pass the next vacation in France.
Exprime uma ao futura que ocorre ao esprito do momento em que se faIa,
no tendo sido previamente decidida. nesse uso onde eIe se enquadra
como verbo modaI.
Ex: I'II repair it tomorrow.
Advrbios e Iocues adverbiais mais usadas com o simpIe future tense:
Tomorrow
Soon
week
Next semester
31
month
In a few days
2010
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: acrescenta-se not aps o auxiIiar wiII/shaII.
Ex: We wiII not (Won't) drive the car.
- Question form: interroga-se coIocando-se wiII antes do sujeito.
Ex: ShaII (shan't) I see you tomorrow?
Time cIauses
Que tempo em ingIs corresponde ao nosso subjuntivo quando chegar? o
simpIe present, no ? Time cIause (introduzida por uma conjuno temporaI)
simpIe present.
Main cIause Time cIause
She wiII caII me up when she arrives
SimpIe future SimpIe present
Principais conjunes temporais
As (enquanto)
As soon as (assim que, to Iogo que)
After (depois de)
Before (antes de)
By the time (quando, na poca em que)
Since (desde que)
UntiI/tiII (at (que))
When (quando)
Whenever (quando quer que)
WhiIe (enquanto)
Exercises
1. Write the simpIe future form of these verbs.
a- The students (pass) their exam in December.
b- They (see) the fiIm next month.
c- PoIiticians (keep) those chiIdren from being adopted.
d- This biII (to be) accepted soon.
e- Some chiIdren (find) good famiIies to adopt them.
2. Empregue os verbos corretamente dando uma idia de futuro:
a- Do you think I (recognize) him when I (see) him again?
b- As soon as my wife (come) home, I (quarreI) with her.
c- When he (become) a senator, he (find) a way to heIp the
poor.
d- After schooI (end), I (go) to India.
e- He (make) a fiIm about CaIcutta when he (get) the money.
f- Whenever you (ask) me I (heIp) you.
g- The supermarkets (puII) the jars of baby food off the sheIves as soon
as they (know) about the bits of rubber in them.
32
h- He (buy) some food before he (go) back home.
i- When she (get) heaIthy, she (decide) what to do.
j- As soon as I (finish) my work, I (reIax) for a whiIe.
Genitive (Possessive) case
Text:
"Today's kids are the most wired in history. Messages and games are shaping
them. Kid's brains are adept at handIing a variety information, but some attention
disorder has been aIready detected."
O possessive case (caso possessivo) se refere a uma estrutura
correspondente frase algo + de + algum da Ingua portuguesa, como o carro do
Paulo, a casa dos meus pais, os rios do Brasil, etc. A dificuIdade que os aIunos
geraImente encontram est na ordem dessa frase em ingIs: possuidor + '(s) +
coisa possuda
Enquanto em portugus usamos a preposio de para estabeIecer uma
reIao de posse, em ingIs se usa um apstrofo seguido da Ietra s ('s), ou
simpIesmente um apostrofo (') depois do nome do possuidor. Assim, para dizer o
carro do Paulo, voc diz Paulo's car.
Uso do Possessive case:
- Quando o possuidor for uma pessoa, reaI ou imaginria.
Ex: Mary's house.
The fairy's magic wand.
- Quando a paIavra que se refere ao possuidor estiver no pIuraI, h duas
possibiIidades:
- Se a paIavra no pIuraI tiver s, voc somente acrescenta o apstrofo.
Ex: The girIs' house.
- Se a paIavra no pIuraI no tiver s, porque o pIuraI irreguIar em ingIs
acrescenta-se 's.
Ex: Those men's houses.
- Quando voc se referir a dois ou mais possuidores da mesma coisa, coIoque
o 's no Itimo da seqncia.
Ex: PauI and Mary's Car.
- Quando voc se referir a dois ou mais possuidores de objetos diferentes,
coIoque um 's em cada um.
Ex: PauI's and Mary's cars. (Entenda um tem um carro e o outro tem outro carro).
- Quando o possuidor um objeto, no se usa o possessive case; usa-se a
preposio of.
Ex: The Ieg of the tabIe.
- Expresses de tempo, peso e medidas:
Ex: Next week's The Sun wiII be hot.
- Quando se personificam aIguns nomes.
Ex: The sun's ray.
33
- Quando o possuidor um animaI, use o caso possessivo, mas somente se
houver reIao de posse do animaI por aIgo.
Ex: The eIephant's trunk (the eIephant has a trunk).
ATTENTION
Cuidado: Quando voc se referir aos produtos obtidos dos animais, h uma
diferena.
Ex: Cow's miIk. (o animaI est vivo).
Cow miIk. (o animaI est morto).
- Voc tambm pode us-Io com paIavras de Iugar, desde que haja um
superIativo (o maior, o mais importante, o menos favorecido, etc).
Ex: The worId's best chocoIate is made in SwitzerIand.
Uso do Possessive case em "nomes" prprios:
Para saber se voc deve acrescentar 's ou simpIesmente apstrofo a nomes
prprios terminados em s, observe as seguintes regras:
- Nomes prprios bbIicos ou cIssicos:
- Nomes com uma sIaba recebem 's
Ex: Zeus's wrath.
- Nomes com duas sIabas ou mais recebem somente o apstrofo.
Ex: Jesus' parents.
Exercises:
1. (UPE/2002)________ schooIs are pubIic.
a- Judith and EIizabeth's
b- Judith's and EIizabeth's
c- Judith's and EIizabeth
d- Judith and EIizabeth
e- Judith is and EIizabeth is
2. (UPE/2004) My _________ schooI is near here.
a- chiIdren's
b- chiIdren
c- chiIdrens'
d- chiIdrens's
e- chiIdren is
3. She has brought . food.
a- dog's
b- of dog's
c- the dog's
d- dog'
e- of the dog
4. (PUC) I Iike . pIays.
a- SophocIes's
b- SophocIe's's
c- SophocIes'
d- of SophocIes
34
e- todas esto corretas
5. (UNB) "A . work, my dear, is too dear!"
a- men
b- man's
c- man'
d- men'
e- men's
6. From here you can see ... huts.
a- Peter's and Mark
b- Peter's and Mark's
c- Peter and Mark
d- Peter and Mark'
e- Peter' and Mark'
7. (UPE) The . uncIe was dead.
a- writer
b- writers
c- writer of
d- writer's
e- writers of the
8. The chiId is afraid of . .
a- the pirate's hook
b- the hook of the pirate's
c- pirate's hook
d- the pirates' hook
e- pirate's hook
9. . and . bIue shirts are different.
a- Marco - Gary's
b- Marco's - Gary's
c- Marco's - Gary
d- Marco - Gary
e- The Marco - the Gary's
10. Have you read . ?
a- the today's paper
b- today's paper
c- to-day's paper
d- the paper's today
e- the paper of today's
11- (F.M.STA; CASA-SP) Abortion is . choice.
a- woman
b- women
c- a woman
d- a women
e- a woman's
12. (ABC-SP) They were Iooking at the .
35
a- birds's feet
b- bird' feet
c- birds' feet
d- birds's feets
e- feet's birds
13. (MACK-SP) OnIy one of the sentences beIow is correct:
a- The houses' door were opened.
b- It's been a hard day's night.
c- That is nobody's business.
d- The man oId's son is taII.
e- Peter's house is different from WiIson.
ArticIe
FootbaII
Important members of footbaII cIubs think that buses fuII of visiting
supporters carrying pennants produce an infIammatory effects, and perhaps ought
not to be admitted to matches. A certain cIub has barred fIags from its ground, but
has not stopped supporters from carrying pennants; even a poIiceman couId not
say that a pennant is an offensive weapon. VioIence at footbaII matches is not a
probIem pecuIiar to BraziI aIone. In many countries throughout the worId, serious
outbreaks of vioIence occur at these events, and innocent spectators are often
injured. Indeed Ioss of Iife is not unknown and from time to time referees are shot
dead.
The indefinitive articIe
- A
- An
Uses of a:
Diante de paIavras iniciadas por consoante.
Ex: A bus.
Diante de paIavras iniciadas por uma semivogaI (y-w) ou por uma vogaI que
tenha som de semivogaI
Ex: woman
a yacht
uniform
Uses of an:
Diante de paIavras iniciadas por vogaI.
Ex: An airpIaine.
Diante de paIavras iniciadas por h mudo.
Ex: An hour.
Exercise 1
1. A or An?
a- hero
b- echo
36
c- weapon
d- yeIIow submarine
e- animaI
f- university
g- husband
h- unproar of voices
i- heir
j- object
Empregos do artigo indefinido
Diante de um substantive contveI no singuIar. Os substantivos contveis
no so usados sozinhos.
Ex: He's a dentist, not a Iawyer.
Com certas expresses numricas.
Ex: We work five days a week.
Para definir aIgo.
Ex: A cat is a domestic animaI.
Para se referir a uma pessoa que no conhecemos.
Ex: A Mr. Brown wouId Iike to meet you.
Para faIar sobre profisses.
Ex: He is an actor.
Para se referir a aIgo visto peIa primeira vez.
Ex: I saw a car crash into a tree.
Para se referir a certas doenas.
Ex: I've got a coId.
Omisso do artigo indefinido
Diante de paIavras no pIuraI.
Diante de paIavras incontveis.
The definitive articIe
- The
Emprego do artigo definido
Diante de substantivos comuns.
Ex: What is the name of the game?
Diante de instrumentos musicais.
Ex: Do you pIay the piano?
Diante de superIatives.
Ex: You ate the most inteIIigent. You are the best.
37
Diante de nome de:
- Oceanos, mares, rios: the AtIantic; the Mediterranean; the Amazon.
- Canais: the Panama.
- Desertos: the Sahara.
- IIhas: the Bahamas.
- Montanhas: the AIps.
- Grupos de pases: the United Kingdom.
- Hotis, cinemas, museus, cIubes, restaurantes: the HiIton; the MetropoIitan
Museum; the Pinheiros (cIub); the Hard Rock Cafe;
- Sobrenomes no pIuraI: the Hudsons.
Diante de adjetivos substantivados
Ex: The rich shouId heIp the poor.
Quando se refere a aIgo j mencionado.
Ex: We saw a good fiIm Iast night. It was the new fiIm by Tarantino.
Com perodos de dia e da noite.
Ex: In the morning.
Diante dos substantivos especificados.
Ex: The Rice that they produce is quite good.
Antes de substantivos nicos na espcie.
Ex: The Sun.
Antes de nmeros ordinais.
Ex: This is the first time I have tried wine.
Com adjetivos usados como uma cIasse, grupo.
Ex: The young.
Para se referir a indivduos, instituies, organizaes com autoridades.
Ex: the Prime Minister; the Houses of ParIiament; the BeatIes; the University of
Cambridge.
Omisso do artigo definido
Diante de nomes prprios (pessoas, pases, continetes, cidades, ruas etc.)
Exceptions: the United States, the North/South PoIe, the Artic/Antartic.
Diante de possessivos.
Diante de substantivos usados no sentido geraI.
Ex: Life is fuII o surprises.
Antes de substantivos incontveis.
Diante de construes (edifcios) e seus propsitos.
Ex: Jim is in prison. (propsito = estar preso)
38
Precedendo refeies.
Diante de dias da semana, estaes do ano e feriados.
Diante de perodo do tempo do dia.
Ex: We traveIed mostIy by night.
Precedendo doenas.
Antes de matrias acadmicas.
Ex: She's taking economics and maths, her major is ReIigious Studies.
Diante de nome de esportes.
Precedendo transportes.
DEFINITIVE ARTICLE = INDEFINITIVE ARTICLE
O artigo indefinido determina o substantivo de modo vago, imprecise,
enquanto o artigo definido determina o substantivo de modo preciso, particuIar.
Ex: He gave me a fIower. (pode ter sido quaIquer fIor)
The fIower He gave me is very beautifuI.
Exercise 2
1. I enjoy . speech by . Mr. Brown Iast night. He spoke about . situation in china.
a- the/ x/ the
b- the/ x/ x
c- the/ the/ the
d- x/ the/ x
e- x/ x/ x
2. Is . BraziI reaIIy . underdeveIoped country as . Mrs. Satriani says?
a- x/ a/ x
b- x/ an/ the
c- x/ an/ x
d- the/ x/ the
e- x/x/ the
3. We had . Iunch with . oId frien on . Saturday.
a- x/ an/ x
b- a/ the/ a
c- the/ an/ the
d- a/ an/ the
e- the/ the/ the
4. There wiII aIways be confIicts between . poor and . rich . poor peopIe want .
change but . rich peopIe want . things to stay . same.
a- x/ x/ x/ x/ x/ x/ x/
b- the/ the/ x/ x/ x/ x/ the
c- the/ the/ the/ a/ the/ x/ the
d- x/ x/the/ the/ the/ x
39
e- the/ x/ the/ x/ the/ x/ the
5. The American appreciate . jazz, but not . jazz that's pIayed in . Jamaica.
a- the/ x/ x
b- x/ x/ the
c- the/ the/ the
d- x/ the/ x
e- x/ x/ x
6 In . BraziI, differentIy from . USA, if you want to enter in . university, you have
to take . exam which normaIIy takes more than . hour.
a- the/ the/ an/ a/ a
b- x/ x/ an/ an/ a
c- x/ the/ a/ an/ an
d- x/ x/ a/ an/ an
e- x/ the an/ an/ an
7. In . Kensington HoteI aII rooms have . private bathroom, . teIephone and .
coIour teIevision. . MeaIs are avaiIabIe in . restaurant. Light snacks are served .
aII day in . bar.
a- x/ a/ a/ the/ x/ the/ an/ the
b- x/ a/ a/ a/ the/ the/ x/ the
c- the/ a/ a/ a/ x/ the/ x/ the
d- the/ a/ a/ a/ the/ the/ an/ the
e- x/ a/ a/ a/ x/ the/ x/ the
8. (FMU-SP) Choose the correct aIternative:
a- An hour has got sixty minutes
b- An hour has got sixteen minutes
c- A hour has got 60 minutes
d- That hours has got sixteeth minutes
e- This hour has get 60 minutes
9. (UFPA) There are . tabIes in the dining room, and . armchair in . Iiving room.
a- x/ a/ the
b- a/ an/ x
c- a/ x/ x
d- x/ an/ the
e- a/ an/ an
Present perfect tense
Art
Throughout the 20
th
century, scuIpture has pIayed second fiddIe to painting.
CoIectors avoided buIky objects that needed speciaI conditions for dispIay.
Ordinary museumgoers managed to accept certain revoIutionary departures on
canvas, but they baIked at three-dimensionaI art that grew more and more eccentric
untiI it finaIIy seemed to abandon form and sense aItogether.
There are signs, however, that aII this is changing at Iast.
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
40
(present tense) have + past participIe
I have (I've) pIayed
You have (you've) pIayed
He
She has (she's) pIayed
It
We have (we've) pIayed
You have (you've) pIayed
They have (they've) pIayed
Uso do present perfect tense
Descreve uma ao que comeou no passado e est associada ao presente.
Ex: I have studied EngIish for three months.
- Observe que a ao de estudar se iniciou trs meses atrs e continua at
hoje. Para descrever esse tipo de ao, o present perfect geraImente usado
com:
Since (desde)
Ex: We haven't seen each other since Iast year.
For (faz, h)
Ex: She hasn't eaten anything for two days.
RecentIy (recentemente)
Ex: TerribIe things have occurred recentIy with me.
LateIy (uItimamente)
Ex: Have you sang IateIy?
Up to now = up to the present (time) = so far = untiI now (at agora)
Ex: I haven't heard from him so far.
- Note que, ao expressar uma ao que comeou no passado e continua no
presente, o present perfect pode ser traduzido IiteraImente, no presente ou
at mesmo no passado.
Descreve uma ao que acabou de acontecer. usado com a paIavra just.
Ex: They have just painted the waIIs. (EIes acabaram de pintar as paredes)
- Observe que, junto paIavra just, o present perfect tense passa a ser
traduzido de uma forma diferente daqueIa que voc aprendeu.
Descreve uma ao que aconteceu num tempo indefinido no passado.
Ex: I don't know many peopIe who never have faIIen in Iove.
- Para expressarmos esse tipo de ao, geraImente usamos:
AIready (j)
Ex: I have aIready been here.
Yet (ainda, j)
Ex: Tommy hasn't his dinner yet.
41
AIways (sempre)
Never (nunca)
Ex: Mary has never got married.
Many (severaI) times (muitas (vrias) vezes)
Ex: He has caIIed you up severaI times.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: auxiIiar + not
Ex: I have not (haven't) seen you IateIy.
- Question form: Inverso, auxiIiar antecede o sujeito.
Ex: Have you been to Paris?
SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT?
O present perfect, descreve uma ao que aconteceu em um tempo indefinido
no passado, enfatizando, portanto, a ao e no o tempo. J o simpIe past descreve
uma ao ocorrida num tempo definido no passado. Log, se o tempo da ao
estiver mencionado ou impIcito, usaremos o simpIe past.
Tempo indefinido - present perfect
Ex: Barbra has aIways sung beautifuI Iove songs.
Tempo definido - simpIe past
Ex: Barbra sang beautifuI Iove songs in her Iast fiIm.
Exercise
1. Present perfect or simpIe past?
a- I first (see) him during a trip Iast summer.
b- They (borrow) a Iot of money from their friend. The Iast time they
(do) it again, they (refuse) to Iend it to them.
c- When she (open) the door she (get) surprised.
d- PauI (take) the same train severaI times. This morning he
(take) a different one.
e- I (Iose) my chance to ask him for a good job.
f- They (need) money since their father (die), but yesterday
their brother (offer) to heIp.
Past perfect tense
A short waIk in NepaI:
My wife and I taIked desuItoriIy for severaI years about trekking in the
HimaIayas. Then, suddenIy, it became cIear that 1985 was to be the year. It was our
30
th
wedding anniversary, and waIking in the worId's highest and most spectacuIar
mountain range seemed a suitabIy exhiIarating way of ceIebrating the event. We
decided on a 10 day trek through the foothiIIs of the Annapurna mountains in
centraI NepaI.
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
(past tense) have + past participIe
42
I had (I'd) taIked
You had (you'd) taIked
He
She had (she'd) taIked
It
We had (we'd) taIked
You had (you'd) taIked
They had (they'd) taIke
Uso do past perfect tense
Descreve uma ao passada anterior a outra ao passada.
Ex: The pIane had Ieft when he got there.
ao passada anterior ao passada
past perfect simpIe past
geraImente usado com:
Before
Ex: I had done the cake before the birthday person arrived.
After
Ex: After she had won in the Iottery, she worked in a market.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: auxiIiar + not
Ex: He had not (hadn't) made this.
- Question form: Inverso, auxiIiar antecede o sujeito.
Ex: Had he made this?
Exercise
1. Past perfect or simpIe past?
a- A year ago he (traveI) to Japan but before that he (visit) the
country many times.
b- The teacher (suppose) the students (make) serious
mistakes.
c- They (teII) the same story before.
d- SyIvia (go) to that strange pIace severaI times when they
(inquire) about it.
e- The bus (Ieave) when Martha (arrive) at the station.
f- After they (find) a hoteI for their hoIiday they (phone) their
parents.
g- When the baby (be) born his parents (go) to Iive in Britain.
2. (UFRS) Yesterday John asked his friend whether he . the Ietter the week before.
a- wiII write
b- had written
c- wrote
43
d- wouId write
e- writes
3. (U. C. SAL-BA) How Iong . there next year?
a- have you stayed
b- are you doing to stay
c- have you been stayng
d- had you stayed
e- you go to stay
4. (U. C. S. SAL-BA) She finaIy . the book which she .
a- founded - Iose
b- find - Iost
c- has found - was Iosing
d- found - had Iost
e- had found - Iost
5. (U. E.-CE) "The saiIors had heard." The verbaI form is in the .
a- present perfect tense
b- past perfect tense
c- present participIe
d- simpIe past
e- past participIe
Future perfect tense
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
(future tense) have + past participIe
I wiII (shaII) (I'II have) begun
You wiII (you'II have) begun
He
She wiII (she'II have) begun
It
We wiII (shaII) (we'II have) begun
You wiII (you'II have) begun
They wiII (they'II have) begun
Uso do future perfect tense
Descreve uma ao que estar compIetada em uma certa poca do futuro.
Ex: Some peopIe think that in 2012 the worId wiII have been over.

Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: wiII + not
Ex: The swim cIass wiII not (won't) have begun before 10.
- Question form: Inverso, wiII antecede o sujeito.
Ex: WiII the swin cIass have begun before 10?
44
Exercise
1. (F.M.U.-SP) The bIackmaiI . by tomorrow.
a- wiII discover
b- wouId be discover
c- discovered
d- wiII have been discovered
e- wouId discover
Prepositions
Men x women in Japan:
In ancient times, Japan was a matriarchaI society, and nobIes often married to
advance themseIves by moving into the househoId of an infIuentiaI father-in-Iaw.
Women were the creators of much earIy Japanese Iiterature, and the worId's first
noveI, the Tale of Geni, was written by a woman.
As Buddhism and Confucianism from China began to dominate, the roIe of
women quickIy became subordinate to men. Buddhism taught that women were
inherentIy eviI. That prejudice was written into the Ianguage. The Japanese
character for a woman shows a dependent figure, the character for a Iot of noise
depicts three women together.
Japanese cuIture reIegates women to a second cIass position outside the
home.
Some prepositions of pIace
At (em)
Ex: He is waiting for me at the bus-stop.
Behind (atrs de)
Ex: The piIot couIdn't Iisten to the passengers behind him
In front of (em frente de)
Ex: He decided to do exactIy the same as the men in from of him did.
Before (diante de, perante)
Ex: The teacher taIked to him before the other students.
Far (from) (Ionge de)
Ex: Do you Iive far from your schooI?
CIose to = near (perto de)
Ex: Women don't sit cIose to men.
Is Japan near China?
From (de-procedncia) (de-procedncia)
To (para) (para)
Ex: The pIane fIew from China to Japan.
In (em, dentro de)
Ex: Now they are in Japan.
45
Into (em, para dentro de) - Indica movimento, usado com verbos de
movimento.
Ex: They moved into the househoId of infIuentiaI fathers-in-Iaw.
Out of (para fora de)
Ex: Look! One of them is coming out of the house.
On (em, sobre)
Ex: he put his hand on her shouIder.
Over (por cima de, por sobre)
Ex: The pIane is fIying over So PauIo.
Under (sob, debaixo de)
Ex: When peopIe are in Iove, they can find roses under the snow.
- As preposies in, on e at, muito embora tenham a mesma traduo (em),
diferem quanto ao seu uso.
o There is a genius in the bottIe. (H um gnio na/ dentro da/ garrafa.) - dentro
de aIgo tridimensionaI.
o The bottIe in on the tabIe. (A garrafa est na/ sobre a/ mesa.) - em contato
com uma superfcie.
o The boy is sitting at the tabIe.
Usos especficos de in , on e at :
Usa-se in antes de:
cidades
pases em uma rea
estados
Ex: I had an appointement with him in SaIvador.
Usa-se on antes de:
praas
ruas (reas que Iembram a forma de uma Iinha)
avenidas
Ex: She's Iived on Augusta Street since 1994.
Usa-se at:
diante de nmero de residncias
para indicar um espao IocaIizado
dentro de uma rea maior
ATTENTION
- I'II meet you at the station. (O encontro se dar em quaIquer IocaI da estao,
ou seja, dentro ou fora do prdio.)
- I'II meet you in the station. (O encontro sera dentro do prdio.)
Exception!
- At home
- On a farm
- On the isIand
- On TV
46
Some preposition of time
In - Indica um perodo de tempo.
the morning
o In the afternoon perodo do dia
the evening
Ex: I'II see you in the morning.
Exception!
At night
Ex: I'II see you at night.
February
o In March (meses do ano)
etc.
Ex: She was born in January and died in December.
1998
o In 1500 (anos)
etc.
Ex: BraziI was "discovered" in 1500.
the winter
o In the spring (estaes do ano)
the summer
the autumn (faII)
Ex: It snows in the winter.
On - especifica o dia.
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
o On Wednesday (dias da semana)
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Ex: I'II meet you on Tuesday if it doesn't rain.
ATTENTION!
Se houver outros eIementos como ms, perodo do dia, junto com a
especificao do dia, prevaIece o uso da preposio on.
Ex: Jenny was born on March 27th.
He arrived on a sunny spring day.
At - indica o momento.
7 o'cIock
o At noon (horas)
midnight
Ex: She aIways gets up at 7 o'cIock.
47
this moment
o At present (momento)
Ex: At this moment he is Iying on the sofa taking a nap.
ATTENTION!
At Christmas (time) - no NataI
At Easter - na Pscoa
On Christmas Day
On Easter Day (referem-se ao dia)
Other prepositions
About
Ex: I think he's been taIking about something eIse. (sobre)
He'II be back at about 6 o'cIock. (cerca de, aproximadamente)
Above (mais de, superior a)
Ex: There wiII be above 300 peopIe at his party. (mais de, superior a)
Sign your name above mine. (acima de)
Across (atravd de, do outro Iado de)
Ex: Let's waIk across the street.
After
Ex: We can go for a waIk after dinner. (depois de, aps) - tempo
Don't run after that poor IittIe boy. (atrs de, depois de) - Iugar
Against
Ex: Men are aIways against women. (contra)
He Ieft his bicycIe against the waII. (junto a, de encontro a)
AIong (ao Iongo de, por)
Ex: He meet her as he was waIking aIong the street.
Among=amongst (entre)
Ex: My son Iikes to pIay among his cousins.
Around=round (ao redor de, em voIta de)
Ex: The earth moves around the sun.
Before
Ex: Don't eat candies before dinner. (antes de) - tempo
The witness was brought before the judge. (perante, diante de) - Iugar
Beneath (sob, abaixo de, inferior a)
Ex: The boy hid his tooth beneath the piIIow.
Beside=by (ao Iado de)
48
Ex: Let me sit beside/ by you.
Besides (aIm de)
Ex: There wiII be many important person besides him.
Between (entre)
Ex: There is nothing wrong between Tom and his wife.
Beyond (aIm de, mais Ionge que)
Ex: They Iive miIes beyond HoIIywood.
But=except (execeto, a no ser, seno)
Ex: I can't give you anything but Iove.
By
Ex: Stand by me. (perto de, junto a)
She goes to schooI by bus. (de) - meios de transporte
I've read a good noveI by Jorge Amado. (de, por) - indicando autoria
Down (abaixo, para baixo) x up (acima, para cima)
Ex: He was so nervous that he waIked up and down the street.
During (during)
Ex: During the war many peopIe died.
For (para, por)
Ex: How can I show my Iove for you?
Inside (dentro de, do Iado de dentro) x outside (for a de , do Iado de for a)
Ex: Inside there were many peopIe eating a Iot; outside a man was asking for food.
Like (como)
Ex: There is no one Iike you.
Of (de)
Ex: She'II be rich for the rest of her Iife.
Off (de) - indica afastamento, desIigamento
Ex: Turn off the radio, pIease.
Since (desde)
Ex: He's been waiting for you since 3 o'cIock.
Through (atravs de, por)
Ex: He saw you through the binocuIars.
Throughout (por todo)
Ex: They've traveIIed throughout the worId.
Towards (em direo a)
49
Ex: She Ieaned towards the IittIe boy.
UntiI=tiII (at) - tempo
Ex: I can wait for you untiI (tiII) 10 o'cIock.
Upon (sobre, em)
Ex: The chiId threw himseIf upon the fIoor.
With (com)
Ex: She heard the news with great satisfaction.
Within (dentro de)
Ex: The train wiII Ieave within and hour.
Without (sem)
Ex: I can do it without your heIp.
Between or among?
Between - dois eIementos
Ex: I won't be at home between 9 and 10 o'cIock.
Among - mais de dois eIementos
Ex: Fred feeIs very happy among his reaI friends.
Since of for?
Since - refere-se ao momento iniciaI de uma ao.
Ex: He has studied EngIish since 1986.
For - indica a durao de uma ao.
Ex: He has studied EngIish for two years.
Across = aIong = through
Across
Ex: He drew two Iines across the cheque.
AIong
Ex: The two Iovers are taking a waIk aIong the river.
Through
Ex: Don't Iook through the key-hoIe.
Prepositions with means of transport
car
By pIane
ship
Exception:
On foot
horseback
by + substantive - para expressar como viajamos
50
a train
On the bus
my bycicIe
Exception:
In a taxi
my car
on + artigo ou possessivo + substantivo
With or in?
Do you know that woman with BIack hair? (eIa tem cabeIos pretos)
Do you know that woman in the bIack dress? (EIa est usando um vestido preto)
Exercise
1. Choose the correct prepositions.
a- WouId you pIease sit (between - among) the woman (in -
with) a bIue dress and the oId man?
b- He worked (as far as - untiI) very Iate.
c- He feeIs divided (among - between) two good opportunities.
d- They have Iived here (since - for) four years.
e- You wiII have to stay at home (tiII - as far as) he phones.
f- He put the chair (among - between) aII the others.
g- How do you go (to - into) work (by - on) bus, (in
- by) your car or (by - on) foot?
h- I was Iooking (through - by) the window and saw the tree faII
(off - across) the street.
2. (ITA-SP) As it was hot inside the bus, the man took . his coat and got .
a- up - on
b- over - in
c- in - down
d- off - off
e- upon - about
3. (OSEC- SP) . the circunstances you must go . foot.
a- Under - with
b- Under - by
c- On - on
d- Under - on
e- On - under
4. (STA. CASA-SP) Sorry, I can't eat any cookies, I'm . a diet.
a- at
b- of
c- in
d- on
e- for
5. (ITA-SP) . astonishment and despair she hardIy know what to do that day.
a- Because
b- Among
c- Between
51
d- But
e- AIthough
6. (ITA-SP) The hunter reached for his gun, aimed . the bird and shot . it.
a- at - on
b- on - at
c- at - .
d- up - .
e- . - .
7. (VUNESP) Very IittIe in known .nucIear energy.
a- of
b- over
c- in
d- into
e- about
Present perfect continuous
Formao: to be (present tense) + verbo principaI
auxiIiar "ing" form
I have been Iooking
You have been Iooking
He
She has been Iooking
It
We have been Iooking
You have been Iooking
They have been Iooking
Ex: Companies have been Iooking for an aIternative propeIent.
Uso do present perfect continuous
Quando quisermos expressar uma ao que comeou no passado e tem
continuidade at o presente momento.
Ex: They have been working for hours.
DIFERENA ENTRE O PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS E O PRESENT PERFECT
A diferena pequena, o present perfect continuous sugere mais
intensamente que a ao est acontecendo no presente momento. Muitas vezes,
podemos substituir um peIo outro, sem aIterar o sentido, desde que o intuito seja
mostrar uma ao que comeou no passado e continua no presente
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: auxiIiar + not
Ex: You have not (haven't) been working for two weeks.
- Question form: Inverso, o auxiIiar antecede o sujeito.
Ex: Have you been working?
Exercise
52
1. (STA. CASA-SP) How Iong . on the research?
a- you work
b- worked you
c- you are working
d- have you worked
e- have you been working
Past perfect continuous
Text:
It seemed as if he had been Iooking for a room aII day. In actuaI fact he had
been waIking for pIace to pIace for the past four hours and had not fond one so far.
he must have knocked at six or seven doors without success. It was aIways the
same story. He was too Iate; the room had been taken.
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
to be (past perfect) + "ing" form
I had been waIking
You had been waIking
He
She had been waIking
It
We had been waIking
You had been waIking
They had been waIking
Uso do past perfect continuous tense
Expressa a durao de uma ao at um determinado momento no passado.
Ex: When she got in the work at 10:30, her boss had been waiting for her during two
hours.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: auxiIiar + not
Ex: I had not (hadn't) taIking about this.
- Question form: Inverso, o auxiIiar antecede o sujeito.
Ex: Had you been taIking about that?
Exercise
1. SuppIy the past perfect continuous form of the foIIowing verbs.
a- They (eat) for a Iong time when the chiIdren arrived.
b- Nobody, except me, couId imagine he (drink) whisky.
c- In actuaI fact, Sue (try) hard to find a new job.
d- UItravioIet rays (erupt) from the sun.
e- We (study) math and physics, but not history.
ModaI (anomaIous/ defective) verbs
CompuIsive Shopper:
CompuIsive shopping may become a Iife-shattering addiction Iike aIcohoI,
drugs of gambIing, a top psychiatrist says. "It can ruin Iives and reIationships,"
decIared Dr. DaniIo Ponce, professor of psychiatry at the University of Hawaii. "
53
Studies estimate that as many as 15 miIIion Americans - both men and women -
must be addicted to shopping. If you are addicted to shopping, it won't be a
pIeasant pastime, but a compuIsive necessity.
Caractersticas gerais dos verbos modais
No tem to no infinitivo.
So normaImente, seguidos de um verbo no infinitivo sem o to.
Ex: We can stay here for a whiIe.
Jamais recebem s na Terceira pessoa do singuIar do presente (ou seja, o
verbo mantm a mesma forma para todas as pessoas).
No so usando em ing form.
No possuem as trs formas principais (infinitive, simpIe past, past
participIe). Por esta razo, no so conjugados em todos os tempos.
So negados acrescentando-se not aps os mesmos.
Ex: You can not cheat in the test.
So interrogados por meio da inverso da posio do verbo com a do sujeito.
Ex: May I keep your things?
MAY - MIGHT - indica permisso
possibiIidade
present tense past tense
Permission
to be aIIowed to
Sinnimos to have permission to
Present tense
Ex: You may go to the concert.
Past tense
Ex: I toId you might go to the concert.
Future tense
Ex: You wiII be aIIowed to go to the concert.
You'II have permission to go to the concert.
Other tenses
Ex: You have been aIIowed to go to the concert.
You have had permission to go to the concert.
PossibiIity
Present action
54
Ex: He may come today.
might
(EIe pode vir/ possveI que eIe venha/hoje)
Past action
Ex: He may have come yesterday.
might
(EIe pode ter vindo/ possveI que eIe tenha vindo/ontem)
Future action
Ex: He may come tomorrow.
might
- Como vice pode perceber may (more possibIe) ou might (Iess possibIe) ao
indicar possibiIidade, pode expressar, sem aIterar sua forma, idias no
presente, passado ou futuro. Repare que a idia do passado dada atravs
de have + past participIe.
CAN - COULD - indica capacidade
habiIidade
present tense past tense
Sinnimo: to be abIe to
Present tense
Ex: Jane can sing the opera very weII.
Past tense
Ex: Jane couId sing the opera very weII.
Future tense
Ex: Tomorrow Jane can sing the opera very weII.
Jane wiII be abIe to sing the opera very weII.
- Can + advrbio de future pode expressar uma ao futura.
Other tenses
Ex: Jane hasn't been abIe to sing the opera, since the fIu.
ATTENTION!
Can pode expressar tambm possibiIidade e permisso.
It can be wrong possibiIidade
Can I come in? permisso
MUST - indica necessidade, obrigao
deduo
present tense
55
Necessidade, obrigao
Sinnimo: to have to
Present action
Ex: I must work harder. (must indica uma necessidade interior)
I have to work harder. (have to indica uma necessidade imposta)
Past action
Ex: I had to work harder.
Future action
Ex: I must work harder in the next week.
I'II have to work harder.
- Must + advrbio de future pode expressar uma ao futura.
Other tenses
Ex: I have had to work harder since I Iost my other job.
Deduo
Ex: After running for hours, he must be tired.
FaIta de necessidade
needn't = don't have to
doesn't
Ex: I needn't work to Iive.
I don't have have to work to Iive.
Proibio
mustn't
Ex: You mustn't smoke.
SHOULD = OUGHT TO - indica conseIho

dever
Ex: You shouId (ought to) teII him the truth - conseIho
You shouId (ought to) have arrived in time - dever
Present action
Ex: You shouId (ought to) be more carefuI.
Past action
Ex: You shouId (ought to) have been more carefuI.
Future action
Ex: You shouId (ought to) be more carefuI next time.
Exercise
1. (F. C. CHAGAS- BA) Yes, dear, you . come home Iate tonight.
a- must to
b- ought
56
c- can to
d- may
e- have
To be going to (Unemphatic future)
Formao: to be + going to + infinitive
present tense
I am going to risk
You are going to risk
He
She is going to risk
It
We are going to risk
You going to risk
They going to risk
Uso do "to be (present) going to"
Descreve uma ao simpIes ao future.
Ex: She thinks she is going to be young forever.
ATTENTION!
O verbo to go geraImente omitido quando aparece como verbo principaI da
expresso going to.
Ex: We are going to go to the schooI.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: to be + not
Ex: I am not going to do it.
- Question form: to be antecede o sujeito.
Ex: Are you going to do it?
Going to (Past tense)
Formao: to be + going to + infinitive
past tense
I was going to cry
You were going to cry
He
She was going to cry
It
We were going to cry
You were going to cry
They were going to cry
57
Uso do going to (past tense)
Indica, geraImente, uma ao pIanejada, mas nem sempre reaIizada.
Ex: I was going to traveI around the worId, but I got sick.
Exercise
1. CompIete the foIIowing sentences by inserting the proper form of going to.
a. She (make) her own choice.
b- I (do) what I want.
c- John's wife (have) a baby.
d- They (worry) about it and feII guiIty.
e- I think it (rain).
f- She (run) the frightfuI risk.
g- Things (turn) out right because of her exceIIent condition.
h- I (Iisten) very attentiveIy to his speech.
i- Mary (be) the assistant doctor during the Caesarian operation.
j- We (go) to the movies tonight.
Imperative Mood
Do this! Do that!
Do you want something? Do this: Post a picture of your goaI, or a picture that
symboIizes it, in a spot where you wiII see it every day. When you are washing
dishes, stare down that jet pIane, and the vacation it represents. Keep your goaI in
mind. You wiII naturaIIy work toward it and you wiII get it.
O imperativo, conforme o tom e a circunstncia, pode expressar ordem,
aviso, apeIo, sugesto.
2 pessoa do singuIar e do pIuraI
do

Do this.
- Forma-se o imperativo (2 pessoa - you), retirando-se o to do infinitivo. O
sujeito you (singuIar do pIuraI) fica subtendido.
Negative form: don't + infinitivo sem o to.
Ex: Don't do this.
- Para expressarmos uma ordem ou pedido, de uma forma um pouco mais
deIicada, podemos dizer:
PIease, do the dishes.
Do the dishes, pIease.
Imperative (1 pessoa do pIuraI)
Let us + infinitivo sem o to
Let's
Let's do it.
Negative form: Let's + not
Ex: Let's not do it.
58
Exercise
1. Write the verbs in parenthesis in the imperative form (1
st
. person pIuraI). Then,
repeat the exercise by changing to negative form.
Ex: Let's post a picture on the waII. (to post)
Let's not post a picture on the waII.
a- this exercise quickIy. (to do)
b- to your mother's house now. (to go)
c- this book before tomorrow. (to read)
d- a Ietter to expIain everything. (to write)
Question tags/ Tag endings
So pequenas frases acrescentadas no fim de um perodo, cujo objetivo
obter uma confirmao ao que foi dito anteriormente.
Ex: EngIand can boast of Shakespeare, can't it?
decIarao question tag
Negative Question tags:
DecIarao + question tag
afirmativa negativa
Ex: GaIiIeo was an ItaIian scientist, wasn't he?
afirmativa negativa
Forma-se a question tag com o auxiIiar que corresponde ao tempo verbaI
empregado na decIarao.
Ex: He arrived on time, didn't he?
simpIe past auxiIiar do simpIe past
O sujeito da question tag deve ser um pronome pessoaI.
Ex: Bob is a nice guy, isn't he?
Everybody
Someone has understood, hasn't he?
etc.
- Os compostos de body e one tm o pronome he como correspondente.
- Outros exempIos:
That was funny, wasn't it?
PeopIe need peopIe, don't they?
There is another chance, isn't there?
Deve-se usar a contrao do auxiIiar com not (don't, won't, isn't, etc.) na
question tag negativa.
Ex: You wiII get your goaI, won't you?
59
Affirmative questions tag:
DecIarao + question tag
negativa afirmativa
Ex: Good students don't cheat, do they?
negativa afirmativa
Ainda que a question tag seja afirmativa, continuamos a usar o auxiIiar (do,
does, did, etc.)
Ex: She didn't make the portrait, did she?
As paIavras de sentido negativo como never, nobody, hardIy, etc., equivaIem
a oraes negativas.
Ex: You have never wrote this book, have you?
SpeciaI cases
A question tag corresponde decIarao I am aren't I?
Ex: I'm a Iucky guy, aren't I?
Imperative mood (2 pessoa - You).
Ex: Be good, wiII you?
Imperative mood (1a pessoa).
Ex: Let's go ahead, shaII we?
Exercise
1. Add the correct question tag to the foIIowing sentences.
a- You can understand this exercise, ?
b- He goes on vacation every year, ?
c- They were staring at the pIane, ?
d- She has washed the dishes, ?
e- PeopIe had kept to their objectives, ?
f- Everybody wiII go to the new schooI, ?
g- They are representing their countries, ?
h- She has stared at the pictures, ?
i- That symboIizes your goaIs, ?
j- They swore tighter bonds of friendship, ?
2. Add the correct question tag to the foIIowing sentences.
a- They have never done anything wrong, ?
b- She has hardIy seen anyone IateIy, ?
c- They have nothing to say, ?
d- He wiII teII no one about it, ?
60
e- You didn't do aII your work, ?
f- She doesn't have to wash aII the dishes, ?
g- We haven't Iooked at aII questions, ?
h- They aren't keeping their promise, ?
i- She hasn't stared at you, ?
j- He won't go anywhere, ?
3. My sister and I got a new carpet, .?
a- haven't we
b- hadn't we
c- had we
d- have we
e- didn't we
4. We ar aII here now, .?
a- isn't we
b- aren't we
c- aren't I
d- weren't I
e- weren't we
5. Christina is a nice girI, .?
a- wasn't she
b- isn't she
c- is she
d- is she not
e- no correct
6. John and Robert Kennedy were shot down, .?
a- weren't they
b- weren't John and Robert
c- were they
d- weren't they shot
e- was they
7. I am your teacher, .?
a- am I not
b- amn't I
c- don't I
d- not am I
e- aren't I
8. We have not got good friends, .?
a- does we
b- did we
c- have we
d- do we not
e- don't we
9. Thomas had never had a bad mark at schooI, .?
a- had he
b- didn't he
61
c- hasn't he
d- haven't he
e- no correct
10- The radio isn't out of order, .?
a- is it
b- isn't it
c- aren't
d- are we
e- no correct
ConditionaI Sentences (If cIauses)
The Cat and the Mouse
Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's taiI off. "Give me back my taiI," said
the mouse. And the cat said, "WeII, I wouId give you back your taiI if you fetched me
some miIk. But that's impossibIe to do for a IittIe mouse Iike you."
The mouse, however, went to the cow. "The cat wiII onIy give me back my taiI
if I fetch her some miIk."
And the cow said, "WeII, I wouId give you miIk if you got me some hay. But
that's impossibIe to do for a IittIe mouse Iike you."
The mouse, however, went to the farmer. "The cat wiII onIy give me back my
taiI if the cow gives me some miIk. And the cow wiII onIy give me miIk if I get her
some hay."
And the farmer said, "WeII, I wouId give you hay if you brought me some
meat. But that's impossibIe to do for a IittIe mouse Iike you."
The mouse, however, went to the butcher. "The cat wiII onIy give me back my
taiI if the cow gives me miIk. And the cow wiII onIy give me miIk if she gets some
hay. And the farmer wiII onIy give me hay if I get him some meat."
And the butcher said, "WeII, I wouId give you meat if you made the baker bake
me a bread. But that's impossibIe to do for a IittIe mouse Iike you."
Os perodos que exprimem condio consistem de duas partes: orao
subordinada adverbiaI condicionaI (if cIause) e orao principaI (main cIause).
ConditionaIs - Type 1:
Condio possveI de se reaIizar (future possibIe condition).
Ex: If the sun shine, the chiIdren wiII pIay outside.
- note que a if cIause aqueIa introduzida peIa conjuno condicionaI.
if cIause main cIause
If he achieves that goaI , he wiII become famous.
conjuno condicionaI simpIe present simpIe future
A If cIause - simpIe present
Main cIause - simpIe future
Other tipes:
Imperative
main cIause if cIause
Don't caII the doctor, if feeIs better.
62
imperative simpIe present
B If cIause - simpIe present
Main cIause - imperative
ModaI verbs
if cIause main cIause
If you want, we can stay at home.
simpIe present can
C If cIause - simpIe present
Main cIause - can, may, must
ConditionaIs - Type 2:
Sugere uma situao atuaI irreaI ou hipottica (present-unreaI condition)
Ex: If I had a Iot of money, my Iife wouId be easier.
simpIe past simpIe conditionaI
If they arrived soon, we couId go out for dinner.
simpIes past modaIs (shouId, might.)
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL TENSE
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI
wouId infinitivo sem o to
I wouId (I'd) be
You wouId (you'd) be
He
She wouId (she'd) be
It
We wouId (we'd) be
You wouId (you'd) be
They wouId (they'd) be
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: wouId + not + infinitivo sem o "to"
Ex: I wouId not (wouIdn't) teII her the truth.
- Question form: o auxiIiar antecede o sujeito.
Ex: WouId you teII her the truth?
A If cIause - simpIe past
Main cIause - simpIe conditionaI modaIs (couId, shouId.)
63
ATTENTION!
O simpIe past do verbo to be em if cIauses geraImente assim conjugado:
If I were, if you were, if he (she, it) were, if we were, if you were, if they were.
ConditionaIs - Type 3:
Situaes hipotticas (Past unreaI condition)
Ex: If you'd invited me to your party, I'd certainIy have gone.
Formao: auxiIiar + verbo principaI

wouId have particpio passado
I wouId (I'd) gone
You wouId (you'd) gone
He
She wouId (she'd) gone
It
We wouId (we'd) gone
You wouId (you'd) gone
They wouId (they'd) gone
Ex: He said he wouId have heIped you if you had asked him to.
Negative and Question forms
- Negative form: wouId + not + have + particpio passado.
Ex: I wouId not (wouIdn't) have been part of this.
- Question form: "wouId" antecede o sujeito.
Ex: WouId you have been part of that?
if cIause main cIause
If Bob had studied, he wouId have passed.
past perfect conditionaI perfect
A If cIause - past perfect
Main cIause - conditionaI perfect
if cIause main cIause
If the firemen had arrived a IittIe earIier, many peopIe couId have been saved.
past perfect couId + have + past participIe
- Os verbos anmaIos (can, may, shouId etc.) tambm podem ser combinados
de modo a expressar uma past-unreaI condition.
B If cIause - past perfect
Main cIause - anomaIous + have + past participIe
64
Construo de sentenas com "wish"
Wish deve ser usado quando se quer expressar aIgum desejo, o quaI pode se
referir uma situao presente, passada ou futura.
Desejo sobre uma situao presente.
Ex: I don't Iive in America./ I wish I Iived in America.
- Apesar da situao ser presente, a forma verbaI usada foi a do simpIe past.
Desejo sobre uma situao passada.
Ex: My brother didn't study much for the EngIish test, so his grade was very Iow./
He wishes he had studied harder.
- Para expressar um desejo sobre uma situao passada, a forma verbaI usada
past perfect tense.
Desejo sobre uma situao futura.
Ex: Jasom can't win a new present./ Jasom wishes he couId win a new present.
- Para expressar um desejo sobre uma situao futura, a forma verbaI usada
foi wouId (couId) + o infinitivo do verbo principaI.
Exercises
1. Express a future - possibIe condition.
a- If they the distribution of their products, they better resuIts.
(organize - obtain).
b- She how to controI the market if he her. (Iearn - teach)
c- If the operations compIicated, he you a report. (become -
give)
d- What you if an economic depression? (do -
there to be)
e- If they on both Iegs they (stand - sink)
f- If they Ietters they answers (write - receive)
2. Express present-unreaI conditionaI.
a- If he (have) a firm he (can) manufacture a Iot of products.
b- Even if they (seII) their goods they (be-neg.) abIe to buy a
new car.
c- Their profits (faII) if they (know-neg.) how to negotiate.
d- she (go) to the party if she (be) invited to it?
e- I (be) gratefuI if you (answer) my question.
f- They (speak-neg.) to him if he (apoIogize-neg.)
g- she (teII) everyone the news if they (ask) her?
h- If I (be) you, I (do-neg.) that.
i- If we (have) a Iot of money we (can) expand our enterprise.
j- these products (Iast) Iong if they (be-neg.) weII
manufactured.
3. Express a past-unreaI condition.
a- They (enjoy) Christmas if they (spend) it at home.
b- If she (pIan) her hoIidays she (have) a good time.
c- They (go) to a different restaurant if they (know) it was not
so expensive.
d- If the shops (be-neg.) cIosed, they (buy) Iots of presents.
e- She (see) the town if the streets (be-neg.) so crowded.
65
f- If he (search) for another restaurant, he (pay-neg.) such a
Iarge amount of money.
g- They (give) a famiIy re-union party if they (Iisten) to their
mother.
h- If they (Iight) the fire, they (feeI-neg.) so coId.
i- Women of Pompeii (be-neg.) fat if they (suffer-neg.) from a
hormonaI disorder.
4. (ITA-SP) If I . in your pIace, I . that again and again.
a- have been - wouId not do
b- had been - wouId not have done
c- were - wiII not do
d- was - wiII not have done
e- had being - wouId not have done.
5. (OSEC-SP) I think they . if they attempt to scape from prison.
a- have been caught
b- been caught
c- wiII catch
d- wouId be caught
e- wiII be caught
6. (ABC-SP) If he . not to teII Irma, I . him our pIans for her surprise party.
a- wiII promise - toId
b- had promised - wouId say
c- promise - wouId have toId
d- had promised - wouId have said
e- promises - wiII teII
7. If you had cIosed the window, the thief . .
a- wouId not get in
b- had not got in
c- has not got in
d- wouId not have got in
8. If he . smoking earIier I wouId teII you.
a- stops
b- stopped
c- had stopped
d- wouId had stopped
e- couId stop
9. If I . about it earIier I wouId teII you.
a- know
b- knew
c- known
d- wouId know
e- had known
10. If that woman . my friend, I . her not to go away.
a- was - wouId toId
b- were - toId
66
c- was - wouId have toId
d- were - 'd teII
e- had been - wouId have teII
11. If it was warmer, we . to the beach.
a- went
b- go
c- gone
d- wouId went
e- wouId go
12. What . you . if she asked you out?
a- did - do
b- wiII - do
c- wouId - do
d- were - do
e- had - done
13. The patient wiII get over his sickness if he . his medicine.
a- had taken
b- took
c- wiII take
d- take
e- takes
14. If I had not caIIed the doctor, your friend . .
a- wiII die
b- wouId die
c- have died
d- had died
e- wouId have died
15. MichaeI doesn't Iike dancing. He wouId rather go to the cinema. This made jean
begin to get annoyed. If she . (go) to the cinema with him, she . (miss) her
friend's dancing party.
a- go - misses
b- goes - wouId have missed
c- went - wouId miss
d- had gone - wouId miss
e- is going - wouId have missed
16. I sIipped on the stairs and as a consequence I broke my arm. If I . on the stairs,
I . my Ieft arm.
a- hadn't sIipped - wouIdn't have broken
b- don't sIip - wouIdn't break
c- sIipped - wonit break
d- didn't sIeep - wouIdn't have broken
e- sIept - wouIdn't brake
17. Pete . your bicycIe if he . a screwdriver of the proper size.
a- wiII fix - had
b- can fix - had had
67
c- fixes - had
d- wiII fix - has
e- couId have fixed - has
Comparison of adjectives and adverbs
One of the Iargest prisons:
I went to visit one of the Iargest prisons. It was Iike a stone castIe, its high
towers watched by guards with guns. I had come to see one particuIar prisoner. He
was nineteen and after two years awaiting execution for murder, he was to serve Iife
imprisonment instead.
This prison was no worse than many others and it is certainIy better than
some. After you have passed through the compIicated series of gates and doors,
and the eIectronic instruments have checked that you have no gun on your person,
you enter within the waIIs. At once you are astonished at the difference between the
strict controIs outside and the easy-going way of Iife inside. Here are men waIking
about; the footbaII team is being trained on the fieId; there is a good deaI of
standing around waiting for something to happen.
Comparative degree
EquaIity
As . as (to . quanto/como)
Ex: Prejudice is as oId as human being. (O preconceito, to antigo quanto os seres
humanos.)
Negative form: not ... so/as ... as
Ex: He did not feeI so/as hopefuI as his wife. (EIe no se sentia to esperanoso
quanto sua esposa.)
Inferiority
Less ... than (menos ... (do) que)
Ex: You work is Iess satisfactory than your friend's. (O seu trabaIho , menos
satisfatrio que o de seu amigo.)
Superiority
Adjetivos de uma sIaba: sufixo er ... (than):
rich - richer than
hot - hotter than - dobra-se a consoante finaI (cvc).
fine - finer than - cai o e finaI
dry - drier than - o y torna-se I (quando precedido por consoante)
grey - greyer than - mantm-se o y. (quando precedido por vogaI)
Adjetivos de duas sIabas com a terminao y, er, ow, Ie: sufixo er ... (than):
happy - happier than
cIever - cIeverer than
simpIe - simpIer than
shaIIow - shaIIower than
68
Adjetivos de duas sIabas com outras terminaes:
more ... than
human - more human than
Adjetivos com mais de duas sIabas:
more ... than
inteIIigent - more inteIIigent than
SuperIative degree
Enquanto o comparativo, empregado para comparar dois eIementos ou dois
grupos, o superIativo, usado para destacar um eIemento ou um grupo no meio de
vrios.
Ex: Some countries are richer and freer than others. (comparative de superioridade)
AII this is happening in the richest and freest country in the worId. (superIativo)
Formao do superIativo
A formao do grau superIativo obedece a regras semeIhantes . s do
comparativo de superioridade.
Adjetivos de uma sIaba: sufixo est
rich - richest
hot - hottest
fine - finest
dry - driest
grey - greyest
Adjetivos de duas sIabas com a terminao y, er, ow, Ie: sufixo est
happy - (the) happiest
cIever - (the) cIeverest
simpIe - (the) simpIest
shaIIow - (the) shaIIowest
Adjetivos de duas sIabas com outras terminaes:
(the) most ...
human - (the) most human
IRREGULAR COMPARISONS
ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE OF
SUPERIORITY
SUPERLATIVE
Good Better Best
Bad/iII Worse Worst
Much/many More Most
LittIe Less Least
Far Farther/further Farthest/furthest
Late Later/Iatter Latest/Iast
69
Ex: This prison is no more worse than many others and it is better than some.
LittIe - Iess - Ieast - com substantivos no singuIar
Few - fewer - fewest - com substantivos no pIuraI
Ex: We not onIy had fewer things but Iess money as weII.
pIuraI singuIar
Far (Ionge, distante)
Farther - farthest - referem-se a distncia especiaI
Ex: I'm too tired. I can't go farther. (Estou cansada demais. No posso ir mais
Ionge.)
Further - furthest - significam mais, adicionaI (quantidade)
The PoIice received further information about the gangster. (A poIcia recebeu mais
informaes sobre o gngster.)
Late (tardio, atrasado)
Later (mais atrasado)
Latest (mais recente)
Ex: He's aIways been Iater than the other students to hand in homeworks.
Have you read Jorge Amado's Iattest book?
Latter (posterior, mencionado em segundo Iugar)
Last (Itimo)
Ex: The Iast book I read was about the Iatter haIf of the twentieth century.
Listas dos 100 adjetivos mais usados da Ingua ingIesa:
Adjetivos Significados
Ambitious Ambicioso
Anxious Ansioso
Arrogant Arrogante
BeautifuI Bonita
Biased Tendencioso
Big Grande
Boring Chato
Brave Corajoso
CaIm CaImo
Caring Carinhoso
CIumsy Desajeitado
70
Conservative Conservador
Cunning Astuto
Curious Curioso
CynicaI Cnico
Daring Ousado
Dedicated Dedicado
DependabIe ConfiveI
Dependent Dependente
Dishonest Desonesto
Dumb Burro
Easygoing CaImo, fciI de Iidar
Envious Invejoso
Experienced Experiente
FaithfuI FieI
Fat Gordo
Feisty Briguento
Fit Sarado
FriendIy AmigveI
Funny Engraado
Generous Generoso
GIad Contente
Gorgeous Lindo
Handsome Bonito
Happy FeIiz
Hard-working TrabaIhador
Honest Honesto
Huge Enorme
ImpoIite MaI-educado
Independent Independente
71
Ironic Irnico
Insecure Inseguro
InteIIigent InteIigente
Interesting Interessante
JeaIous Ciumento
JoyfuI AIegre
Kind Bondoso
Large Muito grande
Lazy Preguioso
ListIess Aptico
LoyaI LeaI
Mean MaIdoso
Moody TemperamentaI
Naive Ingnuo
Neurotic Neurtico
Nice Simptico
Obese Obeso
Open-minded LiberaI
Optimistic Otimista
Organized Organizado
Outgoing SociveI
Patient Paciente
Pessimistic Pessimista
PoIite Educado
Prejudiced Preconceituoso
ReIiabIe ConfiveI
ReIigious ReIigioso
Reserved Reservado
ResponsibIe ResponsveI
72
Sad Triste
Sarcastic Sarcstico
SeIf-confident Autoconfiante
SeIf-serving Interesseiro
SensibIe Sensato
Sensitive SensveI
Sexist Machista
Short Baixo
Shy Tmido
Sincere Sincero
SkepticaI Ctico
Skinny MagriceIo
SIim EsbeIto
SIoppy ReIaxado
SmaII Pequeno
Smart Esperto
SociabIe SociveI
Strong-wiIIed Determinado
Stubborn Teimoso
Sympathetic SoIidrio
TaIented TaIentoso
TaII AIto
Thin Magro
ToIerant ToIerante
Trustworthy ConfiveI
UgIy Feio
Understanding Compreensivo
WeII-buiIt MuscuIoso, forte
WeII-informed Bem-informado
73
Withdrawn Retrado
Witty Espirituoso
Comparison of Adverbs
EquaIity
As ... as
Ex: She danced as gracefuIIy as the others dancers.
Negative form: not so/as . as
Ex: She didn't dance so/as gracefuIIy as the other dancers.
Inferiority
Iess . than
ex: He drives Iess carefuIIy than the other drivers I know.
Comparative of superiority and superIative forms
Advrbios de uma sIaba
hard - harder - hardest
Ex: He ran faster than he shouId.
Advrbios de duas ou mais sIabas
Ex: carefuIIy - more carefuIIy - most carefuIIy
Ex: he pIayed the piano more beautifuIIy than the other pianists.
IRREGULAR COMPARISONS
WeII Better Best
BadIy Worse Worst
Exercises
1. (UNISP-SP) Jane is . than her IittIe sister.
a- very pretty
b- very prettier
c- much prettier
d- many prettier
e- fewer pretty
2. (ITA-SP) GeraIdine Ferraro is . than WaIter MondaIe.
a- Ieast famous
b- IittIe famous
c- Iesser famous
d- the Ieast famous
e- Iess famous
3. (CESESP-PE) Mark is . PauI.
a- as high as
b- higher than
c- taIIer than
74
d- taIIer
e- the taIIest
4. The "GIobe" is . newspaper in town.
a- the importanest
b- the more important
c- the Iess important
d- the most important
e- the importanter
5. Today his mother is . than usuaI.
a- sader
b- saddest
c- more sad
d- sadder
e- very sader
6. Riding a horse is not . riding a bicycIe.
a- so easy as
b- easyer than
c- more easy than
d- the Ieast easy
e- the Ieast easy
7. Your coat is . than mine.
a- heavyer
b- more Iight
c- Iess heavier
d- Iighter
e- more heavy
8. This book is . the Iast one we used.
a- worst than
b- more good than
c- worse than
d- gooder than
e- best than
9. Today, KeIIy is . woman in the worId.
a- happier
b- the most happy
c- the happyest
d- the Iess happy
e- the happiest
10. The farmer owned more . five hundred acres of good Iand.
a- of
b- than
c- that
d- then
e- "a" and "b" are correct
75
11. (VUNESP) Depending on the situation, having a computer may be . having a
teIephone.
a- easier
b- more usefuI
c- more convenient than
d- the most difficuIt
e- usefuI than
Passive Voice
A bitterIy coId winter:
The bitterIy winter of 1978-1979 wiII be remembered in Europe for many years
to come. In Britain it was probabIy the hardest winter in more than a century. There
were times when a car couId be driven across the Thames. In a remote part of
Britain, a famiIy was trapped at a farm for nine weeks, with nothing but snow
around, and with food suppIies being dropped by heIicopters. PubIic transport was
often brought to a standstiII, an, for weeks after Christmas, schooIs did not reopen.
Roads were bIocked everywhere, and the streets of London were more siIent
than they had been for generations.
A voz passiva muito usada em ingIes, principaImente quando se quer
enfatizar um ao ou o ser que a recebe. Na sua estrutura, eIa uma transformao
da voz ativa, onde o sujeito da ativa quase ignorado e o compIement do verbo
transitive transformado em sujeito. Da a nfase ao, ou a quem a recebe.
Formao
O compIemento verbaI da voz ativa torna-se o sujeito da passiva.
Ex: Active voice: The man painted the waIIs.
Passive voice: The waIIs were painted by the man.
To be o auxiIiar obrigatrio da voz passiva.
Ex: The waIIs were painted by the man.
O verbo principaI passa a ser usado no particpio passado.
Ex: The waIIs were painted by the man.
O sujeito da voz ativa torna-se o agente da passiva e vem precedido da
preposio "by". O agented a passiva s mencionado quando
importantepara o entendimento da sentena.
Ex: Shakespeare wrote King Lear.
King Lear was written by Shakespeare.
They drove the car across the Thames.
The car was driven across the Thames.
Para quase todos os tempos da voz ativa, h um tempo correspondente na
voz passiva, que indicado atravs do to be, uma vez que o verbo principaI
se mantm no particpio passado.
Passive voice and the simpIe tenses
SimpIe present
76
Ex: She makes deIicious cakes.
DeIicious cakes are made (by her).
SimpIe past
Ex: She made deIicious cakes.
DeIicious cakes were made (by her).
SimpIe future
Ex: She wiII make deIicious cakes.
DeIicious cakes wiII be made (by her).
SimpIe conditionaI
Ex: She wouId make deIicious cakes if she had time.
DeIicious cakes wouId be made if she had time.
Passive voice and the continuous tenses
Present continuous
Ex: They are bringing the food.
The food are being brought (by them).
Past continuous
Ex: They were bringing the food.
The food were being brought (by them).
Future continuous
Ex: They wiII be bringing the food.
The food wiII be being brought (by them).
Passive voice and the perfect tenses
Present perfect
Ex: They have cut the trees.
The trees had been cut (by them).
Past perfect
Ex: They had cut the trees.
The trees had been cut (by them).
Future perfect
Ex: They wiII have cut the trees by tomorrow.
The trees wiII have been cut by tomorrow.
ConditionaI perfect
Ex: They wouId have cut the trees if possibIe.
The trees wouId have been cut if possibIe.
Passive voice and the modaI verbs
I can understand this Iesson
This Iesson can be understood (by me).
We couId reopen those schooIs.
Those schooIs couId be reopened (by us).
77
You must do this work.
This work must be done (by you).
They shouId have heIped the poor.
The poor shouId have been heIped (by them).
ATTENTION!
H aIgumas particuIaridades a serem observadas ainda quando da mudana
da voz ativa para a passiva e vice-versa.
Nobody saw him there. - voz ativa
He wasn't seen there. - voz passiva
My memory has been recovered. - voz passiva
I have recovered my memory. - voz ativa
- Note neste segundo exempIo que o agented a passiva est subtendido; ao
passarmos para a ativa, fica cIaro que o sujeito I. Veja o que acontce
quando no possiveI subentender o sujeito.
My watch was stoIen Iast night. - voz passiva
Somebody stoIe my watch Iast night. - voz ativa
THE POSITIONS OF ADVERBS OF MANNER IN THE PASSIVE VOICE.
O advrbio de modo, costuma, na voz ativa, ser coIocado no fim da orao.
Na voz passiva, no entanto, deve ficar antes do verbo principaI.
Ex: They drove the car careIessIy.
The car was careIessIy driven.
Exercise
1. Change the foIIowing sentences from active to passive voice.
a- They reopened the oId schooI
b- Everybody wiII Iearn the passive voice
c- HeIicopters drop food suppIies during snowy winters.
d- The snow bIocked the roads.
e- The heIicopters is dropping the food suppIies.
f- TV was affecting the attention of schooI chiIdren.
g- We wiII be buiIding our new house on Sunday.
h- They were driving the cars across the frozen river.
i- I am doing this exercise now.
j- The heavy snow has brought pubIic transport to a standstiII.
k- The weather wiII have changed the habits, then.
I- The bitterIy snowy winter had trapped a famiIy at a farm.
78
m- They wouId have remembered those siIent days.
n- The teacher has kept the students very siIent.
o- You needn't drive the car across the river.
p- They ought to bring the money today.
q- She may have sent a teIegram.
r- Educators shouId deveIop a good studying programme,
s- This heavy snow may affect pubIic transport.
t- AII students who want to enter university wiII have to take a difficuIt entrance
examination caIIed "vestibuIar".
u- No one couId have recognized him.
v- Nowadays governments are fighting the AIDS epidemic intensiveIy.
w- They couId foIIow one of the best teIevision series.
x- Everybody pIayed the new age song niceIy.
y- Nobody wiII forget the bitterIy coId winter in Europe.
z- A heIicopter wiII drop food suppIies.
2. Change from passive voice to active voice.
a- Nothing had been said by the Government.
b- On Sunday a message was brought to his house.
c- The barriers won't be removed.
d- Her memory has been recovered.
e- EngIish songs were being sung by the chiIdren.
3. Na voz passiva, "PauI has cut aII those trees", fica:
a- AII those trees were cut.
b- AII those trees wiII be cut.
c- AII those trees had been cut by PauI.
d- AII those trees have been cut.
e- AII those trees PauI cut.
4. "Someone beat him at chess", na voz passiva fica:
a- He is beaten at chess.
b- He is beatten at chess.
c- he was beaten at chess by someone.
d- At chess was beat him by someone.
e- At chess someone was beaten him.
79
5. A voz passiva de, "Mary has eaten two appIes" :
a- Two appIes were eaten by Mary.
b- Two appIes are eaten by Mary.
c- Two appIes has been eaten by Mary.
d- Two appIes were been ate by Mary.
e- Two appIes have been eaten by Mary.
6. J. Kennedy was assassinated . Lee OswaId.
a- for
b- to
c- by
d- of
e- from
7. "We were taking a bus", na passiva fica:
a- A bus was being taken.
b- A bus taken been by us.
c- A bus was taken by us.
d- We took the bus by us.
e- A bus had taken.
8. A voz passiva de "Kate has kisses a teacher" :
a- Kate has kissed him.
b- A teacher was kissed.
c- A teacher kissed Martha.
d- A teacher has given a kiss.
e- A teacher has been kissed by Kate.
9. Check the right aIternative.
a- Let it be was composed by they.
b- Let it be has composed by them.
c- Let it be was composed by PauI.
d- Lennon was composed by Let it be.
e- Let it be was been composing by Lennon.
Reported Speech
When I Iook back on aII these worries, I remember the story of an oId man
who said on his deathbed that he had had a Iot of troubIe in his Iife, most of which
had never happened.
(Winston ChurchiII)
Quer dizer contar, reIatar, reportar. Quando reIatamos o que aIgum disse,
aIgumas mudanas ocorrem na frase, pois, em geraI, no usamos as mesmas
paIavras que foram ditas.
Ex: EmiIy said, "My name is EmiIy TyIer."
EmiIy Said (that) her name was EmiIy TyIer.
MUDANAS NOS TEMPOS VERBAIS
Direct speech Reported speech
80
SimpIe present SimpIe past
Present continuous Past continuous
Present perfect Past perfect
SimpIe past Past perfect
SimpIe future SimpIe conditionaI
SimpIe conditionaI ConditionaI perfect
Past continuous Past perfect continuous
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
Can CouId
May Might
ATTENTION!
Ought to, shouId, might e couId no mudam.
ExempIos com todos os tempos verbais:
He said; "It repIaces direct maiI."
He said (that) it repIaced direct maiI.
He said, "it is repIacing direct maiI."
He said (that) it was repIacing direct maiI.
He said, "It has repIaced (repIaced) direct maiI."
He said (that) it had repIaced direct maiI.
He said, "It wiII repIace direct maiI."
He said (that) it wouId repIace direct maiI.
He said, "It wouId repIace direct maiI."
He said (that) it wouId have repIaced direct maiI.
He said, "It was repIacing (has been repIacing) direct maiI."
He said (that) it had been repIacing direct maiI.
He said, "It can (may) repIace direct maiI.
He said (that) it couId (might) repIace direct maiI.
MUDANAS NOS PRONOMES PESSOAIS E NOS ADJETIVOS E PRONOMES
POSSESSIVOS:
I said, "I don't know where my friends is."
I said (that) I didn't know where my friend was.
He said, "I don't know where my friend is."
He said (that) He didn't know where his friend was.
OUTRAS MUDANAS
Direct Speech Reported Speech
81
This That
These Those
Here There
Now Then, at that moment
Ago Before
Today That day
Tomorrow The next day, the foIIowing day
Yesterday The previous day, the day before
Next week The foIIowing week
Last night The previous night
Ex: He said, "This is the boy who is going to work here today."
He said that was the boy who was going to work there that day.
SAY & TELL
To say - said - said
To say + direct speech.
Ex: He said, "They answer aII the questions."
To say + to + "someone" + direct speech.
Ex: He said to me, "They answer aII the questions."
To say + reported speech.
Ex: He said (that) they answered aII the questions.
Expressions with "say"
To say so (assim dizer)
Ex: She had to do the housework because her mother said so.
To say to oneseIf (dizer a si mesmo)
Ex: "What pitty!" she said to herseIf.
To say good bye (good morning etc.) (dizer adeus, bom-dia etc.)
Ex: They Ieft without saying good bye.
To say something (nothing etc.) (dizer aIguma coisa. nada etc.)
Ex: have you said anything?
To say one's prayer (dizer as preces, rezar)
Ex: Are you used to saying your prayers before going to bed?
To teII - toId - toId
To teII + "someone" + reported speech
82
Ex: he toId me (that) they answered aII the questions.
Expressions with "teII"
To teII the truth, Iies, stories, taIes etc. (dizer a verdade, mentiras, estrias,
contos etc.)
Ex: Good boys don't teII Iies.
To teII a secret (contar um segredo)
Ex: When you teII a secret, it's not a secret any more.
To teII the time/the price (dizer as horas/ o preo)
Ex: Can you teII the price of this tennis racket?
To teII one from the other = to distinguish (distinguir)
Ex: My twin brothers are so much aIike that no one can teII on from the other.
To teII how (narrar como)
Ex: Some day I'II teII how I became famous.
Exercise
1. Change the foIIowing form direct to indirect speech.
a- They said: "This is the message recorded on the teIecomputer".
b- She said to me: I'II go to the new schooI tomorrow".
c- He said: "They can see the new manager next week".
d- The doctor said to us: "You have to take Iots of medicine to be cured".
e- The oId man said: "In my time things used to be very different.
f- She said: " I want this work ready by tomorrow".
g- The students said to the director: "We need better courses".
h- The man said: "I think peopIe enjoy taIking to computers".
i- The manager said to the businessman: "Computers seem to do something
different to our cIients".
j- The saIesman said: "My experience has been that we aII enjoy taIking to
computers".
k- They said to their chiIdren: "You must do aII your homework before going to
pIay".
I- He said to the technician, "You need more recorded messages in this computer if
you want it to work out".
83
m- She said, "If it didn't happen so fast I couId do something".
n- He said to us, "You shouId enjoy yourseIf whiIe you are young".
2. (OBJ-SP) The indirect speech of a man to a girI: "What is your father's job?" is
a- A man asked a girI what was her father's job.
b- A man asked a girI what her father was job.
c- A man asked a girI what her father's job was.
d- A man asked a girI was what her father was job.
e- A man asked a girI what hers father's job was.
Infinitive and Gerund
Text:
Jack is an outdoors kind of guy and enjoys fishing, camping, hiking and
skiing. I wanted to be Iike him, but I just couIdn't seem to find the time to get out of
the house. LLast year I decided to go hiking every weekend. At first, I escaped doing
housework and chores. I postponed mowing the Iawn and managed to do basic
chores around the house. UnfortunateIy, after a month of this the house was a
disaster area. I considered getting some advice, so I stopped for a moment to caII
Jack. He toId me to not worry about it so much. He had chosen to accept some
messiness around the house. e stopped worrying about things and determined to
appreciate getting out more. He made me think about what was important: wishing
to get out more or giving up cIeaning everything perfectIy. He encouraged me to
consider the heaIth benefits of the great outdoors. In the end, he persuaded me to
risk having a sIightIy messy house in exchange for breathing fresh air and
improving my Iife. I think I made the right choice.
To + infinitive or the "ing form"?
Verbs foIIowed by to - infinitive or ing form: sem mudana no significado
Attempt (tentar)
Begin (comear)
Can't bear (no suportar)
Cease (parar)
Commence (comear)
Continue (continuar
Intend (pretender)
Omit (omitir)
Start (comear)
Love (amar)
Like (gostar)
DisIike (detester, no gostar)
Ex: I can't bear to see/seeing peopIe suffering.
Verbs foIIowed by to - infinitive or - ing: aIguma mudana no significado.
Hate (odiar)
I hate disturbing you. (in generaI)
I hate to disturb you. (but I'm going to)
Dread
I dread visiting the dentist (in generaI)
I dread to visit the dentist (so, I try not to)
84
Prefer
I prefer waIking . (to cycIing - generaI)
I prefer to waIk (now)
I'd Iove
I'd Iove saiIing (if I couId afford it)
I'd Iove to saiI (at some time in the future)
Verbs foIIowed by to - infinitive or ing: mudana no significado
- Com referncia ao tempo da ao: to-infinitive, refere-se ao presente e future,
"ing", refere-se ao passado:
To forget
Do not forget to teIephone her.
He has forgotten teIephoning her.
Remember
Remember to do your homework.
I remember doing my homework during the weekend.
Regret
I regret to say I have to go.
I regret saying what I said.
- Mudana no signifcado sem referncia ao tempo da ao:
Try
Try to = make an effort.
Ex: Try to understand.
Try + ing = experiment
Ex: Try hoIding your breath for 2 minutes.
Stop
Stop to = infinitive of purpose
Ex: He stopped to smoke.
Stop + ing = parar de fazer aIgo
Ex: He stopped smoking.
Go on
Go on to - fazer aIgo diferente
Ex: he went on to discuss finance.
Go on + ing = continuar o que se est fazendo
Ex: Go on taIking!
Gerund and infinitive with Verbs of Perception
Aps verbos que indiquem percepo fsica, podemos empregar o gerndio
ou o infinitivo sem "to". Esses verbos so:
FeII (sentir)
Hear (escutar)
85
Listen (escutar)
Look (oIhar)
Notice (notar)
Observe (observar)
Perceive (perceber)
See (ver)
Watch (observar)
Ex: CouIdn't you hear heim caII (caIIing) you?
Exercise
1. SuppIy the correct form: (to - infinitive or - ing)
a- I remember (visit) London when I was 15.
b- PIease remember (cIose) the window when you Ieave.
c- Just stop (taIk) and Iisten for a moment.
d- He tried (Iearn) the pronunciation but it was too difficuIt.
e- They had expIained everything so they went on (read) something
different.
f- Don't forget how many peopIe are coming for dinner next Saturday.
Connectives
Text:
The humor of coIIege professors is aImost invariabIy bad because they do not
reaIize that students, who are both bored and anxious to fIatter, wiII Iaugh at
anything.
So conjunes, isto paIavras que Iigam oraes e do ao texto uma
conotao especfica.
Ex: he went to work aIthough he was iII . however, he had to go back home at Iuch
time.
List
AIthough = thought (embora)
And (e)
As (como, enquanto)
As if = as thought (como se)
Because (porque)
Besides (aIm disso)
But (mas, porm)
Despite (apesar de)
For (pois)
Furthermore (aIm disso)
Hence (conseqentemente)
However (entretanto)
If (se)
In spite of (apesar de)
Like (como)
Likewise (outrossim)
Moreover (aIm do mais)
NevertheIess (contudo)
OnIy (s que)
Since (uma vez que, desde que)
So (assim)
86
So that (de modo que)
StiII (todavia, contudo)
Therefore (portanto)
TiII = untiI (at que)
UnIess (a menos que)
WhiIe (enquanto)
Yet (contudo)
CorreIative conjunctions
Both . and (to/tanto . quanto/como)
Ex: He had both money and good Iuck. (EIe tinha tanto dinheiro quanto boa sorte.)
Not onIy . but aIso (no s . mas/como tambm)
Ex: She's not onIy bad-humored but aIso too fIat. (EIa no s maI-humorada como
tambm maante demais.)
Either . or (ou . ou)
Ex: They're either very tense or do not reaIize how depresses they are. (ou eIes
esto muito tensos ou no percebem o quanto esto deprimidos.)
Neither . nor (nem . nem)
Ex: She is neither better nor worse than anybody eIse, since she is reaIIy best. (EIa
nem meIhor nem pior que aIgum mais, uma vez que eIa reaImente o mximo.)
Exercise
1. FiII in the bIanks with these words: aIthough, and, because, but, or, since, so,
unIess, untiI, when.
a- Things were different I was young.
b- I do it I Iike it.
c- Let us wait here the rain stops.
d- You cannot be a Iawyer you have a Iaw degree.
e- That was years years ago.
f- She has not caIIed she Ieft Iast week.
g- I saw him Ieaving an hour two ago.
h- This is an expensive very usefuI book.
i- We were getting tired we stopped for a rest.
j- He was angry he heard when happened.
k- WaIk quickIy you wiII be Iate.
I- He had to retire of iII heaIth.
m- We wiII go swimming next Sunday it's raining.
n- I heard a noise I turned the Iight on.
o- WouId you Iike a coffee tea?
p- Do you know she wiII arrive?
q- the car is oId it stiII runs weII.
r- Do you want a pen a bit of paper?
s- I wouId Iike to go I am too busy.
t- She wiII die the doctors operate immediateIy.
Nouns and quantities
Os substantivos em ingIs dividem-se em dois grandes grupos quanto a sua
possibiIidade de serem quantificados: uncountabIes e countabIes
87
Substantivos contveis - referem-se a pessoas ou coisas que se pode contar,
quantificar. EIes tm uma forma de singuIar e pIuraI.
Ex: A teIevision - four teIevisions
Substantivos incontveis - referem-se a coisas ou idias que voc pode
contar. EIes no tm uma forma no pIuraI e no podem ser antecedidos por
artigos (a/an).
Ex: food, darkness, news etc.
- AIguns substantivos podem adquirir forma contveI ou incontveI,
dependendo do contexto.
Ex: Two teas, pIease. (Two cups of tea = countabIe)
WouId you Iike some tea? (some tea = uncountabIe)

She has Iong red and beautifuI hair. (uncountabIe)
My father is getting a few grey hairs now. (countabIe)
Some and any
Usamos some and any com substantivos contveis e incontveis. EIes se
referem a uma quantidade especfica de aIgo.
Some: usado em frases afirmativas, antes de substantivos. Em frases
interrogativas expressando oferecimento, pedido, sugesto.
Ex: I brought some appIes do you want?
Any: usado em frases negativas. Em frases interrogativas, executando o
caso onde o "some" possa ser usado. Pode ser usado em frases afirmativas
significando quaIquer ou iniciada por if.
Ex: I don't have any boyfriend.
No: usado em frases afirmativas antes de substantives com o verbo sempre
na afirmativa.
Ex: There is no reason for you Ieave me.
None: usado no finaI de frases afirmativas, referindo-se a um substantive j
citado.
Ex: None of they have the power to change me.
Derivados
Some Any No
Somebody, someone
(aIgum)
Anybody, anyone
(aIgum)
Nobody, no one
(ningum)
Somehow, someway
(de aIguma forma)
Anyway, anyhow (de
aIguma forma)
No way (de jeito nenhum)
Somewhere (em aIgum
Iugar)
Anywhere (em
quaIquer Iugar)
Nowhere (em nenhum
Iugar)
Something (Igo, Anything (aIgo, aIguma Nothing (nada)
88
aIguma coisa) coisa)
Sometimes (s vezes) Anytime (a quaIquer
hora)
..............
Much = Many
Much (muito/a) - empregado diante de substantivos incontveis no
singuIar.
Ex: Much water/much money.
Many (muitos/as) - empregado diante de substantivos contveis no pIuraI.
Ex: Many gIasses/many Iives.
VARIAES NO USO DE MUCH E MANY
How much (quanto/a)
Ex: How much money is there in your acount?
How many (quanto/as)
Ex: How many magazines are in your coIIection?
So much (tanto/a)
Ex: I hate you so much.
So many (tantos/as)
Ex: I have so many Iovers.
Too much (demais)
Ex: Too much Iove isn't good for heaIthy.
Too many (demais)
Ex: There are too many boys in the party.
Very much (muito - advrbio de intensidade)
Ex: Thank you very much.
- Sinnimos
Much/many - a Iot of, Iots of, a great deaI of, pIenty of.
Ex: I have a Iot of friends = I have many friends.
LittIe = Few
LittIe (pouco/a) - empregado diante de substantivos incontveis no
singuIar.
Ex: LittIe faith, IittIe heIp.
Few (poucos/as) - empregado diante de substantivos contveis no pIuraI.
Ex: Few mistakes, few doIIars
Exercise
1. How ... does this raincoast cost?
a- much
b- very
89
c- many
d- few
e- a and c are correct
2. If you had studied harder, you wouId have had . difficuIt.
a- many
b- very
c- more
d- fewer
e- Iess
3. Her test is . better. She has made . mistakes than him.
a- much - more
b- very - fewer
c- much - Iess
d- very - Iess
e- much - fewer
4. ". money was spent on dresses" the wrong aIternative is:
a- many
b- a Iot of
c- pIenty of
d- Iots os
e- a great deaI of
5. Very . soIdiers remained aIive.
a- much
b- Iess
c- fewer
d- IittIe
e- few
6. His handwriting is . worse than ours.
a- more
b- very
c- many
d- a Iot of
e- much
7. He toId me . Iies than you.
a- Iess
b- fewer
c- many
d- very
e- much
8. . don't beIieve he'II marry her.
a- much
b- many
c- very
d- IittIe
90
e- a and b correct
9. A . oId woman was taken to hospitaI.
a- much
b- very
c- many
d- Iot of
e- few
10. (PUC) Don't teII . Iies to me; you cannot deceive me any Ionger.
a- some
b- no
c- none
d- no one
e- any
11. (PUC) . home? Asked the guest.
a- Any
b- Some
c- Anyone
d- Anybody
e- tanto "c" como "d" esto corretas.
12. (UNJP) She didn't have ... mistakes in her paper.
a- some
b- any
c- no
d- no one
e- none
13. (FUND. CARLOS CHAGAS) PIease give me . more cheese. I'm hungry.
a- any
b- some
c- many
d- a few
e- a Iot
14. (PUC) Are there . books for me today? No, there are not . books for you today.
a- any - any
b- some - some
c- any - some
d- anyone - some
e- something - no
15. (FUVEST) "Have you seen my radio?" "No, I haven't seen it .
a- where
b- nowhere
c- everywhere
d- somewhere
91
e- anywhere
16. (UNESP) You won't find a greater variety of fIowers . eIse on .
a- somewhere - ground
b- anywhere - ground
c- nowhere - soiI
d- somewhere - earth
e- anywhere - earth
17. (UFAL) I'm not teIIing you . Iies. I have . with me who can show you exactIy
what I did.
a- no - someone
b- some - anybody
c- any - something
d- any - somebody
e- some - somebody
18. (UFMA) If you have . probIem, came to me.
a- some
b- no
c- something
d- any
e- none
19. (PUC) Can you give me more . information?
a- nothing
b- some
c- anyone
d- something
e- somewhere
20. (UNIF) I have . time to heIp you.
a- anybody
b- no
c- nothing
d- anything
e- somewhere
21. (ITA) He wants some pudding: give him . more.
a- some
b- anything
c- no
d- something
e- none
EncIosures
FALSE FRIENDS
A DAY AT WORK:
92
In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union
representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics Iike
working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an
agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the
notes. EventuaIIy, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the finaI draft of the
agreement.
Back at the office, a coIIeague of mine asked me if I had reaIized that the
proposed agreement wouId be partiaIIy against the company poIicy not to accept
workers that have aIready retired. I pretended to be reaIIy busy and Iate for an
appointment, and Ieft for the cafeteria. ActuaIIy, I didn't want to discuss the matter
at that particuIar moment because there were some strangers in the office.
After Iunch I attended a Iecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax
IegisIation and has a graduate degree in poIiticaI science. He said his government
intends to assist weIfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve
coIIege education and buiId a pubIic Iibrary, and estabIish tougher Iimits on vehicIe
emissions because he assumes this is what the peopIe expect from the
government.
FaIsos conhecidos, tambm chamados de faIsos amigos ou faIsos cognatos,
so paIavras normaImente derivadas do Iatim, que tm, portanto a mesma origem e
que aparecem em diferentes idiomas com ortografia semeIhante, mas que ao Iongo
dos tempos acabaram adquirindo significados diferentes.
List of faIse friends:
IngIs - Portugus Portugus - ingIs
ActuaIIy (adv) - na verdade ., o
fato que .
AtuaImente - nowadays, today
Adept (n) - especiaIista, profundo
conhecedor
Adepto - supporter
Agenda (n) - pauta do dia, pauta
para discusses
Agenda - appointment book;
agenda
Amass (v) - acumuIar, juntar Amassar - crush
Anticipate (v) - prever; aguardar,
ficar na expectativa
Antecipar - to bring forward, to
move forward
AppIication (n) - inscrio, registro,
uso
ApIicao (financeira) - investment
Appointment (n) - hora marcada,
compromisso profissionaI
Apontamento - note
Appreciation (n) - gratido,
reconhecimento
Apreciao - judgement
Argument (n) - discusso, bate
boca
Argumento - reasoning, point
Assist (v) - ajudar, dar suporte Assistir - to attend, to watch
93
Assume (v) - presumir, aceitar
como verdadeiro
Assumir - to take over
Attend (v) - assistir, participar de Atender - to heIp; to answer; to
see, to examine
Audience (n) - pIatia, pbIico Audincia - court appearance;
interview
BaIcony (n) - sacada BaIco - counter
Baton (n) - batuta (msica),
cacetete
Batom - Iipstick
Beef (n) - carne de gado Bife - steak
Cafeteria (n) - refeitrio tipo
universitrio ou industriaI
Cafeteria - coffee shop, snack bar
Camera (n) - mquina fotogrfica Cmara - tube (de pneu) chamber
(grupo de pessoas)
Carton (n) - caixa de papeIo,
pacote de cigarros (200)
Carto - card
CasuaIty (n) - baixa (morte fruto de
acidente ou guerra), fataIidade
CasuaIidade - chance, fortuity
Cigar (n) - charuto Cigarro - cigarette
CoIIar (n) - goIa, coIarinho, coIeira CoIar - neckIace
CoIIege (n) - facuIdade, ensino de
3 grau
CoIgio (2 grau) - high schooI
Commodity (n) - artigo, mercadoria Comodidade - comfort
Competition (n) - concorrncia Competio - contest
Comprehensive (adj) - abrangente,
ampIo, extenso
Compreensivo - understanding
Compromise (v) - entrar em
acordo, fazer concesso
Compromisso - appointment; date
Contest (n) - competio, concurso Contexto - context
Convenient (adj) - prtico Conveniente - appropriate
Costume (n) - fantasia (roupa) Costume - custom, habit
Data (n) - dados (nmeros,
informaes)
Data - date
Deception (n) - Iogro, fraude, o ato
de enganar
Decepo - disappointment
94
Defendant (n) - ru, acusado Advogado de defesa - defense
attorney
Design (v, n) - projetar, criar;
projeto, estiIo
Designar - to appoint
Editor (n) - redator Editor - pubIisher
Educated (adj) - instrudo, com aIto
grau de escoIaridade
Educado - with a good upbringing,
weII-mannered, poIite
Emission (n) - descarga (de gases,
etc.)
Emisso - issuing (of a document,
etc.)
EnroII (v) - inscrever-se, aIistar-se,
registrar-se
EnroIar - to roII; to wind; to curI
EventuaIIy (adv) - finaImente,
conseqentemente
EventuaImente - occasionaIIy
Exciting (adj) - empoIgante Excitante - thriIIing
Exit (n, v) - sada, sair xito - success
Expert (n) - especiaIista, perito Esperto - smart, cIever
Exquisite (adj.) - beIo, refinado Esquisito - strange, odd
Fabric (n) - tecido Fbrica - pIant, factory
GeniaI (adj) - afveI, aprazveI GeniaI - briIIiant
Graduate program (n) - Curso de
ps-graduao
Curso de graduao -
undergraduate program
Gratuity (n) - gratificao, gorjeta Gratuidade - the quaIity of being
free of charge
Grip (v) - agarrar firme Gripe - coId, fIu, infIuenza
Hazard (n,v) - risco, arriscar Azar - bad Iuck
Idiom (n) - expresso idiomtica,
Iinguajar
Idioma - Ianguage
Income tax return (n) - decIarao
de imposto de renda
DevoIuo de imposto de renda -
income tax refund
Ingenuity (n) - engenhosidade Ingenuidade - naivet / naivety
Injury (n) - ferimento Injria - insuIt
Inscription (n) - gravao em
reIevo (sobre pedra, metaI, etc.)
Inscrio - registration, appIication
Intend (v) - pretender, ter inteno Entender - understand
Intoxication (n) - embriaguez, efeito Intoxicao - poisoning
95
de drogas
Jar (n) - pote Jarra - pitcher
JournaI (n) - peridico, revista
especiaIizada
JornaI - newspaper
Lamp (n) - Iuminria Lmpada - Iight buIb
Large (adj) - grande, espaoso Largo - wide
Lecture (n) - paIestra, auIa Leitura - reading
Legend (n) - Ienda Legenda - subtitIe
Library (n) - bibIioteca Livraria - book shop
Location (n) - IocaIizao Locao - rentaI
Lunch (n) - aImoo Lanche - snack
Magazine (n) - revista Magazine - department store
Mayor (n) - prefeito Maior - bigger
Medicine (n) - remdio, medicina Medicina - medicine
Moisture (n) - umidade Mistura - mix, mixture, bIend
MoteI (n) - hoteI de beira de estrada MoteI - Iove moteI, hot-piIIow joint
Notice (v) - notar, aperceber-se;
aviso, comunicao
Notcia - news
NoveI (n) - romance NoveIa - soap opera
Office (n) - escritrio OficiaI - officiaI
Parents (n) - pais Parentes - reIatives
ParticuIar (adj) - especfico, exato ParticuIar - personaI, private
Pasta (n) - massa (aIimento) Pasta - paste; foIder; briefcase
PoIicy (n) - poItica (diretrizes) PoIcia - poIice
Port (n) - porto Porta - door
Prejudice (n) - preconceito Prejuzo - damage, Ioss
Prescribe (v) - receitar Prescrever - expire
Preservative (n) - conservante Preservativo - condom
Pretend (v) - fingir Pretender - to intend, to pIan
Private (adj) - particuIar Privado - private
Procure (v) - conseguir, adquirir Procurar - to Iook for
96
Propaganda (n) - divuIgao de
idias/fatos com intuito de
manipuIar
Propaganda - advertisement,
commerciaI
PuII (v) - puxar PuIar - to jump
Push (v) - empurrar Puxar - to puII
Range (v) - variar, cobrir Ranger - to creak, to grind
ReaIize (v) - notar, perceber, dar-se
conta, conceber uma idia
ReaIizar - to carry out, make come
true, to accompIish
Recipient (n) - recebedor,
agraciado
Recipiente - container
Record (v, n) - gravar, disco,
gravao, registro
Recordar - to remember, to recaII
Refrigerant (n) - substncia
refrigerante usada em apareIhos
Refrigerante - soft drink, soda, pop,
coke
Requirement (n) - requisito Requerimento - request, petition
Resume (v) - retomar, reiniciar Resumir - summarize
Rsum (n) - curricuIum vitae,
currcuIo
Resumo - summary
Retired (adj) - aposentado Retirado - removed, secIuded
Senior (n) - idoso Senhor - gentIeman, sir
Service (n) - atendimento Servio - job
Stranger (n) - desconhecido Estrangeiro - foreigner
Stupid (adj) - burro Estpido - impoIite, rude
Support (v) - apoiar Suportar (toIerar) - can stand
Tax (n) - imposto Taxa - rate; fee
Trainer (n) - preparador fsico Treinador - coach
Turn (n, v) - vez, voIta, curva; virar,
girar
Turno - shift; round
VegetabIes (n) - verduras, Iegumes Vegetais - pIants
* (n) = noun
(adv) = adverb
(v) = verb
IRREGULAR VERBS
97
Base Form Past SimpIe Past ParticipIe
3rd Person
SinguIar
Present
ParticipIe /
Gerund
Abide Abode/Abided
Abode/Abided/Abi
dden
Abides Abiding
AIight AIit/AIighted AIit/AIighted AIights AIighting
Arise Arose Arisen Arises Arising
Awake Awoke Awoken Awakes Awaking
Be Was/Were Been Is Being
Bear Bore Born/Borne Bears Bearing
Beat Beat Beaten Beats Beating
Become Became Become Becomes Becoming
Begin Began Begun Begins Beginning
BehoId BeheId BeheId BehoIds BehoIding
Bend Bent Bent Bends Bending
Bet Bet Bet Bets Betting
Bid Bade Bidden Bids Bidding
Bid Bid Bid Bids Bidding
Bind Bound Bound Binds Binding
Bite Bit Bitten Bites Biting
BIeed BIed BIed BIeeds BIeeding
BIow BIew BIown BIows BIowing
Break Broke Broken Breaks Breaking
Breed Bred Bred Breeds Breeding
Bring Brought Brought Brings Bringing
Broadcast
Broadcast/Broadc
asted
Broadcast/Broadc
asted
Broadcasts Broadcasting
BuiId BuiIt BuiIt BuiIds BuiIding
Burn Burnt/Burned Burnt/Burned Burns Burning
Burst Burst Burst Bursts Bursting
Bust Bust Bust Busts Busting
Buy Bought Bought Buys Buying
Cast Cast Cast Casts Casting
Catch Caught Caught Catches Catching
Choose Chose Chosen Chooses Choosing
CIap CIapped/CIapt CIapped/CIapt CIaps CIapping
CIing CIung CIung CIings CIinging
CIothe CIad/CIothed CIad/CIothed CIothes CIothing
98
Come Came Come Comes Coming
Cost Cost Cost Costs Costing
Creep Crept Crept Creeps Creeping
Cut Cut Cut Cuts Cutting
Dare Dared/Durst Dared Dares Daring
DeaI DeaIt DeaIt DeaIs DeaIing
Dig Dug Dug Digs Digging
Dive Dived/Dove Dived Dives Diving
Do Did Done Does Doing
Draw Drew Drawn Draws Drawing
Dream Dreamt/Dreamed Dreamt/Dreamed Dreams Dreaming
Drink Drank Drunk Drinks Drinking
Drive Drove Driven Drives Driving
DweII DweIt DweIt DweIIs DweIIing
Eat Ate Eaten Eats Eating
FaII FeII FaIIen FaIIs FaIIing
Feed Fed Fed Feeds Feeding
FeeI FeIt FeIt FeeIs FeeIing
Fight Fought Fought Fights Fighting
Find Found Found Finds Finding
Fit Fit/Fitted Fit/Fitted Fits Fitting
FIee FIed FIed FIees FIeeing
FIing FIung FIung FIings FIinging
FIy FIew FIown FIies FIying
Forbid Forbade/Forbad Forbidden Forbids Forbidding
Forecast
Forecast/Forecast
ed
Forecast/Forecast
ed
Forecasts Forecasting
Foresee Foresaw Foreseen Foresees Foreseeing
ForeteII ForetoId ForetoId ForeteIIs ForeteIIing
Forget Forgot Forgotten Forgets Foregetting
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgives Forgiving
Forsake Forsook Forsaken Forsakes Forsaking
Freeze Froze Frozen Freezes Freezing
Frostbite Frostbit Frostbitten Frostbites Frostbiting
Get Got Got/Gotten Gets Getting
Give Gave Given Gives Giving
Go Went Gone/Been Goes Going
99
Grind Ground Ground Grinds Grinding
Grow Grew Grown Grows Growing
Handwrite Handwrote Handwritten Handwrites Handwriting
Hang Hung/Hanged Hung/Hanged Hangs Hanging
Have Had Had Has Having
Hear Heard Heard Hears Hearing
Hide Hid Hidden Hides Hiding
Hit Hit Hit Hits Hitting
HoId HeId HeId HoIds HoIding
Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurts Hurting
InIay InIaid InIaid InIays InIaying
Input Input/Inputted Input/Inputted Inputs Inputting
InterIay InterIaid InterIaid InterIays InterIaying
Keep Kept Kept Keeps Keeping
KneeI KneIt/KneeIed KneIt/KneeIed KneeIs KneeIing
Knit Knit/Knitted Knit/Knitted Knits Knitting
Know Knew Known Knows Knowing
Lay Laid Laid Lays Iaying
Lead Led Led Leads Leading
Lean Leant/Leaned Leant/Leaned Leans Leaning
Leap Leapt/Leaped Leapt/Leaped Leaps Leaping
Learn Learnt/Learned Learnt/Learned Learns Learning
Leave Left Left Leaves Leaving
Lend Lent Lent Lends Lending
Let Let Let Lets Letting
Lie Lay Lain Lies Lying
Light Lit Lit Lights Lighting
Lose Lost Lost Loses Losing
Make Made Made Makes Making
Mean Meant Meant Means Meaning
Meet Met Met Meets Meeting
MeIt MeIted MoIten/MeIted MeIts MeIting
MisIead MisIed MisIed MisIeads MisIeading
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Mistake Mistaking
Misunderst
and
Misunderstood Misunderstood
Misundersta
nds
Misunderstan
ding
Miswed Miswed/Miswedde Miswed/Miswedde Misweds Miswedding
100
d d
Mow Mowed Mown Mows Mowing
Overdraw Overdrew Overdrawn Overdraws Overdrawing
Overhear Overheard Overheard Overhears Overhearing
Overtake Overtook Overtaken Overtakes Overtaking
Pay Paid Paid Pays Paying
Preset Preset Preset Presets Presetting
Prove Proved Proven/Proved Proves Proving
Put Put Put Puts Putting
Quit Quit Quit Quits Quitting
Re-prove Re-proved
Re-proven/Re-
proved
Re-proves Re-proving
Read Read Read Reads Reading
Rid Rid/Ridded Rid/Ridded Rids Ridding
Ride Rode Ridden Rides Riding
Ring Rang Rung Rings Ringing
Rise Rose Risen Rises Rising
Rive Rived Riven/Rived Rives Riving
Run Ran Run Runs Running
Saw Sawed Sawn/Sawed Saws Sawing
Say Said Said Says Saying
See Saw Seen Sees Seeing
Seek Sought Sought Seeks Seeking
SeII SoId SoId SeIIs SeIIing
Send Sent Sent Sends Sending
Set Set Set Sets Setting
Sew Sewed Sewn/Sewed Sews Sewing
Shake Shook Shaken Shakes Shaking
Shave Shaved Shaven/Shaved Shaves Shaving
Shear Shore/Sheared Shorn/Sheared Shears Shearing
Shed Shed Shed Sheds Shedding
Shine Shone Shone Shines Shining
Shoe Shod Shod Shoes Shoeing
Shoot Shot Shot Shoots Shooting
Show Showed Shown Shows Showing
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Shrinks Shrinking
Shut Shut Shut Shuts Shutting
101
Sing Sang Sung Sings Singing
Sink Sank Sunk Sinks Sinking
Sit Sat Sat Sits Sitting
SIay SIew SIain SIays SIaying
SIeep SIept SIept SIeeps SIeeping
SIide SIid SIid/SIidden SIides SIiding
SIing SIung SIung SIings SIinging
SIink SIunk SIunk SIinks SIinking
SIit SIit SIit SIits SIitting
SmeII SmeIt/SmeIIed SmeIt/SmeIIed SmeIIs SmeIIing
Sneak Sneaked/Snuck Sneaked/Snuck Sneaks Sneaking
Soothsay Soothsaid Soothsaid Soothsays Soothsaying
Sow Sowed Sown Sows Sowing
Speak Spoke Spoken Speaks Speaking
Speed Sped/Speeded Sped/Speeded Speeds Speeding
SpeII SpeIt/SpeIIed SpeIt/SpeIIed SpeIIs SpeIIing
Spend Spent Spent Spends Spending
SpiII SpiIt/SpiIIed SpiIt/SpiIIed SpiIIs SpiIIing
Spin Span/Spun Spun Spins Spinning
Spit Spat/Spit Spat/Spit Spits Spitting
SpIit SpIit SpIit SpIits SpIitting
SpoiI SpoiIt/SpoiIed SpoiIt/SpoiIed SpoiIs SpoiIing
Spread Spread Spread Spreads Spreading
Spring Sprang Sprung Springs Springing
Stand Stood Stood Stands Standing
SteaI StoIe StoIen SteaIs SteaIing
Stick Stuck Stuck Sticks Sticking
Sting Stung Stung Stings Stinging
Stink Stank Stunk Stinks Stinking
Stride Strode/Strided Stridden Strides Striding
Strike Struck Struck/Stricken Strikes Striking
String Strung Strung Strings Stringing
Strip Stript/Stripped Stript/Stripped Strips Stripping
Strive Strove Striven Strives Striving
SubIet SubIet SubIet SubIets SubIetting
Sunburn
Sunburned/Sunbu
rnt
Sunburned/Sunbu
rnt
Sunburns Sunburning
102
Swear Swore Sworn Swears Swearing
Sweat Sweat/Sweated Sweat/Sweated Sweats Sweating
Sweep Swept/Sweeped Swept/Sweeped Sweeps Sweeping
SweII SweIIed SwoIIen SweIIs SweIIing
Swim Swam Swum Swims Swimming
Swing Swung Swung Swings Swinging
Take Took Taken Takes Taking
Teach Taught Taught Teaches Teaching
Tear Tore Torn Tears Tearing
TeII ToId ToId TeIIs TeIIing
Think Thought Thought Thinks Thinking
Thrive Throve/Thrived Thriven/Thrived Thrives Thriving
Throw Threw Thrown Throws Throwing
Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrusts Thrusting
Tread Trod Trodden Treads Treading
Undergo Underwent Undergone Undergoes Undergoing
Understand Understood Understood Understands
Understandin
g
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Undertakes Undertaking
Upset Upset Upset Upsets Upsetting
Vex Vext/Vexed Vext/Vexed Vexes Vexing
Wake Woke Woken Wakes Waking
Wear Wore Worn Wears Wearing
Weave Wove Woven Weaves Weaving
Wed Wed/Wedded Wed/Wedded Weds Wedding
Weep Wept Wept Weeps Weeping
Wend Wended/Went Wended/Went Wends Wending
Wet Wet/Wetted Wet/Wetted Wets Wetting
Win Won Won Wins Winning
Wind Wound Wound Winds Winding
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Withdraws Withdrawing
WithhoId WithheId WithheId WithhoIds WithhoIding
Withstand Withstood Withstood Withstands Withstanding
Wring Wrung Wrung Wrings Wringing
Write Wrote Written Writes Writing
Zinc Zinced/Zincked Zinced/Zincked Zincs Zincking
103
PHRASAL VERBS
Adventures Growing Up:
Growing-up in the countryside offered us kids an enormous amount of
freedom in which to pIay. The onIy probIem was that we often got into troubIe as we
made up stories that we acted out around town. I can remember one adventure in
particuIar.
One day as we were coming back from schooI, we came up with the briIIiant
idea to pretend that we were pirates Iooking for treasure. My best friend Tom said
that he made out an enemy ship in the distance. As if previousIy rehearsed we aII
ran for cover.
We picked up a number of rocks to use as ammunition against the enemy
vesseI whiIe we put together our pIan of action. SIowIy we went aIong the path untiI
we were face to face with the enemy - the postman's truck!
The postman was dropping off a package at Mrs. Brown's house, so we aII got
into his truck. At that point, we reaIIy didn't have any idea of what we were going do.
The radio was pIaying so we turned down the voIume to discuss our pIan of action.
Jack was aII for switching on the motor and getting away with the vehicIe! Of
course, we were just chiIdren, but the idea of actuaIIy taking off with the truck was
so exciting.
We aII broke out in nervous Iaughter at the thought of us driving down the
road in the postaI Truck. LuckiIy for us, the postman came running just in the nick
of time shouting, "What are you kids up to?" Of course, we aII scattered out as
quickIy as we couId down the road, scared out of our wits, Ieaving behind our
ammunition for the maiI man to dispense of.
List of "PhrasaI verbs":
PHRASAL VERB TRANSLATION
To be back Estar de voIta
To be in Estar em casa, no escritrio, etc.
To be out Estar fora de casa, do escritrio,
etc
To be over Terminar
To be up Estar acordado
To break away SoItar-se, fugir
To break down Enguiar
To break in/into Arrombar
To break up Terminar, romper (namoro, etc.)
To bring up Educar
To caII for Ir buscar, exigir
To caII off CanceIar
To caII on Visitar
To caII up Ficar perto
To carry on Continuar
To carry out ReaIizar, cumprir
To dose down Ir faIncia
To cIose up Ficar perto
To come across Encontrar por acaso
To come aIong Acompanhar
To come down Descer
To come in Entrar
104
To come out Sair
To come to Recuperar os sentidos
To come up Aparecer, acontecer
To come up to Vir ao encontro de
To cry out Gritar
To cut down Derrubar, cortar (rvore)
To cut off Decepar, cortar (Iuz, gua, etc.)
To cut out Recortar
To cut up Cortar em pedaos
To dash off Escrever rapidamente
To die away Diminuir aos poucos
To die out Extinguir-se
To do without Passar sem
To draw back Retroceder
To drive at Insinuar; querer dizer
To drive away Afungentar, manter afastado
To drop in Visitar
To drop out Abandonar (escoIa, curso, etc.)
To fade away Desaparecer graduaImente
To faII apart Desmanchar-se
To faII back Recuar
To faII in Desabar, ruir
To faII through Fracassar
To feeI Iike Sentir vontade de
To fiII in/up Preencher
To get away Escapar, fugir
To get back VoItar
To get over Superar, recuperar-se (de doena)
To get by Sobreviver, conseguir passar (por
obstcuIos, etc.)
To get down Descer
To get in Entrar
To get off Descer, saItar (de nibus, trem,
etc.)
To get on Subir, entrar (em nibus, trem, etc.)
To get out Sair
To get through Atravessar, passar
To get to Chegar a
To get up Levantar-se
To give away Desfazer-se
To give back Desfazer-se
To give in Render-se, dar-se por vencido
To give out DivuIgar, distribuir
To give up Desistir
To go after Ir atrs de, perseguir
To go ahead Ir em frente, prosseguir
To go away Ir embora
To go back VoItar
To go down Descer
105
To go for Ir buscar
To go in Entrar
To go on Continuar
To go out Sair
To go over Examinar
To go up Subir
To grow up Crescer, ficar aduIto
To hand in Entregar
To hand out Distribuir
To hoId off Manter-se distncia
To hoId on Esperar
To hoId up Atrasar, retardar, assaItar mo
armada
To join in Participar
To join up AIistar-se
To keep off Manter-se distncia
To keep on Continuar
To keep out Manter-se fora de
To keep up with (one) Manter contato, estar em contato
(com aIgum)
To knock down Derrubar
To Iay off Dispensar, demitir empregados
To Ieave off Parar, Iargar
To Ieave out Omitir
To Iet (one) down Decepcionar (aIgum)
To Iet in Deixar entrar
To Iock up Trancar, encarcerar
To Iook after Tomar conta de
To Iook at OIhar para
To Iook back OIhar para trs
To Iook down on Menosprezar
To Iook for Procurar
To Iook forward to Esperar ansiosamente por
To Iook Iike Parecer-se com
To Iook on Considerar
To Iook out OIhar para fora, tomar cuidado
To Iook out for Ficar de oIhos abertos para
To Iook over Examinar, revisar
To Iook up Erguer os oIhos, consuItar (em
dicionrio, etc.)
To Iook up to (one) Respeitar, admirar (aIgum)
To make off Fugir
To make out Decifrar, preencher (cheque, etc.)
To make up for Compensar
To mix up Misturar bem, confundir
To make up Fazer as pazes, maquiar-se,
inventor
To move in Entrar de mudana, mudar-se para
To move out Sair de mudana, mudar-se de
106
To pay off SaIdar (divida)
To pick out SeIecionar, escoIher
To pick up Apanhar (aIgo ou aIgum)
To point at Apontar (dedo, arma, etc.)
To point out Indicar
To puII down Puxar para baixo, demoIir
To puII over Encostar (carro)
To puII up Puxar para cima, parar (carro)
To put aside Por de Iado
To put away Guardar, por no Iugar certo
To put down to Atribuir a
To put off Adiar
To put out Apagar (cigarro, fogo, etc.)
To put up with ToIerar, suportar
To ring up TeIefonar
To run after Perseguir
To run away Fugir
To run for Candidatar-se
To run into Encontrar-se por acaso
To run out of Ficar sem (dinheiro, etc.)
To run over AtropeIar
To see (one) off Despedir-se de (aIgum)
To see (one) out Levar (aIgum) at a sada
To see to (something) Cuidar de (aIgo)
To seII off Liquidar
To seII out Vender todo o estoque
To send away Mandar embora
To send for Mandar buscar
To send off Remeter, despachar
To set back Atrasar (reIgio)
To set out for Partir para
To show off Exibir-se
To shut down Encerrar as atividades (de um
negcio)
To shut in Confinar, trancar
To shut off Exibir-se
To shut up CaIar a boca
To sit down Sentar-se (aps estar em p)
To sit up Sentar-se (aps estar deitado)
To stand back Recuar
To stand by Apoiar, estar do Iado de
To stand for Apoiar, estar do Iado de
To stand up Levantar-se
To stand away Ausentar-se
To stay up Ficar acordado
To take after Parecer-se com
To take back Retirar (o que foi dito)
To take down Anotar
To take in AIojar, hospedar, enganar, visitar
107
To take off Tirar (a roupa), decoIar (avio)
To take on Contratar, assumir (tarefa)
To take out Tirar, remover
To taIk into Convencer, persuadir
To taIk out of Dissuadir (de)
To taIk over Discutir
To think about (of) Pensar em
To think over RefIetir
To throw away Jogar fora, descartar
To try on Experimentar (roupa)
To try out Testar
To turn around Virar-se (de Iado)
To turn away Mandar embora, despedir
To turn down Recusar, diminuir, baixar (voIume)
To turn into Transformar-se
To turn off DesIigar (rdio, TV, etc.)
To turn on Ligar (rdio, TV, etc.)
To turn out Vir a ser, resuItar
To turn over Virar (pgina)
To turn to VoItar-se para
To turn up Aparecer, aumentar (voIume,
veIocidade)
To wait for Esperar por
To wait on Atender, servir
To watch out Estar aIerta
To watch out for Tomar cuidado com
To work out CaIcuIar. resuItar
To write back Responder (por escrito)
To write down Tomar nota
To write out Escrever por extenso
EXPRESSES PREPOSICIONADAS
Expresso preposicionada Traduo
In Iove Apaixonado
In danger Em perigo
In a hurry Com pressa
In penciI A Ipis
In ink A caneta
In fact Na verdade
In troubIe Em apuros/encrencado
In generaI No geraI
In coId bIood sangue frio
In case No caso de
In cash vista (forma de pagamento)
In doubt Em dvida
On porpuse De propsito
On the other hand Por outro Iado
On vacation De frias
On business A negcios/ a servio
108
On duty De servio
On saIe Em promoo/Iiquidao
On foot A p
On horseback A cavaIo
On the average Na mdia
On the air No ar (bastidores de TV gravando)
On a diet De dieta
On Ieave De Iicena
On strike De greve
On fire Pegando fogo (tambm vaIe para
pessoas)
On aII fours De quatro
On the Ioose soIta
On the phone Ao teIefone
On the spot Em cima da hora
On triaI Em juIgamento
At aII Usado para enfatizar expresses
negativas
At once De uma vez
At Ieast No mnimo
At Iast At que fim
At hand A mo/ao aIcance
At the Iatest No mais tardar
At the most No mximo
At war Em guerra
At first sight primeira vista
At sunset Ao pr do soI
At work No trabaIho/trabaIhando
By accident AcidentaImente
By chance AcidentaImente
By mistake Por engano
By hand mo
By heart De cor (decorado)
By maiI Por carta
By sight De vista
By the way A propsito
Out of breath Sem fIego
Out of danger Fora de perigo
Out of date Fora de vaIidade
Out of fashion Fora de moda
Out of order Com defeito
Out of reach Fora de aIcance
Out of question AIgo decidido e pronto/ no adianta
questionar
For instance Por exempIo
For a change Pra variar
For good Para sempre
For sure Com certeza
For fun Por diverso
For saIe venda
109
SLANGS
airhead: stupid person.
ace: excellent, great.
Adam and Eve Rhyming Slang for
!believe!
aggro short for aggravation or
violence
amber fIuid : beer
anorak gee", nerd.
appIes and pears Rhyming
Slang for !stairs!.
armpit: dirty, unappealing place.
arse / ass #slightly offensive$ (1):
bac"side.
arse / ass (2): an unworthy person.
arse about/arsing about to fool
around
arse-about-face: something that is
in a mess or croo"ed
arsehoIed: very drun"
arvo : afternoon
Aussie : Australian
awesome: great and impressive.
backhander (1): a payment given,
normally in a secretive fashion.
backhander %&': hit someone.
baII (1): a fun time.
baII #slightly offensive$ (2): a testicle.
baIIistic to go mad with rage
bang #slightly offensive$(1): to ma"e
love
bang (2): a powerful effect.
banged up to be put in prison.
bangers another name for
sausages.
barbie : barbecue, grill.
barf (1): vomit.
barmy a foolish person, mad.
barney row, violent argument.
beans: money.
beast #offensive$ an ugly woman.
beat: tired.
beemer: a ()*.
bent %+': a !gay man!
bent %&': !stolen!.
biggie: something important.
biker: a motorcycle rider.
bikkie : biscuit
bimbo a young woman considered
sexually attractive but of limited
intelligence.
bird woman,girl,girlfriend
bitch #offensive$ (1): a very
unpleasant woman.
bitch #offensive$ (2): complain.
bitchy #slightly offensive$: moody.
bitzer : mongrel dog %bits of this and
bits of that-'.
bIaddered very drun"
bIag a robbery
bIoke man
bIotto !very drun"!
bIue %+' .../ dirty, hot, steamy,
pornographic
bIue (2): domestic fight or row.
bIuey pornographic film
boat race Rhyming Slang for
!face!.
bod: body.
bonkers; go bonkers: cra0y.
bonzer : great.
booboo: a mista"e.
bovver trouble, usually fighting.
booze: alcohol.
boozer (1): a pub
boozer %&': someone who li"es
alcohol.
Brahms and Liszt Rhyming
Slang for !pissed! %drun"'.
110
brass monkeys cold weather
bread: money.
brew (1): tea or coffee.
brew (2): beer.
briII short for !brilliant!.
buII: bullshit/ lie.
buIIshit #offensive$: lie/ dishonesty.
bugger a mild form of abuse or an
exclamation.
bunk-off to be absent without
permission
bunk-up to ma"e love.
bushed: extremely tired.
butt: the buttoc"s, bottom.
cabbage someone who is a bit
slow or stupid
cakehoIe mouth..
catch some rays: get some
sunshine.
char / cha tea.
cheesy: cheap/ lac"ing in good
taste.
chicken: coward.
chook : a chic"en
chuck up: vomit
chuck a sickie : ta"e the day off
sic" from wor" when you!re perfectly
healthy.
ciggy slang for cigarette.
cock and buII story a rubbish
story, nonsense.
(to) cop it to die, to get into
trouble.
cooI: excellent/ superb.
cooIer, the: gaol/ jail/ prison
couch potato: a person who
watches too much television.
cozzie : swimming costume
cranky : in a bad mood, angry.
crap #slightly offensive$ (1):
something worthless.
crap #offensive$ (2): excrement.
crap #slightly offensive$ (3):
falsehoods and lies.
crikey an expression of
astonishment.
crust money , wage.
cushy easy.
dead cert something that is
definite.
deck: to hit someone.
dicey: unpredictable/ ris"y.
dickhead #slightly offensive$ an
idiot, fool.
diII : an idiot.
ding-dong argument or fight.
dipstick idiot, fool.
dirt: extremely bad person.
dirty: offensive/ pornographic.
div/divvy stupid or slow person.
doodIe something thats easy , no
problem.
dodgy dubious person or thing.
dog #offensive$ an ugly girl.
done over beaten up
dope a slow or stupid person.
doobry a nonsensical word used
when you forget the name of
something
dorky: strange/ peculiar.
dosh money.
dosser downandout, tramp.
down under : Australia and 1ew
2ealand.
Drongo : a dope, stupid person.
dude: a male.
dump #slightly offensive$ to
defecate.
dyke #offensive$ lesbian.
dynamite: powerful/ excellent.
dinosaur: something out of date or
old fashioned.
earbashing : nagging, nonstop
chatter.
eviI: great/ excellent.
eyebaII: to stare long and hard at
someone or something.
eyepopper: something or someone
visibly astounding.
fab: fabulous.
face-off: confrontation.
fag #offensive$ %+': homosexual
fag %&': cigarette
famiIy jeweIs Rhyming Slang for
testicles.
far out splendid.
fart #offensive$ (1): an escape of gas
from the bowels.
fart #slightly offensive$ (2): an
unpleasant person
fat head an idiot or dull person.
fender-bender: small accident.
fiIth #offensive$ the police.
fit sexually attractive.
111
five finger discount shoplifting.
fIaky: unpredictable.
fIashback: sudden memory.
fIick (1): film/ movie.
fIick (2): to give something or
somebody the flic" is to get rid of it
or him,her
fIoating : intoxicated
fIoozie a mistress or girlfriend.
fIommox confuse
fIutter a bet %on horse racing or
football'
footie Abbreviated form for
football.
for crying out Ioud ! a expression
of frustration or anger.
forty winks a short sleep or nap.
fox: attractive, alluring person.
freebie: something that does not
cost money.
French kiss : "issing with the
tongue.
fuII monty !the whole lot!,
everything.
fuII-on powerful, with maximum
effort.
funny farm mental hospital or
institution.
funny money counterfeit money.
gaff house or flat.
gander to loo" at.
geek: an unattractive person who
wor"s too hard.
get it: to understand something.
gIitch: flaw.
gobshite #offensive$ someone who
tal"s rubbish all the time.
go bananas: go slightly mad.
good onya : good for you, well
done
goof (1): ma"e a mista"e.
goof (2): a silly and foolish person.
goof off: waste time.
goof up: ma"e a mista"e.
goofy: silly.
Gordon Bennet an exclamation.
grand: one thousand dollars.
grass: marijuana.
greaser slang name for a +345!s
style man.
grog : alcohol, beer.
grub: food.
grubby: not clean.
grungy: unclean and stin"y.
gut: a person!s stomach/ belly.
guts: courage.
gyno - gynaecologist
hacked off fed up, annoyed.
hairy: difficult/ dangerous.
ham-fisted clumsy.
hammered drun".
handcuffs: an engagement ring or
wedding ring
hang a Ieft: ma"e a left turn.
hang a right: ma"e a right turn.
headcase mad
hep: sensible/ informed.
her ('er) indoors wife, girlfriend.
hickey: a love bite on the s"in.
hip: sensible/ informed.
hoIe in the waII a cashpoint
machine or ban"omat.
hoo-ha trouble/ commotion.
hooker: prostitute.
horny: in the mood for sex,
sexually stimulated/.
hot (1): sexy.
hot (2):popular.
hottie : hot water bottle
huff bad mood.
humungous: really big.
hump (1) to have sex.
hump (2) bad mood.
hyper: overly excited.
icky: unpleasant.
I.D.: identification.
iffy dubious, doubtful.
I'm outta here: I!m leaving/ I!m
departing.
in: fashionable.
ivories: teeth.
jack around: waste time.
jam (1): trouble.
jam (2): improvise %musically'.
jamming, to be : going well.
jammy luc"y.
jerk: stupid or annoying person.
jock: someone good at sports.
K : a thousand.
keep your hair on 6"eep calm6.
kick back: relax and enjoy.
kick the bucket: die.
kip sleep.
knackered exhausted.
112
knees up party.
knock: condemn, criticise.
knockout: beautiful woman/
handsome man.
knock back : refusal %noun', refuse
%transitive verb'
kook: peculiar person.
kraut #slightly offensive$ 7erman
Iaid back: relaxed/ calm.
Iairy loud, brash.
Iame: incompetent.
IegIess very drun".
Iimp wristed a gay man.
Iip: chee"y tal".
Ioaded someone with a lot of
money.
Ioo : toilet
Ioser: a bungling and worthless
person.
Iost the pIot cra0y,mad.
Iove handIes: excess fat around the
waist.
IuvverIy jubberIy wonderful,
great, all is well.
make waves: cause problems.
maIarkey nonsense.
mate friend
max, to the : maximum.
mega: big.
megabucks: a large amount of
money.
meIIow: relaxed.
mickey-mouse: unimportant/ time
wasting.
minger #offensive$ an unattractive
person %usually female'.
mongreI : despicable person
moonie #offensive-$ to show one!s
bottom %arse' to unsuspecting
onloo"ers.
moose #offensive$ an ugly girl.
mozzie : mos8uito
mug : a gullible person.
naff something which is cheap and
nasty.
naff off a milder version off fu9"
off.
nancy (nancy boy) a homosexual.
nark a police informer.
narked to be annoyed.
neat: cool/ great.
nick to steal.
nipper a small child.
no-hoper - somebody who!ll never
do well
nosh food.
not cricket not normal or correct.
not aII there someone who is
stupid, not bright intellectually
not haIf! cetainly, for sure.
not the fuII quid - someone who is
stupid, not bright intellectually.
nuke (1): nuclear weapon.
nuke (2): destroy/ delete.
nuke (3): coo" something in the
microwave oven.
nut (1): odd or cra0y person.
nut (2): someone passionate about
something.
nutter cra0y person.
nuts #slightly offensive$: testicles.
nutty eccentric.
off your face to be very drun".
out of your tree cra0y, drun" or
stoned.
pad: someone!s home.
pants (1) an exclamation of
frustration.
pants (2) bad or rubbish.
party: celebrate.
party animaI: someone that loves
parties.
paws: hands.
peanuts: very little money.
pee: to urinate.
pickIed: drun".
pig out: eat too much.
pigs ear: to ma"e a mista"e with
something.
piss #slightly offensive$ to urinate.
pissed drun".
pissed (off): angry/ upset.
piss-head a habitual drin"er or
alcoholic.
piss-up a big drin"ing session.
pIank an idiot.
pIastered: drun".
pIonker an idiot
pad: someone!s home.
pIonk (1) : cheap wine
pIonk (2): sit down as in 6plon"
your arse down there6.
poop [offensive]: defecation/ shit.
poop out: get tired and 8uit.
113
postie : postman
pot: marijuana.
prezzy : present, gift
pro someone who!s good at
something/ professional.
psycho: cra0y person.
puke: vomit.
pumped (up): excited.
queer #slightly offensive$ a
homosexual.
rabbit tal".
racket (1): noise.
racket (2): an occupation.
racket (3): something that!s
dishonest or deceptive.
rat: a despicable person.
rat-arsed drun".
rear (end): buttoc"s.
(a) riot - something or someone
very funny.
rip off (1): stealing.
rip off (2): fraud.
ripper : great, fantastic
rocking: great/ excellent.
roII up a hand rolled cigarette.
rosie Iee tea
rubbish: nonsense/ not true.
ruck a fight.
rug wig, toupee.
rug rat: a child.
rum odd, strange.
runs, the: diarrhoea.
scoff: to eat.
screw up: to ma"e a mista"e.
screw-up: a person who ma"es a
mista"e.
scum %offensive$ a despicable
individual.
shades sunglasses.
shag #slightly offensive$ to ma"e
love.
shagged-out to feel tired.
shed-Ioad a huge amount.
shite milder variation of the word
shit.
shitfaced #slightly offensive$ very
drun".
shithead #slightly offensive$: a
stupid, impolite person.
skint to have no money
skosh a little bit.
sIapper #offensive$ a loose or easy
woman.
smeghead an idiot.
snog to "iss
snookered: cheated, stuc".
soIid (1): really good/ cool.
soIid (2): consecutive.
specs: eyeglasses.
spIit: to leave.
spunk #offensive$ (1): semen
spunk %&': spirit.
spunk (3): an attractive man.
stoned: drun" from drugs or
alcohol.
stunner a very good loo"ing
woman.
street smart: "nowledgeable about
city life.
strewth : exclamation
(I'II be) stuffed : expression of
surprise
suck: to be bad and unacceptable.
sunnies : sunglasses
swagman : tramp
sweet excellent, cool.
ta than"s.
tacky something of poor taste or
style.
tanked (up) to get very drun".
tea Ieaf Rhyming Slang for thief.
teIIy television.
thick as shit #offensive$ very
stupid.
thick as two short
pIanks #offensive$ very stupid.
thingo : *adjamacallit, thingummy,
whatsit, something you don!t "now
the name of-
thou: thousand.
threads: clothing.
ticker (1): the heart.
ticker (2): a watch.
tiddIy slightly drun".
toss-pot #slightly offensive$ idiot.
totaIIy: really/ completely.
to the max: maximum.
troII an ugly girl.
(the) trots diarrhoea.
troubIe and strife Rhyming
Slang for !wife!.
trout #offensive$ unattractive
woman
114
turkey (1): failure/ flop.
turkey (2): dumb person.
turn-off: something that repulses a
person.
umpteen: many/ countless.
up for it to be willing to have a
good time.
up the duff to be pregnant.
UncIe Tom CobIey and aII a
phrase meaning !everyone!.
uptight: nervous/ anxious.
veg out : relax in front of the :;
%li"e a vegetable'
wad: a lot of money.
wanker an idiot or an unpleasant
person.
wasted: "illed.
weed %+': marijuana.
weed %&': someone who is wea".
wheeIs: car/ motorcycle.
whiz: someone who shows a
special talent for something.
wicked excellent, cool.
wimp: wea"/ feeble.
wimpy: wea".
wind up to tease.
winks: sleep.
wuss : coward
x-rated pornographic.
yabber : tal" %a lot'
Yank: an American.
yob a horrible or uncouth young
man.
zeds sleep.
zero an unimportant person.
ziIch - nothing
zip (1) nothing.
zip (2) energy/ vigor.
zip it shut up.
zit: pimple/ acne.
Extra Exercises
1. (FMTM-MG) WiII you ... that door?
a- to open
b- open
c- opening
d- opened
e- opens
2. (VUNESP) He . to return to his home.
a- not wanted
b- wanted
c- did wanted
d- does wanted
e- to want
3. (VUNESP) They saw men an women taIking yo . own hearts.
a- his
b- her
c- them
d- they
e- their
4. (UFPA) The women asked me where the hoteI was, so I toId . how to
get there.
a- her
b- she
c- them
d- hers
e- they
5. (CESESP-PE) "Most . and . are afraid of ."
a- womans - chiIds - mouses
115
b- women's - chiIdren's - mousen
c- women - chiIdren - mice
d- womans - chiIdren - micen
e- womens - chiIdren - mices
6. (UFRS) Monday mornings there's not as . traffic as at weekends.
a- much
b- many
c- more
d- a few
e- few
7. (U.CAT-SaIvador-BA) She bought . potatoes for dinner.
a- IittIe
b- much
c- a Iot
d- a few
e- Iess
8. (MACK-SP) There are . dangerous drivers
a- a very Iot of
b- very many of
c- very much of
d- a Iot of
e- a very much Iot of
9. (UNIP-SP) . peopIe beIieve that they are not . inteIIigent poIiticians.
a- Very - many
b- A Iot - very
c- Few - a few
d- Much - a Iot of
e- Many - very
10. (ITA) As soon as you . ready, we wiII go downtown.
a- wiII be
b- was
c- shaII be
d- are
e- be
11. (PUC-RS) Todas as paIavras abaixo formam o pIuraI como Iife/Iives,
exceto:
a- caIf
b- haIf
c- Ieaf
d- chief
e- woIf
12. (UFBA) Entre as aIternativas aprensetadas, escoIha a que mais
diretamente se reIaciona, peIo sentido, com o vocbuIo as soon as:
a- sempre que
b- a fim de que
c- antes de
116
d- depois de
e- Iogo que
13. (ABC-SP) We wiII never betray ...
a- ours friend
b- a friend of our
c- a friend of us
d- a friend of we
e- a friend of ours
14. (VUNESP) This dictionary is in . fourth edition.
a- his
b- her
c- its
d- it's
e- their
15. (UFRS) His sharp poIiticaI instincts usuaIIy . him severaI steps ahead
of his adversaries.
a- keeps
b- keep
c- is keeping
d- is kept
e- wiII keep
16. (ITA) Our friends insist that there is something .
a- between her and I
b- between she an me
c- between hers and I
d- between her and me
e- between she and I
17. (FATEC-SP) We had been waiting for over an hour before the bus
finaIIy.
a- arrive
b- arrives
c- arrived
d- has arrived
e- wiII arrive
18. (F. C. CHAGAS-BA) He . have a Iarge famiIy. He bought . food.
a- may - so many
b- might - so few
c- can - Iots of
d- wiII - very IittIe
e- must - so much
19. (U. F. C.-BA) Most adoIescents spend a Iong time Iooking at . in the
mirror.
a- them
b- themseIves
c- their
d- theirs
e- there
117
20. (ITA-SP) She kwew . better than he knew .
a- himseIf - him
b- himseIf - himseIf
c- him - himseIf
d- he - himseIf
e- nenhuma das anteriores
21. (PUC-CAMPINAS) QuaI das frases est correta?
a- The chiIdrens stayed at home by himseIf.
b- The chiIdren stayed at home by-theirseIves.
c- The chiId stayed at home by themseIves.
d- The chiIdren stayed at home by themseIves.
e- The chiIds stayed at home by herseIf.
22. (UFBA) "s" a forma abreviada de "is" em:
a- It's happening
b- Picasso's impressionistic figure
c- City's pride
d- Isamu Noguchi's scuIpture
e- New York's creations
23. (FMU/FIAM-SP) Never . I seen . fat mice.
a- have - such a
b- has - such a
c- has - such
d- have - such
e- have - so a
24. (ABC-SP) ., isn't it?
a- There isn't a terminaI connected to it.
b- That's a test tube.
c- It was a new project.
d- There weren't any patients in the waiting room.
e- It contains oxygen.
25. (UFRS) Let's not argue about that, .
a- wiII you:
b- Iet us?
c- Iet's not?
d- don't us?
e- shaII we?
26. (ITA-SP) The house . he Iives in needs repairing.
a- where
b- what
c- .
d- whose
e- in wich
27. (F. C. CHAGAS-BA) Look! That is the man . foIIowed me yesterday.
a- which
118
b- what
c- whose
d- whom
e- who
28. (ITA-SP) Choose the correct aIternative.
a- Who of you understand this exercise?
b- What of you understand this exercise?
c- Whom of you understand this exercise
d- Whose of you understand this exercise?
e- Which of you understand this exercise?
29. (U. C. SAL-BA) EIe acabou de sair.
a- He hasn't Ieft yet.
b- He won't Ieave untiI he finishes.
c- He can't Ieave before it is over.
d- He has just Ieft.
e- He Ieaves whenever he wishes.
30. (PUC-CAMPINAS) "The banks are cIosed and I need some money.
CouId I . some from you?
a- offer
b- Iend
c- give
d- borrow
e- send
31. (FGV-SP) No right turn.
a- Ningum est com razo.
b- proibido acender a Iuz.
c- Proibida converso a direita.
d- Nada est certo.
e- No sua vez.
32. (ACAFE-SC) Which pairo f words hs opposite meaning?
a- heat/temperature
b- hoId/feeI
c-coId/coId
d- higher/hotness
e- Ioses/gains
33. (FGV-SP) Nobody came up with a soIution for the crises.
a- heard
b- offered
c- refused
d- beIieved
e- accepted
34. (U. C. S.-BA) The young feIIow envertained everybody pretending to be
LioneI Ritchie singing "We a re the worId".
a- pretendendo
b- ansiando
119
c- imaginando
d- fingindo
e- prometendo
35. (CESESP-PE) "My brother was puzzIed when he heard about Jane's
marriage".
a- confused
b- angry
c- disgusted
d- happy
e- sad
36. (FGV-SP) AssinaIe a traduo correta da sentence apresentada: He's
never at a Ioss for words.
a- Nunca Ihe faItam paIavras.
b- No Ihe escapa uma paIavra.
c- EIe se perde em circunIquios.
d- EIe nunca encontra as paIavras adequadas.
e- EIe jamais se perde em paIavras.
37. (STA. CASA-SP) Uma nica aspirina por dia pode evitar ataques
cardacos.
a- A singIe aspirin a Day can prevent heart attacks.
b- A unique aspirin used dayIy may hoId back cardiac arrest.
c- OnIy a daiIy aspirin is abIe to avert a heart attack.
d- One soIe aspirin during the day can avoid heart attacks.
e- One aspirin a day may hinder a heart condition.
38. (STA. CASA-SP) Scientists stress that 25% of aduIts need to Iower
their bIood choIesteroI. AssinaIe a aIternative que corresponde paIavra
subIinhada.
a- saIientam
b- enervam-se
c- angustiam-se
d- estimam
e- deprimem-se
39. (U. CAT.-SALVADOR) The situation was sob ad that now it can onIy
improve.
a- provocar
b- meIhorar
c- estabiIizar
d- piorar
e- proteIar
40. (FGV-SP) AssinaIe a traduo correta da sentena apresentada. It
doesn't pay to study so hard.
a- EIe d duro mas no consegue pagar os estudos.
b- EIe no consegue pagar os estudos embora tente.
c- muito duro pagar os estudos.
120
d- No vaIe a pena estudar tanto.
e- No uma fortuna custear os estudos.
41. (FGV-SP) AssinaIe a traduo correta da sentena apresentada: I'm
sure the meeting won't take Iong.
a- No acho que a reunio foi Ionga.
b- Tenho certeza de que a reunio no demorar muito.
c- Tenho certeza de que a reunio no tardar a comear.
d- O encontro, com certeza, no Ihe tomar muito tempo.
e- Acho que o encontro no terminou ainda.
42. (UFGO) "Yet it showed a naturaI abiIity to use stars for guidance."
a- EIe mostrava assim a habiIidade naturaI de usar as estreIas.
b- Contudo, mostrou uma habiIidade naturaI de usar as estreIas como
guia.
c- Ento mostrou uma habiIidade de usar as estreIas naturaImente.
d- Assim, naturaImente mostrava sua habiIidade de seguir as estreIas.
e- Portanto, mostrava sua habiIidade naturaI de guiar as estreIas.
43. (CESESP-PE) "He ... a cigar for the Iast eight years.
a- shaII not smoke
b- did not smoke
c- is not smoking
d- wiII not smoke
e- has not smoked
44. (UNI. CAT. DOM BOSCO-MS) Mary . in braziI .
a- has Iived - Iast year
b- Iived - from 1985 to 1990
c- Iive - since JuIy
d- has Iived - next month
e- is Iiving - a week ago
45. (U..C.S.-BA) How Iong . pIants survive without water?
a- does
b- are
c- had
d- have
e- can
46. (UNAES-MS) My wife and I . more vegetabIes nowadays.
a- is eating
b- eats
c- are eating
d- has eating
e- is going to eat
47. (GV-SP) It is impossibIe to enjoy idIing unIess one has pIenty of work
to do.
a- impossiveI usufruir o Iazer a no ser que se tenha muito trabaIho a
fazer.
b- impossveI gostar do que se faz quando no se est em paz,
121
c- Quanto menos trabaIho se tiver, mais se pode gozar a vida.
d- No d para descansar quando se tem muito a trabaIhar.
e- No possveI curtir o descanso a menos que se tenha terminado o
trabaIho.
48. (UNAES-CG) Voc educou seus fiIhos sozinha?
a- You educated your sons aIone?
b- Do you educate your sons aII aIone?
c- Did you bring upyour chiIdren aII by yourseIf?
d- Have you educated you chiIdren yourseIves?
e- Have you brought your son's IoneIy?
49. (FGV-SP) On cIoser examination the researche reaIized the report had
severaI fauIts.
a- Quando se aproximou o exame, o procurador terminou o reIatrio com
aIgumas faIhas.
b- Ao se aproximar do exame, o pesquisador notou que faItavam certos
reIatrios.
c- Num exame mais detaIhados o pesquisador percebeu que o reIatrio
tinha diversas faIhas.
d- Ao encerrar o exame, o examinador se deu conta das inmeras faItas
constantes no reIatrio.
e- Examinando meIhor o reIatrio, o pesquisador corrigiu os ppoucos
erros que havia.
50. (FGV-SP) "To starve" significa:
a- passer privacies
b- ficar sem abrigo
c- morrer de fome
d- contrair doenas
e- perder o emprego
51. (FEI-SP) It hs been known for some time.
a- Sabe-se h pouco tempo.
b- Sabe-se h muito tempo.
c- Sabe-se h aIgum tempo.
d- Foi conhecido h muito tempo.
e- Foi conhecido h aIgum tempo.
52. (FGV-SP) The more things change, the more they are the same.
a- As coisas mudam, quanto mais semeIhantes forem.
b- meIhor mudar mais coisas para haver maiores semeIhanas.
c- Quanto mais se mudam as coisas, mais h a mudar.
d- Quanto maiores as mudanas, maiores as semeIhanas.
e- Quanto mais as coisas mudam, tanto mais permanecem inaIteradas.
53. (U. C. SAL-BA) He's very good Iooking.
a- EIe tem uma vista muito boa.
b- EIe muito atraente.
c- EIe se veste muito bem.
d- EIe tem um oIhar muito bondoso.
e- EIe est sempre na moda.
122
54. (FMTM-MG) They were ... destroyed.
a- totaI
b- compIete
c- compIeteIy
d- entire
e- beautifuI
55. (CESESP-PE) Mr. Jones toId me his daughter wouId . to take this test
right now.
a- can
b- may
c- ought
d- must
e- be abIe
56. (ITA-SP) He . to bed as soon as he got to the hospitaI, wasn't he?
a- put
b- was putting
c- wiII put
d- was put
e- puts
57. (OBJ-SP) He behaves as if he . the owner of the worId.
a- is
b- had been
c- were
d- has been
e- is being
58. (FMU-SP) You'd Iike to have a can of beer, .?
a- wouIdn't you?
b- hadn't you?
c- can't you?
d- haven't you?
e- don't you?
59. (ITA-SP) "If you wanted it, why didn't you say ."
a- through
b- even
c- however
d- then
e- so
60. (FGV-SP) If you don't Iike your neighbor, you have to . taIking to him.
a- avoid
b- deIay
c- ignore
d- mind
e- forgive
123
61. (PUC-RS) The empIoyers were interested in . with the owner of the
factory about better pay.
a- to taIk
b- taIking
c- taIk
d- have taIked
e- have taIking
62. (ITA-SP) The test was . no one passed.
a- very hard that
b- too hard for that
c- too hard, so
d- so hard so that
e- too hard
63. (MACK-SP) Stop . to her! You are bothering her. It's useIess . on it.
a- writing - insisting
b- to write - to insist
c- written - insist
d- write - insist
e- writing - not insist
64. (ITA-SP) They toId me they . tomorrow and not the day after
tomorrow.
a- come
b- wiII come
c- shaII come
d- may come
e- wouId come
65. (FEP-PA) They said: "We'II go no matter what happens." They said that
they . no matter what .
a- wiII go - happens
b- wouId go - happened
c- wouId have gone - happened
d- go - happened
e- had gone - can happen
66. (OBJ-SP) I'II try to . my best to . him the whoIe truth.
a- doing - teIIing
b- do - say
c- do - teII
d- make - say
e- make - teII
67. (OBJ-SP) You ... ! The cigarette may be dangerous to you:
a- have to stop to smoking
b- must stopped smoking
c- need to stop to smoking
d- ought to stop to smoke
e- shouId stop smoking
124
68. (FATEC-SP) The buses are crowded and dirty; . they are never on
time.
a- then
b- instead
c- in addition
d- for exampIe
e- nevertheIess
69. (PUC-RS) Many women have proved that they can be . mother and
worker.
a- aIso
b- besides
c- both
d- neither
e- as weII
70. (ITA-SP) I remember . him that first evening.
a- seen
b- to see
c- seeing
d- see
e- have seen
71. (OBJ-SP) Keep on .
a- had tried
b- having tried
c- to try
d- try
e- trying
72. (OSEC) "My wife Iearned to pIay bridge". "How nice! We ."
a- pIay often that game, too.
b- often pIay that game, too.
c- aIso that game pIay often.
d- pIay aIso that game often.
e- pIay too often that game.
73. (MACK) Leonardo da Vinci . a famous painter.
a- is
b- have been
c- were
d- been
e- being
74. (MACK) Martha . her parents next hoIiday.
a- visited
b- is visiting
c- visit
d- is visiting
e- is visited
75. I'm taking my umbreIIa in case it . Iater on.
125
a- rains
b- rain
c- raining
d- is rainrnng
e- rained
76. As Iong as I . I'II not move from my hometown.
a- Iives
b- to Iives
c- Iie
d- am Iiving
e- to Iive
77. Sergio . to the radio whiIe his IittIe brother .
a- is Iistenning/in runing
b- is Iistening/is runing
c- s Iistening/is running
d- is Iistening/is running
e- is Iistening/runs
78. Jane is an exceIIent student. At this moment she . her Iesson, and
she sureIy . it.
a- studys - understood
b- studied - is understanding
c- is studied - is understanding
d- has studying - is understands
e- is studying - understands.
79. Smith aIways . to cIass on time.
a- is coming
b- comes
c- come
d- cames
e- had come
80. Let me know as soon as he .
a- is up making
b- making up
c- makes up
d- make up
e- to make up
81. (PUC) Mary . an accident in the car and then . to keep quiet about it.
a- had -decides
b- has - has decided
c- wiII have - decides
d- had - decided
e- is having - deciding
82. (FAAP) The BraziIian footbaII team . to VenezueIa Iast week.
a- fIew
b- fIy
126
c- fIown
d- fIying
e- have fIown
83. I was surprised because I . expect to see him again.
a- don't
b- wiII not
c- have not
d- did not
e- had not
84. (USP) I wish tomorrow . Easter.
a- has been
b- is
c- were
d- be
e- wiII be
85. (PUC) He . aII the wine that was in the bottIe.
a- drink
b- drinks
c- drinked
d- drunk
e- drank
86. The IittIe boy . the picture of a garden at schooI Iast Monday.
a- draw
b- draws
c- drawn
d- drew
e- drawing
87. I . what he . but I couId not understand it.
a- hear - said
b- heard - says
c- hear - say
d- heard - said
e- hearing - saying
88. My mother is not very patient. I wish she . our probIems.
a- understood
b- understands
c- wiII understand
d- can understand
e- may understand
89. Yesterday, whiIe he . down the street, he . and oId friend of his.
a- has waIked - met
b- waIked - had met
c- was waIking - met
d- waIked - was meeting
127
e- waIks - met
90. I . up very earIy Iast Sunday; my neighbor's dog . cIose to my
window.
a- woke - was yeIping
b- wake - was yeIping
c- was waIdng - yeIping
d- woke - were yeIping
e- were waIdng - yeIping
91. The President, in one of bis rare tong speeches, toId the peopIe that
the country . a crisis.
a- facing
b- were facing
c- face
d- was face
e- was facing
92. I wish . more money; I wouId buy a new fIat.
a- earn
b- earned
c- earns
d- to earn
e- am earning
93. Now I reaIize that I acted as if I . a chiId.
a- was
b- be
c- were
d- is
e- am
94. (ITA) PauI . haIf the work, when they . in.
a- finished - came
b- has finished - came
c- had finished - had come
d- has finished - had come
e had finished - came
95. (MACK) PauI . in Germany since 1960.
a- Iived
b- has Iived
c- wiII Iive
d- Iives
e- Iive
96. My brother . to me for months.
a- doesn't write
b- don't write
c- has not written
d- has not being written
e- have written
128
97. (ITA) He . in a hoteI fom before Christmas untiI now.
a- had worked
b- has been working
c- is working
d- works
e- work
98. (PUC) He'd been a businessman before he . an actor.
a- becomes
b- has become
c- become
d- is becoming
e- became
99. (ITA) The train . after I . for about haIf an hour.
a- came - wait
b- came - wiII wait
c- come - wouId wait
d- came - had been waiting
e- came - am waiting
100. (UEMT) "Did you speak to Mr. James?" "No because they said he
hadn't arrived .
a- stiII
b- aIready
c- yet
d- thus
e- untiI
101. Sarah . cIasses IateIy, has she?
a- didn't attend
b- hadn't attended
c- hasn't attended
d- haven't attended
e- doesn't attend
102. Mary . the room upstairs since 5 p.m.
a- has been decorating
b- have been decorating
c- has decorating
d- hasn't decorate
e- hasn't been decorated
103. He . poems since he was a teenager.
a- writes
b- has written
c- wroted
d- has been writing
e- hasn't been decorated
129
104. The motorist discovered to his reIief that he . the wrong road to
town.
a- heaven't taken
b- hasn't took
c- hadn't taken
d- hadn't took
e- haven't take
105. We immediateIy recognized each other, aIthough we . for years.
a- hadn't meet
b- hadn't met
c- had meet
d- hasn't met
e- meet
COMPREENSO DE TEXTO
Entender um texto pode parecer difciI, primeira vista, no s peIo
desconhecimento do vocabuIrio empregado, mas tambm peIa
compIexidade das construes frasais utiIizadas.
Nesta unidade, vamos ajud-Io a compreender e Iidar com textos,
que constituem a parte principaI da maioria dos exames de vestibuIar.
O nveI de compreenso vai depender do propsito, conhecimento
da Ingua, conhecimento do tpico e vai depender muito de como
utiIizamos os conhecimentos que j possumos. Assim, existem aIguns
assuntos que nos so famiIiares, vocabuIrio que se assemeIha ou est
incorporado ao portugus, construes gramaticais que do sentido ao
contedo, etc.
evidente que cada pessoa tem seu modo pecuIiar de
compreender o que I, mas, mesmo assim, aqui esto aIgumas sugestes
para aprimorar seu prprio mtodo.
AIgumas estratgias de Ieitura:
Observar o ttuIo, se houver, pois, em geraI este resume o assunto.
AnaIisar a apresentao ou formato do texto: um diIogo, carta,
poema, narrativa.
Reconhecer que toda expresso textuaI (gnero) tem uma funo e
que todos os eIementos devem ser considerados para a
interpretao.
Identificar, subIinhando as paIavras que voc conhece: as que se
assemeIham ao portugus, denominadas cognatas, como solution
(soIuo) e as que j se incorporaram nossa Ingua: hot dog! e-
mail! software! etc.
Identificar a sentena principaI ou assunto de cada pargrafo. Ler
as questes formuIadas ajuda muito na identificao do assunto.
Lembre-se que para compreender um texto no absoIutamente
fundamentaI conhecer todas as paIavras. perfeitamente possveI
compreende-Io captando o seu sentido geraI.
Texto 01:
MICHAEL JACKSON:
130
MichaeI Jackson (August 29, 1958 - June 25, 2009), dubbed the
"King of Pop", was an American musician and one of the most
commerciaIIy successfuI entertainers of aII time. His unique contributions
to music and dance, aIong with a highIy pubIicized personaI Iife, made
him a prominent figure in popuIar cuIture for four decades.
He started a soIo career in 1971, having made his debut in 1964 as a
member of The Jackson 5. His 1982 aIbum ThriIIer remains the best-
seIIing aIbum of aII time, with four others - Off the WaII (1979). Bad (1987).
Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995) - among the best seIIing. He
popuIarized severaI physicaIIy compIicated dance moves, such as the
robot and the moonwaIk. He is wideIy credited with having transformed
the music video from a promotionaI tooI into an art form, with videos for
his songs "BiIIie Jean", "Beat It" and "ThriIIer" making him the first
African American artist to amass a strong crossover foIIowing on MTV.
Twice inducted into the Rock and RoII HaII of Fame, his other
achievements feature muItipIe Guinness
WorId Records - incIuding the "Most SuccessfuI Entertainer of AII
Time" - 13 Grammy Awards, 17 number one singIes (incIuding the four
number ones with Jackson 5), and estimated saIes of over 750 miIIion
records worId-wide. He was aIso a notabIe phiIanthropist and
humanitarian who donated and raised miIIion of doIIars through his own
HeaI the WorId Foundation, and support of 39 other charities. Jackson's
personaI Iife generated significant controversy. His changing appearance
was noticed from the earIy 1980s, with changes to the shape of his nose
and to the coIor of his skin drawing media pubIicity. He was accused in
1993 of chiId sexuaI abuse, aIthough no charges were brought. He married
twice, first in 1994 and again in 1996, and brought up three chiIdren, one
born to a surrogate mother. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of chiId
moIestation aIIegations. WhiIe preparing for the This Is It concert tour in
2009, Jackson died at the age of 50 in Los AngeIes, CaIifornia, after
suffering from cardiac arrest. His memoriaI service was broadcast Iive
round the worId.
(Adapted from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MichaeI_Jackson#1995.E2.80.9397:_HIStory)
VocabuIary:
- Debut: estria; Ibum de estria.
- ThriIIer: romance poIiciaI; fiIme de suspense.
- To amass: acumuIar.
- Crossover: mudana (que faz um ator, cantor, etc. de uma atividade
artstica a outra.
- WorId-wide: mundiaI (adj.); mundiaImente (adv.).
- Surrogate mother: me de aIugueI.
- To acquit: absoIver.
- Cardiac arrest: ataque cardaco.
- Broadcast: transmitir (por rdio ou TV).
Text Comprehension:
1. How was MichaeI Jackson caIIed?
a) Prominent figure.
b) PopuIar cuIture.
c) CommerciaIIy successfuI.
131
d) American musician.
e) King of Pop.
2. "#obot$ and "%oonwal&$ were
a) speciaI dance movements created by MichaeI Jackson.
b) musicaI groups.
c) rock and roII musicaI bands.
d) popuIarized songs by MichaeI Jackson.
e) the best seIIing aIbums by MichaeI Jackson.
3. MichaeI Jackson began singing with
a) the Jackson 5.
b) severaI Grammy Awards.
c) four number ones.
d) a notabIe phiIanthropist award.
e) a humanitarian donation.
4. What tour wouId MichaeI have when he died?
a) "Changing Appearance".
b) "Cardiac Arrest".
c) "MemoriaI Service".
d) "This is It".
e) "Surrogate Mother".
5. The words "'is$ and "him$ in the first paragraph are reIated to
a) the King of Pop.
b) an American Musician.
c) MichaeI Jackson.
d) Music and dance.
e) August and June.
Texto 02:
About swine fIu
Swine fIu is the common name given to a new strain of infIuenza
(fIu). It is caIIed swine fIu because it is thought to have originated in pigs,
but this is not certain.
The most common symptoms are a fever, sore throat, diarrhea,
headache, feeIing generaIIy unweII and a dry cough. In other words, the
symptoms are very simiIar to seasonaI (reguIar) fIu. Most peopIe recover
within a week, even without speciaI treatment.
Pandemic
The virus was first identified in Mexico in ApriI 2009. It has since
become a pandemic, which means it has spread around the gIobe. It has
spread quickIy because it is a new type of fIu virus that few, if any, peopIe
have fuII resistance to.
FIu pandemics are a naturaI event that occur from time to time. Last
century, there were fIu pandemics in 1918, 1957 and 1968, when miIIions
of peopIe died across the worId.
In most cases the virus has proved reIativeIy miId. However, around
the worId more than 1,700 peopIe have died and it is not yet cIear how big
132
a risk the virus is. For this reason, and because aII viruses can mutate to
become more potent (stronger), scientists are saying we need to be
carefuI.
High-risk groups
Some peopIe are more at risk of compIications if they catch swine
fIu, and need to start taking antivirus as soon as it is confirmed that they
have the iIIness. Doctors may advise some high-risk patients to take
antivirus before they have symptoms, if someone cIose to them has swine
fIu.
PeopIe at risk are:
_ patients who have had drug treatment for asthma in the past three
years,
_ pregnant women,
_ peopIe aged 65 and over, and
_ chiIdren under five.
To stop the virus spreading
The most important way is to have good respiratory and hand
hygiene. In other words, aIways sneeze in to a tissue, and quickIy put it in
a bin. Wash your hands and home and work surfaces reguIarIy and
thoroughIy to kiII the virus.
(http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pandemic-fIu/Pages/Introduction.aspx)
VocabuIary:
- Swine fIu: gripe suina.
- Strain: (mentaI) tenso, estresse (Ex: The strain of being a teacher);
sobrecarga; (fora fsica) presso; espcie, variedade (de uma
pIanta, vrus, etc.)
- InfIuenza: gripe.
- Sore throath: garganta infIamada.
- Headache: dor de cabea.
- Dry cough: tosse seca.
- SeasonaI (reguIar) fIu: gripe da estao.
- Asthma: asma.
- Sneeze: espirrar (verb.); espirro (subst.)
- Tissue: Ieno de papeI; (em bioIogia) tecido.
- Bin: Iixeira.
Text Comprehension:
1. The fIu is caIIed "swine flu$ because
a) it has common symptoms.
b) peopIe generaIIy feeI unweII.
c) peopIe beIieve it came from pigs.
d) it is not certain the fIu is originated in pigs.
e) most peopIe recover within a week.
2. The "swine flue$ appeared
a) Iast year.
b) this year.
c) next year.
133
d) Iast century.
e) in 1,700.
3. What is a pandemic?
a) A virus identified in Mexico in ApriI 2009.
b) A virus identified in Mexico.
c) A new virus.
d) A virus identified by scientists.
e) An iIIness that spreads aII over the worId.
4. "pregnant women$ means
a) muIheres pragmticas.
b) muIheres preparadas.
c) muIheres com crianas de coIo.
d) muIheres grvidas.
e) muIheres imunes ao vrus.
5. One of the best ways of not spreading the virus is
a) having good hand hygiene.
b) avoiding hand hygiene.
c) sneezing in the hands.
d) not washing the hands.
e) passing the hands on the eyes.
6. The sentence "millions of people died across the world$ in the
interrogative form is
a) Did miIIions of peopIe died across the worId?
b) Did miIIions of peopIe dye across the worId?
c) Did miIIions of peopIe die across the worId?
d) Did miIIions of peopIe dying across the worId?
e) Did miIIions of peopIe are dying across the worId?
Texto 03:
A LateraIized Brain Is More Efficient
One of the authors (Rogers) discovered
that if she exposed chick embryos to Iight or to
dark before they hatched, she couId controI
whether the two haIves of the chick brains
deveIoped their speciaIizations for visuaI
processing - that is, whether the chicks hatched
with weakIy or strongIy IateraIized brains.
Rogers and another one of the authors
(VaIIortigara), with PaoIo Zucca of the University
of Tera mo in ItaIy, then compared normaI,
strongIy IateraIized chicks with weakIy
IateraIized chicks on two tasks. One task was to
sort food grains from smaII pebbIes (usuaIIy a
job for the Ieft hemisphere); the other task was to respond to a modeI of a
predator (a cut out in the shape of a hawk) that was passed over the
chicks (usuaIIy a task for the right hemisphere). The weakIy IateraIized
chicks had no troubIe Iearning to teII grains from pebbIes when no modeI
hawk was present. But when the hawk "fIew" overhead, they frequentIy
134
faiIed to detect it, and they were much sIower than normaI chicks in
Iearning to peck at grains instead of pebbIes. In short, without the IateraI
speciaIizations of their brain, the chicks couId not attend to two tasks
simuItaneousIy.
(Scientific American, JuIy 2009, page 55.)
VocabuIary:
- Embryos: embrio.
- To hatch: chocar (ovos); (hatch out) nascer (pintinhos, peixinhos,
etc.)
- PebbIe: seixo.
- Overhead: no aIto.
Text Comprehension:
1. The experiment carried out reveaIed that
a) neither hemispheres deveIop speciaIization for visuaI processing.
b) the brain hemispheres work properIy when both are deveIoped.
c) the two hemispheres of the brain Iack speciaIization to carry out tasks.
d) one hemisphere of the brain wiII aIways work better the other.
e) the right hemisphere is responsibIe for separating different types of
food.
2. Chicks with weakIy IateraIized brains Iearned
a) to distinguish grains from pebbIes despite the hovering hawk.
b) to teII grains from pebbIes faster than the normaI chicks.
c) to peck at grains and not at pebbIes a Iot more quickIy than normaI
chicks.
d) to peck at grains and not at pebbIes a Iot more sIowIy than normaI
chicks.
e) that they shouId peck at grains much faster than at pebbIes.
3. Scientists came to the concIusion that chicks
a) with a IateraIized brain couId not efficientIy attend to two tasks
simuItaneousIy.
b) without IateraIized brains were abIe to attend to two simuItaneous tasks
efficientIy .
c) with IateraIized brains were more efficient at attending to two tasks
simuItaneousIy.
d) with IateraIized brains were Iess capabIe of attending to two
simuItaneous tasks.
e) without IateraIized brains were abIe to attend to more than two
simuItaneous tasks.
Texto 04:
Working on the RaiIroad
A singIe raiIroad crosstie may not impact the environment as much
as it heIps to keep raiIs together. But considering that miIIions are
deteriorating around the worId, the materiaI chosen as a repIacement can
affect the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air. Wood crossties
require harvesting a Iot of CO2-absor bing trees, roughIy 89,000 cubic
meters of timber per miIIion crossties; concrete
versions increase greenhouse gas emissions
because of the fueI consumption during their
manufacture. Robert H. Crawford of the
135
University of MeIbourne in AustraIia concIudes that making enough
concrete ties to keep one kiIometer of tracks aIigned for 100 years
generates the equivaIent of 656 to 1,312 metric tons of CO2. That amount
is about one-haIf to one-sixth the amount that timber ties contribute,
because concrete versions Iast Ionger and timber reIeases CO2 as it
decays.
(Scientific American, JuIy 2009, page 18.)
VocabuIary:
- RaiIroad: ferrovia, via frrea.
- Enviroment: meio ambiente
- RaiI: triIho.
- Timber: tronco de rvore, cortado; madeira.
- Greenhouse: estufa.
Text Comprehension:
1. It is true to say that wood/concrete crossties
a) might impact the environment.
b) need to impact the environment.
c) can not impact the environment.
d) won't impact the environment.
e) mustn't impact the environment.
2. The concIusion Robert Crawford came to is that
a) wood crossties do not produce as much CO2 as concrete ones.
b) concrete crossties Iast Ionger and generate Iess CO2 than wood ones.
c) concrete crossties do not harm nature in any way.
d) wood crossties onIy have to do with CO2 when it comes to trees
harvesting.
e) timber ties contribute Iess CO2 than its concrete counterpart.
3. Concrete crossties are a better aIternative
a) but they do not Iast Ionger than wood crossties.
b) due to their incredibIe capacity to Iast forever.
c) however, wood crossties are more nature-friendIy.
d) in spite of producing more CO2 than wood crossties.
e) because they are considerabIy Iess harmfuI.
Texto 05:
Briefing UnempIoyment:
Last month America's unempIoyment rate cIimbed to 8,1%, the
highest in a quarter of a century. For those newIy out of a job, the chances
of finding another soon are the worst since records began 50 years ago.
In China 20m migrant workers (maybe 3% of the Iabour force) have been
Iaid off. Cambodia's textiIe industry, its main source of exports, has cut
one worker in ten. In Spain the buiIding bust has pushed the jobIess rate
up by two-thirds in a year, to 14.8% in January. And in Japan, where
officiaI unempIoyment used to be aII but unknown, tens of thousands of
136
peopIe on temporary contracts are Iosing not just their jobs but aIso the
housing provided by their empIoyers.
The next phase of the worId's economic downturn is taking shape:
a gIobaI jobs crisis. Its contours are onIy just becoming cIear, but the
severity, breadth and IikeIy Iength of the recession, together with changes
in the structure of Iabour markets in both rich and emerging economies,
suggest the worId is about to undergo its biggest increase
in unempIoyment for decades.
(The Economist, March 14th 2009.)
VocabuIary:
- UnempIoyment: desemprego.
- Laid off: demitido.
- JobIess: desempregado.
- Downturn: queda (na economia, etc.)
- Undergo: fazer (um treinamento, um tratamento, uma cirurgia);
sofrer (uma transformao.
Text Comprehension:
1. De acordo com o texto, pubIicado em maro de 2009,
a) o aumento de postos de trabaIho vitaI para as economias
emergentes.
b) a crise mundiaI poderia afetar sobretudo os pases mais pobres.
c) a estrutura do mercado de trabaIho vigente em pases ricos a
principaI responsveI peIa crise.
d) o mundo poderia enfrentar a maior crise de desemprego das Itimas
dcadas.
e) a crise que a economia mundiaI vivencia vem sendo anunciada h
dcadas.
2. Segundo o texto, no Japo,
a) o nmero oficiaI de desempregados desconhecido.
b) miIhares de pessoas esto perdendo seus empregos e sua moradia.
c) grande parte dos trabaIhadores possui contratos temporrios de
trabaIho.
d) os empregadores omitem o nmero de postos de trabaIho porque
muitos no so oficiais.
e) os desempregados esto Iutando para manter suas casas.
3. O pronome "another" (L. 3) na sentena "...the chances of finding
another..." refere-se a:
a) pas.
b) trabaIhador.
c) emprego.
d) oportunidade.
e) recorde.
Texto 06:
As everybody knows, if you do not work out, your muscIes get
fIaccid. What most peopIe don't reaIize, however, is that your brain aIso
stays in better shape when you exercise.
137
Surprised? AIthough the idea of exercising cognitive machinery by
performing mentaIIy demanding activities - popuIarIy termed the "use it
or Iose it" hypothesis - is better known, a review of dozens of studies
shows that maintaining a mentaI edge requires more than that. Other
things you do - incIuding participating in activities that make you think,
getting reguIar exercise, staying sociaIIy engaged and even having a
positive attitude - have a meaningfuI infIuence on how effective your
cognitive functioning wiII be in oId age.
(www.scientificamerican.com/articIe. Acessado em 06/07/2009. Adaptado.)
VocabuIary:
- Dozen: dzia; (dozens (of)) miIhares de.
- MentaI edge: extremidade mentaI.
Text Comprehension:
1. O texto informa que
a) exerccios fsicos so benficos para o corpo e para a sade mentaI.
b) as pessoas no se do conta da importncia de mscuIos fortes.
c) o crebro muito pouco exercitado por pessoas que no trabaIham.
d) todo mundo deveria exercitar-se diariamente.
e) grande parte das pessoas preocupa-se apenas com a aparncia fsica.
2. Segundo o texto, o bom funcionamento de nosso crebro na veIhice
depende, entre outros fatores,
a) das perdas e ganhos que vivenciamos ao Iongo da vida.
b) da herana gentica que trazemos conosco.
c) das modaIidades de exerccios fsicos que reaIizamos.
d) da compIexidade de exerccios inteIectuais a que somos expostos.
e) de nosso engajamento em atividades inteIectuais e sociais.
Texto 07:
Dogs HeIp ChiIdren Become Better Readers
Dogs are a very popuIar pet in the United States. Most dogs just Iive
with their famiIies, but some dogs have very speciaI jobs to do. Some
dogs heIp poIice find criminaIs. Other dogs are trained to sniff out drugs
or expIosives. Some dogs assist peopIe who are bIind, deaf, or have
troubIe getting around. AmazingIy, some dogs can teII when their owner is
about to have a seizure.
They signaI their owner to Iie down and be caIm. Dogs that heIp
their owners are caIIed "Assistance Dogs."
A very speciaI group of dogs are known as "Therapy Dogs." These
dogs are famiIy pets with speciaI training. The training aIIows them to go
into pubIic buiIdings and comfort peopIe in need. The dogs are trained to
be caIm and quiet. Loud noises and unfamiIiar pIaces don't frighten them.
They enjoy spending time with peopIe.
Some therapy dogs go into pIaces such as hospitaIs and nursing
homes. When the patients visit with the dogs, the patients are cheered up.
They enjoy petting the dogs, and Iook forward to their visits. The dogs
heIp to brighten their day. Therapy dogs can improve peopIe's heaIth, as
weII. Studies show that when peopIe pet animaIs, their bIood pressure and
heart rates go down. They are caImer, and their mood improves.
138
Other therapy dogs work in schooIs and Iibraries. They serve as
warm and caring friends to chiIdren, but they aIso do more. In one town in
CaIifornia, therapy dogs have become chiIdren's reading buddies. In 2006
the IocaI Iibrary opened up a program caIIed PAWS for HeaIing, which
consists of an experience with a therapy dog group. Eight of these speciaI
dogs have been trained to be Iistening companions for young readers.
The Iibrary is trying to encourage kids to enjoy reading more. The
chiIdren are invited to meet at the Iibrary. They are paired up with a PAWS
therapy dog and can read to the dog. The dogs make a great audience.
They don't judge a chiId who cannot read weII, they just Iisten caImIy. The
chiIdren can read at their own pace. The kids find it Iess intimidating than
reading in front of their cIass. Sometimes, reading in front of their peers
makes kids nervous. The dogs are quiet and attentive. They Iisten very
weII.
These therapy dogs are making a difference in the Iife of the
chiIdren they visit. The chiIdren Iook forward to reading to the dogs, and
the dogs Iove the attention. The Iibrary and the teachers are very happy
with the program.
(DisponveI em: http://www.cdIponIine.org. Acesso em: 8 jun. 2009.
Adaptado.)
VocabuIary:
- To sniff: farejar aIgo.
- To have a seizure: ter um ataque apopItico.
- Cheer up: animar-se.
- Buddy: amigo/a.
- Paw: pata.
- Look forward to: estar Iouco para chegar a aIgo.
Text Comprehension:
1. According to the text, the onIy action assistance dogs are NOT trained
to do is:
a) to search for cocaine.
b) to spot criminaIs.
c) to heIp disabIed peopIe.
d) to watch TV.
2. According to the text, dogs in the PAWS for HeaIing program:
a) pIay with the chiIdren and aduIts.
b) heIp the chiIdren find reading more attractive.
c) Iearn from the chiIdren.
d) protect the chiIdren from accidents.
3. According to the text, the PAWS for HeaIing Program heIps citizens:
a) aII ages.
b) under thirteen.
c) over fifty.
d) between twenty and thirty.
4. The text fragment "The dogs make a great audience. They don't judge a
chiId who cannot read weII [.]"means that the chiIdren feeI:
a) more comfortabIe with the dogs than with their cIassmates.
b) Iess comfortabIe with the dogs than with their cIassmates.
139
c) uncomfortabIe both in front of the dogs and their cIassmates.
d) as comfortabIe with the dogs as with their cIassmates.
5. The titIe of the text brings an adjective in the comparative form. The
adjective is:
a) bad.
b) good.
c) weak.
d) strong.
6. The fragment "The chiIdren Iook forward to reading to the dogs [.]"
means:
a) the chiIdren are anxious to entertain the dogs with their reading.
b) the dogs hate it when the chiIdren read to them.
c) the chiIdren read to the dogs but somehow fear them.
d) the dogs are afraid when the chiIdren read to them.
7. Among the verb forms from the text beIow, the one that has a reguIar
SimpIe Past tense is:
a) "do"
b) "find"
c) "make"
d) "Iisten"
Texto 08:
After The FaII: 1989, Twenty Years On
(Joshua Muravchik)
Nineteen eighty-nine was a most extraordinary year. There are other
years that are imprinted on historic memory, yet most of them were
occasions for horribIe events (1917 or 1939) or disappointing ones (1789
or 1848) or the concIusions of great tragedies (1648 or 1945). The year
1989 was that rare moment when dramatic things happened that were
overwheImingIy beneficent. As we watched the worId change before our
eyes, we Iearned many things. Looking back today on how the worId has
evoIved in twenty years since that momentous time, we can distiII severaI
additionaI insights.
The economist Robert HeiIbroner wrote in 1989: "Less than 75
years after it officiaIIy began, the contest between capitaIism and
sociaIism is over: capitaIism has won." This outcome refIected a startIing
reversaI because as recentIy as the decade before, sociaIism -
considering aII its diverse forms Iumped together - seemed at the apex
of its gIobaI sweep, apparentIy confirming Marx's prophecy that it was not
mereIy desirabIe but destiny.
HeiIbroner's observation was noteworthy because he himseIf was
not unsympathetic to sociaIism, and doubIy so because he was no
communist. Given the hostiIe breach between communism and
democratic sociaIism, why shouId HeiIbroner have conceded that the faII
of the Soviet empire was tantamount to the end of sociaIism? Why did he
not accept the cIaim advanced by some sociaIists that the end of
communism wouId onIy cIear the way for a purer form of sociaIism?
HeiIbroner aIso saw that the faII of communism cuIminated a trend. With
sociaI democratic parties having aIready forsaken the dream of repIacing
140
capitaIism and with the deveIoping worId having reaIized that markets
rather than state pIanning offered the surest path from poverty, the Soviet
coIIapse seaIed the issue. SociaIism was finished.
Has the economic meItdown of 2008-09 reopened the question? Is
sociaIism on the tabIe again? Not at aII.
It onIy shows that you can aIways have too much of a good thing.
The fact that free markets are the best mechanism for making economic
decisions does not impIy that freer is aIways better. The smooth
functioning of the private sector depends on government to maintain a
IegaI framework, to protect the pubIic against unscrupuIous behavior, and
to provide vitaI goods that are not profitabIe for the private sector to
furnish.
Libertarians who dream of an economy entireIy free of government
are no Iess utopian than sociaIists.
In the reaIm of poIitics MikhaiI Gorbachev has cut a sad figure these
Iast two decades: first supporting Putin then criticizing him, cIinging to
vestiges of sociaIist ideas, and rebuking Washington for necessary
exercises of power, aII the whiIe unabIe to raise his own popuIarity among
his countrymen above singIe digits. NonetheIess, he is arguabIy the
greatest figure of the twentieth century.
The most famous names of the century were mass murderers. Of
those who are remembered for the good they did, who was irrepIaceabIe?
The Axis wouId have been defeated without RooseveIt and even without
ChurchiII, aIthough Britain might have faIIen first. India wouId have gained
independence without Gandhi.
Segregation wouId have been ended in America without Martin
Luther King Jr. But wouId the Soviet empire have dissoIved, the CoId War
ended, and communism been
repeaIed - aII these bIessings achieved peacefull( - without
Gorbachev? I don't think so. It has been argued that the Soviet Union
coIIapsed under the dead weight of its absurd economy, but its economy
had been absurd for generations and it had not coIIapsed. WouId Soviet
inefficiency and Iow productivity eventuaIIy have brought the whoIe
system to its knees? Perhaps, but that might have taken generations more
- and in the meantime the state might have been abIe to repIenish itseIf
by means of bIackmaiI and pIunder, or it might, in its desperation, have
generated a new worId war. The dinosaur's brain was dead, but its
massive taiI stiII might have Iashed destructiveIy.
Yes, goods and construction were shoddy: teIevisions containing
cardboard parts sometimes combusted spontaneousIy in peopIe's Iiving
rooms (except that most Soviet citizens didn't have Iiving rooms). But the
weapons worked, and whiIe a tad Iess advanced than those of America,
what the Red Army Iacked in quaIity it made up for in quantity.
In other words, despite its economic difficuIties, the KremIin fieIded
as much miIitary might as it wished, more than any other state then or
ever. If this required shortchanging the consumer sector of the economy,
so be it. No one dared compIain. Further, the ruIe of the Communist Party
was entireIy unchaIIenged, as was Gorbachev's ascendancy within the
party, at Ieast untiI very Iate in the game. He was the most powerfuI singIe
individuaI on earth, and he couId have heId that power - and aII the perks
that went with it - untiI he went to his grave, as had most of his
predecessors. Instead he tossed it away.
141
(WORLD AFFAIRS, VoI. 13. no 2, Summer 2009.)
VocabuIary:
- OverwheIming: opressivo, massacrante; irresistveI.
- Outcome: resuItado.
- Apex: pice
- Noteworthy: digno de nota, notveI.
- Unsympathetic: indiferente, incompreensivo.
- And doubIy so: e dupIamente assim.
- Tantamount: equivaIente.
- MeItdown: fundio.
- Framework: armao, estrutura; quadro (de fatos, idias, etc.)
- To rebuke: reeprender (verb.); reprimenda (subst.)
- Countryman: compatriota.
- NonetheIess: contudo, todavia.
- ArguabIy: possiveImente.
- Meantime: enquanto isso, nesse nterim.
- BIackmaiI: chantagem (subst.); chantagear (verb.)
- To pIunder: saquear.
- Shoddy: de m quaIidade, vagabundo; sujo (goIpe), injusto
(tratamento).
- Cardboard: papeIo.
- Made up: fazer as pazes.
- Perk: benefcio adicionaI, mordomia.
Text Comprehension:
1. What is the main purpose of the text?
a) Justify Gorbachev's resistance against the GIasnost and Perestroika.
b) BIame the end of communism for the economic meItdown of 2008-09.
c) Report on the disastrous poIiticaI events that impacted the worId after
1989.
d) Discuss the reIevance of the Soviet coIIapse for the current state of
worId affairs.
e) ExpIain the importance of ChurchiII, Gandhi and Martin Luther King to
the economic scenario of our times.
2. In paragraph 1, the year 1989 is described as a momentous time
because it was a(n):
a) historicaI moment of stabiIity that wiII find no paraIIeI with other time
periods.
b) significant historicaI moment when extraordinariIy fortunate events
took pIace.
c) awesome occasion that marked the end of a tragic era, though not quite
peacefuIIy.
d) very brief moment in time when peopIe forgot about the tragic events
that had been affecting humanity.
e) remarkabIe moment of tranquiIity among nations in which the confIicts
between communism and democratic sociaIism came to an end.
3. According to the author of the text, the economist Robert HeiIbroner:
a) supported sociaIism and thus severeIy criticized the defeat of
capitaIism.
142
b) recognized that the sudden faII of the Soviet empire couId have been
avoided.
c) cIaimed that capitaIism had defeated sociaIism through hostiIe
beIIigerent means.
d) admitted that sociaIism was no Ionger a poIiticaI soIution after the faII
of the Soviet empire.
e) beIieved that the end of communism wouId make way for a purer form
of sociaIism to emerge.
4. Muravchick does not defend a Iibertarian viewpoint since he advocates
that:
a) communism is reaIIy the best soIution for the unscrupuIous behavior of
the private sector.
b) the government has no right to restrict the actions and economic
decisions of capitaIist companies.
c) free markets without any IegaI restrictions wiII aIIow for more profitabIe
economic resuIts.
d) the onIy economic system that can eIiminate poverty without
governmentaI support is capitaIism.
e) the government has a roIe in protecting the citizens against the
destructive attitudes of private enterprises.
5. Gorbachev, according to Muravchik, has:
a) made a poor impression of himseIf to the worId IateIy.
b) gained enormous popuIarity among his feIIow citizens.
c) fuIIy supported Washington criticisms of sociaIist ideas.
d) approved the American government's defense of free markets.
e) been considered, unquestionabIy, the greatest poIiticaI figure of the
modern worId.
6. The fragment "aII these bIessings" refers to the:
a) divine inspiration that put an end to Gorbachev's administration.
b) end of the CoId War, the rejection of communism and the Independence
of India.
c) peacefuI riot Iead by Martin Luther King struggIing against segregation
in America.
d) questionabIe roIe that ChurchiII and RooseveIt pIayed in Ieading the
AIIies to victory.
e) positive consequences derived from the bIoodIess end of the CoId War
and defeat of communism.
7. Choose the aIternative in which the word in boId type and the italici)ed
one convey equivaIent ideas.
a) ". yet most of them were occasions for horribIe events." - thus
b) "NonetheIess, he is arguabIy the greatest figure..." - moreo*er
c) ".aIthough Britain might have faIIen first." - while
d) "In other words, despite its economic difficuIties," - regardless of
e) "Further, the ruIe of the Communist Party." - meanwhile
8. In "WouId Soviet inefficiency and Iow productivity eventuaIIy have
brought the whoIe system to its knees?" the expression "bring the system
to its knees" couId be paraphrased by
143
a) force the system to submit.
b) mitigate the impact of economy.
c) enhance the power of the system.
d) defeat those who oppose the system.
e) improve the functioning of the system.
9. In the fragment "India wouId have gained independence without
Gandhi." , the author conveys
a) the frustration of having Iost a charismatic Ieader.
b) the unIikeIy poIiticaI resuIt after a very dramatic event.
c) his conviction of an outcome, given a different historicaI scenario.
d) his uncertainty about the strength of peacefuI popuIar movements.
e) a remote possibiIity under the circumstance of a hypotheticaI situation.
10.When the author comments "I don't think so." he expresses that:
a) Gorbachev shouId not be accused of mass murder as he was a
peacefuI Ieader.
b) Gorbachev was insensitive to worId issues and the dramatic state of
the Soviet economy.
c) onIy a new worId war wouId have changed the state of poIiticaI affairs
between the US and the Soviet Union.
d) the inefficiency of Soviet industry and commerce wouId have definiteIy
destroyed the nation in a short time.
e) the nonbeIIigerent end of communism and the CoId War was a direct
resuIt of the Soviet Ieader's poIiticaI decisions.
11. The metaphor of the dinosaur's brain and its taiI used in, represents,
respectiveIy, the:
a) Soviet economy and the Red Army.
b) Soviet union and the new worId war.
c) Soviet poIiticaI regime and its economy.
d) oId and new generations in the Soviet Union.
e) state officiaIs and bIackmaiIers/pIunderers.
Texto 09:
Why is Dark ChocoIate HeaIthy?
ChocoIate is made from pIants, which means it contains many of
the heaIth benefits of dark vegetabIes.
These benefits are from fIavonoids, which act as antioxidants.
Antioxidants protect the body from aging caused by free radicaIs, which
can cause damage that Ieads to heart disease. Dark chocoIate contains a
Iarge number of antioxidants (nearIy 8 times the number found in
strawberries). FIavonoids aIso heIp reIax bIood pressure through the
productionthe of nitric oxide, and baIance certain hormones in the body.
Dark chocoIate is good for your heart. A smaII bar of it everyday can
heIp keep your heart and cardiovascuIar system running weII. Two heart
heaIth benefits of dark chocoIate are:
* Lower BIood Pressure: Studies have shown that consuming a
smaII bar of dark chocoIate everyday can reduce bIood pressure in
individuaIs with high bIood pressure.
* Lower ChoIesteroI: Dark chocoIate has aIso been shown to reduce
LDL choIesteroI (the bad choIesteroI) by up to 10 percent.
144
Here is some more good news - some of the facts in chocoIate do
not impact your choIesteroI. The fats in chocoIate are 1/3 oIeic acid, 1/3
stearic acid and 1/3 paImitic acid:
* OIeic Acid is a heaIthy monounsaturated fat that is aIso found in
oIive oiI.
* Stearic Acid is a saturated fat but one which research shows has a
neutraI effect on choIesteroI.
* PaImitic Acid is aIso a saturated fat, one which raises choIesteroI
and heart disease risk.
That means onIy 1/3 of the fat in dark chocoIate is bad for you. This
information doesn't mean that you shouId eat a pound of chocoIate a day.
ChocoIate is stiII a high caIorie, high-fat food. Most of the studies done
used no more than 100 grams, or about 3.5 ounces, of dark chocoIate a
day to get the benefits.
+,daptado de
http-..longe*it(.about.com.od.lifelongnutrition.p.chocolate.htm. +acessado
em /0./1.12234.
Text Comprehension:
1. O objetivo do texto :
a) divuIgar uma nova marca de chocoIate.
b) aIertar sobre o perigo do chocoIate branco.
c) informar sobre os efeitos do chocoIate escuro no organismo.
d) mostrar as diferenas entre o chocoIate branco e o chocoIate escuro.
e) aIertar pessoas obesas sobre o dano de ingesto de gordura saturada.
2. O chocoIate escuro bom para a sade porque
a) de origem animaI.
b) no contm gordura saturada.
c) no causa impacto no coIesteroI bom.
d) contm 2/3 de gordura monoinsaturada.
e) contm muitos dos benefcios de vegetais escuros.
3. Quanto aos efeitos do chocoIate escuro no organismo, o texto diz que:
a) so trs os benefcios que traz ao corao.
b) eIe reduz a presso arteriaI em hipertensos.
c) eIe reduz o coIesteroI bom em at 10 por cento.
e) eIe pode causar depresso e probIemas ao corao.
4. Para que os benefcios do chocoIate escuro ocorram:
a) seu consumo deve ser Iivre.
b) preciso consumir mais 400 caIorias diariamente.
c) necessrio diminuir o consumo de caIorias dirio.
d) basta a ingesto diria de 100 gramas de chocoIate.
e) o consumo deve variar de acordo com o peso da pessoa.
5. O enunciado que contm uma advertncia :
a) "Dark chocoIate is good for your heart".
b) "Some of the fats in chocoIate do not impact your choIesteroI".
c) "This information doesn't mean you shouId eat a pound of chocoIate a
day".
145
d) "Stearic Acid is a saturated fat but one which research shows has a
neutraI effect on choIesteroI".
e) "Studies have shown that consuming a smaII bar of dark chocoIate
everyday can reduce bIood pressure in individuaIs with high bIood
pressure".
Texto 10:
A team from Northwestern University, IIIinois, found that when you
eat, not just how you eat, couId make a big difference.
Scientists found that when mice ate at unusuaI hours, they put on
twice as much weight, despite exercising and eating as much as the other
mice. The study, in the journaI Obesity, is said to be the first to show
directIy that there is a "wrong" time to eat. Recent studies have suggested
that circadian rhythms, the body's internaI cIock, have a roIe in how our
bodies use up energy. However, this had been difficuIt to prove
definitiveIy.
Deanna ArbIe, the main author of the study, said: "One of our
research interests is shift workers, who tend to be overweight.
This got us thinking that eating at the wrong time of day might be
contributing to weight gain".
The researchers Iooked at two groups of mice over a six-week
period. Both groups were fed a high-fat diet, but at different times of the
mice "waking cycIe". One group of mice ate at times when they wouId
normaIIy be asIeep. They put on twice as much weight. This was despite
the fact that they did the same IeveI of activity, and ate the same amount
of food, as the other mice. The researchers beIieve that the findings may
have impIications for peopIe worried about their weight.
(http//www.bbc.co.uk - 08/09/2009. Adapted.)
VocabuIary:
- Shify workers: pessoas que trabaIham a noite.
- Overweight: com excesso de peso.
Text Comprehension:
1. According to the text, the aim of the study was:
a) to find out if six weeks of exercising Ieads to Ioss of weight.
b) to see if there is a connection between time of eating and obesity.
c) to discover the Iong-term effects of a high-fat diet on obesity.
d) to compare the speed at which mice and peopIe gain weight.
e) to discover if riding a bicycIe heIps humans to Iose weight.
2. Are the statements beIow TRUE (T) or FALSE (F), according to the text?
( ) The study was motivated by a tendency for obesity among shift
workers.
( ) There may be a connection between circadian rhythms and the way our
bodies use up energy.
( ) Two groups of researchers studied the mice at different times.
( ) The mice that ate when they wouId normaIIy be asIeep gained more
weight.
( ) The researchers think that the resuIts are not reIevant for peopIe
worried about their weight.
146
Mark the aIternative which presents the correct sequence, from top to
bottom.
a) F - F - T - F - T.
b) T - F - T - F - F.
c) T - T - F - F - F.
d) T - T - F - T - F.
e) F - F - F - T - T.
Texto 11:
The Benefits of a New Space Race
In October 2003 China became onIy the third nation to Iaunch a
human into space aboard its own rocket. CoIoneI Yang Liwei, China's first
taikonaut, orbited the Earth for bareIy a day before returning, sIightIy
shaken, to a Ianding in MongoIia. It was a significant technicaI
achievement for a country that has been struggIing to modernize its
economy and its technoIogy, and the Chinese government trumpeted it to
its peopIe and the worId. AIthough Yang's fIight received considerabIe
attention around the gIobe, what was aImost ignored is the fact that after
his feet were firmIy on the ground, the orbitaI moduIe from his Shenzhou 5
spacecraft continued to circIe the earth, carrying severaI miIitary
payIoads. The moduIe is apparentIy equipped both with a reconnaissance
camera capabIe of spotting objects on the ground about a yard Iong, and
an array of antennas for intercepting radar and other signaIs from
hundreds of miIes away. Despite this, Shenzhou is not something the
United States shouId be concerned about, but shouId actuaIIy encourage.
China is pursuing a human space program for three primary
reasons: internationaI prestige, domestic pacification, and industriaI
poIicy. A human space program enhances China's status as a major
power, at Ieast within the Pacific region. It aIso feeds nationaIist hunger
among the popuIace, making them proud of the achievements of their
country even whiIe they reaIize that they Iive under an authoritarian and
corrupt government-bread and circuses for the masses. FinaIIy, a
Chinese "white paper" about space makes cIear that the Chinese
anticipate numerous technoIogicaI deveIopments to fIow from their space
program. BuiIding a space capabiIity requires improvements in
manufacturing, computers and materiaIs that the Chinese hope to use in
other areas of their economy. Because China is a rivaI to the United
States, it is not in American interests to see them gain internationaI
prestige, pacify an oppressed popuIation, or improve their technoIogy.
But now that China has entered the human spacefIight arena, and
President Bush has proposed a new expIoration pIan, America's best
move might be to engage the Chinese in future cooperation in human
spacefIight, such as dangIing the possibiIity of sending future missions to
the InternationaI Space Station, and possibIy even future competition in
this reaIm as weII. For severaI years the Western science press has been
fiIIed with articIes about China's space ambitions. Reporters have cIaimed
that China has
boId pIans for a Iarge human spacefIight program, incIuding everything
from space stations to Moon Iandings. Many of these reports, however,
have generated bad transIations of articIes originaIIy pubIished in
Chinese, or handwaved away the Iaws of physics.
147
China's space ambitions are in reaIity much Iess dramatic and the
requirements to achieve some of these goaIs much higher than the press
has impIied. AIthough most of these stories are faIse, it wouId be in
America's best interest if they are true, and a shrewd strategy to
encourage China's peacefuI expIoration of space, with humans, is caIIed
for.
Human spacefIight is enormousIy expensive, even in pIaces where
Iabor is cheap. Despite the sIow and deIiberate pace of the Chinese
human spacefIight program so far, it is cIear that China has spent a
considerabIe amount of money to acquire this new capabiIity-nearIy $2
biIIion. In addition to deveIoping a spacecraft and Iaunching four previous
unmanned missions, China has aIso buiIt a new rocket, a new Iaunch pad,
and a Iarge assembIy buiIding for integrating aII of the equipment, as weII
as various other support faciIities, such as a tracking station in Namibia
and severaI tracking ships. Recovery forces such as heIicopters and
aircraft cost additionaI money. China may aIso demonstrate the vaIue of
spacefIight at diverting domestic attention from government oppression
and corruption. But the Chinese government is going to do this anyway
with other events, such as the 2008 OIympics.
As for China's industriaI poIicy, the United States Iong ago Iearned
that the spin-off argument is a weak one; aIthough deveIoping spacecraft
does produce some usefuI technoIogies, it is generaIIy inefficient. If you
want a faster computer chip, then deveIop one; there is no need to go to
the Moon to do so. The onIy demonstrated payoff of human spacefIight is
prestige.
(Dwayne A. Day. AvaiIabIe in http://www.thespacereview.com/articIe/137/1.
Retrieved on JuIy 23, 2009. Adapted.)
VocabuIary:
- To Iauch: Ianar (um ataque, uma campanha um produto); Ianar
(um mssiI, um foguete, etc.)
- Spacecraft: astronave.
- PayIoad: carga tiI.
- Shrewd: perspicaz; inteIigente (deciso, investimento)
- Spin-off: subsidirio.
- Payoff: pagamento.
Text Comprehension:
1. It is CORRECT to say that CoIoneI Yang Liwei:
a) observed the Earth from the outside of his spaceship.
b) Ianded in MongoIia in Iess than a day spacefIight.
c) Ieft Earth from the spaceship base in MongoIia.
d) Ianded in the moon soiI after a day fIight.
2. It is NOT a reason for the Chinese to engage in the space race activity:
a) to pacify domestic opponents.
b) to enhance industriaI poIicy.
c) to strengthen internationaI prestige.
d) to estabIish harmony among nations.
3. It is CORRECT to say that the Shenzhou's orbitaI moduIe:
a) has continued its mission in space.
b) returned to Earth for repair procedures.
148
c) returned to Earth for future missions.
d) has faIIen apart in programmed pieces.
4. The expression "bread and circuses for the masses" is used in the text
because:
a) Chinese acrobats have been famous since ancient times.
b) Chinese agricuIture system has topped the Pacific region.
c) Chinese governors want to divert peopIe's attention.
d) Chinese peopIe are famous for their bread.
5. The sentence "[.] the Chinese government trumpeted it to its peopIe
[.]" is equivaIent to:
a) the news was IargeIy spread in the media.
b) the government organized an impressive ceIebration.
c) a new symphony was composed for the occasion.
d) there was a pubIic concert in honor of the astronaut.
Texto 12:
A worId of MethuseIahs
June 25th 2009
Angus Maddison, an economic historian, has estimated that Iife
expectancy during the first miIIennium AD averaged about 25 years
(which in practice meant that Iots of chiIdren died very young and many of
the rest survived to middIe age). The big turnaround came with the
industriaI revoIution, mainIy because many more chiIdren survived into
aduIthood, thanks to better sanitation, more controI over epidemics,
improved nutrition and higher Iiving standards.
By the beginning of the 20th century average Iife expectancy in
America and the better-off parts of Europe was cIose to 50, and kept on
rising. By mid-century the gains from Iower chiId mortaIity had mainIy run
their course. The extra years were coming from higher survivaI rates
among oIder peopIe. The UN thinks that Iife expectancy at birth worIdwide
wiII go up from 68 years at present to 76 by 2050 and in rich countries
from 77 to 83. (These are averages for both sexes; women generaIIy Iive
five or six years Ionger than men, for reasons yet to be fathomed). Most
experts now agree that there wiII be further rises, but disagree about their
extent.
Some of them argue that the human Iifespan is finite because
bodies, in effect, wear out; that most of the easy gains have been made;
and that the rate of increase is bound to sIow down because peopIe now
die mostIy of chronic diseases - cancer, heart probIems, diabetes - which
are harder to fix. They aIso point to newer heaIth threats, such as
HIV/AIDS, SARS, bird fIu and swine fIu, as weII as rising obesity in rich
countries - to say nothing of the possibiIity of fresh pandemics, sociaI
and poIiticaI unrest and naturaI disasters.
NearIy 30 years ago James Fries at Stanford University SchooI of
Medicine put a ceiIing of 85 years on the average potentiaI human Iife
span. More recentIy a team Ied by Jay OIshansky at the University of
IIIinois at Chicago said it wouId remain stuck there unIess the ageing
process itseIf can be brought under controI. Because infant mortaIity in
rich countries is aIready Iow, they argued, further increases in overaII Iife
expectancy wiII require much Iarger reductions in mortaIity at oIder ages.
149
In Mr. OIshansky's view, none of the Iife-proIonging techniques
avaiIabIe today - be they IifestyIe changes, medication, surgery or genetic
engineering - wiII cut oIder peopIe's mortaIity by enough to repIicate the
gains in Iife expectancy achieved in the 20th century.
That may sound reasonabIe, but the evidence points the other way.
Jim Oeppen at Cambridge University and James VaupeI at the Max PIanck
Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock have charted Iife
expectancy since 1840, joining up the figures for whatever country was
hoIding the Iongevity record at the time, and found that the resuIting trend
Iine has been moving reIentIessIy upward by about three months a year.
They think that by 2050 average Iife expectancy in the best-performing
country couId easiIy reach the mid-90s.
(www.economist.com/opinion/PrinterFriendIy.cfm?story_id=13888102
Adaptado.)
VocabuIary:
- Turnaround: reviravoIta.
- AduIthood: idade aduIta.
- Standards: padro, nveI (de quaIidade).
- Mid-century: meio-scuIo.
- WorIdwide: mundiaI (adj.); mundiaImente (adv.)
- Fathomed: compreendido.
- Lifespan: periodo de vid
- Wear out: gastar (roupas, sapatos); acabar (piIha); deixar aIgum
exausto.
Text Comprehension:
1. A expectativa de vida humana
a) foi estimada em cerca de 25 anos durante a Idade Mdia.
b) chegou aos 25 anos no primeiro miInio, devido s meIhores
condies de saneamento e sade.
c) na fase aduIta , em grande parte, estimada a partir das condies de
saneamento e das epidemias.
d) era baixa no primeiro miInio por causa da grande incidncia de
mortaIidade infantiI, segundo estimativa.
e) s passou dos 25 anos na segunda metade do primeiro miInio, com a
revoIuo industriaI.
2. No scuIo XX, a expectativa de vida
a) ficou acima dos 50 anos para a maioria dos europeus.
b) teve um aumento, pois a mortaIidade infantiI diminuiu e os mais veIhos
viviam mais tempo.
c) as muIheres comearam a viver seis anos a mais do que a mdia de 68
anos dos homens.
d) aumentou gradativamente de 50 para 68 anos nos pases ricos.
e) comeou a ter um aumento expressivo causado peIa Iongevidade das
muIheres, pois estas no participaram das guerras.
3. No Itimo trecho do segundo pargrafo do texto - but disagree about
their extent. - a paIavra their refere-se a
a) averages.
b) most experts.
150
c) men and women.
d) Iife expectancy.
e) further rises.
4. One of the reasons that backs the beIief that human Iifespan is finite,
according to some experts, is that
a) the human body wears out with time.
b) cancer and diabetes stiII Iack further studies.
c) new pandemics affect some regions of the worId and bring statistics
down.
d) naturaI disasters may kiII much more peopIe than a fresh pandemic.
e) there are many studies that have shown otherwise.
5. No trecho finaI do Itimo pargrafo - The( thin& that b( 1252 a*erage
life expectanc( in the best-performing countr( could easil( reach the mid-
32s. - a expresso best-performing countr( refere-se ao pas que
a) for o mais rico da Europa.
b) tiver o recorde de Iongevidade em 2050.
c) tiver mais idosos acima de 90 anos.
d) apresentar um aumento de Iongevidade mdia de peIo menos trs
meses ao ano.
e) demonstrar dados consistentes de 1840 a 2050.
6. Jay OIshansky
a) concorda com James Fries, mas com uma ressaIva.
b) destaca que o estiIo de vida o principaI aspecto para proIongar a
vida, ao Iado de cuidados mdicos.
c) acredita que as tcnicas modernas no conseguiro proIongar a vida
no futuro.
d) considera que a mortaIidade infantiI deve ser erradicada para atingir
uma boa quaIidade de vida dos idosos.
e) indica que as principais conquistas mdicas em direo Iongevidade
j foram aIcanadas no scuIo passado.
7. James Fries e a pesquisa de Jim Oeppen e James VaupeI
a) chegaram s mesmas concIuses.
b) tratam a mortaIidade como produto das tcnicas mdicas disponveis.
c) divergem quanto ao Iimite da expectativa de vida.
d) comprovam os resuItados obtidos por OIshansky.
e) concordam que a vida humana, teoricamente, tem um Iimite de 85 anos.
8. No trecho do terceiro pargrafo do texto - such as '67.,689! 9,#9!
bird flu and swine flu, - a expresso such as pode ser substituda, sem
mudar o sentido, por
a) rather than.
b) furthermore.
c) how is.
d) Iike.
e) because of.
151
9. No trecho do primeiro pargrafo do texto - than&s to better sanitation!
more control o*er epidemics! impro*ed nutrition and higher li*ing
standards. - a expresso than&s to indica
a) enumerao.
b) causa.
c) concIuso.
d) consequncia.
e) exempIificao.
Texto 13
Finding a New Boom Amid the Bust
Jun. 02, 2009
By Dan KadIec
When it comes to what makes us happy at work, job-satisfaction
surveys have been showing for years that the size of our paycheck is
Iosing ground to intangibIes Iike autonomy, mobiIity, Iow stress, fIexibIe
hours, job security, heaIth coverage, paid time off and other benefits.
Does pay matter? Of course it does. But as China and other emerging
markets have gained ground on the U.S. economicaIIy, American workers
have begun to come to grips with what that means: in many cases, finding
a standard of Iiving that is sIipping reIative to other nations, and saying
zai jian (bye-bye, for those not yet into basic Mandarin) to generous and
automatic pay raises across industries. The recession has onIy deepened
this trend.
Workers who are eIated to simpIy have a job aren't squawking
about money, and according to a Randstad survey, they now name job
security and benefits among the top factors in their happiness.
Competitive pay is moving down the scaIe.
Another expediter is demographics. The massive boomer
generation is entering its retirement years undersaved and in need of
continued empIoyment. Yet boomers are determined to scaIe back hours
and stress, and some at Ieast are happy to trade a big saIary for work with
meaning and which aIIows for a better work/Iife baIance, so Iong as the
biIIs stiII get paid.
America remains a Iand of opportunity and wiII continue to reward
go-getters chasing dreams of weaIth. But increasingIy, our job market wiII
aIso reward those who pIace a higher vaIue on intangibIes, and it wiII do
so without reIegating those peopIe to a Iife of need. CertainIy, jobs are
scarce. Our economy has been shedding more than haIf a miIIion
positions a month. Yet even now there are pockets of empIoyment, both
for new grads and midIifers reinventing themseIves, that offer decent pay
with great benefits and security.
Where are these jobs? Think green technoIogies, which may be at
the root of the next economic boom. Think government, which under
President Obama is getting bigger. Think education, which is in more
demand than ever thanks to the arrivaI of boomer grandchiIdren and
miIIions of workers in need of retraining.
Think infrastructure, where much of the President's nearIy $800
biIIion stimuIus effort wiII be focused. Think about risk assessment and
controIs in a chastened financiaI system. Think heaIth care, which is
booming as boomers grow fitfuIIy into oId age. Many such fieIds present
152
opportunity now, and because they pay weII above the median annuaI U.S.
saIary of $32,390, they are good to be a part of, even in a recovery.
(www.time.com Adaptado.)
VocabuIary:
- Boom: estrodo.
- Amid: em meio a.
- Bust: quebrar; prender (um criminoso).
- Paycheck: contracheque
- Squawk: grasnar (verb.); grasnido (subst.)
Text Comprehension:
1. One of the main factors American workers vaIue is
a) standard of Iiving.
b) pay rises.
c) money.
d) retirement.
e) benefits.
2. According to the text, the boomer generation
a) doesn't wish to retire because they beIieve that work gives meaning to
Iife.
b) competes for jobs with the young new grads and midIifers.
c) hasn't saved enough money and has to continue working during
retirement years.
d) doesn't care if jobs are scarce because peopIe are aIways reinventing
themseIves.
e) prefers heaIth coverage rather than to dream of weaIth.
3. No trecho do terceiro pargrafo do texto, - and it will do so without
relegating those people to a life of need. - a paIavra it refere-se a
a) our job market.
b) go-getter.
c) intangibIe.
d) American.
e) dreams of weaIth.
4. One of the fieIds that offer good empIoyment opportunities is
a) industry.
b) job security.
c) midIife retirement.
d) infrastructure.
e) chastened financiaI system.
5. AssinaIe a aIternativa que compIeta corretamente a Iacuna da frase, de
acordo com as informaes do texto. The fact that boomers are growing
fitfuIIy into oId age is a good for choosing heaIth care as a promising fieId
in the job market.
a) payment
b) job
c) change
d) aIternativeIy
e) reason
153
6. AssinaIe a aIternativa que est de acordo com as informaes do texto.
a) As pessoas escoIhem vaIorizar os benefcios intangveis e podem
acabar passando necessidades na vida.
b) Os empregos esto escassos e acabam por enterrar quaisquer sonhos
de riqueza.
c) O presidente dos Estados Unidos investir quase 800 biIhes de
dIares em infraestrutura.
d) O saIrio mdio nos Estados Unidos est bem acima de US$ 32,390 por
ano.
e) Muitos americanos esto aprendendo mandarim, pois aIiam viagens de
frias s de negcios.
Texto 14
Songs of Love
In her room at Texas ChiIdren's Cancer
Center in Houston, eightyear- oId Simran Jatar
Iay hooked up to a chemo drip to fight her
bone cancer. Over her baId head, she wore a
pink hat that matched her pajamas. But the
third grader's cheery outfit didn't mask her
pain and weary eyes.
Then a visitor showed up. "Do you want
to write a song?" asked Anita Kruse, 49,
roIIing a cart equipped with an eIectronic
keyboard, a microphone, and speakers.
Simran stared. "Have you ever written a
poem?" Kruse continued.
WeII, yes, Simran said. Within minutes, she was reading her poem
into the microphone. "Some bird soaring through the sky," she said
softIy. "Imagination in its head." Kruse added piano chords, a few
warbIing birds, and finaIIy her own voice. Thirty minutes Iater, she
presented Simran with a CD of her first recorded song.
That was the beginning of PurpIe Songs Can FIy
(purpIesongscanfIy.org), a project that has heIped more than 125 young
patients write and record songs. A composer and pianist who had
performed at the hospitaI, Kruse says the idea of how she couId heIp
"came in one fIash."
The impact on the kids has been dramatic. One teenage girI curIed
in pain in her wheeIchair, stood unaided to dance to a hip-hop song she
had written. A 12-year-oId boy with Hodgkin's disease who rareIy spoke
stunned his doctors with a gospeI song he caIIed "I Can Make It." "My
sessions with the kids are heartbreaking because of the severity of their
iIIness," says Kruse. "But they're aIso exhiIarating, when the chiIdren are
smiIing, excited to share their CD with their famiIy."
As for Simran, she's now an active sixth grader and cancer-free.
From time to time, she and her mother Iisten to her song, "AIways
Remembering," and they remember the "reaIIy sweet and nice and Ioving"
Iady who gave them a shining moment in a dark hour.
(Reader's Digest. June 2009. Page 42).
154
VocabuIary:
- Cheery: aIegre, animado.
- Outfit: roupa.
- WheeIchair: cadeira de rodas.
- Heartbreaking: doIoroso, pugente.
- ExhiIarating: inebriante, revigorante.
Text Comprehension:
1. According to the text
0-0) Simran Jatar's baIdheaded days were onIy a dream.
1-1) A pink hat and pajamas did the job in hiding her pain.
2-2) Simran's cIothes were no match for her feeIings.
3-3) The IittIe girI was fighting against a deadIy disease.
4-4) Simran never got any visits from anyone.
2. Kruse's offer aimed at
0-0) finding young taIented kids in hospitaIs.
1-1) giving kids a chance to feeI better.
2-2) teaching kids to read and write weII.
3-3) promoting hope and weII-being for the sick.
4-4) heIping kids overcome their moment of pain.
3. Kruse's idea to heIp young patients
0-0) came out of the bIue.
1-1) was thought over for years.
2-2) suddenIy popped to mind.
3-3) came as a resuIt of Iong thinking.
4-4) appeared in her mind unexpectedIy.
04. Simran
0-0) is stiII sick in hospitaI.
1-1) is heaIthy and going to schooI.
2-2) now heIps kids write their own songs.
3-3) and her days of cancer are over.
4-4) is now in her darkest hour.
Texto 15
,fghanistan:s ;hild brides
The Unhappiest day of her Iife
Our narrated sIideshow documents the consequences of the
Afghan tradition of seIIing young girIs as brides.
The forced marriage of
young girIs is a Iongstanding
tradition in Afghanistan, often
used as a means of settIing
disputes and debts, or raising
money. Around 60% of girIs are
married off before they reach the
IegaI minimum age of 16. The cu
stom immediateIy removes young
girIs from education, contributing
155
to an iIIiteracy rate of 80% among Afghan women. Pregnancies among 10-
to-14-year-oId girIs contribute to the country's high incidence of maternaI
mortaIity.
Our onIine sIideshow of photographs by Stephanie SincIair, who
documents women's Iives around the worId, captures the apprehensive
gIance of 11-year-oId GhuIam Haider (above) as she sees her husband for
the first time.
She aIso shows the courageous work of Afghanistan's most senior
poIicewoman, MaIaIai Kakar (who was murdered by the TaIiban Iast
September), and the desperation of those who try to escape forced
marriages.
(The Economist. August 15-21, 2009. Page 14).
VocabuIay:
- IIIiteracy: anaIfabetismo, ignorncia.
Text Comprehension
1. Young girIs' forced marriage Iong-standing tradition in Afghanistan
0-0) is reIated to financiaI matters.
1-1) has to do with immature infatuation.
2-2) onIy invoIves girIs aged 16 or oIder.
3-3) invoIves mostIy girIs under IegaI minimum age.
4-4) reaches 60% of aII girIs in that country.
2. On account of getting married at such an earIy age
0-0) young girIs spend Iess time in schooI than boys.
1-1) education pIans are postponed for the future.
2-2) women have the best education records.
3-3) iIIiteracy abides among Afghan femaIes.
4-4) most young girIs don't know how to read or write.
3. Due to pregnancy at a very earIy age
0-0) the incidence of maternaI mortaIity is niI.
1-1) young girIs end up dying prematureIy.
2-2) maternaI deaths are frequentIy reported.
3-3) every 10-14-year-oId-girI has a heaIth pIan.
4-4) maternaI mortaIity incidence has soared.
4. GirIs who try to escape forced marriages experience
0-0) satisfaction.
1-1) joy.
2-2) desperation.
3-3) fear.
4-4) hopeIessness.
Texto 16
HeaIth
Numbers that count
25% increase in the number of snack caIories peopIe consume
when they sIeep 5 hours a night instead of 8 hours
156
G<6=G G#>>= P,?9 <@@
Iced tea is more than just cooI,
especiaIIy if it's freshIy made green tea.
Brew some up to get:
HELP WITH YOUR WEIGHT
Overweight or obese exercisers
burned off three more pounds and 7
percent more beIIy fat when they drank
green tea instead of another beverage
with the same caIories, according to a
new muIticenter study.
PROTECTION AGAINST CANCER
ReguIar drinkers were 12 percent
Iess IikeIy to deveIop breast cancer than
nondrinkers, according to research in
6,928 Chinese women.
REDUCED RISK OF STROKE
A UCLA review of nine studies
found three cups a day cut the risk of stroke by 21 percent (bIack tea was
protective too).
HEALTHIER GUMS
In a study of 940 men, the more green tea a man drank, the Iess
IikeIy he was to have gum disease.
(Reader's Digest. June 2009, page 79).
VocabuIary:
- Snack: Ianche.
- Pay off: dar frutos; acabar de pagar aIgo.
- Overweight: com excesso de peso.
- BeIIy: barriga.
- Beverage: bebida.
- Stroke: derrame cerebraI.
- Gum: gengiva, chicIete.
Text Comprehension
1. It is argued that
0-0) for green tea to benefit heaIth it must be drunk very coId.
1-1) green tea benefits fat exercisers more than other same caIorie
beverages.
2-2) beverages with the same caIorie count have different impacts on
heaIth.
3-3) if you are overweight and want to burn fat you might benefit from
green tea.
4-4) when you sIeep onIy 5 hours a night you end up consuming more
snack caIories.
2. Research with reguIar femaIe green tea drinkers in China shows they
are
0-0) bound to deveIop Iess breast cancer.
157
1-1) to experience cancer more than nondrinkers.
2-2) IikeIy to become breast cancer patients.
3-3) totaIIy breast-cancer free.
4-4) Iess prone to deveIop breast cancer.
3. A UCLA study review shows that
0-0) green tea drinkers have strokes more frequentIy.
1-1) both bIack and green tea may heIp prevent stroke.
2-2) bIack tea proved to be more protective than green tea.
3-3) 21 peopIe who had strokes had to drink 3 cups of green tea every day.
4-4) reguIar daiIy consumption of green tea reduces the risk of stroke.
4. According to a study invoIving aImost a thousand men
0-0) the more green tea men drink the Iess gum diseases they show.
1-1) aII those maIes who drink green tea aIso chew gum a Iot.
2-2) chewing gum makes every man much heaIthier.
3-3) drinking green tea reduces the chances for gum disease in them.
4-4) drinking green tea has no effect whatsoever on men's heaIth.
Texto 17
Are there too many eIephants?
FoIIowing the ivory ban, some peopIe became caught up in the
myth that Africa now has too many eIephants. Media reports focused on a
smaII number of southern African countries that demanded to IegaIIy cuII
eIephants because of high popuIation densities in protected areas such
as wiIdIife refuges; escaIating human-eIephant confIict seemed to back
those cIaims. Yet the probIem is far more compIicated than it appears.
Most of the protected areas with high eIephant densities in southern
Africa are fenced, which severeIy restricts the eIephants' naturaI
movements. Far more countries thoughout Africa, incIuding severaI
countries in southern Africa, are experiencing substantiaI poaching-
reIated decIines among eIephants. The raging debates over cuIIing
frequentIy overshadow these points, yet they offer a simpIer soIution:
tearing down those fences and creating megaparks that transcend
internationaI boundaries. Many of the now fenced popuIations border
countries with Iow human and eIephant popuIation densities that offer
consideraIbIe Iand for eIephant movement. The megaparks wouId diIute
any high-density pockets of eIephant activity and thus bIunt the impact on
the rest of the food chain.
There is aIso disagreement as to the causes of humaneIephant
confIict. Such confIict most often happens when eIephants wander
outside their protected areas and into nearby farms. Loss of habitat is
usuaIIy cited as the prime cause, but the effect of poaching on eIephant
sociaI structure aIso pIays a Iarge roIe. OIder aduIt femaIes have
consistentIy been among the first to be poached - aside from big aduIt
maIes, they have the Iargest tusks, and femaIe sociaI groups are a Iot
easier for poachers to find than soIitary aduIt maIes. A 1989 study found
that 80 percent of the skuIIs recovered from poached eIephants were
femaIes, with a mean age of 32 years. These oId femaIes, caIIed
matriarchs, pIay a pivotaI roIe in eIephant society, directing group
movements and maintaining the group's competitive standing and sociaI
158
cohesion. With their Ieaders Iost and "protected areas" no Ionger offering
safe haven because of poaching, eIephants wander.
Indeed, massive eIephant exoduses have been weII documented
during the sIaughters that occurred in the civiI wars of Mozambique,
AngoIa and eIsewhere. These IeaderIess eIephants move out of their
protected areas, encounter rich crops, mistake the poor peopIe defending
them for poachers, and fight for their Iives.
(Scientific American, JuIy 2009, Page 62)
VocabuIary:
- Ivory: marfim, cor de marfim.
- Ban: proibio (subst.); proibir (verb.)
- CuII: seIecionar (informaes, documentos, etc.), fazer um abate
seIetivo de (verb.); abate seIetivo (subst.)
- WiIdIife: fauna e fIora.
- Thus: assim.
- BIunt: cego (faca, tesoura), sem ponta (Ipis), direto, franco
(resposta, pessoa, etc.) (adj.); cegar (verb.)
- Tusk: presa (de eIefante).
- Crop: coIheita.
Text Comprehension
1. After the ivory ban
0-0) eIephants in Africa were thought by many to have become
overpopuIated.
1-1) aII African countries aIIowed eIephant cuIIing to stop high popuIation
density.
2-2) eIephant and man finaIIy made it to a peacefuI coexistence in African
countries.
3-3) the media focus turned to some countries where eIephants were one
too many.
4-4) man and eIephant were not rid of confIict and they kept on
experiencing troubIe.
2. Among the soIutions offered to soIve the probIem of eIephant naturaI
movement is/are
0-0) putting up new fences to haIt eIephant immigration.
159
1-1) eIiminating fences in spite of geographicaI border restrictions.
2-2) creating megaparks so that eIephants can move freeIy.
3-3) cuIIing and poaching so as to diminish eIephant popuIation.
4-4) attacking poachers and Ieaving eIephants in the parks.
3. Man-eIephant confIicts take pIace mostIy due to eIephants wandering
away from protected areas. One IikeIy reason for the eIephants to do so is
0-0) their attempt to find other eIephants which have wandered away
themseIves.
1-1) that they find food across these boarders very easiIy.
2-2) they want to find aduIt maIes that Iive aIone and to sociaIize with
them.
3-3) that protected areas are no Ionger safe and poachers might kiII them.
4-4) that they are deprived of oIder eIephants whose roIe is to guide them
as a group.
4. AduIt femaIe eIephants, aIso known as matriarchs
0-0) pIay a fundamentaI roIe in eIephants sociaI structure.
1-1) Iive in groups and are more easiIy targeted by poachers for their
tusks.
2-2) heIp the group maintain their unity and competitive force.
3-3) pIay a meaningIess roIe in eIephants sociaI structure.
4-4) subject themseIves to aduIt maIe eIephants and seek their guidance.
Texto 18
RoIes reversed as men dominate Britain's 'OnIine High Street'
The stereotype of the femaIe shopahoIic couId soon be an image of
the past, as new research shows that Britain's 'onIine high street' is
increasingIy dominated by men.
The Iatest findings indicate that over 12.9 miIIion men shop onIine
today compared with 10.3 miIIion women, and aImost twice as many men
than women are joining the army of onIine shoppers each year.
Men are aIso spending more onIine than women. Over the Iast six
months, men spent onIine the average of 2,602 compared to 1,930 for
women. Men significantIy outspent women on traveI, financiaI services
and major purchases such as fridge freezers and washing machines. In
fact, men spent more than women in every onIine category except
groceries and cIothing.
Men were quicker to turn to the Internet at the beginning of the
economic downturn, Iooking to save money by shopping around, and to
research products in more depth before buying them.
(Adaptao do texto disponveI em <http:www.theretaiIbuIIetin.com>.
Acesso em 13/08/2009).
VocabuIary:
- Purchase: adquirir, comprar (verb.); aquisio, compra (subst.)
- Groceries: mantimentos (subst. pI.)
- Downturn: queda (na economia, etc.)
Text Comprehension
01. Choose the correct aIternative(s) according to text.
160
01) Men and women never buy the same items.
02) There are more men than women buying through the internet.
04) Men Iooked for internet shopping as a way of saving money.
08) Women buy more eIectricaI appIiances and more cIothes than men.
16) Men and women spend about the same amount on their shopping.
Texto 19
Ways the web has changed the worId
Our Iist of things kiIIed by the internet provoked indignation and sparked
nostaIgia. Matthew Moore Iooks at some of the reactions.
(By Matthew Moore)
When was the Iast time you checked Ceefax, received a hand-
written Ietter, or dispIayed your hoIiday photos in an aIbum? If you're one
of the estimated 17 miIIion Britons not connected to the internet, the
answer might be "this morning". But for the growing numbers of peopIe
who spend much of their time onIine, these and many other activities are
dying out.
When the TeIegraph pubIished a Iist of 50 things that are being
kiIIed off by the internet, we were surprised by the thousands of
passionate responses from readers. The articIe was intended to be a
tongue-in-cheek attempt to expIore some of the changes wrought by the
web over the past two decades. Some of the entries were products and
businesses - such as record shops, sIide shows and teIephone
directories - whose decIine has been weII documented. But it was the
ways that the internet is changing the way we think and behave, and in the
process kiIIing Iife experiences and habits that have emerged over
centuries, that drew the most discussion.
Top of our Iist was the death of poIite disagreement, a trend that wiII
be famiIiar to anyone who has spent time on internet message boards.
CiviIised society depends on rivaI groups biting their tongues and
agreeing to rub aIong together, but in onIine debates peopIe are often
unabIe to accept sincereIy heId differences of opinion and accuse their
opponents of having an agenda.
Memory and concentration aIso made the top 50. GoogIe and
Wikipedia have made aImost any fact accessibIe within seconds, creating
a cuIture where the retention of knowIedge is no Ionger prized. As our
memories become Iess important so our attention spans decIine - what
with tabbing between GmaiI, Twitter, Facebook and GoogIe News, it's a
wonder anyone gets their work done.
The internet can aIso be bIamed for the decIine of free time. Those
rainy days that we wouId once have fiIIed by re-reading a favourite noveI
or cIearing out the drawers are now consumed by idIe surfing.
SeveraI of the entries refIect the faIIing prestige of experts in the
digitaI age, aIthough readers seem divided about whether this is a good or
bad thing. The decIine of respect for doctors and other professionaIs,
thanks to the popuIarity of seIf-diagnosis websites, was seen by some as
a positive trend but Iamented as a victory for pushy hypochondriacs by
others.
161
Our readers, nostaIgic for a time when the internet did not dominate
their Iives, fIooded us with suggestions for things missing from our Iist.
SeveraI peopIe compIained that handwriting appeared to be a dying art as
keyboards foIIow up on their domination of offices by taking over
cIassrooms as weII. Others pointed to the disappearance of traveI agents,
estate agents and arcades from high streets as consumers fIock to
cheaper and more convenient onIine aIternatives. But it was the sociaI
changes that seem to perturb peopIe the most. Many compIained that
their pub quizzes are being ruined by iPhones and Wikipedia, whiIe one
woman bIamed the internet for making society more impatient: "Everyone
wants everything at the press of a cIick!"
It wouId be easy to dismiss our Iist as technophobic but the internet
has aIso changed things for the better. The end of the insurance ring-
round, for exampIe, or the eIimination of the wait to know the Iatest sport
resuIts are unequivocaIIy positive changes.
Many of the changes brought about by the internet are so graduaI
and pervasive that they can escape our attention. It makes sense for those
of us who use the web every day to take stock occasionaIIy, and think
about the way it's Ieading us.
As one commenter, Harry, wrote: "Embrace the internet, iron out its
fIaws but don't dismiss it. It's too vaIuabIe a resource."
(www.teIegraph.co.uk/technoIogy/6207343/Ways-the-web-haschanged-
the-worId.htmI. Access on Sep. 20, 2009)
VocabuIary:
- Briton: britnico(a).
- Iron out: acertar, resoIver aIgo.
Text Comprehension
1.O que Ievou Matthew Moore a escrever o artigo que constitui o texto II?
2. Cite dois exempIos de questes ou situaes de cunho interpessoaI
que servem para iIustrar a motivao do autor do texto.
3. Em reIao a cada um dos tipos de sites da Internet mencionados a
seguir, cite dois aspectos negativos creditados a seu uso generaIizado:
a) GoogIe e Wikipedia;
b) sites de autodiagnstico mdico.
4. QuaI o ponto de vista do autor em reIao ao uso da Internet?
Texto 20
A SUSTAINABLE WAY OF LIVING
In today's worId, some peopIe
worry about the pIanet. They disIike the
inefficiency of modern homes and
disagree with the idea that we are unabIe
to change the way we Iive. For these
peopIe, the ideaI home is one that does
not harm the Earth.
MichaeI ReynoIds is a buiIding
designer. He started designing homes
162
based on sustainabIe principIes in Taos, New Mexico, U.S.A., more than
25 years ago. Now over 1,000 homes around the worId incorporate his
"Iiving" buiIding systems. These homes, caIIed earthships, have buiIt-in
systems that take into account every human impact and need, for this
reason they are caIIed "ships". They are designed to make a famiIy feeI
independent and free as if they were on a Iong voyage , onIy in this case
the ship is their home, their voyage is on Earth, and their goaI is to Iive in
harmony with their environment.
BeIieve it or not, an earthship is made from oId tires fiIIed with
earth. The waIIs are made of empty tin cans. The earthship and simiIar
innovative designs can use many other recycIed materiaIs, Iimited onIy by
the imagination. Earthships are designed to coIIect and store their own
energy from a variety of sources. The majority of eIectricaI energy comes
from the sun and wind. Earthships are buiIt to catch and use water from
the IocaI environment without bringing in water from a centraIized source.
Water used in an earthship is harvested from rain or snow.
Earthships are based on the idea of a sustainabIe society, which is
defined as one that satisfies its needs without diminishing the prospects
of future generations. Nowadays, sustainabIe buiIding is emerging as a
responsibIe way for humanity to preserve the heaIth and safety of the
pIanet. As MichaeI ReynoIds says, "Perhaps one day, more peopIe wiII
care about the pIanet. It's unfortunate that some peopIe might think this
kind of Iiving is inconvenient. It isn't at aII. I Iove my earthship!"
(Adapted from: #>,86=G A>?9. MacmiIIan PubIishers Limited: MiIes
Craven, 2003. p.145. )
(AvaiIabIe at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthship> Access on August
18th 2009.
AvaiIabIeat:
<http://www.greenhomebuiIding.com/pdf/buiIdingstandards_earthships.p
df>
Access on August 18th 2009.)
VocabuIary:
- Environment: meio ambiente.
Text Comprehension:
1. SeIect the CORRECT ending(s) for the foIIowing sentence, according to
text. Some peopIe think that .
01. modern homes are cheap and unheaIthy.
02. we are abIe to modify our way of Iiving.
04. efficient homes shouId not damage the Earth.
08. Iiving in an earthship is expensive.
16. in the future aII homes wiII be made of oId tires.
2. What does text 1 say about MichaeI ReynoIds?
SeIect the CORRECT proposition(s).
01. He deveIoped innovative ideas about transportation.
02. One thousand peopIe Iive in the homes he designed.
04. The houses he designs are intended to protect the environment.
163
08. His buiIding concepts are not restricted to the U.S.A.
16. He understands those who prefer to Iive in traditionaI homes.
VERBO TO BE (PRESENT TENSE)
1- C; 2- A; 3- D
VERBO TO BE (PAST TENSE)
1: a - was; b - was; c - was; d - were; e - were.
THERE TO BE
1- B; 2- A; 3- D; 4- C; 5- E
PLURAL
1- A; 2- E; 3- B; 4- B; 5- A; 6- A; 7- C; 8- B; 9- C; 10- C; 11- D; 12- A; 13- D;
14- C; 15- C; 16- E; 17- A; 18- E.
GERUND AND PRESENT PARTICIPLE
1: a- going; b- doing; c- Iearning; d- reIaxing; e- Ieaving; f- greeing; g-
Ioving; h- determining; i- studying; j- pIaying; k- staying; I- trying; m-
dropping; n- regretting; o- forgetting, p- sitting; q- Iying; r- faIIing; s-
saying; t- enjoying; u- paying; worry; worrying.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
1- B; 2- E; 3- B
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
1: a- was shouting/was running; b- were quarreIing - was reIaxing; c- were
studying; d- were sitting; e- was Iooking;
2- B.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
1: a- wiII be going; b- wiII be traveIing; c- wiII be appearing; d- wiII be
studying; e- wiII be enjoying.
PRONOUNS
1- D; 2- B; 3- A; 4- C; 5- D; 6- D; 7- C; 8- A; 9- C; 10- C; 11- E; 12- E; 13- D;
14- A; 15- C; 16- D; 17- E; 18- E; 19- A; 20- E
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (EXERCCIO 1)
1: a- have/is coming; b- studies/is pIaying; c- is doing/ is making; d-
attract - inspire; e- are quarreIing; f- gets/bangs; g- are trying; h- know/faII.
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (EXERCISE 2)
164
1- D; 2- C; 3- A; 4- B; 5- B; 6- A; 7- B; 8- E; 9- A; 10- C; 11- A; 12- D.
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
1: a- were doing/came; b- saw/was crawIing; c- were shipping/arrived; d-
was singing/ were dancing (sang/danced); e- was denying/got
2- D
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
1: a- wiII pass; b- wiII see; c- wiII keep; d- wiII be; e- wiII find.
2: a- recognize / see; b- comes/ quarreI; c- becomes/wiII find; d- ends/wiII
go; e- wiII make/gets; f- ask/wiII heIp; g- wiII puII/know; h- wiII buy/goes; i-
gets/wiII decide; j- finish/wiII reIax.
GENITIVE (POSSESSIVE) CASE
1- B; 2- A; 3- A; 4- C; 5- B; 6- B; 7- D; 8- A; 9- B; 10- B; 11- E; 12- C; 13- B
ARTICLE (EXERCCIO 1)
1: a- a; b- an; c- a; d- a; e- an; f- a; g- a; h- an; i- an; j- an.
ARTICLE (EXERCISE 2)
1- A; 2- C; 3- A; 4- C; 5- D; 6- C; 7- C; 8- A; 9- D.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
1: a- saw; b- have borrowed/did/refused; c- opened/got; d- has taken/took;
e- have Iost; f- have needed/died offered
PAST PERFECT TENSE
1: a- traveIed/had visited; b- supposed/had made; c- had toId; d- had gone/
inquired; e- had Ieft/arrived; f- had found/ phoned; g- was born/ had gone .
2- B; 3- D; 4- D; 5- B.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
1- D
PREPOSITIONS
1: a- between/in; b- untiI; c- between; d- for; e- tiII; f- among; g- to/by/in/on;
h- through/across.
2- D; 3- D; 4- D; 5-C; 6- C; 7- E.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1- E.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1: a- had been eating; b- had been drinking; c- had been trying; d- had
been erupting; e- had been studying.
MODAL VERBS
1- D.
GOING TO
165
1: a- is going to make; b- am going to do; c- is going to have; d- are going
to worry; e- is going to rain; f- is going to run; g- are going to turn; h- am
going to Iisten; i- is going to be; j- are going.
IMPERATIVE MOOD
1: a- Iet's do/Iet's not do; b- Iet's go/Iet's not go; c- Iet's read/Iet's not read;
d- Iet's write/Iet's not write.
QUESTION TAGS/TAG ENDINGS
1: a- can't you; b- doesn't he; c- weren't they; d- hasn't she; e- hadn't they;
f- won't he; g- aren't they; h- hasn't she; i- doesn't it; j- didn't they.
2: a- have they; b- has she; c- have they; d- wiII he; e- did you; f- does she;
g- have we; h- are they; i- has she; j- wiII he.
3- E; 4- B; 5- B; 6- A; 7- E; 8- C; 9- A; 10- A.
IF CLAUSES
1: a- organize/wiII obtain; b- wiII Iearn/teaches; c- become/wiII give; d- wiII
(you) do/ there is; e- stand/won' sink; f- write/wiII receive.
2: a- had/couId; b- soId/wouIdn't be; c- wouId faII/didn't know; d- wouId
(she) go/were; e- wouId be/answered; f- wouIdn't speak/didn't apoIogize;
g- wouId (she) teII/asked; h- were/wouIdn't do; i- had/couId; j- wouId
(these products) Iast/weren't.
3: a- wouId have enjoyed/ had spent; b- had pIanned/wouId have had; c-
wouId have gone/had known; d- hadn't been (cIosed)/wouId have bought;
e- wouId have seen/ hadn't been; f- had searched/wouIdn't have paid; g-
wouId have given/had Iistened; h- had Iit/wouIdn't have feIt; i- wouIdn't
have been/hadn't suffered.
4- B; 5- E; 6- E; 7- D; 8- C; 9- B; 10- D; 11- E; 12- C; 13- E; 14- E; 15- C; 16-
A; 17- D
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
1- C; 2- E; 3- C; 4- D; 5- D; 6- A; 7- D; 8- C; 9- E; 10- B; 11- C
PASSIVE VOICE
1: a- the oId schooI was reopened; b- the passive voice wiII be Iearned; c-
food suppIies are dropped by heIicopters during snowy winters; d- the
roads were bIocked by the snow; e- the food suppIies are being dropped
by the heIicopter; f- the attention of schooI chiIdren was being affected by
tv; g- our new house wiII be being buiIt on Sunday; h- the cars were being
driven across the frozen river; i- this exercise is being done now. j- pubIic
transport has been brought to a standstiII by the heavy snow; k- the
habits wiII have been changed by the weather, then; I- a famiIy had been
trapped at a farm by the bitterIy snowy winter; m- those siIent days wouId
have been remembered; n- the students have been kept very siIent; o- the
car needn't be driven across the river; p- the money ought to be brought
today; q- a teIegram may have been sent; r- a good studying programme
shouId be deveIoped by educators; s- pubIic transport may be affected by
this heavy snow; t- a difficuIt entrance examination caIIed "vestibuIar" wiII
have to be taken (by aII students who want to enter university); u- he
couIdn't have been recognized; v- the AIDS epidemic is being intensiveIy
fought (by governments) nowadays; w- one of the best teIevision series
166
couId be foIIowed; x- the new age song was niceIy pIayed; y- the bitterIy
coId winter wiII not be forgotten in Europe; z- food suppIies wiII be
dropped by a heIicopter.
2: a- the government had said nothing; b- they (someone) brought a
message to his house on Sunday; c- they wiII not remove the barriers; d-
she has recovered her memory; e- the chiIdren were singing EngIish
songs.
3- C; 4- C; 5- E; 6- C; 7- C; 8- E; 9- C
REPORTED SPEECH
1: a- they said that was the message recorded on the teIecomputer; b- she
toId me (that) she wouId go to the new schooI the foIIowing (next) day; c-
he said (that) they couId see the new manager the foIIowing week; d- the
doctor toId us (that) we had to take Iots of medicine to be cured; e- the oId
man said (that) in his time things used to be very different; f- she said
(that) she wanted that work ready by the foIIowing day; g- the students
toId the director (that) they needed better courses; h- the man said (that)
he bought peopIe enjoyed taIking to computers; i- the manager toId the
businessman (that) computers seemed to do something different to their
cIients; j- the saIesman said (that) his experience had been that they aII
enjoyed taIking to computers; k- they toId their chiIdren (that) they had to
do aII their homework before going to pIay; i- he toId the technician (that)
he/she needed more recorded messages in that computer if he/she
wanted it to work out; m- she said (that) if it hadn't happened so fast she
couId have done something; n- he toId us (that) we shouId enjoy
ourseIves whiIe we were young.
2- C
INFINITIVE AND GERUND
1: a- visiting; b- to cIose; c- taIking; d- to Iearn; e- to read; f- to check
CONNECTIVES
1- a- when; b- because; c- untiI; d- unIess; e- and; f- since; g- or; h- but; i-
so; j- when; k- or; I- because; m- unIess; n- so; o- or; p- when; q- aIthough;
r- and; s- but; t- unIess.
NOUNS AND QUANTITIES
1- A; 2- E; 3- E; 4- A; 5- E; 6- E; 7- B; 8- B; 9- B; 10- E; 11- E; 12- B; 13- B;
14- A; 15- B; 16- E; 17- D; 18- D; 19- B; 20- B; 21- A
Extra Exercises
+ < ( & < ( = < > ? < @ 4 < @
A < A B < C D < C 3 < > +5 < C
++ < C +& < > += < > +? < @ +4 < (
+A < C +B < @ +D < > +3 < ( &5 < @
&+ < C && < A &= < C &? < A &4 < >
&A < @ &B < > &D < > &3 < C =5 < C
=+ < @ =& < > == < ( =? < C =4 < A
=A < A =B < A =D < A =3 < ( ?5 < C
?+ < ( ?& < ( ?= < @ ?? < ( ?4 < >
167
?A < ( ?B < A ?D < @ ?3 < @ 45 < @
4+ < @ 4& < > 4= < ( 4? < @ 44 < >
4A < C 4B < @ 4D < A 43 < > A5 < A
A+ < ( A& < @ A= < A A? < > A4 < (
AA < @ AB < > AD < @ A3 < @ B5 < @
B+ < > B& < ( B= < A B? < ( B4 < A
BA < @ BB < @ BD < > B3 < ( D5 < @
D+ < C D& < A D= < C D? < @ D4 < >
DA < C DB < C DD < A D3 < @ 35 < A
3+ < > 3& < ( 3= < @ 3? < > 34 < (
3A < @ 3B < ( 3D < > 33 < C +55 < @
+5+ < @ +5& < A +5= < C +5? < @ +54 < (
Texto 01
+ < > & < A = < A ? < C 4 < @
Texto 02
+ < @ & < ( = < > ? < C 4 < A
A < @
Texto 03
+ < ( & < C = < @
Texto 04
+ < A & < ( = < >
Texto 05
+ < C & < ( = < @
Texto 06
+ < A & < >
Texto 07
168
+ < C & < ( = < ( ? < A 4 < (
A < A B < C
Texto 08
+ < C & < ( = < C ? < > 4 < A
A < > B < C D < A 3 < @ +5 < >
++ < @
Texto 09
+ < @ & < > = < ( ? < C 4 < @
Texto 10
+ < ( & < C
Texto 11
+ < ( & < C = < A ? < @ 4 < A
Texto 12
+ < C & < ( = < > ? < A 4 < (
A < A B< @ D< C 3 < (
Texto 13
+ < > & < @ = < A ? < C 4 < >
A < @
Texto 14
+ < EE;;E & < E;E;; = < ;E;E; ? < E;E;E
Texto 15
+ < ;EE;; & < ;EE;; = < E;;E; ? < EE;;;
169
Texto 16
+ < E;;;; & < ;EEE; = < E;EE; ? < ;EE;E
Texto 17
+ < ;EE;; & < E;;EE = < EEE;; ? < ;;;EE
Texto 18
+ < & F ? G A
Texto 19
+. (As reaHIes dos leitores do jornal Telegraph J publicaHKo de uma lista
composta de 45 itens de coisas 8ue estKo desaparecendo por causa da
internet.'
&. (%Cois itens de resposta'
L M fim da manifestaHKo, com civilidade, de opiniIes discordantes.
L A relaHKo com agentes imobiliNrios ou de turismo.
L As pessoas ficaram mais impacientes %ao lidar com as outras'.
L Ms jogos de conhecimentos gerais reali0ados em bares (pub quizzes) foram
prejudicados,afetados.
L M declOnio do respeito pela opiniKo de certos especialistas. '
=. (%A' Podem causar um desestOmulo J concentraHKo e ao exercOcio da
memPria.
%(' Incentivam a hipocondria e levam J desvalori0aHKo da opiniKo dos
profissionais de saQde. '
?. (>le concorda com o comentNrio de um dos leitores, Rarry, pois considera
8ue, embora muitas coisas estejam desaparecendo de nossas vidas por causa
da Internet, ela S um recurso muito importante.'
Texto 20
+ < & F ? G A & < ? F D G+&
170