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Handbook for

Teaching (HILT)

Handbook for
Teaching (HILT)
The cover illustration and its insert companion were inspired by Stanley Kubricks 1968 film
2001: A Space Odyssey. The moment when prehistoric man discovered the use of simple
tools was a milestone in the history of civilisation. The ability to use information as a survival
tool has had an equally profound impact. The pairing of these images conveys a sense of the
evolution and progress of the human race, from a manual to an intellectual dexterity; they
emphasise the liberating effects of information on the human spirit. We believe that these
images encapsulate many of the principles of information literacy described in this
Handbook; they motivate, inspire and demand attention. We hope that you agree.

Handbook for Information
Literacy Teaching (HILT)

Jessica Gaunt
Nigel Morgan
Rowland Somers
Rosemary Soper
Erica Swain

Layout and formatting by Rob Sell

University Library Service
Third Revision, August 2009

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence.

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 i
Foreword by Janet Peters

Information Literacy encompasses knowledge of ones information concerns and
needs, and the ability to identify, locate, evaluate, organize and effectively create,
use and communicate information to address issues or problems at hand; it is a
prerequisite for participating effectively in the Information Society, and is part of the
basic human right of life long learning.

Information Literacy has been a key topic in academic library circles for many years,
building on the User Education and Information Skills which went before it. The
challenge has been to persuade colleagues in academia and education in general
that the sacrifice of some teaching hours to demonstrate the importance of being
able to identify, locate, retrieve, evaluate and use information effectively is well worth
while in developing learning techniques which can be used throughout life. Although
this is still not universally achieved, Cardiff University is at the forefront of UK
Universities in promoting the value of information literacy to the academic community
in various ways. The University has adopted an information literacy Guidance Note
for display on its web site; several innovative learning and teaching projects which
promote the use of information literacy have won University funding; and this year the
Higher Education Academy (HEA) subject centre for Computing and Information
Science awarded one of the team the prize for Teaching Excellence.

Naturally, if such a high profile approach is to be taken, the quality of the teaching of
information literacy must be excellent by everyone involved. This handbook has
been tried and tested by staff both in Cardiff University and now internationally in
countries such as Finland, where a locally adapted version has been written in
Finnish. It has proved its worth already in providing a consistent and pedagogically
sound foundation both for teaching sessions and for one-to-one advice and
guidance, and it is extensively updated regularly to include new developments such
as Web 2.0. As the product of the work of many experts among the Subject
Librarians at Cardiff University, who are acclaimed nationally and internationally for
the development of innovative techniques such as the Cephalonian Method, a
resource bank of learning objects on Information Literacy and in their involvement in
peer review of their own teaching, I commend this handbook to you in the strongest
terms. You will wonder how you ever managed without it.

Janet Peters, Director of Libraries and University Librarian, Cardiff University

US National Commission on Library and Information Science. 2003. The Prague
Declaration: Towards An Information Literate Society [online] Available at:
on.pdf [Accessed 23rd July 2009].
. ii Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Foreword by Janet Peters ................................................................................................ i
Contents ...........................................................................................................................ii
Message from the HILT Group ...................................................................................... vii
Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... viii

Section 1: Information Literacy Key Issues ................................................................1
IL STANDARDS: CHARTING YOUR PROGRESS ..........................................................1
CURRICULA ...................................................................................................................3
Preparing and Reviewing Your Teaching .....................................................................3
PROMOTING IL ..............................................................................................................4
Promotion to Schools...................................................................................................4
Promotion to Students .................................................................................................5
KEEPING UP TO DATE ..................................................................................................6

Section 2: Library Orientation .........................................................................................9
LIBRARY ORIENTATION: THE KEY ISSUES .................................................................9
INTERACTIVITY IN LIBRARY ORIENTATION .............................................................. 13
Cephalonian Method.................................................................................................. 13
Library Bingo ............................................................................................................. 14
Jeopardy ................................................................................................................... 15
Other Suggestions ..................................................................................................... 16

Section 3: Lesson Planning ........................................................................................... 19
STARTING TO PLAN YOUR TEACHING SESSION ..................................................... 19
WRITING LEARNING OUTCOMES .............................................................................. 19
CREATING LESSON PLANS ........................................................................................ 20
Lesson Plans: Items for Inclusion Checklist ............................................................. 20
PREPARING INSTRUCTOR NOTES ............................................................................ 21
Instructor Notes: Items for Inclusion Checklist ......................................................... 22
HANDOUTS .................................................................................................................. 22
Preparing Handouts ................................................................................................... 23
Accessible Handouts Checklist ............................................................................... 24
Testing ...................................................................................................................... 24
Creative use of Handouts .......................................................................................... 24
CONSIDERING YOUR LEARNERS .............................................................................. 26
BEING FLEXIBLE ......................................................................................................... 28
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update iii
PLANNING AND REFLECTION .................................................................................... 30
TEACHING OVERSEAS STUDENTS ........................................................................... 30

Section 4: Lesson Formats ............................................................................................ 33
PLANNING A LECTURE ............................................................................................... 33
PLANNING A WORKSHOP .......................................................................................... 34
Planning Small Group Discussions ............................................................................ 36
PLANNING ONE-TO-ONE TEACHING ......................................................................... 37

Section 5: Teaching Technologies ................................................................................ 39
CARDIFF UNIVERSITY TEACHING TOOLS ................................................................ 40
Cardiff Portal ............................................................................................................. 40
Learning Central ........................................................................................................ 42
Information Literacy Resource Bank (ILRB) ............................................................... 42
Library Toolkits .......................................................................................................... 45
PRESENTATION TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................. 46
Prezi .......................................................................................................................... 46
PowerPoint Revisited................................................................................................. 47
Top 10 PowerPoint Tips ............................................................................................ 47
Adding Speaker Notes to PowerPoint ........................................................................ 48
Creating Handouts ..................................................................................................... 49
Raising Your Game: Advanced Tips .......................................................................... 49
Slideshare ................................................................................................................. 50
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES: An A-Z ................................................................................ 51
Assessment and Feedback Tools .............................................................................. 51
Audience Response Technology (ART) .................................................................... 52i
Clickers .............................................................................................................. 52i
Online Polling ..................................................................................................... 52ii
Classroom Management Software .......................................................................... 52iv
Image Websites ....................................................................................................... 52v
Interactive Whiteboards .......................................................................................... 52vi
Podcasts ................................................................................................................ 52vi
QR Codes ............................................................................................................. 52vii
Social Bookmarking ................................................................................................ 52ix
Tutorials and Quizzes .............................................................................................. 52x
Udutu ................................................................................................................ 52xi
Glomaker........................................................................................................... 52xi
Xerte ................................................................................................................ 52xii
Twitter in the Classroom ........................................................................................ 52xii
The Backchannel Using Twitter ...................................................................... 52xii
Videos, Movies, Screencasts and Vodcasts .......................................................... 52xiii
Screencasts..................................................................................................... 52xiv
. iv Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Xtranormal ........................................................................................................ 52xv
Web Conferencing ................................................................................................. 52xv
Vyew ............................................................................................................... 52xvi
Wikis ....................................................................................................................52xvii

Section 6: Lesson Delivery ............................................................................................ 53
PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES .................................................................................. 53
Pecha Kucha ............................................................................................................. 56
MANAGING THE TEACHING ENVIRONMENT ............................................................. 56
Room Preparations .................................................................................................... 56
Equipment Preparations ............................................................................................ 57
Seating Arrangements ............................................................................................... 57
Group Work ............................................................................................................... 58
Working in Pairs ........................................................................................................ 58
Room Conditions ....................................................................................................... 58
During the Lesson ..................................................................................................... 58
Disabled Learners ..................................................................................................... 59
FACILITATION SKILLS (FOR WORKSHOPS) .............................................................. 59
Latecomers and Difficult Learners .............................................................................. 60

Section 7: Assessment .................................................................................................. 63
PURPOSE AND FORMS OF ASSESSMENT ................................................................ 63
PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT .................................................................................. 64
Validity .......................................................................................................................... 64
Reliability ...................................................................................................................... 66
Explicitness ................................................................................................................... 67

Section 8: Evaluating your Teaching ............................................................................ 69
WHY EVALUATE YOUR TEACHING? .......................................................................... 69
REFLECTIVE PRACTICE ............................................................................................. 69
Feedback from Students ............................................................................................ 70
Questionnaires .......................................................................................................... 71
Other Suggestions ........................................................................................................ 72
Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for IL .......................................................................... 73
Feedback from Tutors ................................................................................................ 73
PEER REVIEW OF LEARNING AND TEACHING (PRLT) ............................................. 74

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update v
Supporting Documents .................................................................................................. 77
INFORMATION LITERACY GUIDANCE NOTE ............................................................. 79
INSRV INFORMATION LITERACY STRATEGY 2008-2011 .......................................... 87
INSTRUCTOR TRAINING ............................................................................................. 90
ELEVATOR SPEECH ................................................................................................... 93
ACCESSIBLE TEACHING STRATEGIES ..................................................................... 94
GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING WRITTEN MATERIALS ............................................. 96

Examples ........................................................................................................................ 99
The Cephalonian Method .............................................................................................. 99
Lesson Plan (Using OVID Healthcare Databases) ....................................................... 100
Instructor Notes (Citing References) ............................................................................ 101
PowerPoint-Generated Handout (Finding Information for your Assignments) ............... 103
Information Sheet (Resources Checklist) ..................................................................... 106
Information Sheet (Overview of the Information Research Process) ............................ 107
Worksheet (Citing References) .................................................................................... 115
Worksheet (Finding Information for your Research) ..................................................... 119
Worksheet (Searching Databases) .............................................................................. 121
Worksheet (Wikipedia) ................................................................................................ 123
Workbook (Review of Architectural Information Sources) ............................................. 127
Workbook (Using the Voyager Catalogue) ................................................................... 134
Activity Sheet (Using the Web Ethically and Effectively) ............................................... 139
Evaluation Checklist (Web Pages) ............................................................................... 141
Evaluation Checklist (Search Engines) ........................................................................ 143
Word Cloud ................................................................................................................. 145
Quiz used in Lecture (Information Research Quiz) ....................................................... 146
Research Trail............................................................................................................. 150
Multiple Choice Test .................................................................................................... 152
Integrated Assessment ................................................................................................ 154
Unstructured Marking Scheme .................................................................................... 155
Structured Marking Scheme ........................................................................................ 156
Marking Grid ............................................................................................................... 157
Feedback Form (short and simple) .............................................................................. 158
Feedback Form (after a single session) ....................................................................... 159
Feedback From (after a series of sessions, including KPI question) ............................. 160
Example from Anitta rn, Finland (Boolean Operators slides) ..................................... 162
Example from Kaisa Puttonen, Finland (Library Assignment Instructions) ................... 164

Further Reading .......................................................................................................... 167
Index ........................................................................................................................... 175

. vi Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Case Studies

Promoting IL - A Subject Librarians Perspective ................................................................6
Using the Cephalonian Method for Library Orientation ...................................................... 13
Using a Flexible Approach ................................................................................................ 29
Structuring a Lecture in a Quiz Format ............................................................................. 34
Mind Mapping .................................................................................................................. 36
Socratic Dialogue in Class Discussions ............................................................................ 37
One-to-one Teaching ....................................................................................................... 38
Other Online Assessment and Feedback Tools ............................................................... 52i
Audience Response Technology (Clickers) .................................................................. 52ii
Classroom Management Software .................................................................................. 52v
Social Bookmarking in the Classroom............................................................................. 52x
Video Conferencing Software to Support Library Users ...............................................52xvii
Creative use of a Wiki ................................................................................................ 52xviii
Facilitating Workshops ..................................................................................................... 61
Assessing your Information Literacy Sessions .................................................................. 65
Marking Research Trails ................................................................................................... 67
PRLT: A Subject Librarians Perspective .......................................................................... 75
Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 1
Section 1: Information Literacy - key issues
Information Literacy: concept and strategic context
Cardiff University places great emphasis on the acquisition of information literacy (IL)
skills by staff and students. You will be pleased to know that you work for an
institution which has acquired an international reputation for excellence in this field!
IL is defined, and its strategic context at Cardiff explained, in the Information Literacy
Guidance Note (see Supporting Document 1, pp. 79-86). It is essential that you are
familiar with its contents. See also the INSRV Information Literacy Strategy 2008-
2011 (Supporting Document 2, pp. 87-89). Further, one of the key messages
identified in the Library Review
was that more IL training would be broadly
welcomed (see Section 7.7 of the Final Report).
IL Standards: charting your progress
According to the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) competency
standards for IL in higher education, the information literate student:
1. Determines the nature and extent of the information needed
2. Accesses needed information effectively and efficiently
3. Evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected
information into his or her knowledge base and value system
4. Individually or as a group uses information effectively to accomplish a specific

Cardiff University Directorate of Information Services. 2005. Review of the University Library
Service 2004/05 2014/15 [online]. Available at:
[Accessed: 6 August 2009].
The concept of information literacy is introduced with reference to Cardiff
Universitys Information Literacy Guidance Note. The key issues covered in this
section are:
IL: concept and strategic context (p. 1)
IL standards: charting your progress (pp. 1-2)
Embedding and integrating your teaching into curricula (pp. 3-4)
Promoting IL (pp. 4-6)
Keeping up-to-date (pp. 6-7).
Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 2
5. Understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the
use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally.

To help you assess your teaching against these standards, below are the categories
of provision used by the IL audit, conducted at intervals in the University Library
Service (ULS). This monitors progress towards the goal of embedding IL into taught
programmes of study.
A Orientation. An introduction to library facilities, procedures and
arrangement of material. Include in this category training in the use of
Voyager and how to find books and journals in the library.
B Achieves outcomes in competency standard 2. Mainly includes
training in the use of specific databases or indexes and/or searching
and evaluating the authority of web sites.
C Incorporates competency standards 1 and 2. In addition to the
competencies which will be achieved in category B, the training is
focused on identifying and finding information for a specific topic,
using a range of information types (books, journals, web resources
D Encompasses competency standards 1, 2 and 3. In addition to the
training in category C, training includes evaluation of the information
found, such as the relevance, reliability, objectivity and weight of
authority of the content, e.g. critical appraisal.

E Encompasses competency standards 1, 2, 3 and 4. An IL framework
is used to integrate skills teaching. Information searching sessions
are fully integrated with sessions on using information effectively
through, for example, using the information found in the searching
session in later sessions in the module.
Subject librarians should aim to achieve at least category C in their IL teaching,
though it is recognised that this will not always be possible.
INSRV wishes to ensure that you are confident and able to fulfil your IL teaching role.
The Instructor Training procedures (Supporting Document 3, pp. 90-91) were
approved by the ULS Board in 2005 to ensure that staff are suitably qualified and
experienced, and also have the necessary confidence to deliver training of high

American Library Association. 2000. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher
Education [online]. Available at:
http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdf [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Critical appraisal is [t]he process of carefully and systematically examining research to
judge its trustworthiness, and its value and relevance in a particular context. See:
[Accessed: 6 August 2009] (from which the above quote is taken).

Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 3
Starting out: embedding and integrating your teaching into
Where possible, IL training should be embedded within the subject curriculum to
maximise relevance, timeliness and student motivation. Stand-alone sessions are
less effective; it can be difficult for a learner to transfer a skill practised in a generic
environment into a subject-specific context.
Ideally, your session(s) will be timetabled within the module. IL should be included in
the learning outcomes of the module and any assessment should incorporate an
element of testing IL skills (see Section 7 Assessment, pp. 63-67).
Preparing and reviewing your teaching
Get the content right: try to ensure your session content flows from what the
students have just been doing in the module into what they will be doing next.
Ensure that your teaching is relevant and timely, that the learning will address
real needs and that the context is authentic. If possible, try to sit in on a
module session preceding yours.

Get the academics on your side: academic staff are best placed to develop
certain aspects of IL; they can help students evaluate and analyse critically
the information identified in your session. Liaise with lecturers to design the
curriculum so that students need to find and read the information and use it
for a specific purpose (e.g. for an essay, report or presentation). The School
may integrate your undergraduate teaching into its activities to prepare
students for academic writing, critical analysis and research skills to meet
Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) standards.

Opportunities for reinforcement: students need the opportunity to repeat
the process of finding, evaluating and using information for an assessment as
soon as possible after your session. If the assessment is for another module,
the links between your teaching in the one module and the expectations of the
tutors in the other need to be expressed very clearly.

Assessment: use assessment tools which are integrated, such as research
trails or i-maps accompanying an assessed essay, rather than non-embedded
assessments, such as the creation of a bibliography on a set topic (see
Section 8: Assessment, pp. 63-67).

Personal Development Plans
: Consider whether it is appropriate to include
reflections on IL in the PDP structure suggested by the School.

The QAA requires that all HE students be given the opportunity for Personal Development
Planning (PDP). Schools are required to provide opportunities for students to reflect upon
their learning, performance and achievement and plan for their personal, educational and
career development. See the Universitys Personal Development Planning page at
http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/learning/themes/pdp/index.html [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 4
Dont forget Rome (or Cardiff, for that matter) wasnt built in a day! It takes time to
forge relationships with academic staff and to get your teaching fully embedded into
modules. Prioritise and plan your strategy carefully possibly by concentrating your
efforts on just one or two courses per academic year. If successful, you can then
move on to embedding your teaching in other modules / courses.
Promoting IL
It is vital that you promote IL to your School. Indeed, you may already have
established an IL teaching partnership. However, if you have not yet managed to get
your teaching embedded, you need to emphasise the importance of IL and generate
support. Gauge the method most appropriate to the style and personality of the
Strike while the iron is hot! Successful promotion depends largely on your ability to
take advantage of available opportunities. If you are well informed and involved with
the work of the School, you will be at an advantage.
Promotion to Schools
Dont be shy! Make contact with key members of School staff, e.g. those on
research, teaching and library committees, course directors, the skills co-
ordinator and leaders of skills or other modules. Find out which lecturers
have an interest in IL and develop these contacts.

Make links, where appropriate, to IL when attending School meetings and/or
staff and student panels. Reciprocate by inviting School staff to IL events.

Alert relevant staff (such as library representatives, course directors, Heads of
School) to the strategic documents noted earlier in this section

Show examples of instruction materials you have used for other courses
and/or those being used by colleagues at other sites. However, make sure
you get permission from the originator! Alternatively, consider showing the
materials later in this Handbook (pp. 99-166).

Offer to train lecturers in an aspect of IL, e.g. the use of a particular electronic
resource, and then use this as a selling point. If possible, integrate your
session into existing staff training programmes in the School.

Offer to deliver a session in partnership with an academic, e.g. in a session
on plagiarism and referencing you could offer to demonstrate and explain the
advantages of EndNote. This can effectively reinforce the relationship
between your teaching and that of the academic staff.

Tie-in discussions on IL with other School priorities such as combating
plagiarism or PDPs

Draw attention to Cardiffs IL web pages at
http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/insrv/educationandtraining/infolit/index.html and/or to
Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 5
the Information Literacy Guidance Note. These pages provide a digestible
definition of IL and explain its benefits. In addition, the IL elevator speech
(Supporting Document 4, p. 93) illustrates how you can quickly communicate
the importance of IL.

Keep track of the views and reports on IL instruction of professional or
vocational bodies in the subject field, and draw these to the Schools
attention. In addition, the QAA benchmark standards may be relevant.

Promotion to students
When IL sessions are embedded in curricula, students have a strong impetus to
attend. Nevertheless, some well targeted publicity will not go amiss. In order to
maximise attendance:
Get involved in induction / registration week events. Give a lively 10 minute
presentation to the whole cohort within the Schools orientation programme.
This is an ideal opportunity to introduce yourself and highlight the importance
of the IL sessions students will be attending.

If held in induction / registration week, ensure that the library orientation
session is included in the students timetable and handbook and mentioned in
the course introductory lecture

If your orientation session is in week 1 and you have had no prior contact with
the students, arrange with lecturing staff to advertise and promote your
session through an announcement at the start of a lecture. Better still, drop
by and make the announcement yourself (but obtain permission first!).

Use the orientation session as a promotion opportunity to advertise further
events tailored to the particular needs of the student group

You may want to avoid the term information literacy; research skills may be
more readily accepted and understood.

Be friendly, be approachable, BE YOURSELF!

The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. No date. Subject benchmark
statements [online]. Available at:
http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/benchmark/default.asp [Accessed: 6 August

Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 6

Promoting IL a Subject Librarians perspective Case study 1
For me, the best promoters of embedded IL sessions are actually my students. Try
to collect as much feedback from your sessions as possible and use that in
discussions with academic staff. Nothing surprises academics more than students
asking for your sessions to be made compulsory!
When you are talking to lecturers, show your enthusiasm and demonstrate flexibility
as well as knowledge of IL theory. Above all, go prepared with plenty of ideas so
they are given a choice about how to implement IL in their specific School setting.
And finally, never give up just be persistent and flag IL skills in all appropriate
meetings (preferably without getting on peoples nerves!) until you get an agreement
for a trial session.
Sonja Haerkoenen, Arts and Social Studies Library
Keeping up to date
IL is an exciting and evolving field. It is important to be aware of the latest
developments and thinking in both IL and teaching generally by:
Attending IL events and conferences. Apart from the prestigious Librarians
Information Literacy Annual Conference (LILAC), there are excellent regional
events organised by CILIPs University College & Research Group
. If you
are unable to attend, it is worth checking at a later date to see if presentations
have appeared on the web. In addition, the IL briefings, ULS briefings and
QUILT seminars held in the University are an excellent way to keep abreast of
local developments.

Networking. Conferences and events are ideal opportunities to acquire and
develop useful contacts and to become part of the wider IL community - they
are not simply about attending presentations. These events are usually more
informal and friendly than you imagine. Regard networking as an integral part
of your attendance.

Using mailing lists. There are some excellent mailing lists which facilitate
discussion and the exchange of ideas:
o Lis-infoliteracy is the main UK IL list. Subscribe at
o ILI-L is the Information Literacy Instruction Discussion List of the
ACRL. This US-based list is lively, dynamic and thought provoking.

UC&R Group [online]. Available at:
http://www.cilip.org.uk/specialinterestgroups/bysubject/ucr [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Section One: Key Issues
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 7
Subscribe at http://lists.ala.org/wws/info/ili-l

Keeping up to date with the literature. We all have a busy schedule and
this is easier said than done! To assist you, the Further Reading list, pp. 167-
174 suggests some excellent recent material. You may want to consider
setting up alerts on ZETOC and other services for information on the latest
articles in particular aspects of IL e.g. Web 2.0. In addition, websites such as
The Information Literacy Website
are invaluable for drawing attention to the
latest influential reports.

Thinking globally. Some of the most exciting IL developments are
happening outside the UK so it is well worth keeping abreast of international
practice. There are some superb international conferences such as LOEX

and LOEX of the West
(US). Check out their respective websites to view
recent presentations.

Keeping your colleagues up-to-date. We all have a responsibility to share
our initiatives with colleagues within the University. You will also acquire
kudos for yourself and the University by sharing your ideas externally via
conference papers and articles. If you have something innovative, dont keep
it to yourself your colleagues want to hear about it! Also, why not contact a
member of the HILT Group so that we can incorporate your innovation in the
next edition of this Handbook?

http://www.informationliteracy.org.uk/ [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
http://www.loexconference.org/ [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
http://library.mtroyal.ca/lotw/ [Accessed: 6 August 2009].

Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 9
Section 2: Library Orientation
Whilst many of the techniques covered elsewhere in the Handbook are relevant to
library orientation, this section gives specific advice on this area. If you are a Library
Operations Manager this section may be of particular interest, or if you are a new
Subject Librarian you should find this material helpful when planning your first
orientation sessions. If you already have substantial experience of delivering library
orientation, you may be interested in the suggestions for incorporating interactivity at
the end of the section.
Library orientation: the key issues
The aim of library orientation is to inform students about the services provided
by ULS and when, where and how these can be accessed
Library orientation should always be offered with the agreement of the course
co-ordinator and you should check with the Schools disability contact to
ensure that the needs of any disabled students can be met
Library orientation is typically the first contact a new student will have with a
member of library staff. For this reason, it is vital that students leave the
session with a positive impression of the library and its inhabitants!
The timing of a library orientation session is crucial. Although it is sometimes
difficult, try to negotiate with the School to arrange a slot which is timely and
of a suitable duration.
A short orientation, e.g. at the start of the first semester
If you are allocated a slot at the very start of semester (possibly within a wider School
induction event), dont be tempted to overload students with detailed information: a
precise run-down of borrowing entitlements, detailed Voyager demonstrations and
information on the number of photocopiers in the library will overwhelm. Students
are bombarded with new information at this time and will find it impossible to take all
this in!
Keep it friendly, relevant and short. Give a good first impression by being welcoming
and approachable; students should feel positive about contacting you when they
require help.
Library orientation is an important precursor to IL teaching. This section includes:
Library orientation: the key issues (p. 9)
Short orientation sessions (pp. 9-10)
Longer orientation sessions (pp. 10-12)
Interactivity including the Cephalonian Method, Library Bingo and Library
Jeopardy (pp. 13-16).

Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 10
Keep the learning outcomes modest and give basic information only. Give relevant
handouts such as the library site guide and Voyager guide which students can read
in their own time.
Suggested content
Elements could include:
The location of the library and opening hours
How to understand a reading list and find the items on it
Where the library IT rooms can be found
Accessing library resources and email via the MWE
At this stage, students requirements may well be more IT- than library-related: check
with the School to find out if an IT representative has already covered the key points
below, or will be doing so imminently. If not, consider addressing these yourself:
How to access the internet to email home (students may not be registered to
use the network yet, and provisions are made annually for international
students to access the internet prior to registration)
How to log on to the network and also the MWE, for on- and off-campus
Where to go to hire a laptop
How to access Cardiff University E-learning (Blackboard)
Check if there are any questions before you finish. If you cannot provide an
immediate answer, offer to pass a response via the course organiser or, if you have
instructor access, post a message on Blackboard.
If you are allocated a short orientation slot, try to negotiate an additional session
nearer to an assignment deadline at which more detail can be given.
A longer orientation, e.g. near the first assignment deadline
Library orientation should ideally take place at the point of need, i.e. when the first
assignment has been set and students need to make use of the library and its
resources. This might take the form of a slot within a compulsory study skills
module in the first semester.
At this point, students will be starting to think seriously about study and are likely to
be more receptive to what you have to say. The lesson plan can be more ambitious;
by the end of the session students might be expected to be able to:
Find library buildings and services
Recognise different material formats (book / journal / photocopy / other
specialist types)
Locate these materials in the library
Use Voyager to find materials from their reading list
Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 11
Borrow, reserve, renew and return material and manage their Voyager
Show awareness of the existence of electronic books and electronic journals
Show awareness of photocopying / scanning / printing facilities and the laws
associated with their use
Observe library regulations relating to responsible and safe conduct in library
Show awareness of the availability of services for disabled users and know
how to access / arrange these if required.
Suggested content
Elements could include:
Cardiff University libraries
o concept of the home library and other libraries
o opening hours *
o other instruction / training offered
o availability of help from service points

Your University I.D. card
o how to get it if not yet received
o your library barcode number
o responsibility for the material borrowed on it report loss immediately
o only you can borrow material against the card

Voyager demonstration and / or practice exercise
o understanding a reading list
o keyword, author browse, title, journal search options
o electronic resources available via Voyager
o online renewals and reservations
o viewing your library account
o point out that library communications will be sent to University email

Material types and their locations
o short loan, main, reference, special collections, journals, folios
o purpose of classification and filing order of classmarks

o procedure (including self issue where applicable)
o loan periods
o charges for overdues *
o regulations

Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 12
Printing and photocopying / scanning
o how to use *
o networked payment account for printing and photocopying
o awareness of copyright law *

o different types of study area e.g. silent, quiet, group discussion (and
booking procedures for group study)
o availability of laptop points, wireless network points

Information Technology
o locations
o logging in procedures
o accessing the MWE
o understanding passwords
o sources of help and training
o availability of Wireless network

Safe and responsible use of the library
o where eating and drinking are permitted
o noise (mobile phones, personal stereos)
o care of personal valuables
o location of fire alarms and exits

Availability of facilities and services for disabled users
o extended loan periods
o book fetching service
o software to assist with grammar and spelling and visual impairments
o hardware to assist with mobility impairments
o whom to contact to arrange or access the above services

* Points marked with an asterisk might be best conveyed by referring to printed or
online guides rather than by verbal recitation!

Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 13
Interactivity in library orientation
A more detailed, timely library orientation needs to sustain interest and students
should be enthused by the experience! You may find it beneficial to engage students
in some kind of activity.

Using the Cephalonian Method for library orientation Case study 2
Ive been using the Cephalonian Method for my first year undergraduate library
inductions. It makes the presentations a lot more interactive, interesting, humorous
and attention-grabbing for the student as well as the librarian. It puts the fun back
into inductions and motivates the Subject Librarian again, increasing the students
willingness to participate in future information literacy sessions. Use background
music, colour-coded cards with questions about available information services and
lively presentations to introduce INSRV to the students I can highly recommend it!
Sonja Haerkoenen, Arts and Social Studies Library
For further information see:
Morgan, N. and Davies, L. 2004. Innovative induction: introducing the Cephalonian
Method. SCONUL Focus, 32, pp. 4-8.
Cephalonian Method
This is a world-famous method of library orientation, invented at Cardiff University. If
you feel inspired to try it, heres how:

Organise your orientation material into themed areas such as Finding reading
list items, Facilities and services and Miscellaneous information
Devise a series of questions for each theme and prepare an answer slide for
each question
Colour-code your answer slides using a different colour for each theme, and
produce coloured laminated question cards to match

Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 14

Hand the cards randomly to students as they arrive. Print the colour on the
card to avoid excluding students with colour perception impairments.
Work through your colour-coded themes inviting your audience to deliver their
assigned questions. For each question, select the corresponding PowerPoint
slide. Bear in mind that you will not know the order in which the questions will
be asked within each section.
For examples of typical Cephalonian Method slides, see Example 1, p. 99.
Alternatively, a link to a complete Cephalonian orientation presentation can be found
on the INSRV IL web page.

Why not try combining the Cephalonian Method
with clickers technology for students to vote on
answers to questions? This will involve your
audience to an even greater extent!

Library Bingo
Pioneered by Andy Jackson (University of Dundee)
, this is another way of
confounding students expectation that they have just arrived at a boring library talk.
How to play:
Give each pair (or small group) of students a blank bingo card. This will
have a grid of, say, 6 empty boxes printed on it.
Ask each pair to write in the boxes six services or resources they think the
library provides

Jackson, A. 2007. Are we having fun yet? Interactive lecturing techniques for librarians.
ALISS Quarterly 2(4), pp. 35-39.
Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 15

Begin the bingo session by calling out items from a prepared list of library
services, e.g. Printing & Photocopying, Borrowing Books and Getting Help.
Ask the students to strike off items whenever they have a good match. After
you call each item, give an explanation of that service or resource. You may
call from your list at random for a true bingo hall experience or follow the
more measured advice of Andy Jackson:
to sustain this process, the presenter should start with less guessable
resources (e.g. thesis binding, self-issue) at the beginning, with featured
resources becoming more general in nature (e.g. books, photocopying
facilities) towards the end.

A prize could be awarded for the first group to cross off all the items on their
bingo card
Round off the game by asking the remaining students to call out any other
services they had entered on their cards. Explain whether these are offered
and, if not, why this is so. This is a great way of starting a dialogue about the
purpose of the library and its services.
Library Jeopardy is a variation on a US TV quiz show and was developed by library
instructors at Georgia State University Library
. It is also extensively used by Billie E.
at Penn State University.
How does Library Jeopardy work?
The instructor creates a bank of questions and answers, grouping them under
various categories with one of a range of notional prize values attached to
each question.
Image provided by Nichole Berry, Reference Librarian, Collin College, Texas.

Ibid, p. 36.
Leach, G. J. and Sugarman, T. S. 2005. Play to win! Using games in library instruction to
enhance student learning. Research Strategies 20(3), pp. 191-203.
Walker, B. E. 2008. This is jeopardy! An exciting approach to learning in library instruction.
Reference Services Review 36(4), pp. 381-388.
Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 16
The category grid is shown on the projector screen and teams of 3 or 4
students take turns to select a category, e.g. Citation basics, and a prize
In each case, the instructor reads out the corresponding question giving the
team a set time in which to answer. The answer is then displayed on the
screen and discussed / illustrated as required.
If the team gives a correct answer, they are awarded points according to the
prize value of the question. If they get the answer wrong, these points are
deducted from their score.
The next team is invited to choose a category and prize value, and so on until
the questions have all been covered
A prize of some kind could be awarded to the winning team.
Library Jeopardy can be used in other contexts. Why not try it to test understanding
at the end of a session covering search techniques and databases?
Other suggestions
Hold an open discussion: for small groups, try initiating a discussion at the
start of the session by asking students what they expect from the library
Invite written questions: for larger classes, leave cards and pens around
the room. Ask students to form groups and to come up with an appropriate
question, then ask as many groups as possible to read out their suggestions.
Audience Response Technology (aka clickers): if you are feeling slightly
more adventurous, why not consider giving clickers a try? This enables you
to pose questions to your audience which they can answer electronically via
handheld devices. Instantaneous feedback is delivered to your PC and hence
the projector screen! (See Section 5: Teaching Technologies, pp. 39- 40 for
further information.)
Alternatively try the Ready Steady Cook approach if technology is
unavailable. Give your audience sets of coloured or labelled cards which can
be held up in response to the questions you have prepared. You could use a
PowerPoint slide to present the question and the available options.
For example:

Students will hopefully hold up the card labelled C in response. This can be
a useful way of gauging student understanding.
Section Two: Library Orientation
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 17
What next?
Library orientation is the start of what should be a rewarding relationship between
students and the library. In consultation with the School, follow this up with more in-
depth IL training. Your aim should be to equip students with the full range of skills
they need to get the best out of the library and its resources throughout the course of
their studies.

Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 19
Section 3: Lesson Planning

Starting to plan your teaching session
Effective planning is key to successful teaching. Consider the following when you
start to plan your session:
Allow enough time. The time involved in the preparation of a new session
will be several times the amount spent delivering the training. Even when a
session has been run previously, experience suggests the ratio will be at least
Avoid making your session too content-heavy. Think about how much
your students can learn rather than how much you can teach. You can
actually teach at least three times as much as they can learn!
Think innovatively. If you are running a session which has been delivered
previously by colleagues, it is tempting to leave the content and format as it is.
Instead, take a fresh look and see if you can find a better approach.
Writing learning outcomes
Your first step is to identify learning outcomes for the session. Learning outcomes
are clear, precise statements of what the learner will know or be able to do as a
result of attending your session.
Ideally, your session will be embedded in a module. Each module or course of study
will have a set of learning outcomes so use these as a basis for developing learning
outcomes for your session. Discuss with the module leader.
Learning outcomes can be aimed at different learning levels. For example, a
learning outcome beginning with the word evaluate will involve a higher level of
learning than one beginning with the word identify. They can be:

The lesson planning process is discussed. Key features of this section include:
Writing learning outcomes (pp. 19-20)
Creating lesson plans (pp. 20-21)
Preparing instructor notes (pp. 21-22)
Handouts (pp. 22-25)
Sharing training materials (p. 26)
Considering your learners (pp. 26-28)
Being flexible (pp. 28-29)
Planning and reflection (p. 30)
Teaching overseas students (pp. 30-31).
Section Three: Lesson Planning
20 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Task-based e.g. at the end of this session students will be able to make
efficient use of Voyager to find journal articles from reading lists
Generic e.g. at the end of this session students will be able to perform
effectively in small-group work.
Ensure the learning outcomes are stated in student-centred terms. They should
focus on what the student will be able to do rather than what you will have taught
them. In theory, there are three parts to a learning outcome:
task: an observable action stated in active terms such as to list, identify,
state, select, solve, calculate, write, demonstrate, match, translate or
distinguish between. Avoid passive terms such as understand or
standards: indicate the proficiencies which the student must achieve; they
should be measurable. They can be of three main types: accuracy, speed,
quality, e.g. without error, within ten minutes, in a coherent and well-
organised fashion.
conditions: describe how the task will be carried out, such as the range of
problems to solve, the tools or equipment to be used, any special aids or
manuals provided, environmental conditions, special physical demands, e.g.
without reference to a manual, by checking the provided chart, by using the
evaluation checklist.
In practice, while it is important to set the task and the standards in your learning
outcomes, you may find that in the context of IL teaching it may not always be
appropriate to set conditions for the activities. Examples of learning outcomes are
given in the lesson plan in Example 2, p. 100 and in the instructor notes in Example
3, pp. 101-102.
Creating lesson plans
Lesson plans set out the learning outcomes, content and structure of a session.
They are intended for the benefit of the learner. They provide a useful tool to
manage the expectations of learners and can help them prepare for the session.
Together with instructor notes, they should help a colleague deliver a session in your
place should the need arise.
Lesson plans: items for inclusion checklist
Course title (e.g. MBA, Year 1 Medicine), session title, and date and time
of session and your name
The learning outcomes of the session
Details of the session content including a description of any activities
indicating if these will be assessed
Details of any required preparation such as pre-session reading or the
completion of online tutorials
Sources of help outside the session
Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 21
Lesson plans can be in different formats:
Use a lesson plan template or devise your own. A template is available at
S:\TEMPLATE\INSRV Templates\Internal Templates but there are many
other good examples in the literature.
If you are distributing the lesson plan to learners and the sessions are
embedded within a module, you may be required to use the Schools
See Example 2, p. 100.
Whichever format you use, your lesson plan will need to be clear and accessible.
The recommendations for the preparation of handouts on pp. 23-24 and the
guidelines in Supporting Document 6 pp. 96-97 are also applicable to lesson plans.
Where possible, distribute lesson plans prior to the session; this will be essential if
any advance preparation is required of learners. There are a number of options:
Hand them out at the start of an IL programme
Hand out plans at the start of each session
Ask academic staff to distribute them at an appropriate lecture before the
As an alternative to a lesson plan handout, you may wish to use the first few slides of
your PowerPoint presentations for the purposes outlined above. It is good practice to
distribute a handout of the presentation.
Preparing instructor notes
Preparing good instructor notes is an important element of your planning. They
should provide a practical framework for the session and will assist you during
delivery. They can also enable a colleague to deliver a session in your absence.
Instructor notes should include two elements:
Information on the session content: i.e. the core points including examples
to be used in demonstrations
Information on the process by which that content is to be delivered: for
example, whether the content is to be delivered only by the instructor
(instructor-led learning) or through the instructor asking the group questions
and developing the content through the responses (student-focused learning).
Will the questions be put to the whole group (global questioning) or to named
individuals in turn (specific questioning)?

Section Three: Lesson Planning
22 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
A template is available at: S:\TEMPLATE\INSRV Templates\Internal Templates.
The precise format and design of instructor notes inevitably depend on the nature of
the session and your own preferences. When using PowerPoint, instructor notes
may be added to each individual slide and printed off using the Notes Pages output
format (see Section 5: Teaching Technologies, p. 49 for further information).
To assess whether your notes are sufficiently clear, you may wish to ask a colleague
to read them and consider whether he / she would be able to use them to deliver the
Example 3, pp. 101-102 illustrates a useful approach whereby the instructor notes
take the form of a detailed plan, including learning outcomes.
Handouts are useful:
as a memory aid - students will have information to refer to after the lesson
to encourage good note-taking practice - students are more likely to be
engaged in the presentation when not preoccupied with taking down the main
to allow students to recap on key points during a presentation.
They may take various forms:
Directly related to session content, e.g. a PowerPoint-generated handout
of a slide presentation. See Example 4, pp. 103-105.
As an information sheet or permanent source of reference. See Example
5, p. 106 and Example 6, pp. 107-114.
Instructor notes: items for inclusion - checklist
Course title (e.g. MBA, Year 1 Medicine), session title, and date and time
of session (if applicable)
Checklist of items to bring or things to set up at the start of the session,
o Handouts to be distributed
o Evaluation sheets
o Equipment that needs to be set up
o Any other special instructions
Sub-headings together with timing guidelines
Details of example searches or demonstrations
Details of activities / how the students will learn
Your initials, filename given to the document and date of last revision.
These should be at the end of the document.
Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 23
As a worksheet / workbook to be completed by the students as a
session progresses. See Example 7, pp. 115-118, Example 8, pp. 119-120,
Example 9, pp. 121-122 and Example 10, pp. 123-126.
As a combined workbook and permanent source of reference. See
Example 11, pp. 127-133 and Example 12, pp. 134-138.
As an activity sheet to spark discussion amongst students. See
Example 13, pp. 139-140.
As an evaluation aid / checklist. See Example 14, pp. 141-142 and
Example 15, pp. 143-144.
Preparing handouts
Consider identification and layout:
Include your name or initials, your library and the date of preparation, and
also the course of study, the module and the title of the session
When sessions are embedded within a teaching module the School may
require the handout to follow its house style
Handouts must conform with the requirements of the current INSRV
Communication and Style Guidelines which are available on the
Communications section of insrvSpace.
Bear in mind the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA).
places a duty on all educational institutions to make reasonable adjustments so that
disabled learners are not put at a substantial disadvantage. Learners who are
dyslexic, have concentration difficulties, or are visually impaired will benefit from the
following measures:

Disability Discrimination Act 1995 [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/1995050.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009] as amended
by the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2001/20010010.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009] and the
Disability Discrimination Act 2005 [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2005/20050013.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Section Three: Lesson Planning
24 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
For more information refer to Supporting Document 6, pp. 96-97.
Whichever type of handout is used, it should be well-structured, well-designed and
checked rigorously for errors. It is good practice to ask a colleague to check it, to
ensure that the information and any instructions given are clear and correct.
Creative use of handouts
Handouts can be used to provide opportunities for active learning during the lesson
by, for instance, leaving blanks for students to fill in or by inserting a question slide
and asking them to make appropriate notes on the handout. This helps students
engage with the material and encourages critical thinking.

If you are distributing copies of your slides at the start of the session, dont
necessarily include them all. You may hold students attention more effectively if you
include a few surprise elements in your delivery!

Accessible handouts checklist

Prepare handouts using at least 12pt Arial font

Use bold text for headings and avoid feint text at all times

Avoid excessive use of capitalisation, underlining and italicisation

Leave plenty of space between blocks of text

Left justify text and leave the right margin jagged

Use matt finished paper in cream or pastel colours

Keep an up-to-date electronic copy for advance circulation, if requested
Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 25

Use word clouds to liven up your teaching materials.
Word clouds are visual representations of text giving
greater or lesser prominence to words depending on how
often they appear in the source text. They can be
produced in a wide variety of styles and colours. An
example word cloud (based on text from this section) is
shown below. For an example which was used on a
handout, see Example 16, p. 145. Free software for
creating word clouds is available at http://www.wordle.net/

Section Three: Lesson Planning
26 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Sharing training materials: the Training Materials Repository
The Training Materials Repository has been created to facilitate the sharing of
training materials within INSRV. Everyone is encouraged to upload their own
materials which they would like to share with other teachers in the Division. You can
also make use of the materials already on the repository and adapt them for your
own needs.
The repository is available as a Blackboard module at http://blackboard.cf.ac.uk (log
in to Blackboard using your usual network username and password). The Training
Materials Repository module is visible to registered users only, so please email
Blackboard@cardiff.ac.uk if you are a member of INSRV and would like to be
A structure has been created to make it easier to organise the materials. Categories
Orientation and Voyager
Finding Information
Evaluating information / critical appraisal
Plagiarism and Referencing
Notes on how to add your own materials, and how to download files from the
repository to adapt for your own purposes, are included in the Guidelines section of
the module.
Considering your learners
Learners will already have developed strategies for finding information, for example,
using a search engine. You will need to design lessons which build on existing
experience but create opportunities to assimilate or accommodate new techniques to
old understanding.

Challenge existing practice by using an activity which
asks students to evaluate resources they rely on
such as Google and Wikipedia; see Example 10, pp.
123-126 and Example 13, pp. 139-140.

Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 27
Also think about the following issues:
Skill levels. Within any group, skill levels will vary. Your planning will need
to recognise and accommodate the variations in skill levels across the group.
Consider auditing skills through a pre-session questionnaire.
Motivation. The most effective learning takes place when it is based on real
needs and placed within authentic contexts. Try to optimise relevance and
timeliness, for example by basing the session on a forthcoming assignment.
Learning preferences.
o People learn in different ways. Some learners like to look at the big
picture then fill in the details later; others prefer to learn in a logical
sequence achieving a complete overview at a later stage. Try to
appeal to different preferences by offering a choice of activities.
o Different formats such as worksheets or online tutorials can also cater
for different preferences
o You can cater for a number of learning preferences within the same
session. For example, if you are defining plagiarism, you could use
more than one of the following methods:

Method For students who prefer to learn by
Use a PowerPoint slide with a text
reading the detail themselves
Verbalise the concept using alternative
words to the slide
hearing a concept explained
Give an example of plagiarism applying a concept to real life
Ask the learners to suggest definitions of
plagiarism themselves
exploring a concept in an open-ended
way and taking part in discussions
Use a PowerPoint slide featuring a
cartoon about plagiarism
engaging with visuals and humour
Give a personal account of a plagiarism
relating to concepts in a personal way

Support needs.
o Check with the Schools disability contact to find out if there are
learners with additional support needs and, if necessary, seek advice
on how best to include them
Section Three: Lesson Planning
28 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
o The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)
places a duty on all
educational institutions to make reasonable adjustments so that
disabled learners are not put at a substantial disadvantage
o When designing activities, consider the demands on all learners
capacities such as vision and hearing, concentration and stamina,
social skills and awareness
o General principles for planning accessible teaching sessions include:
Creating a logical structure
Making handouts available in advance, either electronically or
in paper form
Using multiple modes of communication
Varying methods of presentation
Planning mini-breaks or changing activity types
Incorporating checks on learner understanding so you can
monitor the effectiveness of your communication
Ensuring your plan is flexible so you can offer options to
For further information see Supporting Document 5, pp. 94-95
Being flexible
Your learning outcomes can be achieved in a variety of ways. Build some flexibility
into your plan so that you can react to the situation on the day.
Allocate free time. If your session is 90 minutes long, plan for 70 minutes of
lesson content. Allow 5 minutes at either end for students to arrive/leave and
save the remaining 10 minutes to be used elsewhere in the session. This
might be used to:
o Give the students a break if necessary
o Review progress with the class: are you meeting the learning
Prepare extra material
o To have further activities available for quick learners if they complete
the scheduled work

Disability Discrimination Act 1995 [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/1995050.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009] as amended
by the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2001/20010010.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009] and the
Disability Discrimination Act 2005 [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2005/20050013.htm [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 29
o To be able to choose appropriate material in response to the way in
which the lesson is unfolding. If you take this approach, ensure that
you are still able to cover the learning outcomes.
Put yourself on the spot. Instead of demonstrating a model search
example, ask learners for a topic during the session. This takes confidence
as you will have to think on your feet. However, students will see you work
through an authentic search and get a flavour of the kinds of problems they
may encounter. Avoid putting yourself under too much pressure by having an
example search prepared as a backup, and do not be afraid to amend any
search suggestion to suit your purposes.
Using a flexible approach Case study 3
A small group of research postgraduates is likely to have a diverse range of subject
interests. How can you cater for this? A good way to start is to let them introduce
themselves and say a bit about their research. This acts as an ice-breaker. It also
offers you the opportunity to use some of their topics in your demonstrations rather
than preparing your own topics in advance.
Question the group to check for prior familiarity with a database. You can then adjust
your demonstration if needed. A PowerPoint presentation with links to the sources
you are demonstrating usually works well. It gives your sessions structure but still
allows you to vary the depth of coverage and time spent on individual sources.
For the hands-on part of the session, allow them to explore their own research
subjects, using a variety of information resources. Use an exercise sheet with a
variety of topics which will give them a chance to pick and choose according to their
own interests. Mark at least one of the exercises 'Research topic of your choice'.
Our feedback indicates that postgraduate research students welcome the opportunity
to try out their own research subject using the sources you are demonstrating. Your
lesson will still need to be mapped out in advance, but its structure and content will
be sufficiently flexible to cater for their individual interests.
Jane Sparks, Science Library

Section Three: Lesson Planning
30 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Planning and reflection
It is important that students become reflective learners. A fuller appreciation of the
learning process will enable them to learn more effectively. Reflection can take a
variety of forms:
Reflecting on past experiences. Allow time in your lesson plan for learners
to reflect on their previous experiences when searching for information.
Alternatively, ask them to search for information on their current topic using
their preferred methods, then get them to discuss in pairs the validity of their
Reflecting on what they have learned in the session. Towards the end of
a session, ask learners to engage in some reflective thinking. This could
involve writing down three things they will do differently as a result of
attending the session or three questions which have been raised in their
It is equally important for you to be a reflective teacher. See Section 8: Evaluating
your Teaching (pp. 69-75) for further information.
Teaching overseas students
You are unlikely to find yourself teaching groups of students who are exclusively from
overseas; a typical class is likely to comprise a mix of home and overseas students.
It could be helpful, however, to check on the number of international students by
contacting the School in advance.
o At the start of semester, remember that some overseas students may
have just arrived in the country. They may still be adjusting to
speaking and listening exclusively in English and may need time to
tune in to your accent try chatting informally with them as they enter
the classroom.
o Dont slow your delivery but speak clearly, facing your audience. Try
not to use long, complex, rambling sentences.
o Avoid colloquialisms and idiomatic speech. Try to define any library
jargon as you use it.

Checking understanding
o Smiling and nodding from your audience may be a sign of politeness
rather than comprehension! Ask open questions to check
o When asking questions, give students sufficient time to answer. Dont
pre-empt their answers by answering the question for them should
they hesitate. Instead, offer a word or two to help them along.

Section Three: Lesson Planning
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 31

Working together
o Working in pairs can help students who lack confidence in English
o Getting students to write answers on post-it notes or on whiteboards
might encourage those who are nervous about speaking.
Other considerations
o Dont dumb down for overseas students. Pitch the content at the
same level as you would use for an exclusively native-speaking
o Provide written versions of all teaching materials you are using
o Avoid obscure cultural references or those which may be very specific
to your own background. Avoid topics which, though they may be
generally familiar, could be culturally contentious

A number of these tips were adapted from Amsberry, D. 2008. Talking the talk: library
classroom communication and International Students. The Journal of Academic Librarianship
34(4), pp. 354-357.

Section Four: Lesson Formats
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 33
Section 4: Lesson Formats
Planning a lecture
Circumstances may require you to deliver a session to a large number of students in
a lecture hall, offering you little choice of teaching method. The lecture format is
popular and widely used but it can be a challenge to retain interest and enable
learning. When starting to plan a lecture ask yourself:
Can I try a team approach? Short contributions by a number of lecturers
can help sustain student interest.
Am I using PowerPoint effectively?
o Ensure the slides are supporting your lecture rather than leading it.
Decide on content first and then create your slides.
o For tips on designing slides see Section 5: Teaching Technologies,
pp. 48-49.
How should I pace my lecture? Try and change pace frequently. Dont
dwell too long on drier sections and insert something light-hearted from time
to time. Another way of changing pace is to move from talking to showing a
video, or from demonstrating a database to playing an audio clip.
How can I make the lecture more interactive? Techniques such as quiz
formats can be used to involve learners (see Case Study 4, p. 34). Other
techniques include getting students to discuss something in pairs followed by
feedback to the group or asking them individually to write down a question
related to the content of the lecture. You could then respond to these
questions. Consider adopting these approaches for orientation sessions (see
Section 2: Library Orientation, pp. 9-17).
How should I plan the timing of my lecture? If your slot is 50 minutes, plan
for 40 minutes of content. Remember that it will take a while for a large
cohort to file in and out of the lecture hall.

Different lesson formats are discussed and planning tips are given for each. This
section includes:
Planning a lecture (pp. 33-34)
Planning a workshop, including small group discussions (pp. 34-37)
Planning one-to-one teaching (pp. 37-38).
Section Four: Lesson Formats

34 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
How can I maintain interest right to the end of the lecture?
o Plan to end with an activity rather than inviting questions, which can
be a cue for students to start packing up. Try to incorporate
opportunities for questions throughout your lecture.
o The closing activity could involve asking each student to write down
the three most important points from the lecture and then share them
with their neighbour. This helps students reflect on what they have

Structuring a lecture in a quiz format Case study 4
This is a simple and effective method of introducing variety and interaction into this
traditionally passive format. Students are handed an engaging multiple choice quiz
sheet at the start (see Example 17, pp. 146-147) and have a few minutes to complete
this. About eight or nine questions are sufficient. The lecture is structured in such a
way that the answers are revealed at appropriate points and act as catalysts for the
presentation of related material.
In the accompanying PowerPoint presentation (see Example 17, pp. 148-149) the
correct response to the question How important is it to use the World Wide Web for
your academic research? is C. When the answer is revealed (a few PowerPoint
tricks can be used to increase suspense!) the lecturer can move on to explore quality
issues on the web and evaluation criteria. This format is great for providing
opportunities to interact with the audience (which option did you go for? or why did
you choose that answer?). Also, students can tot up their score at the end to gauge
their success a fun way to finish!
Nigel Morgan, Science Library
Planning a workshop
Small-group teaching commonly takes place in IT training rooms. This offers greater
opportunity for incorporating hands-on activities, peer learning and discussions than
a lecture. When starting to plan a workshop ask yourself:
How can I engage learners from the start? Consider planning an activity
for the beginning of the session rather than starting with a conventional
introduction. For example, try asking students to make a list of resources
which they normally use when searching for information and then to discuss
these with their neighbour.
How do I ensure students find the session relevant? Where possible, link
the research topic to a forthcoming assignment, see Example 11, p. 127-133.

Section Four: Lesson Formats
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 35

How should I allocate PCs? The allocation of PCs can affect the dynamics
of a session. Generally, students prefer working at their own PC. However,
you can encourage discussion and interaction by getting pairs of students to
share a machine. Example 9, pp. 121-122 is a worksheet used by groups of
2 or 3 students who had explored a particular database together whilst
sharing a PC.
When teaching a particular resource, how much teacher input do
students need before getting hands-on practice?
o Try getting students to tackle databases with little prior instruction.
Students will experiment with different approaches and learn in a way
that is authentic and transferable to tackling new databases in the
future. You could then follow this with a demonstration to consolidate
their learning.
o A more conventional (though often less effective) method is to set a
structured exercise prefaced by a five minute introduction /
Describing keywords
Put this in the context of students day-to-day lives by
asking the whole group to shout out keywords which
describe, say, a can of coke. Use this as a warm-up before
asking them to tackle keywords for their essay topic.
(Courtesy of Sarah Faye Cohen, Janet R. Cottrell and Cinse
Bonino, Champlain College, Vermont, USA).

It is a challenge to keep learners engaged. Remember that evidence suggests that a
students attention span drops markedly after twenty minutes so ensure you plan a
session which incorporates a good range of learning experiences. Two useful
methods of engaging learners within workshops are mind maps and small group
discussions (see overleaf).

Section Four: Lesson Formats

36 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Mind mapping Case study 5
Mind maps can be a very visual way of illustrating links between keywords and
topics. A concept is put in the middle of a piece of paper, then lines radiate out and
related keywords, ideas or even pictures can be added. Links can then be drawn to
show relationships between keywords and to suggest how they could be combined.
Mind mapping can work as an individual or group activity. To encourage
collaboration and brainstorming you could divide a class into groups of four, each
being given an essay question and some guidelines on how to produce a mind map,
using a flipchart and coloured pens.
I have found that, by using mind maps, students tend to produce a wider range of
keywords than if theyd made a quick list and gone straight to a database. Working
in this way also encourages more reticent students to contribute to the discussion.
Mind mapping doesnt have to be a large component of a session as it doesnt suit
everyone. However, students havent necessarily seen it before and it can be a good
exercise away from computers. One of my students said he was going to use this
method to plan out other essays!
Ruth Thornton, Trevithick Library
For more information about mind maps see:
Buzan, T. 2005. The ultimate book of mind maps: unlock your creativity, boost your
memory, change your life. London: Thorsons.
Planning small group discussions
Discussions can be a useful way of getting learners to communicate with each other
and to explore ideas. When starting to plan a discussion ask yourself:
Will a whole-group discussion be possible? The size of your group will
affect the success of the discussion. Numbers may be determined by the
School, but if you have the option of choosing, the following table will assist in
determining the most appropriate group size for the session:
3-6 people everyone speaks
7-10 people almost everyone speaks. Quieter people say less.
One or two may not speak at all.
11-18 people 5 or 6 speak a lot, 3 or 4 join in occasionally
19-30 people 3 or 4 people dominate
30+ people difficult to have a whole-group discussion

Section Four: Lesson Formats
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 37
Should I split my class into smaller groups?
o The conventional approach is to split the class into pairs or groups of
three or four and ask each group to discuss a topic before feeding
back to the whole class. See Example 13, pp. 139-140.
o Consider snowballing or pyramiding. Students begin by working
individually on a simple task such as making a list. They then join in
pairs to prioritise the list. Then, working in small groups they complete
the complex task of producing a set of guidelines from the list and are
required to feed back to the whole group.
Small group activity of this kind encourages active and collaborative learning.
Socratic dialogue in class discussions Case study 6
This technique consists of the tutor asking a question, getting a response from one
audience member and then if the answer is perhaps not absolutely correct, bouncing
the answer back to the audience in the form of a question: Mm, what is your view of
that? Do you think that is right? Move the topic forward by asking questions and
getting the audience to think about whether the answers given are right or wrong.
Note the tutor merely asks questions and bounces the replies back to the group to
consider. It is best if the tutor comments as little as possible.
Use the technique sparingly do not toss every answer back, but use it only where
the answer opens up possibilities to challenge the groups understanding of the topic.
It can help if the tutor poses a question which suggests the wrong answer; a very
simple example would be: Is Hansard a summary of what happens in Parliament?
This technique works especially well with mature students or people who have some
grasp of the topic area. It may not work so well with first year undergraduates. The
method is suited to small groups of no more than 12 students.
Peter Clinch, Law Library
Planning one-to-one teaching
Although the emphasis in academic institutions is on group teaching, you will
inevitably be asked to provide one-to-one sessions. These could be requested by:
Undergraduates who missed a group session
New researchers / lecturers
Lecturers wanting a refresher course or to learn a new resource
Clinicians needing information for patient care.

You may be able to book a time, or you may have to respond to an immediate
request. In either case, you will need to ensure that you identify the needs of the
learner and tailor the session accordingly. The case study below illustrates a
thorough and practical approach to delivering one-to-one training.
Section Four: Lesson Formats

38 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
One-to-one teaching Case study 7
I offer one-to-one teaching in my hospital-based library, where it is particularly
appreciated by learners whose experience of electronic resources is negligible, or
rusty. Our learners are mainly training grade doctors, nurses taking courses, or other
health professionals. They can book a time for their session, but I am also happy to
teach on demand, which is convenient for busy clinicians.
I start by establishing the learners level of knowledge and the reason for their search
(patient care, course work, general refresher). Then I will ask for a topic we can use,
which will usually guide us to the most suitable resource. I will demonstrate the
resource and then prompt the learner while they practice.
As the session progresses, I can establish a rapport with the learner, set a pace
comfortable for them, encourage questions, and gauge how well they grasp the
resource. The session can easily be tailored to their exact needs. Towards the end,
I ask if they have learnt what they wanted or if they would like to repeat anything, and
remind them that they are welcome to come back for further help.
For me, this type of teaching is particularly rewarding as I can get to know the
students and they are usually very appreciative. It also enhances our reputation as a
helpful library service!
Rosemary Soper, Archie Cochrane Library

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 39
Section 5: Teaching Technologies (August 2011 update)

1. Introduction
Chapter 5 focuses upon a range of technologies which may help you achieve your intended
learning outcomes. The selection and use of technology requires careful thought;
technology is a means to an end and should not be used for its own sake. Factors such as
the size of the group, the proximity of your learners (many technologies are particularly
suited to use with distance learners) and practicalities of the venue will strongly influence
your choice.
Social media (sometimes referred to as Web 2.0) is not only having a significant impact upon
our daily lives (Facebook and Twitter have become universally familiar) but also has
important implications for our teaching. IL practitioners have needed to come to terms with
an explosion of new web-based tools. A Higher Education Academy / JISC report, Higher
Education in a Web 2.0 World,
defines Web 2.0 as technologies that enable
communication, collaboration, participation and sharing. Their immense popularity with
students means that teachers ignore these new technological developments at their peril.
This chapter can do little more than scratch the surface of this increasingly diverse, complex
and fast moving area. You will find a relatively small selection of tools described. Some are
currently in use within the University whilst others may be unfamiliar but have the potential to
enhance your teaching. Most can be implemented with relative ease.
We encourage you to embrace and experiment with these exciting new tools.

JISC. 2009. Higher education in a Web 2.0 world [Online]. Available at:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/documents/heweb2.aspx [Accessed: 5 May 2011].
A variety of teaching technologies may be used to promote learning and
understanding in IL teaching. As well as selecting the right technologies for your
session, its also important to make sure you get the most out of them. This chapter
provides an overview of some of the recent innovations in the following areas:
Cardiff University teaching tools (pp. 39-45)
Presentation technology (pp. 46-50)
Other useful technologies (including social media developments) (pp. 51-
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
40 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
2. Cardiff University Teaching Tools
The Cardiff Portal and Learning Central are the basic platforms used for the delivery of IL
teaching within the University.
Cardiff Portal
The wide range of Cardiff University electronic resources can be accessed from the Portal
(http://portal.cf.ac.uk), including databases, electronic journals, CardiffMail, self-help guides
and Learning Central, as well as an RSS feed reader. The Portal facilitates an efficient,
convenient single access point for all resources and tools required by network users.
It is important to promote the use of the Portal at every appropriate opportunity during IL
sessions (though this is not imperative if a subject-specific Library Toolkit is available (see p.
45), as extensive links are usually provided within the Toolkit).
Learning Central
Learning Central (http://learningcentral.cf.ac.uk) formerly known as Blackboard is the
Universitys virtual learning environment. It is used extensively for the delivery of course
content. If you have the approval of the course/module leader and have been enabled by
the Schools Learning Central administrator, adding content within the Learning Central
modules is an ideal way in which to make your teaching materials available. This could be
part of your IL negotiations with the School. (Note that you need to be enrolled as a
Learning Central instructor to be able to add teaching materials and set assessments.)
Modules are recreated for each new academic year and content can be added or updated at
any point during the year.
Your materials can easily be accessed by the whole class on or off campus.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 41
Learning Central offers:
Controlled access to learning resources such as documents, slides, images, video
etc. Access to any resource uploaded to Learning Central is limited to students
enrolled on an individual module.
Online assessment through web-based quizzes, tests and surveys which enable you
to monitor students understanding
Facilities to set assignments and receive uploads from students and to provide
grades and feedback online
Access to general communications, including email, group discussion and chat.
Communication can be tutor-student or student-student.
Ability to provide links to other web-based resources either internally or externally
Activity and achievement tracking: it is possible to monitor students activity on
Learning Central such as how often they use the system and which resources they
Release of learning materials and activities based on time, user, assessment results
or group membership
A range of social media tools that can be easily incorporated into modules. These
include blogs, discussion boards, journals, chat, wikis and podcasts.
Access to the Training Materials Repository (see p.26).
Benefits of Learning Central:
Simple to use and requires few technical skills
When used to disseminate informational material, this allows contact time to be used
more productively and interactively
Creates opportunities to engage in new learning activities
Remote students or groups which cannot come together at the same time and place
can meet virtually.
You will find helpful tutorials in the Staff Help section of Learning Central in the Organisation
and Communication in Learning Central portlet. A set of help guides is available at
If you have queries about using Learning Central contact the INSRV Learning and Teaching
team at: insrvConnect@cardiff.ac.uk

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
42 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Information Literacy Resource Bank (ILRB)
The ILRB (http://ilrb.cf.ac.uk) is a collection of learning objects on IL topics developed at
Cardiff University for use in your teaching.
Learning objects can be used in their entirety or parts can be repurposed as required. They
can be integrated into a variety of teaching contexts, both online and face-to-face.
The ILRB includes:
Podcasts: try the Student Survival Guide to Writing a Good Essay podcast series
created by ULS. This is also available on the Learning Central home page. This
features six episodes providing tips from academic staff, librarians and students.
Topics covered are:
o What makes a good essay?
o Quality control: information to use and avoid
o Going beyond the reading list: finding good web sites
o Going beyond the reading list: finding books and journals
o Getting your references in order
o Meeting the deadline.
Focus group responses from students have indicated that the podcasts offer a good
bridge between lecturers expectations regarding what constitutes a good essay in
terms of library research, and actually meeting that standard.

IL movies: consider using a video outlining some essential IL skills such as
uncovering journal articles, evaluating online sources and citing material correctly.
There is also footage covering the strengths and perils of Wikipedia.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 43
The Taking the Frights out of your Cites movie has proved particularly successful.
Subject Librarian Cath Borwick explained that the humour helped make a potentially
boring topic more bearable. Dr. Patricia Kieran, senior lecturer in Engineering at
University College of Dublin remarked that the video certainly elicited a far higher
level of attention than I usually see when I try to address the same material through
conventional lecturing.
Diagrams: its good practice to present
your material in different formats to suit
different learning styles.
Cartoons: surely there can be no
better way to brighten up your
presentation or handout than this?

Short tutorials: inject some variety and give students a break from the sound of your
voice by letting them immerse themselves in an online IL tutorial. As well as the full-
scale Medicine and Distance Learning toolkits, students can get to grips with
EndNote, plan a search strategy or uncover the vagaries of the Harvard referencing
Activities and quizzes: try getting your students to practise what theyve learnt with
the range of interactive exercises such as this Citing References quiz, to consolidate
what youve taught them on the Harvard style.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
44 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Teaching citing and referencing
Show students fictitious mistakes made by last years
class and ask them to spot the errors. Students love
picking holes in the work of their peers! Alternatively,
use the engaging citing references tutorials and activities
available in the ILRB.

There is also a quiz on how to avoid plagiarism.
Vodcasts (video podcasts): these resources, intended for student self-help and for
airing during your IL teaching, consist of bite-size chunks of video/audio content,
each lasting around a minute. Topics include: accessing journals from off-campus,
referencing web pages, referencing journal articles, setting up RSS feeds and getting
the best from Web of Science.
Use learning objects for:
Clarifying or illustrating concepts, e.g. database search strategy, referencing,
plagiarism etc. Visual learners find diagrams and images particularly helpful.
Reinforcing learning, e.g. an activity which allows application of newly learned skills
Testing knowledge and understanding, e.g. a quiz which can be used as formative
Adding variety to the format of your lesson
Enhancing handouts or PowerPoint slides, or embedding into Learning Central
Providing stand-alone self-help resources, e.g. vodcasts and citing references

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 45
Library Toolkits
Cardiff University has a number of subject-specific library toolkits. They provide online
tutorials, guides and links to subject resources.

The Information Skills section (see screenshot above) constitutes the core of each toolkit
and is a step-by-step guide to searching for, retrieving and using information. Subject
Librarians have adapted the Information Skills section to suit their subject and added
their own specific information. For example, the Distance Learning Service (DLS) Toolkit
contains the DLS Handbook, information on how to request articles and books and a
Virtual Librarian widget that allows users to chat online with a librarian.
The toolkits are embedded into the course VLEs and are introduced to the students in
library inductions and IL training.
The toolkits are constructed using HTML web pages with links to various resources and
tutorials within the ILRB. To adapt the toolkit to your subject area you need to obtain the
source web pages and edit them in a HTML editor such as Dreamweaver which is
available on the Cardiff University network. Contact Lucy Collins
(CollinsL2@cardiff.ac.uk) to obtain the files and for help getting started.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
46 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
3. Presentation Technology
Prezi is a piece of presentation software which provides an exciting alternative to
PowerPoint. In contrast to PowerPoint, Prezi allows you to illustrate concepts in a highly
visual, non-linear way. Text, images and videos can be added to a large canvas and the
presentation can then zoom in and out and pan around the canvas.
You can sign up for a free account at http://prezi.com. Create your Prezi on the web site and
then download it and play it as Flash files. The web site also includes a showcase of Prezis
and a number of videos and guides to help you use Prezi effectively.
The software includes innovations such as the Zebra (see image
on the right), the blue menu which appears when you click on a
piece of text or an image within Prezi. Drag the middle circle to
move the object, drag the inner ring to resize and revolve the outer
ring to rotate. This is a quick and flexible way of adding elements
to form a visually strong presentation.

(Prezi created by Adam Somlai-Fischer: Academy: Prezi Workflow in 15 minutes
Be inspired by the showcase on the Prezi web site. Invest some time looking at
top-quality Prezis before taking the plunge. Understanding the potential of the
software is key to creating great Prezis.
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 47
Sketch ideas out first. Start with a large piece of blank paper and a pen rather than
using the software straight away. Sketching helps you think about the shape and
structure of your presentation and how you will use metaphor and visuals.
Think differently. Begin your presentation from scratch; dont just convert your
PowerPoint into a Prezi. This software requires you to think visually while
considering the overall message of the presentation and the relationship between the
various elements. You will find the process quite different from that of creating
Allow time for learning the software. Using Prezi for the first time entails grappling
using an unfamiliar interface and menus so make sure you have time available.
Include an overview. Presentations work well if the canvas shows an overview of
the structure of the whole presentation, which can be returned to during the
Use scale. Whether zooming in on the details of a diagram or zooming out to a large
image, good presentations will often use massive changes of scale both for dramatic
effect and increased understanding.
Dont make your audience sick! Audience members can experience motion
sickness if there are lots of quick transitions from one end of the canvas to another.
Group similar ideas to avoid moving around the canvas too much.
Be flexible. It is possible to create a presentation path around the canvas, but it is
also possible to deviate from the path in response to your audience (e.g. zooming in
on a particular section in response to a question from a student), or even not to have
a path at all.
Sign up for an educational licence. This will provide more space for storing Prezis
and also offer the option of making a presentation private.
PowerPoint revisited
PowerPoint is suited to a wide range of teaching environments, but be sure to mix it up with
other teaching techniques within your session to maximise variety and enhance student
concentration. You could break up your presentation with buzz groups, question and answer
slots or other activities.
An INSRV PowerPoint template is available at:
S:\TEMPLATE\INSRV Templates\Presentation
Top 10 PowerPoint tips:
1. Limit the information on your slides to key points only. Steer clear of dense text
and allow adequate spacing between points.
2. Limit the number of slides, e.g. to no more than eight or nine for a ten minute
presentation, giving students time to absorb information on each slide.
3. Use clip art, pictures, charts, tables, diagrams, sound and video to enhance
content. Ensure that you are complying with copyright law and generally limit to no
more than two graphics per slide.
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
48 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
4 Avoid noisy distracting backgrounds, and make sure your text is legible. If
possible, try out the presentation in the room you are going to be using.
5 Use animation sparingly and go for variety setting all your text to fly in bullet by
bullet can get tiresomely predictable. Consider whether you actually need every
individual bullet point to be introduced separately.
6 Create a numerical key for your slides. If you are pressed for time, jump non-
sequentially to a slide by typing the number of that slide and pressing Enter.
Essential for Cephalonian presentations (see p. 13)!
7 Check that text is not likely to be cut-off at the edge of the projection screen this
means you need to make sure your margins are big enough.
8 Do not apologise for any slide. If the content is hard to read, redo it. Charts or
tables should not be too dense or detailed.
9 To store a large file with lots of images, compress pictures by choosing the
Picture tab and then clicking on the Compress Pictures button. Tick the box to
Apply to selected pictures only, or leave the box unticked to compress all pictures in
the entire presentation. Further compression settings are available by clicking the
Options button.
10 Finally, when you are giving your presentation, talk to the audience, not to the
slides on the screen behind you! Position your computer so you can see both the
monitor and the audience. You may also want to keep a printout of your slides in
your hand for easy reference.
Adding speaker notes to PowerPoint
Note that these guidelines refer to PowerPoint 2007.
You can type speaker notes into the notes panel displayed in the PowerPoint Normal view.
These are useful to enable a colleague to deliver a lesson during your absence, in
conjunction with your lesson plan and other materials.
Tips on printing out speaker notes for your presentation:
When finalised, print out your notes as you will not be able to view them on screen
during delivery. Go to Office and choose Print, then under Print What, select Notes
Pages. Use a large font (if necessary enlarge the notes area in Notes Page view)
you must be able to see your printout of the speaker notes clearly during delivery.
Alternatively, export your presentation to Microsoft Word to give you more control
over layout, e.g. by including more than one slide per page. Go to Office Publish
Create Handouts in Microsoft Word and select an option which includes Notes.
You can then opt to delete the actual slides and retain just the Notes.
You can also print the notes 2 or 4 pages per sheet (in the Print window) and then
cut them up to make a handy stack of cards for use during delivery. However, be
sure to attach these together so you dont risk losing your place if you drop them!
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 49
Creating handouts
Also consider using the Export to Microsoft Word feature to give more
general control over the look and content of your handouts e.g. by going to
Office Publish Create Handouts in Microsoft Word you can choose
from several Page Layout options:
Notes next to slides
Blank lines next to slides
Notes below slides
Blank lines below slides.
As the handouts are now in Word format, you have greater editorial control to make any
other changes you wish.
Raising your game: advanced tips
On the PowerPoint Insert tab, have a look at the SmartArt options, which offer a
wide range of pre-set graphical formats. There are templates for lists, hierarchies,
cycles and matrices, and you can dress up your data as a series of colourful
interlocking gear wheels.
Try using Microsoft templates to make your PowerPoint presentations look a bit
different. You can access them at
If you download a template youll find instructions for customising it included in the
Notes pane of the PowerPoint file. Be warned however some are really top-notch;
others may be best left where you found them!
Be flashy: use a remote control USB wireless presenter to move through your
presentation while away from the PC / lectern.
If you havent got a remote control USB wireless presenter, there are a number of
more conventional ways you can control your slides:
o If you are not already in live presentation view, pressing F5 will start your
presentation from the beginning
o Hitting the letter B will replace your presentation with a black screen. Use this
when you want the audience to focus 100% on you, or on another task you are
setting them. Pressing B again will restore your presentation at the point where
you left off. Similarly, you can use the W key for a white screen.
o Type the number of a specific slide to manoeuvre around a presentation out of
sequence if appropriate (see previous tip 6)
o Use the Alt and Tab keys to switch between applications, for example
between PowerPoint and a web page / database, for a smoother, more
professional transition.
Use a laser pointer (sparingly) to highlight specific text or any on-screen features to
which you refer during your presentation.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
50 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Avoid interruptions during your presentation by disabling screensavers and
powersave options (on laptops). To disable any screensavers, rightclick on the
Desktop, choose Properties and then click the Screensaver tab. Choose None.
The Power button on this tab enables you to disable any powersaving settings.
Wow your audience by whipping out PowerPoints secret weapon, the highlighter
pen function. This enables you to emphasise elements of your slide in real time
while addressing your audience: move the mouse over the icons at the bottom left of
the Full Screen view of your presentation to choose Highlighter, Felt Tip or Ballpoint,
and select a variety of colours to annotate your slides during the presentation. Click
the button again when you feel youve exhausted its creative potential, to de-activate
For more tips, see Mollerup (2011).

Why not delve into http://www.slideshare.net for some inspiration? You can upload your own
presentations or download and view presentations created by other individuals and
organisations. It is a valuable source of information and is also a useful place to pick up tips
on presentation techniques and design. You can create a Slideshare account and sign up
for the regular newsletter which highlights top presentations and other news.
Take a look at the education category at http://www.slideshare.net/category/education or try
searching for presentations relating to keywords of your interest.
Slideshare users have the option to make their presentations public, allowing anyone to view
them. Presentations can be made available for adaptation under a Creative Commons
JISC Digital Media have provided a useful summary guide to Slideshare at

Mollerup, P. 2011. PowerNotes: slide presentations reconsidered [Online]. Melbourne: IIID
International Institute for Information Design; Faculty of Design, Swinburne University of Technology.
Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/191214 [Accessed: 7 June 2011].
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 51
4. Other Technologies: an A-Z
This section features a small selection of tools which have the potential to enhance your
teaching. It is by no means exhaustive but represents an excellent starting point for
experimenting with technology in IL teaching:
Assessment and feedback tools
Audience Response Technology (ART)
Classroom management software
Image websites
Interactive whiteboards
QR codes
Social bookmarking
Tutorials and quizzes
Twitter in the IL classroom
Videos, movies, screencasts and vodcasts
Web conferencing
Assessment and Feedback Tools
E-assessment allows students to get feedback on their skills and progress at a time and
place that suits them, without additional burden on staff time. While not replacing face-to-
face contact, it helps to put the student in control of their own learning and develops their
autonomy in this area.
Turnitin is an online service which analyses written text for matches with other sources.
Once uploaded, Turnitin detects whether elements of written work for example, a student
essay match against text from websites, other student papers or electronic journals. It
then returns a colour-coded Originality Report which highlights the text matches it has
found and their sources. These can then be read side-by-side with the student work to
establish whether a student has properly referenced their sources, paraphrased
appropriately or used good quality resources.
Available to all staff and students through Learning Central (and used regularly by around
half of Cardiffs Schools), Turnitin can be a useful tool in teaching sessions on referencing
technique and avoiding plagiarism. Students can submit examples of their own work and be
guided in the interpretation of the reports and how to correct citation errors. The Grademark
facility built into Turnitin also allows staff to annotate student work onscreen and provide
electronic feedback that can be accessed from any PC.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
It can be helpful if student sessions on plagiarism, referencing and Turnitin make time to
that a text match identified by Turnitin does not automatically equate to plagiarism:
well-researched work will inevitably contain many legitimate matches to other
Students should not try anxiously to minimize their Turnitin score if they have
referenced correctly; there is no universal threshold Turnitin percentage that they
should aim to get under.
Turnitin is not marking their work: academic judgement remains paramount.
Note that it is essential that Subject Librarians discuss with the School its policy regarding
the use of Turnitin prior to utilising this resource.
There are guides to using the software at: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/learning/turnitinquick and

(Sample Turnitin Originality Report)

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Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52i
Other online assessment and feedback tools Case study 8
Marking over one hundred Year One Induction assessments can be oppressively time-
consuming during an already busy period. Analysing hundreds of feedback forms can be
even more daunting. By creating online quizzes and surveys that students can take either at
the end of your session, or soon after, you don't have to mark a thing, and everyone gets
immediate feedback. The only outlay is in the set-up time. Learning Central provides tools
for both tests and surveys with a good choice of formats. Creating an assessment is fairly
self-explanatory, though you may need some assistance in publishing the test to the relevant
module. Questionmark Perception is slightly more complicated but is highly flexible, allowing
you to host the assessment on Learning Central, or on any other webpage. As the
questions are created separately from the assessments, you can mix and match questions
to your hearts content.
Charity Dove, Music Library
Audience Response Technology (ART)
Audience response technology provides a popular and attractive option for incorporating
interactivity into your teaching. It has been available for many years in the form of the well-
known handsets (clickers) systems. However, the latest ART innovations include online
polling software.
1. Clickers
The two most widely used software packages at Cardiff are: InterWrite PRS and
TurningPoint. The latter is now available on the network, accessible via the Start menu:
Networked Applications General Software Trial Applications Turning Point
Installer. The standard setup involves the use of wireless keypads; audience members use
these to select an answer from a given range of options shown on a PowerPoint slide. Each
selection is sent to a receiver attached to the presenters PC and results are displayed as
percentages and/or graphic illustrations. Clickers can be used with large groups in lecture
theatres or smaller groups in workshop settings.
Benefits may include:
added variety and interest
ensuring engagement with content
enabling participants to contribute anonymously
improved knowledge retention
opportunity to gauge understanding of particular points, so you can recap on any
parts of the lesson which have not been understood
an effective and time-efficient method of assessment
providing feedback on a session
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52ii Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
rendering an otherwise passive session active.
However, clickers technology is best used sparingly; it is good practice to limit the number
of questions used since a session should not be driven by the technology! INSRV have 64
wireless handsets, a receiver and a dedicated laptop suitable for use with PRS in smaller
lecture groups or in classrooms. To reserve the equipment and obtain support/training,
contact insrveducation@cardiff.ac.uk. Also, some Schools e.g. BIOSI have sets which may
be available for loan.
If you are interested in using clickers in your teaching, the Audience Response Technology
Question Bank in the Training Materials Repository on Learning Central contains some
examples of presentations created by Subject Librarians and some ideas for questions you
might incorporate into your sessions.
Audience Response Technology (clickers) Case study 9
I was looking for a way to liven up my citing references workshops, and after familiarising
myself with the clickers InterWrite PRS software I created six quiz questions to test student
understanding of what constitutes plagiarism, as well as their ability to apply their Schools
chosen citation method. These retained students interest as they could never be sure when
they were about to be tested! Students were polled anonymously, though some expressed
anxiety at having their answers found out. Workshops were limited to groups of twelve, so
this wasnt inconceivable, but would be easily avoidable with larger classes.
The most surprising outcome of using clickers was the extent to which questions were
incorrectly answered, despite students claiming understanding; this allowed me to review
certain points that would otherwise have been passed over. Crucially, a colleague was
present to ensure the technology worked so I avoided distractions.
I will certainly use clickers again but will confine its use to small groups to minimise the
impact of any technical problems. Ill start with a control question to test understanding of
the process.
Sarah Nicholas, Architecture Library
2. Online polling
Online polling software is an alternative to clickers, and has a great advantage: you do not
need to bother distributing handsets or worry about them disappearing. A useful tool we
have tried at Cardiff is Poll Everywhere.
Poll Everywhere - http://www.polleverywhere.com
Poll Everywhere allows you to set up survey questions quickly and easily, and is free
for use with audiences of 30 and under
Although no sign up is required this is recommended as this enables you to keep
track of your polls easily
Options include a multiple choice poll, a free text poll or a goal poll (donation polls
for raising money)
Responses can be made using texting, Twitter or via a web link
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52iii
If asking participants to respond by texting, the instructions for doing so are clearly
displayed with the poll (see below). The poll can be shown on the Poll Everywhere
site or embedded into a PowerPoint slide, which updates the results live (n.b. a
number of questions can be downloaded from PowerPoint at the same time).
If using the web link option, poll questions can be collected together as a series on
one webpage (see below)
Quantitative results are presented in bar charts or tables, with qualitative responses
from free text polls listed singly
Results can also be downloaded to blogs or webpages.
(PowerPoint slide for poll)
(Poll Everywhere questionnaire (web link))

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52iv Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Issues to consider
Students may need to be provided with the web link to vote, as they may not be
signed up to Twitter or be willing to use their mobile phones (they may incur a charge
by texting using their own phone). The web link can be shortened at
http://tinyurl.com to make it easier for students to access the poll.
If you intend to use the same question for different classes you need to set up a
different poll for each to ensure you get the unique results from that class.
Classroom Management Software
Once installed in an IT room, this software connects the teachers computer to all the
students PCs. It can be used to:
Remove distractions. To prevent students using Facebook or email during the
session, you can allow access only to the specific web site(s) relevant to the lesson.
Access to applications and to printing can also be limited as needed.
Improve display. The software can relay the image from your monitor to those of
the students. This provides a clear, close-up image if students are having trouble
viewing the projector screen or reading small fonts.
Facilitate learning between students. You can relay the image from a particular
students PC to all student monitors. For example, effective search terms chosen by
a student could be shared with the rest of the class.
Monitor students. You can view all the students PCs images via your own PC, to
monitor the progress of each learner.
Help an individual student. You can connect to a single PC to help with a specific
Assess student understanding. Features of the software include electronic testing
and voting whereby a true/false or multiple choice question could be used for a quick
assessment of students understanding.
You will need to ensure the students are aware of how the software is being used during the
session. The classroom management software used by the University is LanSchool.
is available in selected IT rooms across the University including training rooms in the Julian
Hodge Study Centre and the Brian Cooke, Trevithick and Science libraries. If you are
interested in obtaining more details or obtaining a licence for your site, the LanSchool
contact at the University is Sharon Magill from the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and
Cultural Studies (MagillSE@cardiff.ac.uk).

LanSchool [Online]. Available at: http://www.lanschool.com [Accessed: 18 July 2011].
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52v
Classroom Management Software Case study 10
I started to use LanSchool in September 2008. I particularly wanted to use the software
during three of my large group teaching sessions at the beginning of term. LanSchool was
an ideal solution for focusing such a large group. I was able to take control of the screens,
disable computer mice and keyboards and carry out demonstrations with the full attention
of the group. I gave the students prior warning of this, so they had a minute or two to finish
whatever tasks they were performing.
I would recommend LanSchool to any member of staff who carries out teaching in an IT
Training Room environment. It is an excellent tool for effective teaching, as emailing and
surfing the web are major temptations for students; cutting out these distractions is good
both for learner and teacher.
Clare Davies, School of Dentistry
Image Websites
Images can be a good way of enlivening a presentation, and there are many freely available
images on the internet. Licences and copyright vary widely, and so it is key to check details
for each image.
MorgueFile http://www.morguefile.com
MorgueFile provides a stock of high quality images. The free photos section allows you to
download photos and states that you may copy, distribute, transmit the work and to adapt
the work. Attribution is not required. You are prohibited from using this work in a stand
alone manner. The full licence conditions are set out at:
Flickr http://www.flickr.com/search
Flickr is a photo-sharing web site and the quality of the images varies widely, as do the
licence regulations. To find photographs held under a Creative Commons licence click on
advanced search to the right of the search box then scroll down to click on Only search
within Creative Commons-licensed content.
Some photos may have certain rights reserved, so make sure you read the licence details
carefully. Many photos require you to give the original author credit - this can be easily
done by providing an author acknowledgement in small text beside the photograph used.
British Library Images http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary
These images, mainly historical, are drawn from the British Librarys numerous print and
photograph collections. Images need to be acknowledged and in some cases permission
must be sought.
In addition to these sites there are image search tabs on search engines such as Google
Images (http://www.google.co.uk/imghp) and Yahoo Images
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52vi Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Interactive Whiteboards
Interactive whiteboards can be found in some seminar rooms and IT training rooms on the
Cathays Park campus. The screen image from the presenters computer is projected onto a
touch-sensitive wall-mounted whiteboard. The teacher controls the whiteboard using their
finger, a stylus, a pen or other pointer, rather than using the computer's mouse (although this
option is still available). Additionally he/she can treat the device as an electronic whiteboard
to annotate the on-screen display and write notes. In some lecture theatres whiteboards are
replaced by small touch-sensitive screens at the front of the room, as an alternative means
of manipulating the display being projected.
Uses for interactive whiteboards include:
Operating any computer software, for example a web browser, database applications
or PowerPoint presentations
Annotating the on-screen display and capturing the notes for use at a later date (e.g.
publication to the web in a Learning Central module)
Brainstorming and concept mapping: to capture traditional whiteboard or flipchart
style notes. Interactive whiteboards allow freeform writing and drawing. This is ideal
for getting students actively involved. This information can be saved electronically for
future use.
Seamless presentations: the teacher can fully engage with the audience rather than
needing to stand by the computer to use the mouse.
Podcasts [are] digital audio programs that can be subscribed to and downloaded by
listeners via RSS.
Having subscribed to the podcast, the listener will automatically receive
each new episode, which can be heard or viewed via mobile devices such as smartphones,
tablets, MP3 players and laptops as well as on a PC. However, whilst the original concept of
the podcast was that they were episodic and required subscription, many podcasts are
stand alone; the "click to listen" / "Podcast on-demand" approach is perhaps now the most
common model.
Podcasts are a great way to supplement your face-to-face teaching, helping you to reach
your students beyond the classroom. For example, you could create an audio tour of the
library or record some quick tips on information literacy topics.
Benefits of podcasts:
Students can learn anywhere or at any time freeing them to carry out other activities
as they learn such as commuting, exercising or household chores!
They can help students with visual disabilities, dyslexia, or those who prefer to learn
by listening

Kaplan-Leiserson, E. 2005. Trend: podcasting in academic and corporate learning. Learning Circuits
[Online] June. Available at: http://www.astd.org/LC/2005/0605_kaplan.htm [Accessed: 18 July 2011].

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52vii
Above is a QR
code for the ILRB
They can be re-played so are ideal for non-native English speakers and can act as
memory aids.
Creating podcasts:
When deciding on the content, aim to keep your listeners attention by making the
podcast entertaining and not too complex, using a variety of voices and keeping the
time span short
Record your content using a digital recorder capable of creating MP3 or use one of
the many free audio editing software tools such as Audacity
(http://audacity.sourceforge.net) and a microphone connected to your PC
They can be distributed to your audience via Learning Centrals podcast tool (see the
podcast guides in the Wikis, blogs, journals and podcasts portlet in the Staff Help
section of Learning Central).
Alternatively, Cardiff Universitys Student Survival Guide to Writing a Good Essay podcast
series created by ULS is available in the Information Literacy Resource Bank at
https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/multisubject/podcast/index.html and on the Learning Central home page.
QR Codes
QR (quick response) codes are a complex type of barcode which connect the user via
smart technology to data or text. In order to access the information a smartphone with QR
code reader software installed is required. (Netbooks, laptops and
tablets can also be used, as long as they have a camera and the QR
code reader software.)
Walsh (2009) identifies four applications for QR codes: they can contain
a URL; contain a few lines of text; ring a phone number; or start a text
The first of these (encoded URL) is probably the most
popular. It is becoming more common to see mobile tagging, where a
QR code might be displayed on an object or advertisement which, when
scanned, takes the user to a URL giving more information.

Walsh, A. 2009. Quick response codes and libraries. Library Hi Tech News 26(5/6), pp. 7-9.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52viii Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Potential uses for QR codes in IL teaching:
Adding them to worksheets to allow interactivity in responding to questions via text
message during the session
Adding them to handouts, relying on the novelty value to increase the likelihood of
students accessing follow-up resources via URLs after the session
Displaying them around the library to direct users to learning resources via URLs as
and when they need them, thereby offering IL support outside formal sessions. For
example, a QR code could be displayed next to the law section of the Library which
links the student to a web page which displays a video on finding law reports.
Barriers to using QR codes:
Some students do not have smartphones
Low awareness amongst students (and often library staff too) of what QR codes are
Low numbers of students installing QR code reader software on their phones
Students may be deterred by mobile phone data charges.
Questions to ask before implementing QR codes:
Are the web sites to which you direct your users designed to be mobile-friendly?
If the QR codes are displayed within the Library, do your noise policies allow for
users making a phone call (if the QR code gives a phone number) or watching a
video with sound (if the QR code links to an instructional video)?
If you are using QR codes within your IL sessions, do you need to ensure that
students work in groups that contain at least one student who is willing and able to
use their phone for the activity?
How to create a QR code:
Use a search engine to find a free QR code generator, e.g. http://qrcode.kaywa.com
Enter the content you require and generate the QR code
Save the QR code as a picture
If you are using a long URL you might find it is best to use a free URL redirection
service (e.g. http://tinyurl.com) to shorten it before you convert it to a QR code.
How to read a QR code:
Go to the app marketplace for your phone to find and download free QR code reader
Select the app, which will then display a viewfinder rectangle on your phone screen
Scan the code by placing it inside the rectangle and the app will do the rest!

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52ix
QR codes are worth experimenting with because they can:
Capture student interest. The current low awareness of QR codes can have a
positive effect if it means students are intrigued enough by the codes to try and find
out more.
Encourage student participation. Students often enjoy additional opportunities to
use their phones.
Minimise visual clutter. QR codes can look more attractive in handouts and on
posters than text or URLs.
Enhance IL teaching. Most importantly, QR codes offer huge potential for
extending IL support beyond formal sessions and for providing links between the
physical and the electronic.
Social Bookmarking
Social bookmarking tools such as Diigo http://www.diigo.com and Delicious
http://www.delicious.com are a convenient way of bringing together websites in an easily
accessible place. Bookmarks are classified by tags (subject terms), and can be annotated
with explanatory text. There is no charge to register for these tools and they are simple to
use. Most social bookmarking sites offer a downloadable toolbar enabling you to
conveniently bookmark websites.
These tools can be useful
as a way of promoting useful websites to students e.g. providing links to supporting
materials or further reading
to provide a hyperlinked list of websites used in a teaching session, thus allowing
students to access multiple websites from one location without having to type in
multiple URLs.
For a comprehensive list of social bookmarking tools see Phil Bradleys list at

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52x Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Social Bookmarking in the Classroom Case study 10a
I use the social bookmarking site Diigo for two courses run for the Graduate Centre
Research Students Skills and Development programme, Intelligent Web Searching and
The Connected Researcher. Both courses cover a large number of websites, and
previously paper handouts of the URLs had been provided. Participants in an Intelligent
Web Searching session run last year had expressed a wish for a hyperlinked list of the
websites rather than having to type in all the URLs and I decided to use Diigo for this. It is
very easy to set up a group on Diigo, and websites can be annotated and tagged with
subject terms to categorise them.
The example below shows the Connected Researcher Diigo group, available at
http://groups.diigo.com/group/connected-researcher-cardiff This group collected together
all the social media tools and websites mentioned in the session, and participants could
then easily access all the sites as they were discussed.

(The Connected Researcher Diigo Group)
Susan Smith, Aberconway Library
Tutorials and Quizzes
Online tutorials and quizzes can be incorporated into teaching sessions, used within toolkits
or as standalone units to reinforce and refresh IL concepts. You will find a selection of these
on various topics in the ILRB (see pp. 41-44). However, if you wish to create your own,
Udutu and Glomaker are examples of free online software.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52xi
Udutu has been used to create some of the tutorials in the ILRB, e.g. Planning your search
(https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/searchtech/planning_your_search/course/course9105.html). You can
sign up for an account at: http://www.myudutu.com
No technical expertise is required; follow a step by step process to create your tutorial then
download and host on your own server. The tutorial can be hosted on the ILRB; contact
Rebecca Mogg (MoggR2@cf.ac.uk) for instructions.

What can you do in Udutu?
Create quizzes and assessments including multiple choice questions (MCQs),
matching labels to images/text and placing images/text in order. Insert images,
videos, PowerPoint presentations and audio files.
Create advanced screens such as image rollovers and scenarios
Add a glossary of terms used.
Glomaker is an open source tool developed by London Metropolitan University for creating
learning objects.
Providing you have administrative rights on your PC, you can download
and install the Glomaker software from:
The tutorials you create must be uploaded to your own server. They can be hosted on the
ILRB; contact Rebecca Mogg (MoggR2@cardiff.ac.uk) for instructions.

London Metropolitan University. 2009. Glomaker: about GLOs [Online]. London: LMU. Available at:
http://learning.londonmet.ac.uk/RLO-CETL/glomaker/downloads.html [Accessed: June 15, 2011].

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52xii Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
What can you do in Glomaker?
Choose from two sets of pedagogical sequences or choose freestyle which allows
you to build a learning object in whatever sequence you choose
Insert images, videos and audio files
Create quizzes including MCQs and placing words in the correct order.
One of the main advantages of using Glomaker is that you can download learning objects
created by others and edit them so you dont have to start from scratch.
Xerte is a suite of open source e-learning tools created by Nottingham University
The full software can be downloaded and installed on your computer, providing you have
administrative rights. The full version requires some coding skills, so you might find Xerte
Online Toolkits a better option.
Xerte Online Toolkits is a browser-based course authoring tool. You can sign up for an
account to try it out at http://www.techdisplayxerte.info but you will need to export any
learning objects you create. The software can also be downloaded from the Xerte website.
Whether you create the learning objects online or on the downloaded software, the final
product must be hosted on your own server. The tutorial can be hosted on the ILRB; contact
Rebecca Mogg (MoggR2@cardiff.ac.uk).
For examples of tutorials created using Xerte at Loughborough University, see
Twitter in the IL Classroom
The backchannel using Twitter
A backchannel is defined as a line of communication created by people in an audience to
connect with others inside or outside the room, with or without the knowledge of the speaker
at the front of the room.
Twitter is one of the main ways the backchannel is used. This is
now a familiar feature in conferences and to a lesser extent in teaching. Typically,
conference organisers will assign a hashtag for tweeters to use, thus enabling tweets to be
searchable and easily located (e.g. Cardiff Universitys Technology-Enhanced Education
Conference 2011 used #cdftee). In some cases, the stream of tweets containing the
hashtag will be displayed on a screen behind the presenters throughout a conference.
There are tools to collect tweets with a particular hashtag such as Twitterfall
Bruff (2010)
suggests that the backchannel can be used in teaching in the following ways:

Atkinson, C. 2010. The backchannel: how audiences are using Twitter and social media and
changing presentations forever. Berkeley: New Riders.

Bruff, D. 2010. Backchannel in education nine uses. In: Teaching with classroom response
systems blog [Online] 21
Jan 2010. Available at: http://derekbruff.com/teachingwithcrs/?p=472
[Accessed: 14
June 2011].
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52xiii
Asking questions students can ask questions during a teaching session, which the
presenter can then answer, either during the session or at the end
Sharing resources useful resources can be shared with the rest of the class
Offering suggestions students can suggest topics they would like to be addressed
by the presenter.
The backchannel can be an effective way of improving interactivity in a teaching session.
Issues to consider
There have been many instances of the backchannel biting back, with rude, critical and in
some cases offensive comments made via Twitter (Atkinson 2010). Think carefully about
whether this is an appropriate method to use with your audience: the backchannel may work
well with a small class of postgraduates or staff but not necessarily as well with a large class
of undergraduates.
Additionally, not all students will use Twitter and those who do not may be reluctant or
opposed to signing up.
Videos, Movies, Screencasts and Vodcasts
Ever thought of using original videos or streamed video clips from the web in your IL
sessions? There are numerous benefits to this method:
A short video can help focus attention and provide variety within a
A video will give students a welcome break from the presenter and give you some
breathing space too
A well chosen video will help make more memorable the points which you have
presented in your session. Note: video clips should be used to reinforce the content
of your session not merely to deliver information.
Three methods for obtaining IL videos are:
1. Use a video which has been prepared externally
Video sharing web sites such as YouTube offer an increasing number of videos on IL
themes such as identifying source types, referencing, the research process etc. The
search facility on YouTube is limited, so performing an Advanced search on Google with
Youtube.com specified as the domain may be the best strategy. The quality of
production and content varies considerably. Many videos are of US origin so may not
necessarily be appropriate within a UK context. It is advisable to seek permission from
the copyright owner to use them. This is particularly important in cases where the video
includes 3
party copyright content which the creator does not own.
2. Use a video which has been prepared internally
Check out the Information Literacy Resource Bank (ILRB) http://ilrb.cf.ac.uk. The 4
entertaining and highly informative movies cover key areas of the information research
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52xiv Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
1. Information research: the initial steps
2. Exploring the journal literature
3. Evaluating online information
4. Taking the frights out of your cites.
3. Engage experts to help create professional videos
If you have complex requirements, you will need to engage experts who can assemble a
video in a professional manner. This can be time consuming and expensive, requiring
meticulous planning and lengthy discussion. However, IL videos such as Taking the
Frights out of your Cites (see p. 43), which were created by ULS with the help of the
Media Resources Centre, illustrate that the end result can make the effort worthwhile.
4. Create your own simple IL movies
You dont need a film crew and a lot of equipment to create some effective IL movies
quickly and easily. Vodcasts can be created with just a webcam with a microphone.
Below are some tips on how you can create your own IL movies.
A screencast is a recording of a desktop demonstration with either a voiceover or captions.
Numerous screencasting software packages are available.
Camtasia and Captivate offer features such as editing options, zooming and automatic
captioning. Captivate would need to be purchased from an external supplier. However,
Camtasia has been purchased and installed on two INSRV laptops. Contact Cathie Jackson
(JacksonCM@cardiff.ac.uk) for details.
Using free software such as Screenr entails recording the screencast with sound in one take;
if you make a mistake you have to begin again. One benefit of using Screenr is that your
screencasts are hosted on your Screenr page and you can link to them quickly and easily.
You can upload your screencasts to video hosting/sharing services such as YouTube and
To record a voiceover with any of the screencasting software you will need a microphone on
your computer, a headset or a webcam. Tip: write out your script and time it before you start
Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52xv
Xtranormal is an online movie maker that allows you to create animated movies by typing in
text. You can set up a free account at http://www.xtranormal.com. All new accounts come
with 300xp (xtranormal points) which allows you to purchase sets and actors to perform in
your movie. Educator accounts are available and anyone with an active account can
request to have it converted to educator status which provides an extra 5000xp.

The process of making a movie is simple: choose a set, one or two actors and pick their
voices, then type in (or copy and paste) your script. You can also add sound effects,
background music and gestures for no extra points. Once you have edited your movie you
can publish it on the Xtranormal site with its own URL. You are also provided with a code
should you want to embed the movie into a tutorial or learning object. There is also an
option to publish directly to YouTube.
It is important to think about your target audience when using a tool like Xtranormal; the
animations are probably more suited to year one undergraduates than to researchers.
Web Conferencing
Web conferencing provides another means of delivering IL teaching to students who are
unable to attend sessions on campus, e.g. distance learners and part-time students. There
are numerous web conferencing software packages available: Eluminate and Webex require
payment, while Yugma and Vyew are free online. Staff at the Health Library have been
using Vyew to provide IL training for distance learning students.

Xtragaz. 2010. What am I paying for? Im an educator. Is it true I can get a discount at Xtranormal?
[Online]. Available at: http://xtranormal.zendesk.com/entries/197530-text-to-movie-asset-store-and-
virtual-currency-faq [Accessed: 15 June 2010].

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52xvi Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
To sign up for a free account go to http://vyew.com
Vyew allows the presenter to share their computer screen, an interactive whiteboard
or a file such as a Word document or PowerPoint presentation, with up to ten
students (the maximum number of attendees allowed for free accounts)
Students access the web conference in Vyew by clicking on the URL to your Vyew
Room which can be emailed to the students once they have signed up for a session
Students do not need to install any software but they do need Adobe Flash Player
enabled and sound on their computer
Up to five attendees (including the presenter) can share a webcam within the
meeting or all attendees can use the public chat (in the bottom right corner in the
screenshot) to communicate with one another and ask questions
You will need a webcam and a headset (depending on the quality of the microphone
in your webcam) installed on your PC.
Advertise the sessions one week in advance on a blog and in Learning Central
Tie in the sessions with assignment dates
Allow 5-10 minutes settling-in time to let the students get used to the learning
environment; have some patter prepared to keep them entertained whilst theyre
waiting for the other students to join; check pronunciation of names
Be aware of time zones when scheduling the sessions
Keep the students attention by asking direct questions.

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 52xvii
Video Conferencing software to support library users Case study 10b
Video conferencing software enables us to provide support in using the Universitys
electronic resources to distance learners. The software enables you to share your desktop
remotely with the participants of the session allowing you to give sophisticated
demonstrations and take questions via voice or instant chat messages.
We have been using BigBlueButton hosted by JISC. To run one of these sessions you will
need a headset with microphone, the latest version of Adobe Flash and a webcam.
Participants will need a headset with microphone and the latest version of Adobe Flash. We
hope that the functionality of the software will soon be extended to record sessions and to
share participants desktops.
Mari Ann Hilliar, Health Library
A wiki is a tool that allows users to add and edit content freely on a website. The main goal
of wiki communities is to create free, reliable, up-to-date reference sources. Wiki is a
Hawaiian word meaning fast.
Wikis can be used as online IL collaborative working tools in the following ways:
1. Collaboration between learners
2. Collaboration between teachers
3. Collaboration between learners and teachers
A great example of a wiki is Library Success: A Best Practices Wiki
(http://www.libsuccess.org). This has a similar layout and design to Wikipedia because it
uses Media Wiki http://www.mediawiki.org - a free open source software originally written for
Wikipedia. The following are further examples of free open source software sites you may
use for creating your wiki:
Wiki Spaces (http://www.wikispaces.com)
Wet Paint (http://www.wetpaintcentral.com).
However, bear in mind that Learning Central incorporates a wiki tool which has been used
with great success (see case study on the next page).

Section Five: Teaching Technologies
52xviii Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Creative use of a wiki Case study 10c
Using the wiki tool on Learning Central allowed me to create a virtual repository for most of
the content in my handouts and lectures. Unlike a simple collection of links, the material is
searchable through tags and the hierarchical index. Embedded links within the articles
facilitate browsing throughout the wiki, connecting topics together. I was also able to
embed links to external web pages in and out of Cardiff University, providing both
contextual information and further in-depth resources.
By placing most of my IL content in a secure location accessible to all School of Music
students and staff, I was able to take a more relaxed approach to my IL sessions. In the
inductions and introductory research skills sessions, I focused on enabling autonomous
information seeking, rather than simply force-feeding the information to the students
directly. The wiki is just one of the tools we used in developing our own Library module on
Learning Central. Creating a hub of relevant information helped strengthen the School's
Learning Central presence, which also reinforced our own relevance in the School. A nice
side effect was that putting so much content online also significantly reduced paper output
and staff time by eliminating the need for mass-photocopied handouts!
Although I have focused initially on using the wiki as a repository, I hope in future to
expand its use for collaborative engagement with the School. I'd like to develop - either as
part of the existing wiki, or as a separate wiki - a "by-genre" resource review where
students and staff can share useful weblinks and recommend relevant materials. The idea
is to create social bookmarks within a wiki article format. The trick will be convincing our
School that sharing resources will enhance not replace traditional research.
Charity Dove, Music Library

Update prepared by Lucy Collins, Jessica Emerton, Nigel Morgan, Susan Smith, Rowland
Somers, Rosemary Soper and Erica Swain. Formatted by Rob Sell. With new contributions
from Catherine Borwick, Charity Dove, Mari Ann Hilliar, Rebecca Mogg and Nathan Roberts.
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 53
This section examines good practice in three important components of lesson
Presentation techniques (pp. 53-56)
Managing the teaching environment (pp. 56-59)
Facilitation skills (for workshops) (pp. 59-61).
Section 6: Lesson Delivery
Presentation techniques
Delivering a presentation for the first time, whether in the form of a lecture or part
of a workshop, is not an easy task. Presentations have much in common with live
theatre; after all, you will be giving a performance! Very few people are born
presenters. However, the good news is that presentation skills can be learned /
acquired with practice and everyone improves with experience. Entire books have
been written on effective presentation techniques so it is impossible to go into great
detail here. The following five point plan will stand you in good stead:
1. Be confident
Good planning is the key to good delivery. If you have correctly
identified the learning outcomes, have a good structure and have chosen
appropriate teaching aids you are off to an excellent start.
Know your material inside-out. If you have a knowledge of the material
beyond what you are covering within the lesson, you will be less likely to
be fazed by difficult questions.
Practise your delivery and any demonstrations beforehand
Use instructor notes as a prompt (see Section 3: Lesson Planning, pp.
21-22) but dont read them out word for word!
Dont be fazed by mistakes they happen to us all. In most cases your
audience will not notice.
Try to relax. It is inevitable that you will be nervous but the extra
adrenaline will keep you alert and help you get through it.
Be keen, be enthusiastic! It is impossible to enthuse an audience if you
are not enthused.

Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 54
2. Be clear and coherent
Make your opening effective and unhurried. Gain attention by making
your opening remarks striking and attention grabbing.
Let your audience know what to expect. Outline the framework of the
lesson ensuring that the learning outcomes are understood.
Use structuring tactics:
o signposts: statements which prepare the audience for what is
coming next, e.g. "I will now explain how to use Voyager. Firstly,
how to find textbooks, secondly, how to find journals"
o frames: statements which indicate the beginning and ending of
sub-topics, e.g. "So that ends my introduction to journal indexing
services. Now let's look at one in particular: Web of Science."
o foci: statements which highlight the essential points of the
presentation, e.g. "So the key point is ..."
o links: statements which link the different sections and relate to the
learners' experience and knowledge, e.g. "You can see that by
using narrower terms the number of records retrieved is reduced.
This could mean relevant material is missed. To avoid this, use
the databases thesaurus which we will look at next.
Look at the content from the standpoint of the audience. Dont leave
out chunks of explanation by assuming the audience is familiar with basic
points of reference.
Dont use technical language without explaining the meaning first.
Learners will be confused by references to OPAC, Boolean etc.
Repetition of key points and phrases can be useful to get essential
information across
Make your ending conclusive and effective:
o Provide a summary drawing together all your key points
o Be brief and say nothing new at this stage
o Finish with a key observation or quote
o Dont tell your audience that this will be a concluding
summary as they are likely to switch off and start packing up!
3. Be inclusive and involving
Use questioning to encourage alertness and maintain interest. With
large groups use global questioning: encourage contributions but bear in
mind that, within large groups, learners may feel inhibited.
Use activities to break up a session and encourage active learning; these
can be especially effective within lectures, which traditionally are
recognised as a passive format (see Section 4: Lesson Formats, pp. 33-
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 55
Use Audience Response Technology (clickers) to involve your
audience and to help you assess the effectiveness of your session (see
Section 5: Teaching Technologies, pp. 39-40)
Face and talk to the audience not the screen when you are using
teaching technologies such as PowerPoint! Maintain eye contact
Use pauses to allow your audience time to reflect and catch up
Choose examples which are relevant, memorable and striking when
undertaking demonstrations.
4. Be time conscious
Rehearse in order to gauge the overall timing. This will help ensure
you are not spending too long on particular sections at the expense of
Finish within the allotted time. Learners will not mind finishing early but
they will not be happy if you overrun!
Be alert to signs of restlessness and inattentiveness. If you are aware
of this, try changing the pace of delivery or move on to the next section.
5. Be yourself!
Your voice is one of your greatest natural assets:
o Speak clearly and loudly enough to be heard
o Use intonation; if you speak in a monotone your audience will find
your delivery monotonous.
o Speak at a steady pace; if you speak too quickly, learners will be
unable to digest what you have said; if you speak too slowly, you
run the risk of sending your audience to sleep!
o Dont try to hide a regional accent; just speak naturally but clearly.
Use humour. A light touch and a witty aside can be useful for keeping
the attention of your audience.
Use expressive body language and speech rhythms but try to avoid
any mannerisms which may be irritating to your audience
Dress comfortably and appropriately dont arrive under or over-
Above all, Enjoy Yourself and your audience will too!

Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 56

For nervous presenters!
Strike up a conversation with one or two of the students before
you start the session. You could ask them about the lecture they
have just come from. This will help you engage with the students
as individuals and ease your nerves when you come to speak to
the whole group.

Pecha Kucha
Pecha kucha (pronounced pe-chak-cha) was devised in 2003 in Japan by a group of
architects, and has since spread into the business community and other fields. It
takes its name from the Japanese term for chit-chat. It is a quick-fire technique to
use with PowerPoint presentations, allowing a rapid and concentrated approach to
the session. The speaker is limited to twenty slides, shown for twenty seconds each
(you must set the timings using PowerPoints Slide Transition option), giving a total
time of 6 minutes 40 seconds. Pecha kucha requires good preparation and careful
thought about the key points to choose for your slides, but it does provide a lively and
effective method which should maintain your audiences attention.
Text is generally kept to a minimum as the impact of the format relies heavily on
images. Pecha kucha may work well if you are required to give a short presentation
within a large general orientation organised by the School; a well planned, attractive
pecha kucha presentation is sure to stand out and make an impression. You may
also find the format useful for presenting to colleagues at professional events. For
examples of pecha kucha presentations used at an IL conference see:
http://www.library.unlv.edu/conferences/loexw/pechakucha.html [Accessed: 17 June
You will find a Cardiff University example in the Training Materials Repository (see
Section 3: Lesson Planning, p.26) in the following folder: Training Materials -
Orientation and Voyager - Presentations.
Managing the teaching environment
The teaching surroundings can have a considerable impact on the effectiveness of
your session. It is worth considering the following points:
Room preparations
Before the day, confirm the room booking either with
RoomBooking@cardiff.ac.uk or check the weekly timetable on the door
(for pool rooms)
Visit the lecture theatre if it is unfamiliar to you - be prepared to visit
outside academic teaching hours if the lecture theatre is booked up during
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 57

the day. If necessary, take along a colleague who is already familiar with
the room and who can show you how the equipment works.
On the day, ensure lighting or blackout arrangements are satisfactory, but
also that lighting in the darkened room is still sufficient for note-taking
Decide where you will put any handouts which you want to distribute at
the start of the session. Many lecture theatres have two entrances so you
might want to place handouts in separate areas.
Also ensure that you:
o Locate the most appropriate place to position yourself
o Get a feel for the dynamics and atmosphere of the space
o Practice projecting your voice.
Equipment preparations
If you are using a portable data projector, ensure it is set up so that cables
are not a hazard to you or the learners
Ensure that you are able to log on to the presenters PC:
o Check that any web pages you wish to use display properly
o Bookmark them in your web browser or link to them from your
presentation. Run them up on the PC just before the start of your
session to speed up access.
Ensure that any sounds or images you intend to use run properly on the
If you have back-up computer logins for your learners, test these out in
If you are using a whiteboard or flipchart, find out how large and neat you
have to make your writing for it to be legible throughout the room.
Seating arrangements
Try to ensure that learners are seated in the most appropriate arrangement for your
session; for example, encourage your learners to sit en bloc near the front of the
room rather than at the back or in a dispersed fashion. This should help ensure good
interactivity and effective delivery.

Stand at the back of the lecture theatre or classroom as
learners are entering they will then tend to gravitate towards
the front!
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 58

Group work
If your session is in a seminar room with moveable furniture and involves the use of
paper sources, breaking the class into smaller groups of, at the most, three or four
learners, creates very good learning conditions. Students work as a team and learn
from one another (see Section 4: Lesson Formats, pp. 36-37).
Working in pairs
An option for computer-based workshops is to get learners to work in pairs. Again,
learners are able to support one another and the weakest learners in particular will
benefit from this approach.
Room conditions
The temperature of the teaching environment can have a marked effect on
performance. Unfortunately, most of the time we have very little control over heating
and ventilation conditions. Where possible, every effort should be made to ensure
that you and the learners are as comfortable as possible.
During the lesson
Ensure you do not block learners' view of visual aids; stand to one side of
the whiteboard / projector screen
Give learners a chance to read on-screen information before you talk
about it
If you wish, switch the projector to a blank screen when you are not
referring to a slide (press the letter B on your keyboard) in order to focus
attention on you rather than the screen. Hit the same key again to switch
If you have prepared a handout, suggest that learners use this for making

When using prompt cards or notes, number each
sequentially, punch holes in one corner and hold them
together with a treasury tag. If you then drop these, you
should be able to find your place and continue without too
much disruption (or embarrassment!).

Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 59
Disabled learners
Every effort should be made to meet the requirements of disabled learners.
Ensure that you know whether you will have a disabled student in a
lesson. Check with the disability contact in the relevant School or the
module leader.
If you have a choice of venue ensure that it can accommodate the needs
of the student(s), e.g. wheelchair access, acceptable acoustics
Furniture should be arranged where possible to accommodate wheelchair
access, and space should be made for guide dogs etc.
If group work is to be used, consider carefully how the groups are to be
See Supporting Document 5: Accessible Teaching Strategies, pp. 94-95.
Facilitation skills (for workshops)
When leading a workshop / hands-on training session, strong facilitation skills are
needed to encourage individual learning or group interaction. These skills can be
acquired with experience but it is worth bearing in mind the following points:
Several kinds of facilitation skills are required:
o Attending / listening skills: these involve active listening,
maintaining eye contact, exploring and clarifying problems with a
learner. Some learners are more articulate and coherent than
others in how they express themselves. Focus and concentrate on
what is being said to you. To ensure that you have understood, it
is a good idea to paraphrase back to the student.
o Observing skills: these involve closely watching the behaviour of
learners, searching for clues which indicate how the training is
being received are the learners bored, restless, confused or
generally comprehending and responding to the training in a
positive fashion? Be watchful try to identify which learners are
experiencing problems and respond promptly and tactfully.
o Questioning skills: many learners will be tense and you will need
to encourage them through questioning to articulate their concerns
and difficulties. You will need to use different kinds of questions in
different situations: use a combination of specific (closed) and
exploratory (open) questions to identify a learners specific needs
or problems; use exploratory questions to encourage discussion
within groups.
Get the balance right between intervention and non-intervention. Many
learners welcome general advice while others will feel intruded upon if you
intervene when they have no apparent problem. You will need to be
intuitive to assess each situation.
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 60
Anticipate problems based on your past experience and point out
potentially problematic areas before the hands-on part of the workshop
Be sympathetic to the needs of:
o Fast learners: it is useful to have on-hand an additional worksheet
to engage learners who may have completed tasks before the rest
of the group.
o Slow learners: be positive and encouraging but dont allow
yourself to be side-tracked as you will need to devote time and
attention to other learners too! Suggest a follow-up session or if
possible offer to stay behind after the session to address the
problems being experienced.
Provide constructive feedback whenever possible: be prepared to
suggest more efficient approaches or encourage learners to reflect in
order to devise alternative search strategies.
Dont be negative or destructively critical as this can de-motivate
learners; instead, look for opportunities to praise good practice.
Latecomers and difficult learners
Students arriving late can disturb the whole class, and may miss some important
information. Try to minimise the disruption by:
Continuing the session without repeating what you have already said
Starting or continuing an exercise with the main cohort and helping the
latecomer afterwards
Speaking to the learner after the session; if they have a genuine reason
for being late, try to offer another time when you can help them catch up.
Remember that lateness is sometimes unavoidable e.g. if a previous lecture over-
Learners using Hotmail, booking train tickets online, arranging an Interflora delivery
for Mums birthday or completing coursework unrelated to your session can
demoralise both you and other learners. You will need to consider each situation
carefully, as the learner may simply not understand what they should be doing.
However, you must avoid a confrontation in front of the group.

Tips for trouble-free sessions:
At the beginning, set ground rules about participation and interaction
Make a friendly but firm remark to divert a distracted student back to the
task in hand
When giving out feedback questionnaires, ask learners who may not have
taken a session seriously or worked through the content to write down the
Section Six: Lesson Delivery
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 61
Focus attention on a demonstration or ensure that students fully engage
in discussion activities, by asking them to switch off their computer
In exceptional circumstances and only as a last resort, ask the student politely to
leave the session
Dont forget your role as a facilitator is to Encourage, to Motivate and to Support!

Facilitating workshops Case study 11
Ive been helping with first year IL sessions for a couple of years and its a really
good way of getting to know both the students and the resources they will be
using. I find it helps me deal with IL queries when I staff the information desk as I
can refer back to things we covered in the students session.
Its essential to run through all the tasks the students will be doing before your first
session so you are familiar with any problems they may encounter. It can be a bit
scary speaking in front of a group for the first time but I found it helped to begin by
talking about house-keeping issues, e.g. checking that everyone had signed in.
Each group we teach is different: a lively group can lead to a more interactive
session. With quieter groups we need to be more proactive as they are less likely
to ask questions. Occasionally, groups of students start chatting and they may
need a few reminders to focus on the session; asking how are you getting on?
and looking at their PC screen usually helps. I think the most important part of
facilitating IL sessions is trying to help the students appreciate how important IL is
to their course. I really enjoy assisting with IL sessions and we often get positive
feedback from the students which is very rewarding.
Nicola Jones, Biomedical Sciences and Science Libraries

Section Seven: Assessment
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 63
Section 7: Assessment
Purpose and forms of assessment
Assessment can serve different purposes and the method you choose will depend on
its purpose. The Universitys Assessment strategy
notes three functions of
assessment and defines them as follows, noting that any one assessment task may
fulfil more than one function:
Diagnostic assessment is used to show a learner's preparedness for a unit or
programme of study and identifies any potential gaps in knowledge, skills and
understanding expected at the start of study, or any other problems.
Formative assessment is designed to help learners learn more effectively
through giving them feedback on their performance indicating how it can be
Summative assessment is used to indicate the extent of a learners success
in meeting the intended learning outcomes of a unit of study or programme.
A formative assessment might, for example, take the form of an in-class test or an
essay which is marked but does not count towards the final marks given for a course.
A summative assessment determines the final mark the student receives, e.g. an
essay, dissertation or traditional examination.
You must obtain express permission from the School before setting students any
work to be completed outside your class, even a non-assessed exercise.

Cardiff University. No date. Assessment Strategy [Online]. Available at:
http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/learning/resources/Assessment%20Strategy%20final.pdf [Accessed:
6 August 2009].
This section highlights the issues to consider when setting assessments. Areas
covered include:
Purpose and forms of assessment (p. 63)
Principles of assessment (pp. 64-67)
o Validity, including research trails and other methods (pp. 64-65)
o Reliability (pp. 66-67)
o Explicitness (p. 67).
Section Seven: Assessment
64 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Principles of assessment
Effective assessment depends on three principles: validity, reliability and explicitness.
Validity refers to whether the assessment measures what it is supposed to, is
aligned with learning outcomes and proportionate in volume.
Reliability refers to the accuracy, consistency and repeatability of the
assessment, and whether it discourages opportunity for plagiarism.
Explicitness refers to the clarity of assessment to all involved in the process.
It is associated with the quality, quantity and timeliness of information given to
staff and students regarding the assessment.
The form of assessment used by a module will be indicated in the module description
along with the learning outcomes of the course. The learning outcomes and
assessment methods are formulated at the same time. Students must only be
assessed on the stated outcomes, so it is essential that, if you are asked to
contribute to summative assessment, IL outcomes are first clearly stated in the
course description.
INSRV staff have used successfully a number of methods for formative or summative
The research trail. This is a useful tool in assessing the level of skill a
student has in identifying, finding and evaluating the information needed for a
task. The research trail will be just one element of a larger assessment task,
such as an essay which will, in addition to other learning outcomes, assess
the students ability to use the information effectively and ethically. The
research trail supplements, rather than replaces, the list of references or
bibliography at the end of the written work.
A typical research trail might require the student to:
o set out the research plan or strategy they adopted
o list the keywords selected to find information
o list the full bibliographic details of all the items identified as being
relevant to the research (the list might include material not eventually
cited in the written work)
o outline the steps taken to uncover the relevant information
o reflect on how useful they found each item listed, according to various
qualities such as relevance, reliability, authority and objectivity
o consider what changes they would make if asked to undertake the
research process again.

An example of a research trail assessment issued to students appears as
Example 18, p. 150-151.
Section Seven: Assessment
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 65
I-maps, similar to research trails, are used in conjunction with a conventional
essay and document a students information gathering and handling process.

In addition to recording how information was found, the i-map will record
thought-processes and how the students ideas developed. It takes the form
of a map or diagram and may be particularly suitable for visual learners.
Other Methods:
o a multiple choice or short answer test (see Example 19, pp. 152-153)
o preparation of a review of recent literature on a topic
o critical appraisal of a journal article
o an essay or report, for which a percentage of the marks (say, 25%) is
allocated to evidence of research (e.g. the presentation of background
information or wider reading and a bibliography).
Assessing your information literacy sessions Case study 12
Stephen Thornton, a Politics lecturer, and I have recently experimented with adding
an assessed element to the Politics Year 1 Information Literacy sessions.
In 2007/08, we used a research trail to encourage students to reflect on their use of
information in essays. Student feedback was generally positive, but some suggested
that completing the trail meant having to sacrifice time and effort that could be spent
on the more relevant activity of writing an academic essay. Some students also felt
that they were artificially justifying or changing their sources to fit the criteria.
For 2008/09, we radically changed the assessment for this module. Students didnt
write a traditional essay, instead they were asked to complete the integrated
assignment (see Example 20, p. 154). Overall, students have seemed to take to this
approach more positively. One said The assignment was a challenge, very different
from the other essays and the skills addressed within it such as reputability of
sources made me more aware of the sources I used in other essays. Another said
The assignment was more useful as it gave me some ideas about why I should use
sources, something which I didnt question before.
Sonja Haerkoenen, Arts and Social Studies Library

Walden, K. and Peacock, A. 2006. The i-map - a process-centered response to plagiarism.
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 31(2) pp. 201-214.
Section Seven: Assessment
66 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
A key component of assessment is consistency of marking. Discuss and agree your
approach with the other markers before you commence. Set down the criteria for
marking and use a standard marking sheet. There are several different designs for
An unstructured marking scheme (Example 21, p. 155) provides the
marker with opportunity for free comment. On the other hand, the criteria for
marking are not clearly stated and it can lead to impressionistic marking.
This scheme is often used when marking reflective or essay type work. If free
comment by the assessor is important, you may wish to consider a semi-
structured scheme which uses general headings as in the unstructured
scheme but lists the criteria which the assessor should consider in making his
A fully structured marking scheme (Example 22, p. 156) allocates a portion
of marks to each of the criteria to be considered by the marker. (The criteria
outlined for students in Example 18, p. 151 provided the structured marking
scheme for that assessment).
Where an exercise requires one word or short answers it is good practice to prepare
markers notes which set out the correct answers and provide information on how the
correct answer has been obtained. Such notes will ensure consistency in the
marking and annotation of student exercises both for a single marker and, more
especially, where several staff working independently are marking the same
exercise. The marker should annotate incorrect answers with the correct response
and include a note on the best method of achieving the correct answer. Alternatively
you may wish to prepare a model answer with the correct answers and methodology,
to distribute to students when their submissions are returned.
The Freedom of Information Act 2000
gives a general right of access to information
held by public authorities. Students can ask Schools to provide them with copies of
assessments, feedback sheets and marking sheets used in conjunction with the
assessment process. The request is usually prompted by a student considering the
preparation of an appeal. Take care when commenting about the quality of the
answer on any assessment papers to ensure that it is fair, relates to the criteria only
and is defendable.

Freedom of Information Act 2000 [online]. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/acts2000/20000036.htm. [Accessed: 6 August 2009].
Section Seven: Assessment
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 67
Marking research trails Case study 13
I work closely with a colleague in the Law School to set and mark assessments for
the Practical Legal Research element of the Legal Practice Course. My teaching
colleague marks the answers/legal interpretation while I mark the research trails. We
use a marking grid (Example 23, p. 157) where I am responsible for sections 9 and
10 of the grid. My part of the marking is a major task which takes me about 75 hours.
I mark 150-200 papers and find that with no word limit for the research trails and
most questions permitting the use of a wide range of resources, consistency can be a
When marking I first draft my own research trail as a template for that particular
question. If I find a student has successfully used a different way to find information,
I add that to my template. I also create a document where, against each student
number, I highlight any poor use of the resources and whether they were competent
or not competent. This becomes a guide that I can quickly refer back to in order to
keep the consistency throughout the marking.
After marking is complete, I re-check those papers that were not competent and
borderline. Then my teaching colleague double checks the research trails before we
have a meeting to discuss any papers over which we have concerns. Finally, a
cross-section of papers are sent to the external examiner to validate our marking.
Students who are eventually found not to be competent will receive feedback in
preparation for a re-sit and for this reason I am always mindful that I need to be able
to justify and articulate my reasons for marking a paper down.
Matthew Davies, Law Library
For modular courses, Senate assessment regulations state that assessment criteria
(a description of what the learner is expected to achieve in order to demonstrate that
the module learning outcomes have been met) should be provided in written form to
students in the Module Catalogue and notified to each student at the start of the
Provide students with the marking sheet and discuss its contents with them before
the assessment is set to help them understand the criteria for the assessment and
provide transparency to the assessment process (see Example 18, p. 151). If there
may be confusion over what is expected by the student in terms of content or
presentation, you may wish to design model answers which can be handed out prior
to or at the same time as the assessment. Obviously these should be on a topic
unrelated to the actual exercise. Some Schools, with permission from those
involved, have made available examples of student work from a previous year along
with the comments and marks from the assessor.

Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 69
The importance of adopting a reflective / evaluative approach to your teaching is
explored. The key areas are:
Reflective practice (pp. 69-70)
Feedback from students including questionnaires (pp. 70-72)
Key performance indicator (KPI) for IL (p. 73)
Feedback from tutors (pp. 73-74)
Peer Review of Learning and Teaching (PRLT) (pp. 74-75).
Section 8: Evaluating your Teaching
Why evaluate your teaching?
It is essential to gather information which will enable you to assess the effectiveness
of your teaching and the learning achieved. This will help you identify your
successes and failures and provide evidence to inform your future practice.
Reflective practice
Reflective practice is a means by which practitioners can develop a greater self-
awareness about the nature and impact of their performance, an awareness that
creates opportunities for professional growth and development.

Reflective practice is regarded as an essential element of continuing professional
development. The definitions of reflection indicate that this is an active rather than a
passive process; Reid (1993) defines reflection as a process of reviewing an
experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning
about practice.

Some key points to think about:
The purpose of reflection is to improve and enhance your teaching. It is a
means of evaluating an experience leading to a positive change in behaviour
in future.
Reflection is more than just thinking; it requires the ability to critically assess,
analyse and review all aspects of your teaching

Osterman, K. F. and Kottkamp, R. B. 1993. Reflective Practice for Educators. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Reid, B. 1993. But were doing it already: exploring a response to the concept of reflective
practice in order to improve its facilitation. Nurse Education Today. 13, pp. 305-309.
Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
70 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
It is a highly personal process requiring discipline and honesty; you will need
to confront your disappointments and mistakes as well as your successes.
There are several ways to reflect on the success (or otherwise!) of a session and on
your own performance. You can initiate the process by making brief personal notes
during or immediately after a session. You might want to ask yourself:
What was the purpose of the session?
Did I have any concerns about the session beforehand?
Which parts of the session went well and why?
Which parts of the session did not go well and why?
Were the learning outcomes achieved?
What have I learned that can help me improve my performance?
Set aside some time soon after your session to address these issues. If possible,
keep a diary to record your reflection and refer to this in future. Its also a good idea
to take into account the opinions of others. For example, you could encourage
colleagues to offer observations on your performance. This is particularly
appropriate when you are teaching as part of a team. Feedback from students can
also give an indication of your effectiveness.
Feedback from students
This can be obtained by direct and indirect means. Direct means include:
Feedback questionnaires
Group discussions at the end of sessions
Comments boards
Focus groups
Indirect means include:
Feedback given to the School when sessions are embedded
Noting non-verbal behaviour during the session, e.g.:
o eye contact (or lack of)
o background chatter (or lack of)
o excessive rustling or coughing (signs that students are not successfully
o interest in asking or answering questions
o are they responding to humour?
o are they yawning or asleep?
o are they engaging in the activities - or are they booking their train tickets
for the weekend? (Remember - this may not necessarily be a reflection on
your performance!)
o are they packing up and wishing to leave the session early?
Evaluating student performance in exercises and assessed work.
Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 71
Questionnaires are widely used for collecting feedback and can cover all aspects of
the design, delivery and assessment of the course of instruction.
Ideally, your session will be part of a module, so you may need to use a
questionnaire designed by the School. Alternatively, there may already be a
question(s) relating to your sessions on the course feedback questionnaire
administered by the School and you may feel that this is adequate. However, if you
wish to and are free to use your own, check out the following examples. Example 24,
p. 158 and Example 25, p. 159, may be used after a single IL session, whilst
Example 26, p. 160, is appropriate for obtaining feedback from students who have
attended a series of sessions. Be aware of survey fatigue amongst students: you
must not duplicate the collection of feedback by the School.
Designing questionnaires
Sometimes it will be necessary to design your own questionnaire, for example if you:
wish to obtain feedback on a specific aspect(s) of a session
are running a session for the first time
are incorporating new content in an established session
are using new materials, methods or technology
wish to carry out a pre-session audit to gauge the expectations / prior
knowledge of students.
Questionnaire design can be complex and is a topic of study in its own right.
However, here are some tips:
Make the aims of the questionnaire clear from the outset, e.g. to identify
student preference for online tutorials or printed worksheets at database
training sessions or to gauge student reaction to a new interactive library
orientation session
Questions should be relevant and appropriate to the aim(s) of the
questionnaire - keep it tightly focussed
Only ask about aspects of your teaching you are in a position to act on as a
result of the responses received
Make the questions short, precise and simple to answer. Avoid ambiguity
and use straightforward language.
If possible, use a combination of closed and open questions
o Closed questions provide quantitative data by offering a choice of
answers using tick boxes or requiring responses using a scale or
number rating. They are quick to answer and the data is easy to
Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
72 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
E.g. Which of the two exercise formats used in this session did you
Online tutorials
Printed worksheets
No preference

o Open questions are used for obtaining qualitative feedback in the
form of stated opinions and comments. Keep these to a minimum as
they will take more time to complete and are likely to be ignored by
some students:
E.g. Why (if you specified a preference) did you prefer this format?
Keep it short - one or two sides of A4. Long questionnaires look off-putting
and take up too much time to complete at the end of a session.
The layout should be clear and uncluttered. Use lots of white space and a
generously sized Arial font.
Conform with the accessibility recommendations referred to elsewhere in this
handbook, for example in Supporting Document 6, pp. 96-97.
Draw attention to the questionnaire at the end of the session and collect completed
forms before students leave. This will help ensure a high response rate and thus a
reliable picture of opinion.
Other suggestions
Initiate a group discussion at the end of the session using open questions
(How, What, When, Why)? For consistency, put the same questions to every
group following the course of instruction.
Give students a coloured post-it note to comment on an aspect of the session
which they liked, and a different colour to highlight an aspect of the session
which they didnt. Ask students to stick these on a board as they leave.
Ask the module tutor to elicit feedback in their next class. You could also
seek feedback at any staff / student panels which you attend.
For a new session you could (with permission of the School) set up a small
focus group to receive a more in-depth response
Monitor student use of, or enquiries relating to the sources in which you have
provided instruction in order to gauge changes in behaviour following your
session, over a period of time. If this indicates that some students are
experiencing difficulties take remedial action by, for example, offering follow
up sessions.

Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 73
Key performance indicator (KPI) for IL
A KPI is a meaningful measure of success which can assist in assessing progress
towards the achievement of a specific goal. INSRV Board has requested a KPI to
measure the impact of IL teaching. After consultation at a ULS Briefing, the IL Group
has agreed that the best measure of impact is one which takes into account students
perceptions of the effectiveness of the IL teaching they experience. The following
KPI has been formulated to enable teachers to quickly and conveniently elicit a
"As a result of the [information literacy] training, I feel better prepared to
research and complete my academic work"
Teachers may replace information literacy with their preferred terminology e.g. legal
research, library skills etc. The question should be addressed to each student at
the end of an IL session or the final session of a series. The Likert scale should be
adopted for students to specify their level of agreement i.e. Strongly agree, Agree,
Maybe, Disagree, Strongly disagree.
Responses may be collected via a number of means
If you are using clickers you may set-up a vote and record the results
If you are using a feedback form, include the question at a prominent point
(see Example 26, p, 160)
Display the question and response options on a PowerPoint slide. Issue post-
it notes and get the students to attach to a wall as they leave the room
Set up a quick online response survey using a free online voting tool such as
Doodle (http:www.doodle.com)
Set up a survey using Bristol Online Surveys (BOS). To obtain an account
contact the Web Services team at authorsupport@cardiff.ac.uk
Make sure you impress upon the students the importance of responding and,
whichever method you use, try to ensure they respond before leaving the room rather
than relying on them to respond at a later date. Having compiled the results for a
whole cohort, send them to Cathie Jackson who will produce the overall figure for the
Feedback from tutors
The quality of student work will be formally and informally assessed by tutors. As a
result, they will have views on how effectively the learning outcomes incorporating
elements of IL have been met. Key indicators might be how well students have
developed their research strategies, uncovered the depth and breadth of appropriate
material and avoided plagiarism.
Develop relations with tutors by:
discussing outcomes and appropriateness of lesson content beforehand
sending copies of the documentation you will be handing out
providing a report / feedback after the session(s)
Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
74 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
seeking feedback on how successfully the IL elements of assessed work
were handled by students.
Peer Review of Learning and Teaching (PRLT)
PRLT is designed to help you reflect on your teaching with support from a colleague.
In February 2006, Senate endorsed the Peer Review of Learning and Teaching
Policy Framework.
The central tenets of the scheme are reflection, development
and enhancement.
All INSRV staff with teaching responsibilities are expected to undertake PRLT at
least once a year. This will be a confidential and non-judgemental experience based
on mutual trust and respect. A supportive colleague will attend your session to help
you reflect on all aspects of your teaching. As part of the process, you too will be
expected to offer similar support to an INSRV colleague. The intention is that both
parties will learn and benefit.
To date, INSRV staff have found this a positive and worthwhile experience (see Case
Study 14, p. 75). PRLT can prove inspirational as you may get to see alternative
teaching methods and styles in action. It can also help build confidence by
confirming your strengths, and helping you improve in those areas in which your
teaching is less developed. Moreover, the process will encourage you to think
critically about your teaching as you will need to discuss your approaches in depth
and detail with your colleague.
Your initial peer discussion should help set the context of your session for your
partner. It is important to discuss what you expect to get out of the process. You will
need to
Flag the areas of concern, those aspects of your teaching upon which you
would particularly value the opinion of your partner (though ideally, your post-
session discussion should be as wide-ranging as possible)
Agree upon the form in which the data / evidence will be collected and
presented at the discussion.
For further information see the INSRV Peer Review of Learning and Teaching
Framework on the shared drive at:
WorkingGroups\Informationliteracy\Staff development
Finally, remember that reflection is an ongoing process it does not stop after your
PRLT has been completed for the current year. Time set aside for reflection is time
well spent. It is a sound professional practice from which you and your students will
benefit immeasurably.

Cardiff University. 2006. Peer Review of Learning and Teaching: a guide for participants
[online]. Available at: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/learning/themes/peerrev/index.html [Accessed:
6 August 2009].
Section Eight: Evaluating your Teaching
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 75
PRLT: a subject librarians perspective Case study 14
Im one of the lucky ones. It wasnt that long ago that I received my MLIS, and in my
final semester I even had a class on using technology in IL education. Granted,
between all of the role-playing, new tools, methodology, and of course our final exam
(designing and delivering an instruction session to our very critical peers), I suspect
that in some ways the training I received did me more harm than good. I came away
from the experience with outrageously high expectations, and now that I was faced
with creating my own curriculum and presenting it in an academic setting, I felt
completely overwhelmed. And on top of this, I had to face peer review again?!
I cant say the idea of PRLT filled me with joy. But the experience was nothing like I
had imagined. There was no criticism - only offers of assistance. Even the emails
trying to coordinate the observations were friendly reminders that I wasnt alone.
Sitting in on a colleagues class gave me additional parameters for evaluating my
own classes and shook loose ideas that had been stuck in the back of my brain.
Going through her handouts showed me how I might adapt worksheets from the
Training Materials Repository to meet my own needs. Most importantly, there was
the act of setting aside some time to reflect, and to have the opportunity to do so with
someone there to act - not as an assessor, but as a mirror.

Participating in the PRLT transformed what had been a somewhat stressful project
into a satisfying and fulfilling process. By working independently alongside my peers,
I received the support I needed to manage my expectations and create my own
learning experience. Will I be a better teacher because of this? Undoubtedly. Will I
be a calmer and more confident professional? Absolutely!
Charity Dove, Music Library

Supporting Documents and Examples
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 77
Supporting Documents and Examples
Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 82

In addition to this training, subject librarians compile a range of electronic and
print instructional resources. For a list of the subject librarians for each
School visit the INSRV Information Literacy web pages at

With funding from the Universitys Innovative Learning and Teaching fund,
INSRV has developed the Information Literacy Resource Bank
(http://ilrb.cardiff.ac.uk). This is a collection of bite-size online interactive
tasks, diagrams, cartoons and short tutorials which focus on aspects of
information literacy. They are available for staff to download and incorporate
into their own online or printed teaching materials.

Additional support is provided by insrvEducation which offers training and
certification to enable staff and students to make the best use of centrally
provided IT facilities and software applications.
.2 Registry
Registry is able to offer support and advice to academic staff regarding
information literacy and the Universitys Learning and Teaching Strategies, the
enhancement of learning and teaching (including the financial support of
innovative projects), and quality processes (including the programme approval

If you would like to discuss any aspect of Registrys work in this area, please
contact Stephen Iwan Griffiths (telephone: 74456 or email:
5. Sources of additional information

1. Information Services Information Literacy web pages.
2. The Information Literacy Resource Bank. A collection of learning
objects on information literacy developed by Information Services.
3. Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information
Literacy web site.
4. Information Literacy web site. A web site on information literacy for the
UK created by Eduserv and CILIP. It includes a list of tutorials and
resources on information literacy in higher education.
5. insrvEducation web site. For information about the programme of IT
training courses provided by Information Services.

Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 79
Supporting Document 1:
Information Literacy Guidance Note
This document was approved by the Learning and Teaching Committee in
February 2007. It replaces the original Information Literacy Guidance Note
(May 2002).
1. Introduction
.1 Defining Information Literacy
Information literacy is defined as a set of abilities requiring individuals to
"recognise when information is needed and have the ability to locate,
evaluate, and use effectively the needed information" (ACRL 2000).

In essence, information literacy is a framework for finding, evaluating and
using information. The concept:

is applicable to all disciplines, learning environments and all levels
of education;

ensures that learners become more independent, enabling them to
assume greater control over their own learning and research;

forms the basis for lifelong learning.

Information literacy is internationally recognised. National policies have been
developed in Australia and New Zealand, the USA and the UK (Bundy 2004;
ACRL 2000; SCONUL 1999).

To clarify the concept, the Association of College and Research Libraries
(ACRL 2000) identifies five standards which support the development of
learning outcomes for information literacy:

The information literate individual:

1) determines the nature and extent of the information needed.

2) accesses the needed information effectively and efficiently.

3) evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates
selected information into his or her knowledge base and value

4) uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.

Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 80
5) understands many of the economic, legal and social issues
surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses
information ethically and legally.
.2 Why is information literacy vital?
Information Literacy:

is an essential component of critical thinking and research-led learning and

enables us to meet the challenges arising from the proliferation of

The amount of new information stored electronically doubled between
1999 and 2002. This is equivalent each year to 37,000 new libraries with
collections the size of the Library of Congress or, put another way, 30 feet
of books for every person in the world (Lyman and Varian 2003).

will help us reap the benefits of the Modern Working Environment in our
everyday working life.

can play a key role in promoting an understanding of what constitutes
plagiarism and in deterring its practice by promoting integrity and
accountability in the use and presentation of information.

is a key to lifelong learning in our knowledge society.
2. Background and Policy Context
This guidance note has been developed to further the central aims of the
Universitys Strategic Plan and in particular, key aspects of the Assessment,
Learning Environment, and Learning and Teaching strategies:
The second of the four aims of the Learning Environment Strategy
is to enable users to make the most of the learning environment.
One of the key objectives (2.3 Learning) of the Learning and
Teaching Strategy is to ensure that the learning opportunities made
available to students allow them to develop appropriate research
and academic-related skills, and to become independent and
lifelong learners.

Tenet 2.5 of the Assessment Strategy states the need for students
to understand the concept of academic integrity and act

Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 81
3. Information Literacy and the Curriculum

.1 Information literacy is important in all disciplines and at all levels of study. It
is best developed within the context of the academic curriculum, rather than
as a separate add-on removed from the subject content. It is suggested that
students are more likely to recognise the relevance and importance of
information literacy if teaching is delivered at the point of need, affiliated with
their own subject, and included in assessment (Godwin 2003; Hine et al.

.2 The embedding of information literacy into curricula facilitates student-
centred teaching methods including problem-based, inquiry-based or
evidence-based learning together with opportunities for self-directed learning
and reflection (ACRL 2000).

.3 Evidence suggests that success in embedding information literacy into the
curriculum depends on the establishment of collaborative working
partnerships with all those involved in the learning and teaching process (see
for example Davies and Jackson 2005; Grafstein 2002; Hine et al. 2002;
Thornton 2007).

An example of how information literacy has been embedded into a year one
CLAWS module is provided in Appendix One. Views of academic staff on the
success of embedding information literacy into other modules are quoted in
Appendix Two.
4. Information Literacy: University Support
.1 Information Services
Information Services (INSRV) has developed a national reputation for its
support of information literacy in the University. In 2004 Cathie Jackson
(JacksonCM@cardiff.ac.uk) was appointed to take the lead in implementing
INSRVs information literacy strategy and to advise on approaches to
embedding and assessing information literacy across INSRV and the Schools.

Subject librarians collaborate with academic colleagues in the Schools to
integrate information literacy into programmes of study and tailor methods of
delivery to suit the requirements of each discipline. They provide instruction
embedded within courses such as hands-on workshops for large and small
groups, demonstrations, lectures and tutorials.

In 2005/6, subject librarians provided 76% of students on taught courses at
Cardiff University with database and web searching training; 61% received in-
depth information literacy training involving identifying and locating good
quality information, from a range of sources, for their research. For 39% of
students, information literacy training was fully integrated into a module or
course of study.
Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 83
ACRL. 2000. Information literacy competency standards for higher education
[online]. Chicago: ACRL. Available at: <URL:
[Accessed: 18 January 2007].

Bundy, A. 2004. Australia and New Zealand information literacy framework:
principles, standards and practice [online]. 2nd ed. Adelaide: Australian and
New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy. Available at: <URL:
http://www.anziil.org/resources/Info%20lit%202nd%20edition.pdf> [Accessed:
18 January 2007].

Davies, J. and Jackson, C. 2005. Information literacy in the Law curriculum:
experiences from Cardiff. Law Teacher, vol. 39 (2), pp. 150-160. Available at
<URL: http://eprints.cardiff.ac.uk/31> [Accessed: 18 January 2007].

Godwin, P. 2003. Information literacy, but at what level? In: Martin, A. and
Rader, H. eds. Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st
century. London: Facet, pp.88-98.

Grafstein, A. 2002. A discipline-based approach to information literacy.
Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 28 (4), pp. 197-2004.

Hine, A. et al. 2002. Embedding information literacy in a university subject
through collaborative partnerships. Psychology Learning and Teaching, vol. 2
(2), pp. 102-107.

Lyman, P. and Varian, H. 2003 How Much Information? 2003 [online].
University of California. Available at: <URL:
2003/printable_report.pdf> [Accessed: 13 February 2007].

SCONUL Advisory Committee on Information Literacy. 1999. Information skills
for higher education: a SCONUL position paper [online]. London: SCONUL.
Available at: <URL:
> [Accessed: 18 January 2007].

Thornton, S. 2007. Information literacy and the teaching of politics. LATISS,
vol. 3 (1), pp. 29-45.

Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 84
Appendix One Example of the integration of information
literacy into a curriculum
Legal Foundations
is a core, year one, 30 credit CLAWS module which is
planned and delivered collaboratively by the module leader, Jackie Davies,
the subject librarians for law and the CLAWS Computing Officer.

The aim of the module is to introduce students to the main features of the
legal system in England and Wales and develop the legal skills needed to
study law. The coursework element of the assessment is through an essay,
accompanied by a reflective research trail. Information literacy provides a
framework through which skills are presented in a relevant and easily
applicable way to students.

Course structure
The course consists of four units: the legal system of England and Wales;
legal analysis and reasoning skills; legal research skills; and legal
presentation skills. The latter two incorporate information literacy and are
delivered through five two-hour seminars and two lectures during the latter
half of the module. These sessions build on earlier IT skills workshops and an
introductory lecture and exercises which outline how legal information is

The information literacy seminars are planned around a hypothetical case
study on the English legal system which aims to build on the legal knowledge
gained earlier in the module. The first seminar is based on Information
Literacy Standards 1 and 2 (determining a need for information and accessing
information) and is led by a subject librarian from the Law Library. This highly
participative workshop, delivered in a computer room, builds on students
previous experiences of finding information to explore the breadth of
information needed for the case study.

In preparation for their next seminar, students read the material they have
identified. The second session is back with the law tutor and introduces
techniques for critically evaluating the information sources they found for
relevance and quality (Information Literacy Standard 3). As a first step to
Standard 4 (using information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose)
students are then asked to draft an oral report and a short piece of legislation
using an appropriate selection of the information they have identified.

In preparation for the third seminar, students are required to plan and write a
1250 word essay accompanied by a reflective research trail. The research

Full details on the Legal Foundations module are available in Davies, J. and Jackson, C.
2005. Information literacy in the Law curriculum: experiences from Cardiff. Law Teacher, vol.
39 (2), pp. 150-160. Available at: <URL: http://eprints.cardiff.ac.uk/31> [Accessed: 18 January

Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 85
trail asks students to reflect upon the reliability, objectivity, authority and
relevance of each of the sources they used in the essay. This third seminar is
based on Standard 5 (using information ethically and legally) and covers
writing skills, including correct citation and avoidance of plagiarism. At the
start of the seminar, students work as a group to identify the characteristics of
good writing. These are compared with the criteria actually employed by the
Law School. Each student then peer reviews another students essay
anonymously and comments on it using the criteria identified earlier.
Meanwhile, the tutor reviews the adequacy of the research process as
demonstrated in the research trail. Each student is given the opportunity to
re-draft their own essay in response to this feedback before submitting it,
together with the research trail, as an assessed piece of coursework.

The final two seminars consolidate and reinforce students information literacy
in a fresh context. The module culminates with a mooting exercise and the
information literacy element is emphasised in the penultimate seminar as
teams pool and discuss their research and plan their submissions.


Adopting a structure developed around the concept of information
literacy has facilitated a skills-based approach to student learning
without sacrificing substantive content and started the process whereby
students are enabled to meet the QAA benchmarks for law.

Working together, law tutor and librarian can focus on skills of
evaluation and use (Information Literacy Standards 3 and 4) to address
the challenge presented to this generation of students by information
which increasingly comes in unfiltered formats.

Peer and tutor review of essays in a workshop format has enhanced
key skills of communication and literacy.

The introduction of a research trail in the coursework assessment has
both reduced the incidence of plagiarism, whilst also making it easier to
detect, and has encouraged students to reflect upon their learning.
Supporting Document 1: Information Literacy Guidance Note (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 86
Appendix Two Views of academic staff
"Access to huge amounts of information, via various electronic means, is the
norm for today's student. Whereas the challenge previously for a student was
how to find sufficient information, today the issue has become how to prune
and select appropriate sources amongst the Wikipedia, Google and Ask
internet minefield. Integrating the expertise of the Biosciences Information
Specialists [subject librarians] into our modules has been a vital tool in
increasing the students critical understanding and effective employment of
their developing information literacy skills."

Dr Kate Phillips
Year One Co-ordinator
School of Biosciences

Information literacy workshops are an integral part of a postgraduate
professional issues and skills module. The students benefit from being taught
by an information specialist and are aware that the School regards it as
important that they develop their information literacy skills.

Pat Ryder
Professional Tutor
School of Computer Science

"With an overwhelming amount of information readily available to anyone with
access to the necessary technology, gaining an appropriate level of
information literacy is now an essential element in the process of becoming a
successful student".

Dr Stephen Thornton
Lecturer in Comparative Politics
School of European Studies

Information literacy training forms a sound basis for and serves to promote
life long learning.

Dr Rachel Waddington
Director of Postgraduate Research Students
School of Dentistry
Supporting Document 2: INSRV Information Literacy Strategy 2008-2011 (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 87

Supporting Document 2:
INSRV Information Literacy Strategy 2008-2011
Developments since 2005
There has been significant progress on
information literacy (IL) in Cardiff University during
the period of the 2005-2008 Information Services
(INSRV) Information Literacy Strategy. Over half
of all students now engage with information
literacy as part of their curriculum, facilitated by
subject librarians. The outputs of innovative
projects including the Information Literacy
Resource Bank and the Student Survival Guide
to Writing a Good Essay podcast enable staff to
enliven their teaching materials and offer
interactive and entertaining support for students.
A new and improved Handbook for Information
Literacy Teaching provides a source of guidance
and inspiration to staff and has proved so
popular that it is shared on the web and even
translated into Finnish and Swedish.
Updating the strategy
This revised Strategy refreshes our Objectives for the period 2008 to 2011 in
accordance with the Information Services Strategy 2006-2011
. It is aligned
with INSRVs mission both to deliver world-class information services that give
staff and students an edge in realising their potential and achieving their
objectives, and to achieving international recognition for the Directorate and
the University.
The strategy supports the Universitys Learning and Teaching Strategy to
, in its objective to allow all students to develop appropriate
research and academic-related skills and to properly prepare all students to
become independent and lifelong learners. It has also been informed by the
requirements of library users as identified by local and national studies
the recommendations from the 2005 review of the Universitys Library
The strategy will be achieved through the work of the subject librarians,
supported by the Information Literacy Working Group and in partnership with
other Directorates and with academic Schools, as outlined in the Universitys
Guidance Note on Information Literacy
Cardiffs leadership in IL has been
recognised through national awards. Nigel
Morgan, Biosciences Subject Librarian, won
the inaugural Information Literacy
Practitioner of the Year award in 2008. In
the same year, Cathie Jackson received the
Wallace Breem Memorial Award from
British and Irish Association of Law
Librarians for the contribution to law
librarianship made by her online IL-related

Supporting Document 2: INSRV Information Literacy Strategy 2008-2011 (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 88
A changing information landscape
During the period of this information literacy strategy, we will witness a
continued proliferation of both content and tools on the web which can aid
students, researchers and administrators as they find, manage and use
information for the task at hand. Alongside this, the explosion of information
resulting from the availability of Web 2.0 technologies such as blogging, social
networking and media sharing tools as well as higher publishing output from
Universities and many other sources will require the reader to be more
discerning than ever. The strategy for the next three years will ensure we
play our part in building an information literate University community to
address the challenges and opportunities of our modern working environment.
1. To facilitate the integration of information literacy into all taught
programmes of study in partnership with academic Schools.
2. To enhance the information literacy of all research postgraduates
through specialised discipline-related training in Schools and through
generic training in partnership with the Graduate Schools and the
Graduate Centre;
3. To spearhead the development of opportunities to enhance the
information literacy of University staff, through Schools-based initiatives
and through partnerships with other Directorates;
4. To harness new technologies to enhance information literacy in the
5. To work closely with the Registry and other Directorates to continue the
integration of information literacy into University policy as appropriate;
6. To facilitate and support subject librarians in enhancing their roles as
information literacy educators; and
7. To maintain our reputation as a centre of excellence for information
literacy on the national and international scene.
1. Information Services Directorate. Information Services strategy 2006-2011
update. Cardiff: Cardiff University; 2007 [accessed 14 July 2008]. Available
from: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/insrv/aboutus/strategy

2. Cardiff University. Learning and teaching strategy 2006/7-2010/2011.
Cardiff: Cardiff University; 2006 [accessed 14 July 2008]. Available from:

3. Information Services Directorate. Review of the University Library Service.
supporting paper 2: outcomes from the library survey. Cardiff: Cardiff
University; 2005 [accessed 14 July 2008]. Available from:
Supporting Document 2: INSRV Information Literacy Strategy 2008-2011 (p. 1)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 89

4. Education for Change Ltd. Researchers use of libraries and other
information sources: current patterns and future trends. Final report. London:
Higher Education Funding Council for England; 2002 [accessed 14 July
2008]. Available from: http://www.rslg.ac.uk/research/libuse/LUrep1.pdf

5. Research Information Network. Mind the skills gap: information-handling
training for researchers. London: Research Information Network; 2008
[accessed 14 July 2008]. Available from: http://www.rin.ac.uk/files/Mind-the-

6. Information Services Directorate. Review of the University Library Service
2004/05 2014/15. Report and recommendations of the Review Group.
Cardiff: Cardiff University; 2005. Para. 8.1.4 [accessed 14 July 2008].
Available from:

7. Cardiff University. Information literacy: guidance note. Cardiff: Cardiff
University; 2007 [accessed 14 July 2008]. Available from:

Supporting Document 3: Instructor training (p. 2)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 90
Supporting Document 3
Instructor Training
Quality information literacy training depends on instructors being competent
and confident in the planning and delivery of training sessions. The following
procedures are designed to ensure that ULS satisfies this aim.
Before delivering their first group session, a new appointee should have
attended an appropriate teaching skills course or have shown evidence to
the site librarian or section head of possessing the required skills.

Examples of evidence might include Fellow status of the Higher Education
Academy (HEA), possession of a formal teaching qualification e.g. PGCE,
or substantial relevant experience gained in a previous post.

An appropriate course in teaching skills will include instruction in the skills
and techniques included in this handbook under the sections relating to
the planning and delivery of training.

Ideally, the course should include a video-recorded presentation made by
the attendee followed by feedback principally from the course leader. The
course should encourage reflective practice and raise awareness of
special educational issues such as compliance with the Special
Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. Examples of suitable courses
include INSRVs Training the Trainers course and CILIPs Teaching Skills

Either before or immediately after attending a course, a new appointee
should gain experience by assisting in the delivery of a teaching session
under the guidance of an experienced teacher.

Such assistance might take the form of delivering a portion of a lecture or
providing support to students in a workshop session.

Once the new appointee has attended an appropriate course in teaching
skills, it is recommended that they ask a more experienced member of
ULS staff to observe one of their first training sessions where they take the
lead. The experienced member of staff should take a supportive role and
be willing to offer the new appointee constructive feedback after the

Experienced staff will be encouraged to update, enhance and develop
their teaching skills through attendance on appropriate courses run by
INSRV, e.g. the staff training programme for information literacy skills
teaching; courses run by Schools within the University, e.g. the School of
Postgraduate Medical and Dental Educations Effective Teaching Skills
course; or courses run by external organisations e.g. CILIP.
Supporting Document 3: Instructor training (p. 2)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 91

In addition, staff will be encouraged to take advantage of other skills
development opportunities, as appropriate to their duties; these might
include registration with the HEA and/or undertaking programmes of
training leading to formal qualifications in teaching, such as a postgraduate
certificate in education.

New appointees will be encouraged to seek the help and advice of more
experienced members of ULS staff on any aspect of teaching.
Experienced members of staff will be expected to offer new appointees an
invitation to observe training sessions, support, advice and guidance when

Supporting Document 4: Elevator speech (p. 5)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 93
Supporting Document 4
Elevator Speech
Information Literacy
What and Why
Information can now be found anywhere, not just in the library. The amount
grows massively year on year with the academic push to publish as well as
the growth of unmediated web pages, blogs, tweets and wikis. Without critical
skills its easy to end up relying on information thats less than the best and
this impacts on scholarship and decision-making.

In the libraries we recognise the problem and are working with others in the
university to address it. The solution is information literacy.
What success looks like
This means knowing why, when and where to find information and what to do
with it. For example, a member of a Directorate knowing that there are
resources to support their CPD. Students understanding how to synthesise
rather than plagiarise from a pile of information theyve found. Appreciating
the relative merits of wikipedia and peer-reviewed articles. Citing the chosen
sources correctly. For a researcher it could mean an awareness of the very
latest publications or knowing how to play the citation game.

Information literacy is a key factor in the change in the way we work with our
MWE tools, as we consider how to manage our information or get the best out
of Web 2.0 technologies.
What we need from you
Information literacy is about the whole learning experience. Its not a one-off
intervention. For a student its the drawing together of learning experiences
from across their curriculum to take them through their degree and into
employment. 55% of students are getting information literacy through the
curriculum but we need your help to reach everyone within a strategic drive
across the university.

Information literacy is for everyone in the university.
Consider the information literacy training needs of your staff.
INSRV has a presence in the university staff development
programme and can also meet the specific needs of your
own teams.

Its about collaboration. We need your help in championing
awareness of the need to address the problems of
information overload.
Supporting Document 5: Accessible teaching strategies (p. 59)
94 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Supporting Document 5
Accessible Teaching Strategies

The Disability Discrimination Act requires us:
Not to treat disabled people less favourably
To make reasonable adjustments so disabled people are not
substantially disadvantaged as a result of their disability
To anticipate the needs of disabled people and make adjustments in

So what does this mean for subject librarians in delivering information literacy
Aim to eliminate or reduce barriers to learning.

Before the session:
Check with the Schools disability contact; do they know of any
students with additional support needs
o Bethan Clemett (COCOM) has a list of School disability contacts
o ClemettB1@cardiff.ac.uk or x79919
If possible, make the following available in advance
o handouts
o materials and reading lists
o written instructions, e.g. for group discussions or computer lab
Keep information in electronic format. This allows alternative formats,
e.g. Braille, large print to be produced quickly.

When delivering a session:
Create a structure and stick to it
Check as you go that the students understand
Take mini-breaks or change the type of activity. This will aid student

Supporting Document 5: Accessible teaching strategies (p. 59)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 95
Practical advice:
Face the students. Helpful for lip readers
Limit movement around the room. This aids lip readers
Repeat questions from the students before responding
Articulate visual clues and read out PowerPoint slides
Keep slides clear and uncluttered
Use signposts to indicate the structure, e.g. recaps
Check the induction loop is switched on (if there is one)
Speak clearly and at a reasonable pace.

Small groups:
Arrange seating so everyone can see each other
One person to speak at a time, to aid anyone with a hearing
Repeat or rephrase students comments if necessary
Use board or flipchart to write up main points of discussion
Use breaks or changes in activity types to aid concentration
Provide written material in advance.

Other considerations:
Wheelchair access
Electrical outlets
Hearing loops
Noise levels and overcrowding
Time between lectures do students have to come from another
lecture elsewhere?
Students who need to take breaks/ stand up/ move around.

Taken from a presentation on Accessible Teaching Strategies by Katya
Hosking, University Accessibility Officer, 2005

Alison Charles
INSRV Equality and Diversity Representative
September 2008
Supporting Document 6: Guidelines for preparing written materials (pp. 21, 24, 72)
96 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Supporting Document 6
General guidelines for preparing written materials


Use line spacing between text to break up text. There should be
more spaces between paragraphs than between lines of text
Leave plenty of space between columns of text
Left-justify text and leave the right margin jagged. This makes it
easier to follow lines of text for people with dyslexia
Use bullet points and short notes instead of continuous prose. Try
limiting lines to 60 to 70 characters and keep paragraphs brief.
Short, simple text is easier to read and understand
Try to have only one topic per slide, and no more than six or seven
bullet points
Using boxes to show prominence or highlight important text can be


Provide typed handouts preferably in a sans serif font like Arial,
Helvetica or Trebuchet MS
Use at least 12pt font in publications, 12pt or 14pt on handouts and
24pt on slides. Most people find larger print easier to read, including
people with some kinds of visual impairment, dyslexia or
concentration difficulties
Avoid excessive use of CAPITALISATION and underlining. People
with dyslexia often recognise words by patterns they form.
Capitalisation removes these differences between words because
all letters are the same height. Underlining can make text run
together, again making it difficult to read
Use bold text for headings and avoid faint text at all times. Avoid
the use of italics or text at an angle. It can be difficult for people with
visual impairments and dyslexia to read
If writing in pen, use a medium tip pen or a felt pen. Black pen is
easier to read, as it provides a good contrast and is usually darker
than a blue pen
Avoid using red and green. People who are colour-blind will find
these impossible to read.

Supporting Document 6: Guidelines for preparing written materials (p. 21, 24, 72)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 97

Ensure there is good contrast between text colour and background
colour, but be aware that black on white can cause glare. Provide
publications and handouts on pastel-coloured paper, if possible
Print text on a plain background. Printing text on a patterned
background can obscure the text and make it difficult to read
Ensure any paper used is heavy enough to minimise shadow from
the opposite side. Good quality 80 or 90 gm paper is effective
Avoid using glossy paper. Material printed on matt paper is easier
to read and creates less eye strain.

Text compiled by the Cardiff University Accessible Working Group in 2005.

Alison Charles
INSRV Equality and Diversity Representative
September 2008

Example 1: The Cephalonian Method (p. 14)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 99

the Library
Nigel Morgan and Linda Davies
Information Services
Welcome to
Getting started with
medical information

Current Journals
Reference Collection
Bones / teeth
What kind of
stuff do you
have in the

Rhoades, R. and Bell, D .
Medical physiology: principles
for clinical medicine.
Wolters Kluwer 2008.
OK, how do I actually
find the books on my
reading list?

IT room in Biomedical Library
IT rooms in Science Library
Microsoft applications
Blackboard & Email
Networked printing payment
Laser printing (b&w)
6p per A4 sheet
Colour printing
20p per sheet
My Mum has e-mailed me a
photo of Miguel, my pet
iguana. Where can I print him

Help! Ive missed my 9am
lecture - where can I copy
my friends notes?
Self service photocopying
6p per A4 sheet
8p per A3 sheet
20p per A4 sheet (colour)
Copyright Law

What really irritates the library

Example 2: Lesson plan (p. 20)
100 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Year 2 Medicine

Using Ovid healthcare databases to retrieve information - introductory

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this session you will be able to:

describe accurately the range of healthcare databases on the OvidSP
service and detail the subject strengths of each
formulate a logical and effective search strategy
demonstrate the importance and significance of exploding MeSH
refine searches efficiently by restricting to focus and choosing
relevant subheadings
maximise relevance by combining/limiting searches in a variety of
ways, eg by publication year, language, age group
select appropriate records and print, download or email them
establish auto-alerts on OvidSP, so as to maintain current awareness
in your topic area
link directly to Cardiff University e-journals from OvidSP.

For those students wishing to familiarise themselves with Ovid search
facilities ahead of this session there is an excellent OvidSP tutorial at:

You will be given a description of the range of healthcare databases and a
brief demonstration of the key features of the OvidSP service. You will then be
given a workbook to use during the rest of the session and will complete a
series of exercises which will help you use the databases effectively. The
exercises will not be assessed. The workbook can be kept and used as a
reference tool when you use OvidSP in future.

For further information and assistance please ask at the Duthie Library
Service Desk.

Rowland Somers,
Duthie Library,
June 2009

RLS 04/06/2009
Example 3: Instructor notes (pp. 20, 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 101
Teacher: Rebecca Mogg
Level and Subject
Full-time PGCE
Class size
27 September
Glamorgan Building
(Lecture Theatre)
50 minutes
Lesson Aims
To raise students awareness of when citing and referencing are necessary.
To introduce methods of citing and referencing using the Harvard style.
Objectives / Learning outcomes
By the end of the lesson students will be able to:
1. Correctly identify, from a selection of scenarios, when a reference would or would not be
2. Accurately apply the Harvard style of citing in the text to a given piece of work.
3. Accurately apply the Harvard style of writing references to at least three different types of
source, referring to the guide provided if required.

ACRL Standard 5

LLUK Standards: AS3, BS1, BS2, BS3, BS5, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, D1, D3

Minimum Core: English language - particularly punctuation and comprehension

Methods of checking learning
Observation and responses to activities
Responses to questioning
Time Lesson phase Teaching approach /

5 minutes Introduction

What is

Why is it important
to reference?

Introduce learning

Whole group questioning

Teacher presentation

Data projector and

PowerPoint presentation

Citing and referencing in
the Harvard style guide

10 minutes Development 1

When is it
necessary to
provide a

Outcome 1

When to cite activity to be
completed in pairs

Take answers from whole group
at plenary.
Student questioning

Teacher summarises key points
using When to cite flowchart
PowerPoint presentation

Citing References

15 minutes Development 2

PowerPoint presentation

Citing References
Example 3: Instructor notes (pp. 20, 22)

102 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Citing in the text
and quoting in the
Harvard style.

Outcome 2
Teacher presentation
Questioning take questions
from students relating to

Paired activity Spot the
Citation Mistakes. Take
answers for each mistake from
whole group at plenary. Display
correct citation on PowerPoint

Student questioning

15 minutes Development 3

Writing the
References List

Outcome 3

Teacher presentation

Paired activity Compile the
references. Students may
refer to Citing and Referencing
in the Harvard style guide to
complete the exercise.

Teacher displays answers on
PowerPoint slides and recaps
key learning points. Students
self-mark exercise.

Student questioning
Citing and Referencing in
the Harvard style guide

Citing References

PowerPoint presentation
5 minutes Summary and

Re-visit learning
Teacher presentation and
Student questioning

PowerPoint presentation

i Association of College and Research Libraries. 2000. Information literacy competency
standards for higher education [Online]. ACRL. Available at:
[Accessed: September 2007].

ii LLUK. 2007. New overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the
lifelong learning sector [Online]. Available at:
07.pdf [Accessed: September 2007].

iii LLUK. 2007. Addressing language, literacy and numeracy needs in education and training:
defining the minimum core of teachers knowledge, understanding and personal skill: a guide
for initial teacher education programmes [Online]. Available at:
[Accessed: September 2007].
Example 4: PowerPoint-generated handout (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 103
Finding Information For
Your Assignments
Susan Smith
October 2008

OThe MWE gives you access to
Online databases
Voyager library catalogue
Blackboard is the Universitys virtual learning
Very important to check for information about
modules, assignments etc

Accessing the MWE
Log in at www.mwe.cf.ac.uk
Much of the librarys information is online,
and can be accessed through the MWE
Will allow you to access email and
information off-campus

Workshop Content
Step 1: Finding Items on a Reading List
Step 2: Searching Journal Databases
Step 3: Searching for Market Reports
Step 4: Citing your References

Step 1: Finding Items on a
Reading List
Various types of information included on
your reading list including books, chapters
from books, journal articles etc

Example Reading List: Identifying
Types of Material
1) C.W.L Hill International Business: Competing in the
Global Marketplace Irwin McGraw Hill Boston 2007
2) J H Dunning Assessing the costs and benefits of
Foreign Direct investment: some theoretical
considerations in P Artisien-Maksimenko and M Rojek
Multinationals in Eastern Europe McMillan, London
2000, Chapter 4
3) M D Intriligator Globalization of the world Economy
Potential Benefits and costs and a net assessment
Journal of Policy Modeling 26, 4, pp 485 -498 2004

Example 4: PowerPoint-generated handout (p. 22)

104 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Types of Material
Item 1 is
a book
Item 2 is
a chapter in a book
Item 3 is
a journal article

Voyager Library Catalogue
On the Voyager library catalogue you can:
Search for books, reports and journals
Reserve books
Renew books (using My Account function)
this will help you avoid fines
See what books you have on loan

Searching Databases: Key
Concepts and Keywords
Essay questions can usually be split into
keywords and ideas
Best to search databases with keywords
you need to break essay questions down

Example Essay Question:
"Discuss, with reference to at least one
content and one process theory of
motivation, the ways in which the
manager of a call centre might try to
improve levels of performance and
levels of employee satisfaction.".

Key Concepts and Keywords
Motivational theory/theories
Content theory/process theory + motivation
Specific theories, e.g. Maslows hierarchy of needs
Motivation, commitment
Performance, productivity, commitment
Employee satisfaction, job satisfaction,
Call centres/centers, contact centres/centers
(British and American spellings)

Using Keywords
We will now use the keywords to search
for journal articles and marketing reports

Example 4: PowerPoint-generated handout (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 105
Step 2 + 3 Journal Databases
and Market Reports
Many databases available which provide
articles, market reports, statistics,
company financial data, economics data,
equities data and much, much more
Keep the Database list handout for
reference you will need this information

Step 4:Citing and Referencing
You must cite and reference every
idea/concept you use that is not
completely your own work
Tutorials and guides available on library
resources page on MWE
Very important to cite and reference
properly beware of plagiarism

When should you cite?

Choosing correct reference
Book: correct answer is B
Hill, C.W.L. 2005. International business:
competing in the global ,marketplace. Boston:
Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Journal: correct answer is C
Intriligator, M.D. 2004. Globalization of the world
economy: potential benefits and costs and a net
assessment. Journal of Policy Modeling. 26(4),
pp. 485 -498.

Citing in your text
According to the Environment Agency
(2005), in 20 years time there will be 33
percent more vehicles on our roads. There
is conclusive evidence that road transport
has a major impact on the environment.
Traffic emits significant amounts of other
air polluting gases such as carbon
monoxide (Schwela and Zali, 1999).

Cairns (2003, p. 75) argues that although
fuel and vehicle developments have made
a huge difference to local air quality,
measures to reduce traffic will also be
required if the Government is to achieve
its targets on air quality. One such
measure is congestion charging which,
according to a recent article by Beevers
and Carslaw (2005), has been successful
in reducing vehicle emissions in London.

Example 5: Information sheet (p. 22)

106 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
BI2001 Literature Retrieval & Understanding
Use this as a quick guide to the resources which you could be using when
researching your presentation topic. You can access all resources via the
MWE at http://mwe.cardiff.ac.uk
Click on the Information Resources tab at the top of the screen then use
the options in the Library Resources panel
Remember that you need to record details of relevant results which
you intend to use
Reference Sources
Have you tried:
1. Printed encyclopedias / reference works
2. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) (available online via MWE)


Now try looking for Printed text books
Check these out by doing a Keyword search on Voyager!

Finding journal articles
To find appropriate articles, check the Databases. You will already be
familiar with most of these. If you need a reminder, guide sheets to
some of these resources are available in the room.
1. Scopus
2. Web of Science (available via Web of Knowledge)
3. BIOSIS Previews (available via Web of Knowledge)
4. PubMed (useful if you have a biomedical topic)

Internet Sources
Use the Advanced Search option on Google, or Yahoo or another
search engine to restrict your search to the UK academic domain
(.ac.uk) or the U.S. academic domain (.edu)

Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 107
BI2001. Overview of the Information
Research Process

Finding high quality information will help you to produce a good
presentation for BI2001. However, this will also prove invaluable for the
preparation of coursework in other year 2 & 3 modules. Efficient information
handling skills will enable you to produce better coursework, give you more
confidence when researching projects and impress your tutor!
Finding information can be daunting; you must be aware of the key
information resources available to you and learn how to use them
effectively. The aim is for you to spend more time working on your
coursework and less time searching up blind alleys!

Using internet search engines is perfect for hobbies and interests. However,
Google is not the best place to find information to support academic work.
General search engines do not exert any quality control over the results
they give you. Remember: anyone can publish anything on the web!
There is a lot of sub-standard material out there as you have no doubt
Your tutors expect you to use high quality information sources i.e. material
written by authoritative named individuals or responsible organisations. We
are not ruling out the use of Google we are simply saying that there may
be better places for you to look.
You should carry out your search in a logical sequence. To get the best
results, follow the step by step instructions below.

Why all the bother? Cant I
just use Google?
Why is it so important to use
good information resources?
Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)

108 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Stage 1: Textbooks and Reference Works

Q: Why use reference sources?
A: To give you a basic overview and grasp of a topic and to familiarise
yourself with its structure and terminology. Even in the electronic age, print
resources such as the high quality textbooks which you will find in the libraries
provide ideal background material for your coursework.

You may have been recommended certain textbooks by your lecturers,
and these should be your starting point. Use the keyword search on
Voyager, the library catalogue, to find additional titles. All textbooks and
reference books have detailed contents pages and indexes. Use these to
find the information that you need.
Information in textbooks and reference books will provide an overview,
ensuring that you understand the structure and terminology of your topic
before you tackle the databases to search for journal literature. You may
also want to consult a dictionary for basic definitions.
Check Voyager and the reference section in the Library to find
encyclopaedias and other reference works. Some important reference
sources are available electronically on campus e.g. Encyclopedia of Life
You may find that textbooks and reference books provide sufficient detail
for some pieces of work, but if youre looking for further or more recent
information and certainly for projects and dissertations youll need to use
the databases to trace journal articles.

Stage 2: Journal articles

Q: Why should I use journal articles?
A: Journals are primary sources of information. Original research will be
published in journals long before the content appears in book form. Also,
review articles will provide you with an overview / summary of research
within a particular topic.

Trace appropriate journal articles by using bibliographic databases.
These index and summarise the millions of journal articles published
Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 109
each year. A successful database search will produce a list of journal
articles relevant to your subject.
In many cases there will be a direct link to the full text but some records
will simply give you an abstract (summary) and details of which journal,
year and volume you need to check.
Databases are primarily directional tools. They will tell you what has
been published but wont always provide you with the end product!
You should be prepared to search for information in more than one
database, as they each have a different emphasis:
Web of Science is more general in its coverage, and the citation
searching facility enables you to search forward in time from one
key article to find more recent ones related to it.
BIOSIS Previews is the key database for journal articles in the life
sciences. It also includes coverage of book chapters and
conferences and has good European coverage
Scopus is another excellent general coverage database
PubMed is a useful database for the biomedical sciences
Databases frequently have different indexing policies and search
software. Refer to the specific database guides included further on in
this booklet.
Useful Links
The above databases may be accessed on or off campus via Information
Resources tab on the MWE at http://mwe.cf.ac.uk

Planning your database search strategy
Decide which keywords best describe your subject. Use reference works to
check for alternative terms and to check the relationship between different

Be prepared to adapt the terms as your search progresses e.g. if youre
searching for MRSA you may want to include the term methicillin
resistance and possibly the name of the bacteria: staphylococcus
When you find a reference that is particularly relevant, check the
record to see which terms the database has used to index it and then
Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)

110 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
consider using these in a further search. You should retrieve further
relevant references in this way.

Truncation and Wildcard Symbols
Use a truncation symbol at the end of a word to search for all
variations of the word, e.g. child* would retrieve child or children and
arter* would retrieve arterial arteries or artery.
Use a wild card symbol within a word to search for different spellings
of the same word, e.g. coloni?ation would retrieve references
containing colonisation or colonization and col?r would retrieve
references containing colour or color.
Truncation symbols vary from one database to the next. You should
always check the help screen on each database for precise details.
Adapting your search
You may find that your search terms retrieve too few or too many
results. There are several techniques you can use to revise your search.
Each database will have different options and terminology for these.
Here are some general hints:

Found too many references? Found too few references?
Use more specific subject terms Use broader subject terms
Search in narrow fields (eg. title) Search in broad fields (keyword, abstract)
Use AND, NOT, to combine terms Use OR to combine alternative terms
Apply limits (publication date, age) Use truncation (*, $) and wildcard symbols
Select review articles Check results for more alternative terms
Combining terms with AND, OR, NOT
A search for artery AND vein would only retrieve references
containing both terms.
Searching for artery OR vein would find all references containing
either artery or vein, or both. This set of references would be much
larger than the first.
Searching for artery NOT vein would eliminate all references
containing vein. This option must be used with care, as you may also
eliminate useful references to artery.

Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 111
Stage 3: Finding the full-text
When a database offers you a link to the full text of a journal, this is the
most convenient method of access you will be able to view and print
the article straight from your desktop. If you are given a choice, opt to
view the article in PDF (Portable Document Format). This provides an
electronic photocopy of the printed article and is the best format
from which to print as all diagrams / tabular material are incorporated
into the text and will not need to be printed separately.
Sometimes you will need to find an article for which no full text link is
provided by the database. In these cases, check Voyager at
http://library.cf.ac.uk/ to see if the journal in which the article is
published is in stock.

When using Voyager the golden rule is:
Dont type in the title of the article. Select the Journal Title begins with
option, then type in the title of the journal in which the article is
published. If we have it, Voyager will give you details of the location so
that you can hunt down a printed copy or will sometimes give a direct
link to the online version of a journal.
What if the journals arent in Cardiff?
We can obtain books and journal articles that are not in stock. You will
need to fill-in an Inter Library Loan form for each item and this will have
to be authorised by your tutor / project supervisor. Each Inter Library
Loan costs 6.30 or more so the School will want to be sure that you
genuinely need the item.

Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)

112 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Stage 4: Internet Sources

Q: Why use the Web at this point? Couldnt I have started off using
A: The internet is a supplementary information source and should not be
used as a substitute for quality textbooks and journal articles. There is no
quality control exerted by search engines and they therefore need to be used
with extreme care. Consider using a subject gateway instead.

Using Google to search the web for information about sport, films or music
or to book a holiday is fine. But the information you use in your academic
work must be from authoritative, reliable sources.
Unfortunately, the majority of information on the web has no quality
control, it may be inaccurate and in some cases completely wrong.
Never use information from a web page if there is insufficient
information to cite it correctly.

Stage 5: Citing References

Q: Why do I need to cite / reference my sources?
A: Full acknowledgement needs to be given to all information sources you
have used. If you fail to do this it could amount to plagiarism!

When you have completed your work, you must cite all of the
publications you have referred to. This is an essential part of your work, it
shows that you have researched your subject and avoids plagiarism.
You must acknowledge the source of ALL ideas and information used
and, where necessary, link them to the specific parts of your work.

Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 113
Q: What is the difference between a citation and a reference?
A: A citation is a note within the text of your work identifying a source which
you have used in the course of your research. An example of a citation
appears in bold below:
It has been concluded that antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using
antibiotics sparingly, with diverse (rather than cycled) use of antibiotics
(Livermore 2005)
A reference for your citation should appear at the end of your work to identify
the title and full publication details of the cited item:
Livermore, D. M. 2005. Minimising antibiotic resistance. Lancet
Infectious Diseases 5 (7) pp. 450459.
The flowchart below will help you decide whether you need to cite a
particular source of information in cases where you may have some

Example 6: Information sheet (p. 22)

114 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Information Research Strategy: a summary

Start your research
By checking textbooks and reference books:
to ensure that you understand the structure of your
to find alternative and additional terms
This should make it easier for you to modify your search,
if it becomes necessary to do so.

Design your search strategy:
Select database(s) eg. Web of Science
Enter your terms and consider the alternatives
Consider ways of broadening or narrowing your search
Use limits: language / date / review article

Check your results:
These will mainly be references, NOT full text articles
Read the abstracts
Mark the useful references for saving / email
Keep a list of the references on file
Include your search strategy
Use web resources with care

Finding the references:
Check VOYAGER, the Cardiff University catalogue
Check for electronic full text journals
If not available use Inter Library Loans

Citing the references:
You must list all the publications you have referred to
Harvard is the format normally preferred but check
with your tutor!
Also cite any web pages used
Example 7: Worksheet (p. 23)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 115
BSc City and Regional Planning

Citing references worksheet

To cite or not to cite?

Here are some actions that you might do when writing a piece of work. Tick
Yes or No depending on whether or not you would need to provide a

Reference required? Action
Yes No
Copy text from another source

Include a table of data or a diagram from
another source

Mention a fact which is commonly known

Discuss the ideas or research of another person
in your own words

Write about your own opinions on a topic

Paraphrase the ideas from two separate
sources linking them together using your own

Example 7: Worksheet (p. 23)

116 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Spot the citation mistakes!

References should be given for all direct or indirect quotations, and in
acknowledgment of someones opinions, or of a source of factual information
which is not general knowledge (N. Walliman). Li and Crane point out that
the main objective of citing references is to give sufficient information to allow
sources to be located. General overviews of the process of citing references
are given by both Bosworth (1992) and Craig.

Bosworth, D.P. 1992. Citing your references: a guide for authors of journal
articles and students writing theses or dissertations. Thirsk, N. Yorks:
Underhill Press.

Craig, P. 2003. How to cite. Documentation Studies 10(1), pp.114-122.

Li, X. and Crane, N.B. 1996. Electronic styles: a handbook for citing
information. 2
ed. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today.

Walliman, N. 2001. Your research project: a step-by-step guide for the first-
time researcher. London: SAGE

Example 7: Worksheet (p. 23)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 117

Compile the references
Write the following elements of these references, in the correct order,
according to the Harvard style

Question 1 - Book

Question 2 Web site

London: Routledge.
Reeves, D.
Planning for diversity: policy and planning in a world of difference.

How might democracy be deepened in the 21

Century? [Online].
Gaventa, J. 2006.
[Accessed: 9
November 2006].
Available at: http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp264.pdf

Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.
Example 7: Worksheet (p. 23)

118 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Question 3 Journal article

Question 4 Chapter from an edited book

Question 5 Government/Organization report

71(3), pp. 245-260. Journal of Environmental Management
Feasibility versus sustainability in urban water management.
Starkl, M. and Brunner, N. 2004.

Needham, B. 1997.
London: UCL Press, pp. 269-282.
Making strategic spatial plans: innovation in
In: Healey, P. et al. eds.

Department for Environment, Food
and Rural Affairs.
The strategy for sustainable farming and food: facing the future.

London: Defra.

Planning strategies and planning methods.
Example 8: Worksheet (p. 23)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 119
BA Journalism, Film & Media Year 1 MC1113:
Library Workshop 3
Beyond Google!

1. Choose a title and plan keywords

Select one of the following essay titles:

1. What are the recent debates around advertising to children? Is a ban on
advertising desirable or workable?
2. Is the internet an information superhighway or a high tech shopping mall?
3. To what degree does advertising drive other media industries?
4. What do you understand by the term media literacy?
5. How has the issue of immigration been reported in the British media since
2000? Examine the use of statistics in the reportage.

Spend five minutes discussing and planning some keywords on your chosen
essay topic using the list or mind map technique.

. .. .Keywords:
Example 8: Worksheet (p. 23)

120 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

2. Identify and search information resources
Select at least one information resource from the Information Resources for
Journalism web pages or the list of Journalism resources on MetaLib. Search
for information on the topic using your chosen keywords.

3. Select information
Note down the information you find which you think would be useful for the
essay. Answer the following questions about each piece:

1. Do you need to find the full text of the document? If so, how would you
do this?
2. Why do you think it is suitable? Justify your answers in terms of
relevance, reliability, currency and authority.

Tip: From the Cardiff University homepage, select Online Learning
Resources and then either MetaLib or Find resources for your subject.
. .. .Resource(s) and search terms used
Example 9: Worksheet (pp. 23, 34)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 121
Engineering Year 2
Searching databases group feedback
1. Which database were you searching?

2. Note down a couple of the searches you tried and how many results you

No. of

No. of

3. Note down details of a search you tried which produced particularly useful
and relevant results. Also note how many results it found.

No. of

4. Note down details (author, article title, source, date) of two useful / relevant
articles you have found and whether or not the full text is available.

Full text
Yes / No

Full text
Yes / No
Example 9: Worksheet (pp. 23, 34)

122 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
5. If you get too many results, how might you revise your search to find fewer
results so you do not need to look through hundreds of references?
Can you restrict your search so it just finds journal articles?

Yes / No
Can you restrict your results to just articles written in English?

Yes / No
Can you search for just papers published in the last 5 years?

Yes / No

Also, how can you narrow your search down by changing the way you use the
keywords? Think about the type of keywords you might use and how you
might combine them, also which fields you might search in. Note down your
ideas below:

6. If you get too few results, how might you revise your search to find more
results to help you in your research? Think about the type of keywords you
might use and how you might combine them, also which fields you might
search in. Note down your ideas below:

7. How easy did you find it to use this database? What were your favourite
features? What did you like least? Would you use it again?

Example 10: Worksheet (pp. 23, 26)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 123
IP3: Year 1 Medicine.

Wikipedia: 21
century oracle or 21
century minefield?

Q: What exactly is Wikipedia?
A: Wikipedia is a free, open access encyclopedia which includes over 2
million articles. The content is provided by interested volunteers who are not
credited in the articles. There is no authorial ownership since content is freely
editable and may therefore be the work of many contributors. It has become a
worldwide phenomenon and is probably the most accessed and controversial
reference source on the web.
Wikipedia and coursework
Wikipedia is not a legitimate source of reference for academic work. If you
are determined to consult Wikipedia, its use should be restricted to the initial
stages of your research. Indeed, it can sometimes be useful for getting an
overview of a large, sprawling subject or for providing a basic introduction to a
complex topic.
When you have read your chosen entry, close it down and move on to a
more scholarly source. You will take away a basic understanding but this
must be verified and supplemented by more authoritative sources. Here are
some important facts of which you should be aware:
Six good reasons why you should be wary of Wikipedia!

1. Anyone can contribute / edit an article. There is some overarching
editorial control but the measures in place are far from infallible.
2. There is no guarantee that the information is accurate and can be
relied upon
3. There is no guarantee that the information has been provided by
an authority in the subject area. In most cases it is not!
Example 10: Worksheet (pp. 23, 26)

124 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
4. Since the information is not subject to peer-review there is a greater
danger of bias
5. Sources of reference are not always made explicit or are
incompletely identified
6. Your tutor will justifiably be unimpressed if you reference a
Wikipedia article in a piece of academic work. It is not an academic
The aim of this exercise is to compare and contrast an article from Wikipedia
with one from Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). You will need to browse
the articles identified below then answer the questions which follow.

Examine the Wikipedia article on brain death:

Now access the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.
This is accessible via the MWE. Click on the Information Resources
tab. Then in the Library Resources portlet select Search a specific
database. You will find a link to Encyclopedia of Life Sciences in the
alphabetical listing.

Locate and browse Brain Death and the Vegetative State by Bryan

Example 10: Worksheet (pp. 23, 26)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 125

1. How does the Wikipedia article compare to the ELS article in terms of the
authority of its authors? (Click the History tab at the top of the Wikipedia
article to get some idea on who has contributed to the content)

2. Both articles are designed to be concise introductions to the topic.
However, which in your opinion achieves this more effectively and why?

3. Compare the references at the end of each article. Is the referencing
adequate? Can you pinpoint an example of poor referencing?

Example 10: Worksheet (pp. 23, 26)

126 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
4. Can you suggest three reasons why the ELS article may be considered
superior to the Wikipedia article?

2008 Alex. Used with permission.
Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 127
Information Services
Review of Architectural Information
Sources for essay writing and design projects
A worksheet for Year 2 Architecture students, 3 - 5 December 2008.

1. Planning your search

Use this session to begin researching your Urban Conditions project.

. Note as many alternative keywords as you can for the area you are
researching, Rhondda Valley.

Watch the presentation.

Rhondda Valley
Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)

128 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

2. Searching Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals

Bibliographic databases index and summarise the millions of journal articles
published each year. A successful database search will produce a list of
references to journal articles relevant to your subject. Some databases
offer access to the full text of some of the articles they index, but in most
cases you will simply be given details of which journal, year and volume the
article is available from.

At the MWE Portal home page http://mwe.cf.ac.uk, enter your Cardiff
University username and password and click on Log in. Select the
Information Resources tab in the blue bar near the top of the screen.
Click on Find resources for your subject in the Library Resources
portlet. Select Information Resources for Architecture.

Select Databases - Architecture - Avery Index to Architectural

Search for some references about the Rhondda Valley, using some of the
alternative keywords from exercise 1.

Remember to
combine search terms using AND or OR e.g.
acoustics AND structure
acoustics AND (structure OR building)
use truncation to find singular and plural versions, or alternative
endings to your search terms e.g. acoustic*

. Note the details of one relevant article using the MHRA style e.g. Jeremy
Matthews, More than Just the British Library, Architects Journal 206.10
(18 September 1997), 48-55.

Mark a few relevant records by clicking in the check boxes next to the

Now email them to yourself. Click on Save, Print, Email. Select Use x
Marked Records. Change Short format to Full format from the drop down
list. Enter your email address in the relevant box. Click on E-mail.

Finally, check to see if the article you noted above is available in the Library
by returning to the Internet Explorer window displaying the MWE Portal
Information Resources tab. In the Library Resources portlet, click on
Use the Voyager library catalogue.

Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 129
. Note the location, whether printed or electronic, of the journal title.

Keep Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals open in the background.
Youll be using it again later.

3. Searching Architectural Publications Index (APId)

No single database provides full coverage of the literature in architecture.
To guarantee a complete search, always search more than one database.

Return to the Internet Explorer window displaying the MWE Portal
Information Resources tab. In the Library Resources portlet, click on
Find resources for your subject. Select Information Resources for

Select Databases - Architecture.

Select either RIBA British Architectural Library Catalogue or
Architectural Publications Index (APId) Networked CD-ROM. These
two sources search exactly the same data, but in different formats.

Search for articles on the social housing scheme in Penrhys. This was the
largest social housing project in Wales when built in 1968.

. Who were the architects?


. Which of the following are included in the articles you found?

Plans Sections Elevations Models
Photos Illustrations Details Maps

Leave Architectural Publications Index or RIBA British Architectural Library

Watch the presentation.

Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)

130 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
4. Searching other databases

Always use the appropriate database for your subject.

. Using your copy of the handout Architectural Information Sources,
identify which source, or sources, are best suited to finding the following

Subject: Welsh monastic architecture

Database: _________________________________________________

Subject: Using GIS (Geographic Information System) to model
accessibility for wheelchair users in the urban environment

Database: _________________________________________________

Subject: Comparative studies of local councils town centre regeneration

Database: _________________________________________________

Subject: Reports in the Western Mail and South Wales Echo on the site
of the old Maerdy hospital

Database: _________________________________________________

Subject: The number of people driving, cycling and walking to work in

Database: _________________________________________________

Watch the presentation.

Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 131
5. Current awareness services

Current awareness services are designed to keep you up to date with what
is being published in your area of study. Some of these services are
integrated into databases and so offer automated searching on a specified
subject, forwarded to you as an email or set up as an RSS feed* within the
MWE. Other current awareness services provide contents pages of the
latest issue of your favourite journals. These services can prove vital in
maintaining an awareness of developments in the study of architecture.

Return to the Internet Explorer window displaying Avery Index to
Architectural Periodicals.

Click on Search History in the top right corner. Select Save OR Alert
underneath one of the searches you did in exercise 2.

Click on New Users Register Here and create a personal account.

When presented with the Save Your Search Alert page, change the
Delivery Method option to RSS and click on Save.

Click on the orange RSS button. This button is used throughout the
Internet to indicate an RSS feed is available.

Copy the URL, or web address, from the address box in Internet Explorer.

Return to the Internet Explorer window displaying the MWE Portal
Information Resources tab. Click on the small triangle on the right of the
My RSS portlet and select Personalise.

Paste the URL from your RSS feed into the empty URL box underneath
URL list of additional RSS feeds to display: and click on +Add followed
by Save.

Now whenever you look at the MWE Portal Information Resources tab
any new results matching your Avery search will be displayed underneath
the CSA Illumina Alert heading.

You may prefer to receive new Avery content on subjects that interest you
via email, in which case select Email as your Delivery Method.

Return to the Internet Explorer window displaying Avery Index to
Architectural Periodicals and leave Avery by clicking on Logout.

Look out for the orange RSS button on a website to identify those with

* RSS feeds provide regular updates of newly added content to web sites including online journals, news
sites and blogs.
Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)

132 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Go to the Architects Journal website at www.architectsjournal.co.uk and
scroll down to the orange RSS button on the left hand side. Click on the
RSS link.

Select to receive the News RSS feed and copy the w into the URL box in
your My RSS portlet.

Some other databases with their own current awareness services are:

ICONDA Run a search. Click on SDI. Save the search and
select to have search results emailed to you each
time the database is updated.

Wilson Art Abstracts Run a search. Click on SDI. Save the search and
select to have search results emailed to you each
time the database is updated.

Web of Science Run a search. Look at your Search History, click
on Save History / Create Alert and follow the on-
screen instruction to register for an account. Give
your search a name and click on Save. Click on the
orange XML button and copy the URL from the
address bar into the RSS URL box in the My RSS

IDOX Select the Topic Updates option to set up a
personalised email alerting service.

Ei Compendex Run a search. Go to Search History and check the
E-mail Alert checkbox to receive a weekly email.

Zetoc To receive RSS feeds with architecture journals
table of contents, go to http://zetoc.mimas.ac.uk.
Click on Zetoc RSS. Search for a journal title e.g.
Detail and click on the corresponding orange RSS
button for the URL.

Watch the presentation.

Example 11: Workbook (pp. 23, 34)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 133
6. The Internet

You should now feel confident using databases to review the available
literature before beginning any project or essay. But there may be times
when you want to use the Internet as a supplementary information source.
Always ensure that you find good quality information by using authoritative,
reliable sources.

Go to www.vts.intute.ac.uk and select Architecture, then Judge - Quiz.

Complete the quiz. This will test whether you know how to identify quality,
authoritative and reliable sources of information on the Internet.

. What three questions should you always ask yourself when judging which
Internet sites to trust?


In your own time, take a look at the remainder of this interactive guide to
finding quality online resources in architecture, focusing on the Tour
section. You may also want to visit the Image Searching tutorial available
via www.vts.intute.ac.uk.

Never use information from a web page if there is insufficient information to
cite it correctly.

For further information or assistance contact the Architecture Library
Tel: 029 2087 5974
Email: ArchLiby@cardiff.ac.uk

November 2008 / SN
Example 12: Workbook (p. 23)

134 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Information Services
Using the Voyager Catalogue
Bachelor of Nursing (BN)
What is Voyager?
Voyager is Cardiff Universitys online library catalogue. Voyager gives
information about books, journal titles, conference proceedings and other
materials held in the 18 Cardiff University Libraries and other Post-graduate
Hospital Libraries throughout Wales.

The main voyager screen can be seen below. You can view the catalogue in
English and Welsh and also in full view and health view. Full view will search
all Library holdings whereas health view will restrict your search to health
related titles only. To search health view, click on the button shown below.

Accessing Voyager

Load Internet Explorer and log in to the MWE Portal at http://mwe.cf.ac.uk.
Click on the Information Resources tab. Then Use the Voyager library
Example 12: Workbook (p. 23)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 135
Finding references using Voyager
In this exercise you are going to use the Voyager library catalogue to:

1. Search for a named book off a reading list
2. Search for a topic area
3. Search for print and electronic journals

1. Searching for a named book off a reading list

First you will need to click on Search the Catalogue. The best way to find a
named book is to run a Keyword Anywhere search and type the first authors
surname and a distinctive word or two from the title into the search for box.
You will need to use the Search In box on the right-hand side of the screen to
select the type of search (i.e. keyword anywhere).

To find the book:
Interpersonal relationships: professional communication skills for nurses,
by E C Arnold and K U Boggs (2007)
You could type arnold interpersonal into the search box and then click

The screen will now display one or more books which match your
search. If you are given a list you will now need to click on the title of the
book to take you into the book record. Click on the title of the 2007 edition.

This screen will give you the publication details of the book, and if you
scroll down the page, a list of libraries which hold the book.

. .. . Where was the book published?

. .. . What is the name of the publisher?

. .. . Which two Cardiff University libraries hold this item?

. .. . How many copies are there in the Nursing and Healthcare Studies

Example 12: Workbook (p. 23)

136 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
. .. . How many copies are available for loan in the Nursing and Healthcare
Studies Library?

. .. . Where is the book located on the shelves?

Please Note: Each book in the library has a classmark number on its spine to
make it easier for you to locate on the shelves.

2. Searching for a topic area

You can also search Voyager for topic areas. Please note that when
searching for topics the database will be searching the title of the book and
subjects used to describe the book not the full contents. You will therefore
need to search for broad topic areas and not specific clinical queries. For
example, you can search voyager for books on the topic of health promotion
but not for information on the efficacy of a school-based cardiac health
promotion intervention program for African-American adolescents.

Click New Search. Using the Keyword Anywhere search again:

. .. . How many items does Voyager retrieve when you do a keyword anywhere
search for the following:

Wound Healing: .
Health Promotion:

3. Searching for print and electronic journals using Voyager

Imagine the following journal article has been recommended by your tutor:

Manias, E. Williams, A. (2008) Managing pain in chronic kidney disease:
patient participation in decision making. Journal of Advanced Nursing 61 (2):

Cardiff University subscribes to journals in two formats: in print and electronic.
To search Voyager to see if Cardiff University subscribes to a particular
journal you will need to select to do a Journal Title Begins With or a Journal
Title Keyword search. It is important to note that to find the journal on
Voyager you must search for the journal title i.e. Journal of Advanced Nursing
and NOT the title of the article i.e. Managing pain in chronic disease.
Example 12: Workbook (p. 23)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 137

To search Voyager to see if you can access the above reference:
Click New Search. Select to do a Journal Title Begins With search, type
Journal of Advanced Nursing into the search box and then click Search.

If the journal is available the screen will display the details of the journal
and how it can be accessed. Any libraries holding the journal in print will
be listed, with the years that they hold. If an electronic copy is available
there will be an Internet link (in red) at the top of the page, with the years
that are available.

If the title is not available Voyager will state that your search resulted in
no hits. If you would like a copy of this article you will need to apply for it
via the Inter-Library Loan Scheme.

Search for the above reference, as described, and answer the following

. .. . Can you access the full-text journal article in both print and electronic

. .. . Scroll down the page and note down what years are available in print in
the School of Nursing and Midwifery Library, Caerleon?

Now scroll back up to the top of the screen and look at the Internet Links
for this journal for details of the electronic copies available. Select a link
which covers the date of the article you wish to find i.e. the year 2008.
Once it takes you into the journal follow the links on screen to access the
full-text article i.e. select the year (1998), Volume Number (61), Issue
Number (2) and page numbers (201-210).

When you have found the article in full-text, note down the first line of the
introductory paragraph below. (HINT: Look at the full-text in PDF format)
. .. .

Example 12: Workbook (p. 23)

138 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
4. Your Voyager Account

You can access your own account in Voyager either in University or at home.
Click on my account or view your library account and type in your library
card number (the long number on your CU ID card underneath the barcode)
and your surname.

. .. . What information can you access once you have logged into your

. .. . What reasons may prevent you from renewing your books online?

5. Bookbag

You can also save books into your bookbag so that you have a record of any
books of interest to you saved to your account. Search for a book of your
choice until you have a list of titles on screen. Select any of interest to you by
clicking in the box to its left and then scroll to the bottom of the page. Click on
save to bookbag and type in your login details. To view the books in your
bookbag, click on Bookbag on the very top toolbar in Voyager.

Beyond Google! Using subject gateways
Subject gateways are web sites which provide links to web resources which
have been selected by subject experts on the basis of their quality and

The advantage of using a subject gateway is that they will retrieve a smaller,
more focused, set of results than Google and they are guaranteed to be of a
high standard.

There are many useful nursing and health related gateways. A
listing of them is available via the MWE Portal at
http://mwe.cf.ac.uk. Click on the Information Resources tab then
Find resources for your subject. Select Information Resources for
Nursing and Midwifery. Click on Useful web sites and then Web
Gateways and Directories.
Example 13: Activity sheet (pp. 23, 26, 37)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 139
IP3 Year 1 Medicine
Using the Web ethically and effectively: Introducing
Tara Brabazon!
Please read the following short article. Spend a few minutes discussing this
with the person next to you.
1. To what extent do you agree with the comments made by Professor

2. To what extent do you think she is being deliberately controversial?

From The Times, January 14, 2008
White bread for young minds, says
university professor

[Text removed for copyright reasons]

Example 13: Activity sheet (pp. 23, 26, 37)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 140

[Text removed for copyright reasons]

Example 14: Evaluation checklist (p. 23)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 141

Web Page Evaluation Quick Checklist

Title of Website:

Examine the URL

Is it a personal page or site? i.e. no official sanction
Sometimes there is a personal name in the URL. This
will usually be preceded by a tilde ~
E Yes E No
Is the page/site owned by an organisation? E Yes E No
Which domain extension does the site have?
Consider whether this is appropriate to the content of the
E .com E .org E .ac.uk
E .edu E .gov E other

Is there a named author/authors? E Yes E No
Are the authors credentials indicated?
If not check them out! Try searching for the author on
E Yes E No
Is the author an expert in the field?
Check to see if he /she has published widely in the field.
You could use an appropriate bibliographic database to
help you investigate.
E Yes E No
E Insufficient details
Are the author/organisation contact details given?
This will be useful if any information needs to be verified.
E Yes E No
Is a publication date given? E Yes E No
If so, how recent is it?
Is there an indication when the information was last
E Yes E No

Example 14: Evaluation checklist (p. 23)

142 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Quality / Reliability

Are the sources of the information identified,
referenced and cited?
E Yes E No
What is the character of the information? E Factual E Opinion
E Combination of both
Is the site well laid out and easily navigable? E Yes E No
Is the writing style informed /scholarly and
appropriate for an academic audience?
E Yes E No
Are any provided links appropriate and still active? E Yes E No E N/A
Is the information available in a different format?
Eg. As a published report, factsheet etc. This may
give some general indication of quality.
E Yes E No
Does it all add up?

What is the overall purpose of the page?
You then need to consider whether this is
commensurate with your requirements.
E Inform, provide facts, data
E Explain E Entertain
E Persuade ESell
The bottom line: In your opinion is the information of comparable quality with the
information that you will find in a journal article, book, or other conventionally published
E Yes E No
If YES you should be able to use the information with confidence. If NO

Information Services NJM / 2009

Example 15: Evaluation checklist (p. 23)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 143
Some points to consider when evaluating search engines

1. Is the interface clear or is it cluttered with advertisements and other ephemera?

Search engine 1
Search engine 2

2. Is there an advanced search screen and if so, does it provide a good range of
search options / limits? Are there any which you may find particularly useful?

Search engine 1

Search engine 2

3. Does the search engine helpfully suggest related searches which you could follow-
Search engine 1 YES / NO
Search engine 2 YES / NO
4. Does the text displayed beneath the link give a good indication of the content of the
site (like an abstract) or is it jumbled and unhelpful?
Search engine 1

Search engine 2
5. Are the results categorised by type e.g. images, multimedia sites etc or are they
displayed in one continuous list?
Search engine 1

Search engine 2
Example 15: Evaluation checklist (p. 23)

144 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
6. Are there any useful or unique features in the way the results are displayed?
Search engine 1

Search engine 2
7. Do the first 20 or so results look more relevant than those further down the list i.e.
does the ranking seem effective?
Search engine 1

Search engine 2

8. How does the engine compare with Google in terms of general usefulness and
Search engine 1

Search engine 2

9. Finally, would you use this search engine again?
Search engine 1 YES / NO
Search engine 2 YES / NO

NJM / SHS. Intelligent Web Searching, Information Services 2009.

Example 16: Word cloud (p. 25)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 145

IP3: January /
February 2009

Medical Information
Research: the essentials
Part 2

Nigel Morgan / Jane Sparks
Example 17: Quiz used in lecture (p. 34)

146 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
BDS. Dentistry Year 1.
Information Research Quiz
Suppose that you have been asked to produce an essay on
the following topic:
Bone regeneration and its role in implant dentistry
Based on your knowledge of information sources, please answer the
following questions.

1. Where would you go to find information to help you produce this
essay? (please tick all that apply)

A. Search the Net
B. Textbooks
C. Ask a friendly librarian
D. Encyclopedias
E. Journals
F. Other

2. Which one of the above options would you choose as your starting

3. How would you go about finding suitable textbooks on this topic?
(please tick one option)

A. Id check on Amazon
B. Id probably ask my lecturer / librarian
C. Id try searching on Voyager using a keyword search
D. Id nip down to the Hayes and check in Waterstones
E. Text books are old fashioned! I wouldnt bother using them in
this instance

4. Why do you think it is important to use articles / scientific papers
from journals? (tick all that apply)
A. They are useful for providing more detailed /specialised
information than textbooks
B. They will provide me with up-to date information
C. They are reliable as they are written by experts in the field
D. Using journals will impress Dr. Tasker
E. Many are accessible online so they will save me some leg work!
Example 17: Quiz used in lecture (p. 34)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 147
5. How would you go about finding which journal articles are available
on your topic? (please tick one option)

A. Id check with my tutor / lecturer
B. Id do a search on Voyager
C. Id scan through the issues of appropriate journals in the
Library to find out what is relevant
D. Id use an appropriate database
E. Id search on Google Scholar

6. How important is it to use the World Wide Web for your academic
research? (please tick one option)

A. Its essential. The WWW can provide all the information I
need for my assignments.
B. Its useful as the information can be found quickly and
C. Its a useful supplementary source but there are better places
to look
D. It is a reliable/authoritative source of information for my
E. My tutor/lecturers will be impressed if I include information
from websites

7. Why is it vital to cite (acknowledge) the information sources you
have used within the text of your work and then to append a full
references list? (please tick one option)

A. Its not important. My lecturers do this to torture me!
B. A references list makes my work look more academic!
C. Its done by all academics so I guess I just have to follow suit!
D. Its a fun & challenging academic exercise gets the grey
matter working!
E. If I dont give full credit to the work of others, I could be
accused of plagiarism and sent packing!

8. And finally.a million is 1 followed by six zeros. A googol
(from which the title of the famous search engine is derived) is
1 followed by how many zeros?

A. 10
B. 50
C. 100
D. 1000
E. 1,500
Example 17: Quiz used in lecture (p. 34)

148 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Please complete your
Information Research quiz sheet


Session outcomes
At the end of this session you will
Understand the structure of the
literature in your topic area
Know how to construct an information
search strategy
Be able to identify key information
Have the information handling skills
required for your poster project


Question 1:
Where should you look for information ?
A: World Wide Web
B: Text books
C: Ask a librarian
D: Encyclopedias
E: Journals
F: Other?


Example 17: Quiz used in lecture (p. 34)

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 149
Question 2
Where should you start?
A: World Wide Web
B: Text books
C: Ask a librarian
D: Encyclopedias
E: Journals
F: Other?


Reference Sources
Provide overview of topic
Identify the terminology
Suggest further reading
Oxford Textbook of Surgery
Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS)


Question 3
How should you go about finding textbooks?
A. Check on Amazon
B. Ask lecturer / librarian
C. Perform a Voyager keyword search
D. Waterstones
E. Dont bother using textbooks
E.g. Garg, A.K.Bone biology, harvesting, grafting
for dental implants. 2004.


Example 18: Research trail (pp. 64, 66, 67)
150 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

BA Journalism, Film and Media Year 1: MC1113 Academic Study

Library Skills Assignment Research Trail
Due date: 16

Proportion of overall module assessment: 15%


1. This assignment is linked to the essay assignment for MC1113. State the
essay title you chose at the top of your submission.

2. Provide a list with full bibliographical details of each of the items you
included in your references list for the essay. There will be more marks
available to those who display a variety of sources of information used, for
example, journal article, chapter in an edited book, book, web page, etc.

3. For each item:

a. Outline how you identified it, including details of information
resources searched to find it (e.g. reading list, SCOPUS,
LexisNexis, Voyager) and any search strategies used including
keywords, combining words, truncation symbols, as applicable.

The Information Resources for Journalism, Media and Cultural
Studies web pages will help you to identify information resources:

b. Explain why the item was selected for inclusion in the references
list, evaluating them against these four criteria: relevance,
objectivity, currency, authority.

4. There is no word count for this assignment. Present your assignment in
the format which you feel most effectively and clearly explains how you
carried out research for your module essay. This might be in the form of a
table or expanded list.

5. Hand in one typed copy of the research trail via the JOMEC essay
submissions box and email one copy to BAEssays@cardiff.ac.uk by 3pm
on 16
November. Submit the research trail with a cover sheet.

Example 18: Research trail (pp. 64, 66, 67)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 151
Library Skills Assignment Research Trail
Marking Scheme

Criteria Marks available
Sources referenced
Appropriate for academic work?

5 marks
Search strategy
Clear evidence of use of a variety of resources
to find information?
Keywords appropriate to resources, relevant
to topic?
Correct use of combining words and truncation
symbols as applicable?

8 marks
Logically reasoned, taking into consideration
criteria of relevance, objectivity, currency,

8 marks
Presentation of research trail
Well structured and clear?
Accurate spelling and punctuation?

4 marks

Total Marks available = 25. Marks will be provided as a percentage.

Example 19: Multiple choice test (p. 65)
152 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
[Example removed]

Example 19: Multiple choice test (p. 65)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 153
[Example removed]

Example 20: Integrated assessment (p. 65)
154 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Politics Year 1
Assignment 1
A Choose one topic from this list:

a) direct democracy
b) constitutionalism
c) political culture


i) Locate an article from a reputable journal that is relevant to your topic
(N.B. it should not be an article on your reading list).
ii) Provide a full reference for this article using the Harvard referencing
iii) Explain why this source of information is reputable, backing responses
with evidence.
iv) Summarize the main arguments made in this article.


i) Locate an article from a reputable online news source or organisation
that is relevant to your topic (N.B. it should not be an article on your
reading list).
ii) Provide a full reference for this article using the Harvard referencing
iii) Explain why this source of information is reputable, backing responses
with evidence.
iv) Summarize the main arguments made in this article.


i) Conclude by explaining which article contains the most convincing

Example 21: Unstructured marking scheme (p. 66)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 155
Practice Assessment
Marking Sheet

Name: Andrew N Other

Cohort / Group: A5

A Planning of the research

Objectives of the research identified and evidence of some thoughtful
planning. However, the value of news and international sources overlooked.

B Implementation of the research

Good use of most sources drawing out information relevant to the solution of
the problem. But, some of the most recent developments have been
overlooked - query, through lack of skill in using paper supplements and
electronic sources containing latest information.

C Presentation of results

Poor structure and layout; example in model answer not followed. Little use of
headings or sub-headings. Different elements of answer jumbled together
and lacking a clearly flagged conclusion. This contrasts with the well laid out
and documented bibliography.

Overall Assessment: Borderline Pass

Marked by: Peter Clinch
Example 22: Structured marking scheme (p. 66)

156 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Research Trail
Marking Sheet


Cohort / Group:

1 Bibliographic list (20 marks) Score:
Follows School code of citation practice?

2 Search process (15 marks) Score:

3 Keywords (15 marks) Score:
Appreciation of hierarchies?

4 Reflection (24 marks)
Critical? Logically reasoned? Persuasive?
4.1 Relevance (6 marks) Score:

4.2 Reliability (6 marks) Score:

4.3 Authority (6 marks) Score:

4.4 Objectivity (6 marks) Score:

5 What learnt from exercise? (10 marks) Score:

6 Layout and style of responses (16 marks) Score:
Logical and attractive layout?
Fluent and grammatical style?
Accurate spelling and punctuation?

Total score:
Total score as percentage: Score as classification of degree:

70%+ First; 60%-69% II 1; 50%-59%: II 2; 45%-49% III; 40%-44%: Pass;
0%-39%: Fail.
Marked by:
Example 23: Marking grid (p. 67)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 157
Practical Legal Research
Criteria and feedback sheet
Assessment : PLR1
Assessment number.

Section Criteria
Poor Competent Good Very
1. Establish the objectives of the

2. Identify the facts relevant to
those objectives

3. From those facts identify
relevant areas of law

4. Identify and correctly state
the effect of any relevant
primary or secondary

5. Identify and correctly state
the effect of any relevant
cases, identifying cases under

6. Select comment, opinion and
guidance from periodicals,
encyclopaedias, textbooks or
other relevant publications,
acknowledging the use of all
such sources

7. Relate the legal principles to
the facts and draw appropriate

8. Present the results of research
in a clear, logically structured
way, using correct spelling,
grammar and punctuation and
giving advice where

9. Provide a bibliography of all
sources used as authority for
your answer

Advice and
10. Select appropriate
resources and use them
effectively, as demonstrated
by your research trail,
whether or not you have
relied upon them


Example 24: Feedback form (p. 71)

158 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Information Services
Finding Quality Information in Biosciences
February 2009

The session is now over and I would like to say:
When I came to this session my expectations were:
Example 25: Feedback form (p. 71)
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 159
MSc Planning Practice and Research
Information Resources for the Literature Review:
Evaluation Sheet
Please take a few moments to give your feedback on the session

1. Please indicate your views on the following statements:

Agree Disagree Strongly

The aims and objectives of the
lesson were clear

The handout was easy to follow

The lesson was at the right pace

The teachers explanations were

The tasks were engaging

I learned what I expected to about

2. What did you like about the session?

3. What did you dislike about the session?

4. Please provide any other comments you would like to make about the
Example 26: Feedback form (pp. 71, 73)

160 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Information resources for MA Philosophy
Your comments will be used to evaluate the sessions and to plan future

1 Tick one box for statements a-c using the scale:





a) As a result of the
library skills training,
I feel better prepared
to research and
complete my
academic work.

b) The presenter
introduced the topics
covered clearly and

c) The venue and
equipment were

2 Was there one
thing you specially
liked about the

3 Was there one
thing you specially
disliked about the

4 Can you list 3
things that you
have learnt?
5 Is there any topic
you would have
liked more
information or help

6 Any other

Thank you for taking the time to complete this form.
Information Services, Cardiff University

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 161
Examples from Opas Informaatiolukutaidon
In March 2008, a delegation of librarians from the Finnish Universities of
Applied Sciences visited Cardiff to learn about our IL initiatives. As a result of
the visit, Pivi Hollanti (Finnish Online University of Applied Sciences)
organised a translation of this Handbook tailored to the requirements of
Finnish IL practitioners. Opas Informaatiolukutaidon Opetukseen was
launched at Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki on April 16

2009. The following examples are taken from this publication and were kindly
translated by their contributors, Anitta rn (Kemi-Tornio University of Applied
Sciences) and Kaisa Puttonen (Laurea University of Applied Sciences).

The HILT Group is delighted that our Finnish colleagues have found our
material useful and encourages other external practitioners to make use of the
Handbook under the terms of our Creative Commons licence.

Cover of Opas Informaatiolukutaidon Opetukse, the Finnish translation of HILT.

Example 27: Example from Anitta rn, Finland
162 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Example 27: Example from Anitta rn, Finland

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 163

Example 28: Example from Kaisa Puttonen, Finland
164 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009

Laurea Library assignment for a course in the Degree
Programme in Tourism (Laurea University of Applied
Sciences, Finland).
Course: Productization and quality in the tourist industry
to introduce evaluation and criticism of information sources
to find background material for the course report
to provide collaborative material
to practice writing references
Write your answers in a word document, save it as Productization + your
name and email it to kaisa.puttonen@laurea.fi by May 15, 2009.
The material will be compiled into one document and saved on the Optima
studying platform under the file for this course. The teacher in tourism will
also check the chosen information sources when assessing the course.

Read the University of Tampere Library website on evaluating internet
sources: http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/kirjasto/oppaat/arviointi.php
Think how you might evaluate web sources and compare with the given
information. Write down the points you havent thought of before.

This is a corresponding example of a similar task from a page in English:
Search Google: the good, the bad & the ugly Beck
First read the information under Criteria. Reflect on your own way of
evaluating web sources compared with the criteria and write down the points
you havent thought of before.
Then choose one set from Examples and analyse briefly which page you find
most trustworthy and why.
(Beck, Susan. The Good, The Bad & The Ugly: or, Why It is a Good Idea to
Evaluate Web Sources. 1997. http://lib.nmsu.edu/instruction/eval.html,
updated April, 2009)

Example 28: Example from Kaisa Puttonen, Finland

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009 165
Go to Google and recap on the search tips. First view Google basic search
help and check the page, then Google advanced search help. Remember
that the basic ideas in information retrieval technique apply also to the
librarys electronic databases!

Go to the pages of the Finnish Online University of Applied Sciences:
Click Tietoa opiskelusta-> Tiedonhallinta, Tiedonlhteet -> Kompassi,
tiedonhallinnan perusteet (Compass, basics in information management).
The course Compass consists of many topics to guide you in information
retrieval. In this exercise you will study two of them. (Even though the course
referred to is in Finnish, the exercise can easily be used in similar contexts)

Internet Module
1. Try the test The internet as an information source.
How many did you get correct?
2. Why doesnt Google find information relevant for you?
Do the test in the module.
3. Look at the table about advantages and disadvantages
of Google Scholar. You will find out that it is also
important to use the databases provided by the library.

Evaluating sources Module
1. What to do, if...? Open the table and read the
guidelines. Have you refined your search accordingly
when you find too much, too little or irrelevant
2. Review the criteria for evaluating content in general and
evaluating web pages. Do the tests on evaluation skills.
How could you improve your skills?

Remember the criteria when you choose information
sources during your studies, and also when retrieving
information at work. If you are not critical, you might be
fooled! Check http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/scigen/


Search for two articles on the topic Future trends in the tourism
industry. Search from scientific e-journals found through the librarys
information portal Nelli. Note! Remote database access is also
available; sign in with your personal password through the librarys web
Example 28: Example from Kaisa Puttonen, Finland
166 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: July 2009
Find two articles or links from the free web with an example of
developing or planning a product in tourism. Remember also
conference websites and presentations, discussion forums by
specialists, blogs...
Compile a reference list from the sources you have chosen. Please be
sure that the information sources are written correctly according to the
Laurea thesis standards. Ill send your lists back until they are correct.
You can check the instructions from Laureas website and the book by
Hirsjrvi, S. (2009). Tutki ja kirjoita. Helsinki: Tammi.
Summarize the information from each source into one or two

Please be sure that your word document has answers for:
1: 1a, 1b internet: point 1; evaluating: point 1, 2
2: Two scientific articles and two free web references correctly cited with a
summary after the reference

All the information found by the group will be saved on Optima by May 20,
and you can use this information bank when writing your final course report.

Ms. Kaisa Puttonen, Information specialist, Laurea University of Applied
Sciences, Finland

Further Reading
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 167
Further Reading
All suggested reading is available either in the University libraries or, where web
addresses are given, the material can be found online. If you have any further reading
suggestions for the next edition of the Handbook then we would like to hear from you.
Please contact a member of the HILT Group. Happy reading!
Boden, D. et al. eds. 2007. The information literacy cookbook: ingredients, recipes and
tips for success. Oxford: Chandos.
A highly readable and inspiring guide. Includes a wealth of practical tips and recipes
for success for novices and experienced practitioners alike. The text is clear, concise
and is as entertaining as it is useful.

Cook, D. and Sittler, R. eds. 2009. Library instruction cookbook. Chicago: ACRL.
A lively and extremely readable compendium of nearly 100 snappy recipes for
innovative IL sessions. Includes a contribution from Nigel Morgan and Linda Davies
from Cardiff University.

Cook, D. and Sittler, R. eds. 2008. Practical pedagogy for library instructors: 17
innovative strategies to improve student learning. Chicago: ACRL.
A practical casebook of novel methods grounded on pedagogical theory which have
been used to engage students in the library classroom. Readable and relevant.

Cox, C. and Lindsay, E. N. 2008. Information literacy instruction handbook. Chicago:
Designed principally for new practitioners, this slim but wide-ranging volume contains a
wealth of sound and practical advice. Chapters include The psychology of learning:
connecting theory to practice, Collaboration, Instructional technologies and Student
academic integrity.

Webb, J. and Powis, C. 2004. Teaching information skills: theory and practice.
London: Facet.
A thorough and practical introduction to all aspects of information skills teaching. The
numerous case studies are particularly helpful.

Further Reading
168 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Section 1: Information Literacy - Key Issues
Andretta, S. 2005. Information literacy: a practitioners guide. Oxford: Chandos.
A sound introduction to the principles and practice of IL, aimed at the HE practitioner.
Andretta takes an international perspective, focussing on the IL frameworks of the US,
Australia and the UK. Includes two detailed and thought provoking case studies.

Watson, G. and Pope, A. eds. 2006. Information literacy: recognising the need. Oxford:
This set of papers from a national conference provides a snapshot of themes and
trends occupying the attention of UK practitioners. Themes include: working towards
the information literate university, engaging the Google generation and IL as a catalyst
for educational change.
Section 2: Library Orientation
Burnett, S. and Collins, S. 2007. Ask the audience! Using a Personal Response
System to enhance IL and induction sessions at Kingston University. Journal of
Information Literacy [online] 1(2). Available at:
http://jil.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/AFP-V1-I2-2007-1 [Accessed: 8 July
Describes how Personal Response Systems might be used in a number of Library
teaching contexts, including orientation sessions.

Jackson, A. 2007. Are we having fun yet? Interactive lecturing techniques for librarians.
ALISS Quarterly 2(4), pp. 35-39.
ackson reminds us that students perceptions of the library service are strongly
influenced by their first experience of the service usually at an orientation session
and that we need to work hard to make that experience as engaging as possible. Tips
on using the Cephalonian Method, Library Bingo, small-group interactions and
audience response technology (clickers) are included.

Thompson, K. et al. 2008. From tourist to treasure hunter: a self-guided orientation
programme for first-year students. Health Information and Libraries Journal 25(1), pp.
Focuses on dental students at a New Zealand University with a multi-site library
service. The treasure hunt-based orientation encourages participants to explore the
campus visiting various different library sites of relevance to them. Another innovative
orientation idea to take you beyond the suggestions already outlined in this Handbook.

Further Reading
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 169
Walker, B. 2008. This is jeopardy! An exciting approach to learning in library
instruction. Reference Services Review 36(4), pp. 281-388.
Walker describes a highly participative 'quiz show' approach to library orientation,
where students form teams and accrue points for answering library-related questions
correctly, while the instructor takes on the energising role of quiz show host!
Section 3: Lesson Planning
Baume, D. 2006. First Words [online]. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Available at:
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/firstwords/fwconts.html [Accessed: 8 July
Useful sections include Planning a presentation and Writing aims and learning
outcomes. Principally designed for lecturers rather than librarians, but still highly

Chivers, B. [No date]. Learning styles for information literacy [online]. Loughborough:
Loughborough University. Available at:
literacy/Learning%20Styles%20for%20Information%20Literacy.doc [Accessed: 8 July
A readable summary of the nature of learning styles, including a discussion of learning
styles in the context of IL teaching.

SCONUL. 2004. Learning outcomes and information literacy [online]. York: The Higher
Education Academy. Available at:
on_literacy [Accessed: 8 July 2008].
Includes a range of case studies on embedding IL in University courses. Useful if you
want to see a number of authentic examples of learning outcomes.

Webb, J. and Powis, C. 2004. Planning a learning experience. In: Webb, J. and Powis,
C. eds. Teaching information skills: theory and practice. London: Facet, pp. 78-101.
A helpful overview of aspects of planning, offering practical advice on writing learning
outcomes and useful case studies.
Section 4: Lesson Formats
Amsberry, D. 2008. Talking the talk: library classroom communication and international
students. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 34(4), pp. 354-357.
Language can be a significant barrier for international students in library instruction
classes. This article provides tips on maximising communication between the teacher
and the international students within a group.

Further Reading
170 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Craig, J. L. et al. 1994. Visiting librarian program. Journal of Continuing Education in
the Health Professions 14(4), pp. 232-238.
Describes and assesses a programme of one-to-one teaching for physicians at home
or in the workplace by a librarian.

Gordon, J. 2003. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: one to one teaching and
feedback. British Medical Journal 326(7388), pp. 543-545.
Although focussing on a medical context, the principles can be applied to other fields.

Jones, R. W. 2007. Learning and teaching in small groups: characteristics, benefits,
problems and approaches. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 35(4), pp. 587-592.
Provides an overview of small group learning and teaching including its characteristics
and challenges. Describes the potential causes of less than optimal sessions, and
summarises specific approaches.

SCONUL. 2008. Library services for international students [online]. London: SCONUL.
Available at: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/access/papers/international_students.pdf
[Accessed: 7 July 2009].
Includes discussion of a number of 'Key Concepts' in providing services to international
students which are relevant to IL. Covers ways of catering for different learning styles
and levels of IT capability, along with advice on ensuring students are equipped to
avoid plagiarism and maintain academic integrity.

Webb, J. and Powis, C. 2004. Delivery: tools, techniques and approaches. In: Webb,
J. and Powis, C. eds. Teaching information skills: theory and practice. London: Facet,
pp. 102-127.
The Teaching methods section (p.10 -107) provides useful summaries of the benefits
and drawbacks of particular lesson formats. Includes practical advice on matching the
delivery method to the learning outcomes.
Section 5: Teaching Technologies (August 2011 update)
2010. Technology, Pedagogy & Education 19(2), whole issue.
Issue devoted to articles on developments in interactive whiteboard (IWB) technology
and other whole class interactive technologies, including teacher views on IWB use
and skills required to teach with IWBs.

Further Reading
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 171
Bruff, D. 2010. Backchannel in education - nine uses. In: Teaching with classroom
response systems blog [Online]. 21
Jan 2010. Available at:
http://derekbruff.com/teachingwithcrs/?p=472 [Accessed: 14th June 2011].
Outlines ideas for using Twitter in education, based on a book by Cliff Atkinson.
Suggestions include using Twitter for notetaking, commenting, asking questions and
building community.

Diamond, S. 2010. Prezi for dummies. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Another addition to the popular series of books which does what it says on the tin.
Provides a clear, accessible introduction to Prezi with plenty of guidance and

Godwin, P. and Parker, J. eds. 2011. Information literacy beyond library 2.0. 2
London: Facet.
Edited book of contributions providing an excellent overview of Web 2.0 and its
implications for IL teaching. Covers topics such as Wikipedia, blogs and podcasting.
Now in its second edition, with enhanced coverage on mobile technologies.

Marcoux, E. B. and Loertscher, D. V. 2009. Achieving teaching and learning excellence
with technology. Teacher Librarian 37(2), pp. 14-22.
This article looks at how technological devices and applications may motivate student
learning, contribute to deeper understanding of topics, develop individual and collective
learning skills, and increase efficiency among teachers and students. The use of
educational technology in developing digital literacies and collaborative skills is also

Mollerup, P. 2011. PowerNotes: slide presentations reconsidered [Online]. Melbourne:
International Institute for Information Design, Faculty of Design, Swinburne University
of Technology. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/191214 [Accessed: 7th June
This paper gives a broad range of advice on increasing the impact and professionalism
of PowerPoint presentations, covering the three stages of planning, design and
delivery. The author believes that we should learn the rules first before we consider
breaking them for artistic effect.

Raman, M. et al. 2005. Designing knowledge management systems for teaching and
learning with wiki technology. Journal of Information Systems Education 16(3), pp. 311-
This paper discusses a case study of use of a wiki for academic study in a
postgraduate level setting. The authors found the exercise successful, but outline
some of the requirements, e.g. that teachers must be familiar with wiki technology,
Further Reading
172 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
class sizes need to be appropriate, and students need to be motivated to engage with
this style of discovery learning.

Sellar, M. 2011. Poll Everywhere The Charleston Advisor [Online] 12(3). Available at:
12/00000003/art00015 [Accessed: 13th June 2011].
The strengths and weaknesses of the Poll Everywhere service are reviewed with
examples of use in higher education and libraries. Covers pricing, functionality and a
critical analysis of the software as a HE teaching tool.

Singh, A. et al. 2010. Bolstering teaching through online tools. Journal of Information
Systems Education 21(3), pp. 299-311.
Summarises some of the technologies that provide either free or low-cost solutions to
the challenges of teaching online courses. Discusses some of the pedagogical
methods which can be supported with these technologies, with reference to the
purposes they are geared towards. The authors note that such technologies also have
value in more conventional face-to-face teaching.

Walsh, A. 2010. QR codes: using mobile phones to deliver library instruction and help
at the point of need. Journal of information literacy 4(1), pp. 55-65.
Outlines the practical uses staff at University of Huddersfield library have found for QR
codes, and gives details of their reception by library users, some of whom have been
reticent to engage. Walsh also discusses the possible use of other technologies, e.g.
RFID, to deliver comparable information, without the barriers which may restrict access
to QR code technology.

Walsh, A. and Inala, P. 2010. Active learning techniques for librarians: practical
examples. Oxford: Chandos.
Good coverage of the use of technology in library teaching. Covers theory and
practical applications, acknowledging that much library teaching is one-off and that
students need to be engaged and motivated as effectively as possible through active
learning to attract and sustain their interest.
Section 6: Lesson Delivery
2005. Public speaking with confidence [DVD]. UK: Ashgate. Running time 17 minutes.
A discussion between public speaking experts Eve Ash and Peter Quarry, containing
useful hints for delivering high quality presentations in a variety of contexts. Not
specifically focussed towards IL sessions, but the content is nevertheless highly
Further Reading
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 173
Section 7: Evaluating your Teaching
Cardiff University. Providing Effective and Efficient Feedback to Learners [online].
Available at: http://medic.cardiff.ac.uk/feedback [Accessed: 29 April 2009].
This Cardiff University e-module on feedback is intended for teaching staff . It is
interactive and easy to use. The aim of the module is to facilitate learning regarding
the purpose of feedback and how effective feedback can enhance student learning.

Hammersley-Fletcher, L. and Orsmond, P. 2005. Reflecting on reflective practices
within peer observation. Studies in Higher Education 30(2), pp. 21-224.
Emphasises the importance of reflective thinking in teaching and makes a case for the
centrality of peer observation in professional development initiatives and programmes.
The detailed case study focuses on peer observation practices at a post-1992

Webb, J. and Powis, C. 2004. Feedback and evaluation. In: Webb, J. and Powis, C.
eds. Teaching information skills: theory and practice. London: Facet, pp. 156-180.
Excellent advice on collecting, interpreting and using feedback to enhance and
strengthen your teaching.
Section 8: Assessment
Reece, I. and Walker, S. 2006. Assessment of learning and achievement. In: Reece, I.
and Walker, S. eds. Teaching, training & learning: a practical guide. 6th ed.
Sunderland: Business Education Publishers, pp. 321-384.
A detailed exploration of the principles of student assessment (both formative and
summative), methods of assessment and the use of technology in the assessment

Walsh, A. 2009. Information Literacy Assessment: Where do we start? Journal of
Librarianship and Information Science 41(1), pp. 19-28.
Andrew Walsh from the University of Huddersfield reviews the literature relating to IL
assessment. Provides an overview of popular methods and includes a selection of
case studies.
Useful Websites
ACRL Information Literacy
Maintained by the Information Literacy Advisory Committee of the Association of
College and Research Libraries, this is a useful gateway to a range of resources on IL,
including standards, guidelines and practical advice.

Further Reading
174 Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update
Cardiff University Learning and Teaching Support
Cardiff Universitys Learning and Teaching Support pages are intended both as a
comprehensive resource for learning and teaching and a gateway to the learning and
teaching support activities across the University. Details of past and upcoming QUILT
(Quality and Innovation in Learning and Teaching) seminars may be particularly useful.
The website of the IL campaign of the Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences created
by Paivi Hollanti. Highly imaginative and relevant.
The Information Literacy Weblog
Highly informative and current. Sheila Webber and Stuart Boon from the Department
of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, offer a lucid overview of the latest IL
developments and initiatives in the UK and abroad.
The Information Literacy Website
As well as providing news of IL developments in the UK, this site is a gateway to a
wealth of high quality information including websites, blogs and case studies.
Intute Virtual Training Suite
An excellent set of free Internet tutorials for most disciplines which aim to develop
sound internet research skills.
Journal of Information Literacy
A peer reviewed online journal featuring articles on a diverse range of IL topics.
The website of the Librarians Information Literacy Annual Conference which was held
in Cardiff in 2009.
Available at: http://www.open.ac.uk/safari
Safari (Skills in Accessing, Finding and Reviewing Information) is an online module
produced by the Open University. It consists of seven sections, each of which is
intended to help learners feel more confident about finding, evaluating and using
information. The approach, content and interactivity can provide useful inspiration for
teachers planning IL teaching.

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 175

Page numbers for complete section on a topic are given in bold.

Accessible teaching strategies 23-24,
27-28, 94-95
see also Disabled learners
ACRL (Association of College and
Research Libraries) IL competency
standards 1-2
Assessment 3, 63-68
diagnostic 63
explicitness 67
formative 63
reliability 66
summative 63
validity 64-65
Assessment tools 51-52i
Audience response technology 16,
52i-52ii, 52ii (case study)
InterWrite PRS 52i-52ii
TurningPoint 52i-52ii

Backchannel (Twitter) 52xii-52xiii
Big Blue Button 52xvii (case study)
see Library bingo
British Library images 52v

Camtasia 52xiv
Captivate 52xiv
Cardiff Portal (formerly MWE) 10, 40
Case studies
Assessing your IL sessions 65
Audience Response
Technology 52ii
Cephalonian method 13
Classroom management
software 52v
Creative use of a wiki 52xviii
Facilitating workshops 61
Flexible approach 29
Marking research trails 67
Mind mapping 36
One-to-one teaching 38
Promoting IL 6
Quiz format (lectures) 34
Social bookmarking in the
classroom 52x
Socratic dialogue in class
discussions 37
Online assessment and
feedback tools 52i
Video Conferencing software to
support library users 52xvii
Cephalonian method 13-14, 14 (case
study), 99 (example)
Classroom management software
52iv-52v, 52v (case study)
see Audience Response
Competency standards see ACRL
Critical appraisal 2, 26, 65

Delicious 52ix
Difficult learners 60-61
Diigo 52ix
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 23,
Disabled learners 23, 59
see also Accessible teaching
Discussions, group 36-37
see also Group work
Distance learning 45
Dyslexic learners 23

Elevator speech 93
Embedding IL teaching 2, 3, 4, 19, 84-
Environment, teaching 56-59
Equipment preparation 47
Evaluating your teaching 63-76

Facilitation skills 59-60, 61 (case
from lecturers 73-74
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 176
from students 70, 121-122
(example) see also
sheets/forms 158-160
Feedback tools 51-52i
Turnitin 51-52
Flexible approach 28-29, 29 (case
Flickr 52v
Focus groups 72

Glomaker 52xi-52xii
Google 26, 139-140 (example)
Group work 58
see also Discussions, group

Handouts 22-25
examples of 103-147, 150-154,
preparing 23, 96-97
HILT Picks
Cephalonian and clickers 14
Challenge existing practice 26
Describing keywords 35
For nervous presenters 56
Stand at the back 57
Teaching citing and
referencing 44
Treasury tags 58
Word clouds 25

see Information Literacy
Resource Bank
i-maps 65
Image websites 52v
see Library orientation
Information literacy 1-7
Definition 79-80
Evaluation 69-76
Guidance Note (Cardiff
University) 1, 79-86
Information Literacy Strategy
(Cardiff University) 1, 87- 89
Promotion 4-6, 93, 6 (case
Standards 1-2
Information Literacy Resource Bank
(ILRB) 42-44
Instructor notes 20-22, 101-102
Instructor training 90-91
Interactive whiteboards 52vi
International students
see Overseas students
InterWrite PRS 52i-52ii

Japanese presentation style
see Pecha Kucha
Jeopardy 15-16

Keeping up to date 6-7
Key performance indicator (KPI) 73

LanSchool 52iv-52v, 52v (case study)
Latecomers 60-61
Learners, reflective 30
Learning Central (formerly
BlackBoard) 40-41
Learning objects
see Information Literacy
Resource Bank (ILRB)
Learning outcomes 3, 19-20, 73, 100
(example), 101-102 (example)
Learning preferences 27
Lectures 33-34
Quiz format 34 (case study)
Lesson delivery 53-61
Lesson formats 33-38
Lesson planning 19-31
Lesson plans 20-21, 100 (example)
Library bingo 14-15
Library orientation 5, 9-17
Cephalonian method 13-14, 99
Interactivity 13-16
Key issues 9
Long sessions 10-12
Short sessions 9-10
Library toolkits for distance learners 45

Marking schemes 66, 151 (example),
155-157 (examples)
Mind mapping 36 (case study)
MorgueFile 52v
Movies 52xiii-52xv
Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 177
Multiple choice tests 152-153

One-to-one teaching 37-38
Online assessment and feedback tools
51-52, 52i (case study)
Online polling 51ii-52iv

see Library orientation
Overseas students 30-31

Pairs, working in 58
see Personal Development
Pecha Kucha 56
Peer observation
see Peer Review of Learning
and Teaching
Peer Review of Learning and
Teaching 74-75, 75 (case study)
Personal Development Plans 3, 4
see Lesson planning, Lesson
Podcasts 52vi-52vii
Poll Everywhere 52ii-52iiv
PowerPoint revisited 21, 22, 27, 33,
47-50, 103-105, 148-149
Adding speaker notes 48
Advanced tips 49-50
Creating handouts 49
Top 10 tips 47-48
equipment 57
room 56-57
Presentation techniques 53-55
Presentation technology 46-50
see also PowerPoint, Prezi,
Prezi 46-47
see Peer Review of Learning
and Teaching
Promotion of IL 4-6
To schools 4
To students 5

QR Codes 52vii-52ix
Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) 3, 5,
Questionnaires 71-72
Quiz format in a lecture 33, 34 (case
study), 146-149 (example)

see Reflective practice
Reflective learners 30
Reflective practice 69-70
Research trails 64, 150-151 (example)
Resource Bank
see Information Literacy
Resource Bank (ILRB)
Room conditions 58
Room preparation 56-57

Screencasts 52xiv
Screenr 52xiv
Search engines, evaluation 143-144
Seating arrangements 57
Slideshare 50
Small-group discussions 36-37
Social bookmarking 52ix-52x, 52x
(case study)

Teaching technologies 39-52xviii
Teaching environment 56-59
Teaching Materials Repository
see Training Materials
Toolkits, library, for distance learners
Training Materials Repository 26
TurningPoint 52i-52ii
Turnitin 51-52
Tutorials and Quizzes 52x-52xii
Twitter 52xii-52xiii

Udutu 52xi

Videos, movies, screencasts and
vodcasts 52xiii-52xv
Vodcasts 52xiii-52xiv
Vyew 52xvi

Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching: August 2011 update 178
Web 2.0 39
Webconferencing 52xv-52xvii, 52xvii
(case study)
Whiteboards, interactive 52vi
Wikipedia 26, 123-126 (example)
Wikis 52xvii-52xviii, 52xviii (case
Word clouds 25 (example)
Workshop planning 34-35

Xerte 52xii
Xtranormal 52xv