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ANEXOS
7 aspectos gramaticales para recordar en ingls (propia autora) Business English Book Modals Chart Chart of Prepositions Chart of Transitional devices List of Regular Verbs List of Irregular Verbs List of Compounds Verbs Algunas Print Screen del Aula Virtual en SEDLUZ Banners creados para el Aula Virtual

UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULIA


FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ECONMICAS Y SOCIALES

Gustavo E. Lpez Medina Hugo R. Navarro Palomares Mara de Lourdes Garca de Vargas

CONTENT
UNIT 0: REVIEW UNIT ...04 7 A SPECTOS G RAMATICASLES B SICOS PARA R ECORDAR EN I NGLS .05 UNIT I: READING THE DICTIONARY09 UNIT II: DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS .18 P ROFILE OF A C OMPANY C HAIRMAN 19 W HAT ECONOMICS IS 21 M ARKETING M ANAGER 27 M ARKS & S PENCER 30 UNIT II: NARRATION ..35 S IR P ETER P ARKER : A MAN OF MANY PARTS 36 K ENSHIN OSHIMA : M AKING MONEY OUT OF MONEY 40 T HE S TORY OF C OKE.44 UNIT III: INSTRUCTIONS ..49 T IPS FOR S UCCESS ON THE T ELEPHONE ..50 H OW TO R EDUCE S TRESS AND B E H APPY ON THE J OB .53 UNIT IV: TABLES GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS 58 C OMPARING C OUNTRIES .59 H EALTHCARE E XHIBITION .62 H EADLINES ...63 C OMPLETE G RAPHS 64 S ALES OF R EACH P RODUCT .65 UNIT V: INTENSIVE READING FOR DISCUSSION .67 W AGES AND S ALARIES .. 68 B ALANCING THE B OOKS 71

7 ASPECTOS GRAMATICALES BSICOS PARA RECORDAR EN INGLS


(DISEO Y ELABORACIN: PROF. G. LPEZ)

1. TO BE: SER/ESTAR PRESENTE: AM ARE IS


N SINGULAR 1 2 3 3 3 PLURAL 1 2 3 Pronombre Presente Be I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY AM ARE IS IS IS ARE ARE ARE Traduccin: estar Soy; estoy Eres, ests Es, est Es, est Es, est Somos, estamos Son, estn Son, estn Ser;

Ej1. I am Venezuelan. Ej2: She is a very intelligent girl. Ej3: We are in class.
Ej1. Soy venezolan@. Ej2:Ella es una muchacha muy inteligente. Ej3: Estamos en clase.

PASADO: WAS WERE


N SINGULAR 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 Pronombre Presente Be I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY WAS WERE WAS WAS WAS WERE WERE WERE Traduccin: Ser; estar Fui; estuve Fuiste, estuviste Fue, estuvo Fue, estuvo Fue, estuvo Fuimos, estuvimos Fuiste, estuviste Fueron, estuvieron

PLURAL

Adems, el verbo TO BE significa: I. TENER cuando nos referimos a edad. Ej. How old is she? Qu edad tiene ella? II. HACER cuando nos referimos a condiciones atmosfricas. Ej. Its hot. Hace calor

2. USOS DEL AUXILIAR:


El auxiliar sirve para: a) Identificar el tiempo de la oracin (pasado, presente o futuro): My brother will be here in December. (Futuro simple) b) Formular preguntas: Have you studied English before? (Interrogativa presente perfecto) c) i. Negar: I didnt visit her. ii. Enfatizar comentarios afirmativos: She did go to class no matter that she had a fever.

3. PRESENTE SIMPLE:
I. Do - Does : Auxiliar que indica el tiempo presente simple. II. En presente al hablar/escribir en forma positiva de la 3 persona del singular (He/She/It), los verbos terminados en: CH - S - SH - X O - Z, agregan ES. Ej Wash WashES; Teach TeachES, Go GoES III. Todos los verbos que terminan en: Consonante + Y, cambian la Y por I y agregan ES. Ej. Study StudIES IV. Todos los dems verbos agregan S Ej. Work WorkS , Say SayS

4. PASADO SIMPLE:
I. Did: auxiliar que indica el pasado simple: Ej. Did you do your research on crops? II. ed: indica tanto el pasado simple como el pasado participio de verbos regulares; adems de una accin culminada. Ej. He developed a new theory. Nota: el pasado participio puede funcionar como adjetivo. Ej. A developed country. Un pas desarrollado.

5. QU INDICA LA S?
I. Plural (sustantivos o nombres):
Ej. The studies of different sciences can lead to a better understanding of the situation.

II. 3 persona del Singular (He, She, It) en tiempo Presente Simple Ej. He works a lot III. La pertenencia (forma nominal). Ej. Professor Beauports research on triune brain is very interesting.

6. CMO LEER EL ING?


El ING Cuando acompaa al verbo To Be conjuga al otro verbo terminando en: ANDO o IENDO Ej. I AM not smokING = (Yo) No estoy fumando. We ARE studyING = (Nosotros) Estamos estudiando. Al comienzo de oracin o su final (complemento), funciona como nombre = sustantivo y agrega el artculo determinado EL o LA. Ej. Smoking is dangerous - El fumar es nocivo; Swimming is my favorite sport = La natacin es mi deporte favorito. Al acompaarse de preposicin puede leerse el verbo en infinitivo, es decir, terminando en: AR, ER, IR. Ej. On entering, close the door. = Al ENTRAR cierre la puerta. Puede significar QUE, al funcionar como adjetivo (es quien modifica al sustantivo). Ej. Drugs affecting the brain can also damage other organs. = Las drogas QUE afectan al cerebro pueden tambin daar otros rganos. Indica proceso: Developing countries = Pases EN DESARROLLO.

7. LA VOZ PASIVA:
VPARTICIPIO PASIVA. Am Are Is Was Were
Can be Could be May be Might be Will be Would be Should be Must be
PASADO;

se forma con la combinacin de dos verbos: V

TO BE

EL VERBO TO BE DETERMINA EL TIEMPO DE LA ORACIN

+ Verbo en pasado participio

Have been Has been Had been Oracin Activa Pasiva Oracin Sujeto Activa Williams Pasiva

Sujeto Williams The house Verbo painted

Verbo Painted was painted Objeto the house.

Objeto the house. by Williams.

Sujeto The house was painted by Williams Nota1: El objeto de la oracin activa se convierte en el sujeto de la oracin pasiva. Nota2: Cuando no aparecer el agente de la accin; es decir, by + agent, puede leerse como SE, por tratarse de una forma impersonal. Ejemplos: It is said SE dice; It was considered SE consider; It has been said SE ha dicho; It might be shown Puede demostrarSE; It had been studied SE haba estudiado.

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Reading the Dictionary

Experts believe that most English-speaking adults use between 25,000 and 50,000 words. That seems like a large number, yet the English language has over a million words. Effective readers use a dictionary to understand new or difficult words. Most dictionaries provide the following information: Guide words (the words at the top of each page) Spelling (how the word and its different forms are spelled) Pronunciation (how to say the word) Part of speech (the function of the word) Definition (the meaning of the word) Synonyms (words that have similar meanings) Etymology (the history of the word)

All dictionaries have guide words at the top of each page. However, dictionaries differ from each other in the way they give other information about words. Some dictionaries give more information about the origin of the word; other dictionaries give long lists of synonyms. Each dictionary will explain how to use its resources in the first few pages.

How to Read a Dictionary Entry


The following entry from Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 10th edition, will be used as an example for the discussions about the kinds of information a dictionary provides. herbicide n: an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth herbicidal adj herbicidally adv

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Spelling and Syllables

The spelling of the main word is given first in bold type. The word is also divided into syllables. The word herbicide has three syllables: her-bi-cide. Spellings of words based on this word are given at the end of the entry. This listing is especially helpful when letters are dropped or added to create a new word. The word herbicide changes form and spelling to become herbicidal, which has four syllables, herbi-cid-al, and herbicidally, which has five syllables, her-bicid-al-ly. EXAMPLES Use a dictionary to break the following words into syllables. In the spaces provided, rewrite each word, placing a dot ( ) between the syllables. 1. intermit _________________________________________ 2. pedagogy _________________________________________ EXPLANATIONS 1. Intermit has three syllables: in-ter-mit. 2. Pedagogy has four syllables: ped-a-go-gy. PRACTICE 1 Use a dictionary to break the following words into syllables. In the spaces provided, rewrite each word, placing a dot ( ) between the syllables. 1. scavenger _______________________________________ 2. tundra _________________________________________ Parts of Speech Parts of speech indicate how a word functions in a sentence. Dictionary entries tell you what part of speech a word isnoun, verb, adjective, and so on. The part of speech is abbreviated and printed in italics. Your dictionary provides a full list of abbreviations. The following are the most common abbreviations for the parts of speech:

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Parts of Speech adj adv adjective adverb

n prep pron

noun preposition pronoun

conj conjunction interj Interjection

v, vi, vt verb

Read again the sample dictionary entry for herbicide. herbicide n: an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth herbicidal adj herbicidally adv As the entry shows, the word herbicide is a noun. Two other forms of the word are identified as an adjective (herbicidal) and an adverb (herbicidally). EXAMPLES Use your dictionary to identify the parts of speech for each of the following words. A word may be used as more than one part of speech. 1. complement ______________________________________ 2. before___________________________________________ 3. fly ______________________________________________

1. Complement can be used as a noun or a verb. 2. Before can be used as an adjective, an adverb, a conjunction, or a preposition. 3. Fly can be used as an adjective, a noun, or a verb.

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PRACTICE 2 Use your dictionary to identify the parts of speech for each of the following words. A word may be used as more than one part of speech.
1. graph_______________________________________________________ 2. angle _______________________________________________________ 3. degree ______________________________________________________

Definitions Most words have more than one meaning. When there is more than one definition, each meaning is numbered. Many times the dictionary will also provide examples of sentences in which the word is used. EXAMPLE Three definitions are given for the word degree. In the spaces provided, write the number of the definition that best fits its meaning in each sentence. 1. A step or stage in a process 2. A unit of measurement for angles and curves 3. A title conferred on students by a college, university, or professional school upon completion of a program of study ___ A. Joanne changed her physical fitness activities by degrees; she began with short 5-minute walks and built up to 30-minute walks every day of the week. ___ B. John received his associate of arts degree from a community college and his bachelor of arts degree from a four-year university. ___ C. If two triangles are similar, their corresponding angles have the same number of degrees. EXPLANATION A. The correct answer is a step or stage in a process (1). B. The correct answer is a title conferred on students by a college, university, or professional school upon completion of a program of study (3). C. The correct answer is a unit of measurement for angles and curves (2).

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PRACTICE 3 Here are two words, their definitions, and sentences using the words based on their various definitions. In the spaces provided, write the number of the definition that best fits each sentence. Note that one definition is not used. A. factor : 1 something that brings about a result, ingredient 2 one who acts or transacts the business of another 3 a number that will divide into another number exactly ____ 1. The manufacturer submits the order, along with the terms and conditions, to the factor for approval. ____ 2. The factors of 10 are 1, 2, and 5. ____ 3. The doctor discovered that pollen was a factor in Justines sinus condition.

B. plot : 1 n a small area of planted ground 2 n the plan or main story of a literary work 3 v to mark or note on as if on a map or chart ___ 4. The graph of an equation is a drawing that plots all its solutions. ___ 5. Grandmother worked in the vegetable plot all morning.

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READINGS!
TEXT # 1

TEXT # 2

TEXT # 3

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TASK 2: FIND FIVE (5) NOUNS AND FIVE (5) VERBS IN EACH TEXT . TEXT 1 TEXT 2 TEXT 3

NOUNS

VERBS

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UNIT I: USO DEL DICCIONARIO

PROFILE. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 13. ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CORPORATE FINANCE. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 127. A FAMILY CRISIS. Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p. 105.

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TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE

TASK 2: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS, ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING IDEAS


Company activities ............................. ______ Durys private life ............................... ______ Biographical references ....................... ______

TASK 3: TICK () WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE


STATEMENTS
1. He started his own repair company at the age of 15. 2. The president of DURANCO plc. is Alan Dury. 3. DURANCO plc. is an American Company. 4. The Company sells electronic devices at reasonable prices. 5. The Company Factory is settled in England. 6. He manages the business from home. 7. He is a rich man who lives an unusual life.

TRUE

FALSE

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TASK 4: ANSWER IN SPANISH THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.


1. How old is Alan Dury? 2. Where is he from? 3. What does he do? 4. Where does he live? 5. What kind of Company does he manage? 6. Where is the Company based? 7. What does the Company manufacture? 8. Why is the Company successful? 9. In what ways is Alan Dury an unusual Company Chairman?

TASK 5: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE


1 NAME : 2 AGE : 3 PLACE OF BIRTH : 4 PLACE OF RESIDENCE : 5 JOB : 6 COMPANY NAME : 7 COMPANY ACTIVITY : 8 LIFE STYLE :

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Task 1: Reading. WHAT ECONOMICS IS


1. As
a scholarly discipline, Economics is only two centuries old. Adam Smith published his pathbreaking book, The Wealth of Nations in 1776, a year notable also for the Declaration of Independence. It is no coincidence that both documents appeared the same year: Political freedom from the tyranny or monarchy was closely related to emancipation of prices and wages from the interfering hand of state regulation. Smith, of course, represented only the beginning. In more than a century and a half that elapsed between the appearance of The Wealth of Nations and the publication of John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), economics went through many stages of development. Almost at the halfway point, there appeared the massive critique of capitalism by Karl Marx: Das Kapital (1867, followed by two posthumous volumes). More than a billion people, one-third of the world's population, live in countries where Das Kapital is economic gospel.

2. Adam

TASK 2: WRITE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE. JUSTIFY IN SPANISH THE FALSE ONES.
1. Economics is more than 300 years old as a scholarly discipline. 2. The Declaration of Independence and the Wealth of Nations appeared in 1776. 3. Economics did not evolve too much from 1776 to 1936. 4. Adam Smith wrote Das Kapital. 5. Das Kapital is considered the economic gospel by billions of people all over the world. T F

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TASK 3: Answer the following questions. Do it in Spanish


1. How old is economics as a scholarly discipline?

2. What did Adam Smith do?

3. Why was 1776 important?

4. What two elements were related then?

5. Did economics develop at once? Why?

6. What is Das Kapital?

7. When did it appear?

8. How is Das Kapital considered worldwide?

TASK 4: READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS: DEFINITIONS


a) On first encountering with economics, people often want a short definition. In response to this demand, there is no shortage of supply. Here are a few popular definitions: a) Economics is the study of those activities that involve production and exchange among people. b) Economics analyzes movements in the overall

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economy trends in prices, output, and unemployment. Once such phenomena are understood, economics helps develop the policies by which governments can affect the overall economy. c) Economics is the science of choice. It studies how people choose to use scarce or limited productive resources (land, labor, equipment, technical knowledge) to produce various commodities (such as wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts, roads, missiles) and distribute these goods to various members of society for their consumption. d) Economics is the study of how human beings go about the business of organizing consumption and production activities. e) Economics is the study of money, interest rates, capital and wealth.

The list is a good one, yet a philosopher can extend it many times over. Why is it so long? Because, for a subject that encloses so much and evolves so rapidly, it is always hard to compress into a few lines an exact description that will differentiate its boundaries from those of other disciplines. Economics certainly does involve all the elements stressed in these various definitions - and more. Economists today agree on a general definition something like the following: Economics is the study of how people and society choose to employ scarce resources that could have alternative uses in order to produce various commodities and to distribute them for consumption, now or in the future, among various persons and groups in society.

TASK 5: TAKE NOTES FROM THE READING:


Term to be defined: Class: Characteristics:

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TASK 6: WRITE YOUR OWN DEFINITION ABOUT ECONOMICS. DO IT IN SPANISH.

TASK 7: READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS: MEASUREMENT IN ECONOMICS


3. We might conclude that economics talks about many of life's practical questions. But it does more than talk: Economics is vitally concerned with the measurement of important phenomena - unemployment, prices, Incomes, and so forth. 4. One important example of such measurement occurs in macroeconomics. Microeconomics studies the behavior of the economy as a whole - movements in overall prices or output or employment. Microeconomics, in a sense, looks at the economy through a microscope studying the behavior of an economy's individual molecules, like firms or households. 5. Returning to measurement, one of the most important concepts in all economics is the gross national product (GNP). This represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced each year in a nation. The GNP tells us much about the real economic performance of a country. It is the best available summary measure of the quantity of real goods and services - food, clothing, penicillin, ballet, baseball, and so forth - a country is capable of generating. It tells us much about a country's living standard, its health status, and its educational attainment.

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TASK 8: REARRANGE THE FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS AND TRANSLATE IT INTO SPANISH:

Macroeconomics
of the economy as a whole

represents the total dollar value

studies the behavior

Microeconomics

of an economy's individual molecules

of all goods and Services produced each year

studies the behavior

GNP

Macroeconomics Microeconomics GNP

TASK 9 SKIM AND SCAN THE EXTRACTS AND TICK ( ) NEXT TO THE TOPICS DISCUSSED:
1. _____ Definitions of field of study. 2. _____ Some examples of how the study of economics can influence policy decisions. 3. _____Indication of importance of field of study. 4. _____ Presentation and definitions of essential terminology. 5. _____ Historical references to the development of the field of study. 6. _____ The relationship of economics to other social sciences. 7. _____ Some methodological principles, and problems.

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TASK 10: SUMMING - UP: WRITE IN SPANISH A SUMMARY OF THE THREE PASSAGES STUDIED IN CLASS .

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TASK 1: Read the following advertisement :

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TASK 2: TAKE NOTES FROM THE READING:


What is the job? - What is the salary? - Where is the job? - What is the name of the company? - What kind of company is it? - What qualities is the company looking for?

TASK 3: FILL IN THE BLANKS: Complete the paragraph using the following words.
1. short list 2. offer 3. interview 4. post/position 5. CV (Am. English : resume) 6. application 7. Apply 8. advertisement 9. Candidate

Luis decides to____________ for the job . He has to send his __________ and a letter of _______________to the address given in the ____________. If he is a good _______________, he will be put on a _______________ and invited for an _______________. If he is successful, they will _______________ him the _______________.

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TASK 4 Mark a tick () next to the most important aspects you consider when preparing a job ad.

1. benefits ______ 2. kind of company ______ 3. company name ______ 4. working skills ______ 5. company address ______ 6. professional qualification__ 7. experience ______ 8. promotion ______

9. holidays ______ 10. responsibility ______ 11. job description ______ 12. salary ______ 13. languages ______ 14. travel ______ 15. job satisfaction _____

TASK 5: Using the information in exercise 4 write your own job advertisement. Do it in Spanish.

TASK 1: Read the following article:

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TASK 2: After having read the passage given in Task 1, tick () the main function of that passage: Narration Instructions
Definition Description of objects Classification

Description of places Description of people Process

TASK 3: Refer back to the passage and choose the correct answer:
1. They in line 5 refers to : a) France, Belgium, Holland, Spain and Portugal b) Marks and Spencer 2. Their in line 9 refers to : a) People b) Marks and Spencer 3. Their in line 13 refers to : a) Franchises b) Marks and Spencer 4. They in line 18 refers to: a) Countries b) Marks and Spencer 5. They in line 26 refers to: a) Customers b) Marks and Spencer 6. His in line 31 refers to: a) man c) woman 7. Her in line 32 refers to: a) man b) woman

TASK 4: Write whether the following statements are true (t) or false (f), justify the false ones:
1. Marks and Spencer is based in the United Kingdom (UK)

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2. At the moment they are constructing a new shop in Canada

3. The company hires about 50,000 people in Great Britain (GB)

4. Marks and Spencer has been growing for the last 10 years

5. The company pays a percentage of its turnover to the owners of franchises

6. Marks and Spencers clothes and food are standard all over the world

7. Theyre very successful due to their high quality standards

8. By the year 2,000, about 20% of the Chinese population will get

their clothes from Marks and Spencer

TASK 5: Answer in Spanish the following questions:


1. Where is Marks and Spencer building a new store?

2. What does M&S sell?

3. What is M&S studying at the moment?

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4. How many people does the company employ?

5. What varies from country to country?

6. What are more and more people doing?

TASK 6: Circle the letter of the best answer according to the passage:
1. Company is a synonym of : a. corporation b. situation c. fabrics 2. Currently is a synonym of : a. Actually b. in fact c. at the moment 3. Overseas is a synonym of : a. worldwide b. abroad c. national 4. Stock is a synonym of : a. merchandise b. quality c. item 5. Average is a synonym of : a. centre b. rate c. midpoint

TASK 7: Match the TERMS on the left with their DEFINITIONS on the right:
TERMS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Customer Shelf life Turn over Franchise Item Supplier

DEFINITIONS
a) sales income. b) an agreement to use a companys name in return for a fee. c) a company which sells items to another company. d) people who use a particular shop or firm. e) how long an item remains on sale. f) the thing a company sells.

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TASK 8: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS: Organize the following ideas Selling varieties from country to country _____ High quality standards Importance of M&S in the world Future expectations The growth of M&S in the world _____ _____ _____ _____

TASK 9: SUMMINGUP: Write in Spanish a short summary about the article:

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REFERENCES: UNIT II: DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS: PROFILE OF A COMPANY CHAIRMAN. A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. & Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. pw.2.

WHAT ECONOMICS IS. Economics by Samuelson, P.A. & Nordhaus, A. McGraw-Hill. New York. 1985. p. 21

MARKETING MANAGER (SOUTH AMERICA). Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.134.

MARKS & SPENCER. Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.67.

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TASK 1: Read the article about SIR PETER PARKER:

SIR PETER PARKER: A MAN OF MANY PARTS


Sir Peter Parker is well known as a top manager. He finally chose a career in business but there were always other things he wanted to do as well. He studied History at Oxford University between 1947 and 1950, but he had many other interests. He wanted to be a sportsman: he played rugby for the University team and for his hometown. He also wanted to be an actor and, when he was a student, he acted in a lot of plays. In 1948, he played the long and difficult role of Hamlet. He wanted to be a politician - in the same year, he was chairman of the University Labour Club. Three years later, he was a candidate for parliament in his hometown, Bedford. He lost the election, but he increased his party's vote. In 1956, Peter Parker organized a big international conference on 'The Human Problems of Industry'- the chairman was Prince Philip. He worked as a manager for a number of companies during the 1950s and 1960s, and later became well known to the public as Chairman of British Rail. He joined British Rail in 1976, and left in 1983. In 1978, he was awarded a knighthood by the Queen, and became Sir Peter Parker. He received another award from the Queen in 1993 for his 'contribution to public life'. He is currently Chairman of several companies, including Mitsubishi Electric (UK), who appointed him in 1984. He was the first non-Japanese to become chairman of a Japanese company. In 1991, the Japanese Government awarded him the 'Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure.' He wrote his autobiography, For Starters, in 1989.

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TASK 2: AFTER HAVING READ THE ARTICLE GIVEN IN TASK 1, INDICATE WITH A TICK () THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THAT ARTICLE
( ( ( ( ) Description of people ) Instructions ) Description of products ) Narration ( ( ( ( ) Definition ) Description of places ) Comparison ) Process

TASK 3: SKIMMING
STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE MAIN IDEA OF THE ARTICLE GIVEN IN TASK 1:

TASK 4: WRITE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE

T
1. Sir Peter Parker was just interested in business. 2. He studied History for three years. 3. When he was a student he was an actor, a sportsman and a politician. 4. He was president of the University Labour Club in 1948. 5. In 1952, he lost the election for parliament in Bedford. 6. Prince Phillip carried out the organization of the Conference on The Human Problems of Industry in 1956. 7. Sir Peter Parker managed a lot of companies for two decades 8. He worked for the British Rail. 9. He was awarded twice by the Queen the same year. 10. He received the Grand Cordon of the Order of Sacred Treasure from a British Organization.

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TASK 5: ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN SPANISH:

1. Who is Sir Peter Parker? 2. Where did he study History? 3. What were his interests? 4. What happened in 1951? 5. When did he organize an International Conference? 6. What did he do between the 1950's and the 1960's? 7. How many awards did he receive? 8. What did he do in 1989?

TASK 6: Fill in the blanks using the information from the reading:
Sir Peter Parker was born at in _____________________, and he studied in

____________________ _____________________.

_______________________

finished

He was so versatile that he was interested in

____________________, _____________________, __________________ and _____________________.

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TASK 7: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE USING INFORMATION FROM THE READING . D ATES CAN BE A SPECIFIC YEAR OR A PERIOD : DATE EVENT 1. 1947-1950 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. a. Personific Hamlet.

TASK 8: SUMMING-UP: WRITE IN SPANISH A SHORT BIOGRAPHY ABOUT SIR PETER PARKER:

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TASK 1: Read the text about Kenshin Oshima:

TASK 2: Underline the Main Verbs. TASK 3: Fill in with the correct information:
Function of the Text: _____________________________________________ Verb Form Used: ________________________________________________

TASK 4: SKIMMING.
STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE MAIN IDEA OF THE ARTICLE GIVEN:

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TASK 4: MULTIPLE CHOICE


1. When did Kenshin Oshima join Mitsui and Co.? a. At the age of 22 b. At the age of 29 c. In 1978 2. Why did he resign from his job? a. Because his salary was very high. b. Because he wanted to work for another company. c. Because he wanted to earn a lot of money. 3. Why didnt he start his company before 1978? a. Because he spent a lot of money. b. Because he didnt want to be rich. c. Because he didnt have enough money. 4. Where did he get the money to launch his business? a. He saved money from his salary. b. He borrowed it from a bank. c. A friend lent it to him. 5. What does his company do? a. It owes money. b. It lends money. c. It borrows money.

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TASK 5: MATCH THE VERBS ON THE LEFT WITH THEIR CORRESPONDING MEANING ON THE RIGHT :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ( ( ( ( ( ( ) INVEST ) BORROW ) LEND ) AFFORD ) EARN ) SAVE a. b. c. d. To have enough money. To take a loan. To keep money for future use. To use money to buy business shares, property, etc. in order to make more money. e. To give a loan. f. To get money by working.

TASK 6: Fill in the blanks choosing the words from the box.
gets benefits owes- loan interest invest borrow lends afford earn save - worth

A bank makes a __________(1) when it __________(2) money to its customers. For example, a customer wants to buy a new car, but he cant __________(3) to pay for it, because he doesnt __________(4) enough money at work. So he goes to his bank manager and asks to __________(5) some money. But when he __________(6) the loan he also has to pay __________(7) on the money that he owes (8). A bank is also a place where customers can make money. For example, they can __________(9) their money in a fix interest account. With this type of

account, they usually know what their money will be __________(10) in three or four years time. Alternatively, customers can __________(11) their capital in a portfolio of company __________(12) which is managed by the bank.

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TASK 7: NOTE MAKING: Write notes about the most important events mentioned in the text.

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TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE: THE STORY OF COKE

sold his last shares to Asa G. Candler, a businessman from Atlanta. He distributed thousands of coupons for a complimentary glass of Coca-Cola and he promoted the drink with souvenirs fans, calendars, clocks, and novelties. Sales rose dramatically and, by 1892, they were ten times their 1888 level. Coca-Cola had to develop a bottling system and set up plants. The first bottling plant opened in Vicksburg in 1894 and over the next 25 years, the 20 number of plants rose from two to over a thousand. Other soft drink companies tried to imitate the Coca-Cola taste so the company kept the drinks formula secret and searched for a distinctive package. In 1916, they introduced the first bottle with the famous Coca-Cola shape. Then the United States joined the war, and the company President gave an order to see that every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5 cents, wherever he is and whatever the cost to the company. As a result, Coca-Cola shipped 64 bottling plants abroad during the war. And when the war finished, they were ready to conquer the world. From the mid 1940s until 1960, the number of countries with bottling plants nearly doubled.

Dr. John Styth Pemberton made it in his backyard, took it to his local pharmacy, and they put it on sale at 5 cents a glass. Hand-painted signs saying Coca-Cola appeared outside the store and inside signs invited costumers to Drink. But sales didnt take off. In the first year they average just 9 drinks a day. He thought it would never be very successful and he steadily sold his shares in the business to different partners. In 1888, just before he died, he

This was the first change in the secret formula since 1886. In pre-launch tests, consumers preferred the new taste. But the tests couldnt measure their feelings for the brand. Coca-Cola had a special place in their hearts and they didnt want a change. For the first time in History, sales of Coca-Cola fell. The company responded quickly and marketed the original formula again as Coca-Cola Classic. Sales climbed back up again, and continued to grow. And if youre not sure what the worlds top selling soft drink is by now; Coke is it.

45

TASK 2: Underline the main verbs: TASK 3: Fill in with the correct information:
Function of the Text: ________________________________________ Verb Form Used: ___________________________________________

TASK 4: SCRAMBLED PARAGRAPHS: The first sentence in each paragraph of this article is missing. They are all listed below. Read the article and decide where each sentence goes.
1. Asa Candler had a talent for marketing. 2. In the 1980s, in the USA only, the Company launched a new taste for Coke. 3. In 1941, there were bottling plants in 44 countries. 4. Coca-Cola was invented in Atlanta, Georgia on May 8th, 1886. 5. So today millions of people all over the world are drinking Coke. 6. The huge increase in the popularity of the drink led to problems meeting demand. 7. Dr. Pemberton didnt see the potential of his new drink.

TASK 5: Try to guess what these words mean in Spanish:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. signs take off shares coupons bottling plants shape 7. abroad 8. conquer 9. brand 10. responded

46

TASK 6: Answer in Spanish the following questions:


1. Who was the inventor of Coke? 2. Where was Coca-Cola invented? 3. How much was a glass of Coca-Cola at the beginning? 4. Why did Dr. Pemberton sell his shares in Coca-Cola? 5. Who did he sell his last shares? 6. What did Mr. Candler do to increase Coca-Cola sales? 7. Why did Coca-Cola Company keep the drinks formula in secret? 8. What happened to Coca-Cola after the war?

TASK 7: CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE: FILL IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE USING INFORMATION FROM THE READING.
DATE
1) May 8th, 1886 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

EVENT

Se invent la Coca-Cola

47

TASK 8: SUMMING - UP: USING THE INFORMATION FROM THE TABLE ABOVE, WRITE A SHORT SUMMARY ABOUT THE STORY OF COKE. DO IT IN SPANISH.

48

UNIT III: NARRATION:

SIR PETER PARKER: A MAN OF MANY PARTS. Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.99. KENSHIN OSHIMA: MAKING MONEY OUT OF MONEY . Business Basics by Grant, D. & McLarty, R. Oxford University Press. New York. 1995. p.102. THE STORY OF COKE. Business Venture by Barnard, R. & Cady, J. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1992. p. 56.

49

50

TASK 1: Read the following passage:

TASK 2: IDENTIFY:
Function: Verb Form Used:

TASK 3: FIND THE REFERENT:


IT in line 4 refers to: THIS in line 19 refers to: IT in line 34 refers to: THESE in line 37 refers to: THEM in line 38 refers to:

51

TASK 4: TICK () WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE, JUSTIFY THE FALSE ONES. STATEMENT
1. Always give your name when you ask to speak to someone.

2. Speak slowly and clearly.

3. Always leave your phone number. 4. When you thank someone, use the persons name. 5. Always say hello and not hi when you ask to speak to someone.

TASK 5: SKIMMING:
STATE, IN ONLY ONE SENTENCE, THE GENERAL IDEA THAT THE AUTHOR WANTS TO TRANSMIT TO THE READER IN THE PASSAGE GIVEN IN TASK 1. DO IT IN SPANISH:

52

TASK 6: Answer the following questions in Spanish according to the text.


1. How can you be successful on the phone?

2. Why do you have to pronounce your words clearly when talking on the phone?

3. What is the difference between a business call and a personal call?

4. Do you always leave your phone number? Why?

5. Why do you have to thank the person you speak with on the phone?

TASK 7: NOTE-MAKING: Write in Spanish the suggestions given in the passage.

53

TASK 1: Read the following passage.

TASK 2: Identify.
Function: ____________________________________________________ Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________ Type of Text: __________________________________________________

54

TASK 3: Circle the best answer:


WHAT DOES THE ARTICLE MAINLY DISCUSS?
A. INCREASING STRESS ON THE JOB B. REDUCING STRESS IN YOUR DAILY LIFE C. DECREASING TENSION ON THE JOB D. RAISING TENSION IN YOUR DAILY LIFE

TASK 4: Find the referent corresponding to the highlighted words.


1. their: ____________________ 3. yours : __________________ 5. each : ___________________ 2. his or her: ________________ 4. them : __________________ 6. It : ______________________

TASK 5: Match the verbs on the left with their corresponding meaning on the right:
1. ( 2. ( 3. ( 4. ( ) Propose ) Study the future ) Permit ) Delegate A. To allow B. To assign C. To suggest D. To think about what will happen

55

TASK 6: According to the passage, tick () the following statements TRUE or FALSE. Justify the false ones.
T 1. Suggest your own deadlines, rather than waiting for your boss to give them to you. F

2. Try not to think about what will happen in the future.

3. Never allow interruptions.

4. Give work to other employees, if possible, rather than doing everything yourself.

5. Dont spend time thinking about problems.

6. Take on as much work as you can, without worrying about how much time it will take.

7. Try to understand your bosss point of view.

8. Postpone taking action on a problem if you know it will upset you.

56

TASK 7: Write in Spanish a set of instructions to reduce stress.

57

UNIT IV: INSTRUCTIONS:

TIPS FOR SUCCESS ON THE TELEPHONE. Spectrum 1 by Dye, J. & Frankfort, N. Prentice Hall Regents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1993. p. 76.

HOW TO REDUCE STRESS AND BE HAPPY ON THE JOB. Spectrum 4 by Dye, J. & Frankfort, N. Prentice Hall Regents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1994. p. 110.

58

59

TASK 1: Study the graphs and complete the reports. Use only one word per space.
A. ________________ has the highest level of productivity. ________________ has a higher level than Japan but a lower level than Germany. ________________ has the lowest level of productivity.

B.

Portugal has ____________ ____________ level of labour costs and Switzerland has ____________ ____________. Spain has a ____________ level ____________ Greece, but a ____________ level ____________ Italy.

60

C.

________________ spends the most money on research and development. ________________ spends less than Japan but more than France, and ________________ spends the least.

61

D.

Norwegians pay ____________ ____________tax and Turks pay ____________ ____________. The Japanese pay ____________ ____________ the Italians but ____________ ____________ the Austrians.

E. There are fewer students in full-time education in ________________ than in Belgium, but there are more than in the Netherlands. ________________ has the most students in higher education and ________________ has the fewest.

62

TASK 2: READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE. In 1987, the Healthcare Exhibition moved from Geneva to a bigger exhibition center in Zurich, so many more exhibitors were able to attend. But the first exhibition in Zurich was badly organized and, because of this, the number of exhibitors dropped in 1988. The organizers wanted to make sure that this did not happen again, so in 1989 they reduce the cost of a stand and sent letters to hundred of companies, advertising the exhibition to non-European companies and in 1991, 118 companies attended.

Over 85.000 visitors came to the Healthcare Exhibition on the first day. This was due to a good publicity campaign and because May 1st is a public holiday in Switzerland. However, on the second day the weather was bad and many people stayed at home. On Wednesday, another important exhibition - Salvacon 93 - opened in Zurich, and the number of visitors fell again. Because of this, the organizers decided to make entrance to the exhibition free from Thursday. Their idea worked and 300.000 people visited the exhibition over the last three days.

63

TASK 3: Find the reasons mentioned for the changes A B C D.

TASK 4: Look at the verbs and match them with the right headlines.
(Taken from: A First Course in Business English By: Heinemann)

BE DROP FALL

GO UP GO DOWN IMPROVE

INCREASE
REMAIN AT THAT LEVEL

RISE STAND AT
STAY THE SAME

64

TASK 5: Look at the meaning of the following verbs and decide if they indicate an Upward (), Downward () or Horizontal () movement.
(Taken from: Speaking Activities for Professional People By: Oxford University Press)

to bottom out to climb To decline to decrease To deteriorate

to drop To even out to fall to go down to go up

To hit a low To improve To increase to pick up to reach a peak

to recover to stable to rise to slip back remain

TASK 6: Complete these Graphs:

65

TASK 7: Look at the graph and use these words to complete the sentences: (Taken from: A First Course in Business English By: Heinemann)
AT THE END OF AT THE BEGINNING OF BETWEEN AND UNTIL OVER IN SLOWLY RAPIDLY SHARPLY SLIGHTLY

_______________

(1)

January 1986, sales stood at 900 million.

_______________ (2) the next 12 months they rose _______________ (3). But _______________
(4)

1987 they dropped _______________


(6)

(5)

to 700

million. They remained at this level _______________ _______________(7) 1988 _______________


(8)

the end of 1987.

1990 they increased

_______________ (9) and reached 1.250 million. In 1990 they continued to rise, but more _______________ were 1.380 million.
(10)

and _______________

(11)

1990 sales

66

UNIT IV: TABLES, GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS:

COMPARING COUNTRIES. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 99, 100, 101. HEALTHCARE EXHIBITION. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. & Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.38. HEADLINES. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. & Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.36. COMPLETE GRAPHS. Business Objectives by Hollett, V. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1991. p. 78. SALES OF REACH PRODUCTS. . A First Course in Business English by Benn, C. & Dummett, P. Heinemann. New York. 1994. p.37.

67

68

TASK 1: Read the following text:

WAGES AND SALARIES


The organization and administration of wages and salaries is complex and varied. In some companies, the Personnel Department has more responsibility for wages and salaries than the Accounts Department. In others, the Accounts Department is more interested in negotiations with staff about pay. If a firm wants to introduce a new wage and salary structure, it will have to decide on a method of job evaluation and ways of measuring the performance of its employees. In order to be successful, that pay structure will need agreement between Trade Unions and management or a clearly defined system for dealing with problems. In job evaluation, all of the requirements of each job are specified in a detailed job description. Each of these requirements is given a value, usually in points or factors, which are added together to give a total value for the job. To pay each job what it is worth, the values are linked to the firms salary structure. For middle and higher management, a well-known points method is the Hay System. This evaluates personnel on their knowledge of the job, their responsibility, and their ability to solve problems. Because of the difficulty in measuring administrative work, however, job grades there are often decided without reference to an evaluation system based on points or factors. In attempting to reach a salaries policy, the Personnel Department should compare the value of each job with those in the job market. It should also analyse economic factors such as the cost of living and the labour supply. It is said that payment for a job should vary with any differences in the way that job is performed. Where it is simple to measure the work done, as in manual work, monetary incentive schemes and merit awards are often selected. For indirect workers, where measurement is difficult, methods of additional payments include bonus schemes based on the performance of the company. Non-financial incentive schemes are becoming more popular for all grades of staff. Fringe benefits such as sickness and pension schemes, sports club, housing and canteens are all an accepted part of the conditions of work.

69

TASK 2: Identify.
Function: ____________________________________________________ Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________ Type of Text: __________________________________________________

TASK 3: Find the referent.


It in paragraph 2 refers to: A. wage B. salary C. firm This in paragraph 3 refers to: A. Hay System B. method It in paragraph 4 refers to: A. job market B. Personnel Dpt.

C. salaries policy

TASK 4: Answer and discuss the following questions in Spanish.


1. What is the Accounts Department responsible for? 2. What is the Personnel Department responsible for?
4. What will a firm have to do if it wants to introduce a new wage and salary

structure?
5. How are job factors calculated? 6. Which is the method known for middle and higher management? What

does it evaluate?

7. Explain the difference between a direct and indirect worke r. For which

of those workers is it more difficult to calculate their output and salary or wage?

70

TASK 5: Find the main idea or important words in each paragraph.


Paragraph # 1: _____________________________________________ Paragraph # 2: _____________________________________________ Paragraph # 3: _____________________________________________ Paragraph # 4: _____________________________________________ Paragraph # 5: _____________________________________________ Paragraph # 6: _____________________________________________

TASK 6: Write a short summary of the text in Spanish.

71

TASK 1: READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

BALANCING THE BOOKS


Although accounting has been moving towards a common standard of comparability in company reporting, experienced company watchers know that for a full understanding of a profit and loss account or of a balance sheet, careful interpretation may be required. At the moment, it seems that this question of standards has divided the profession. I asked Henry Lovett, who is about to retire from his job as Managing Director of the international auditing firm of Henshaws, why his company were in favor of the flexible approach: Having studied the problem closely, Henshaws decided that in special circumstances we were justified in not using a common standard. My own view, based on over thirty years experience, is that all creditors are sufficiently protected, provided that there are proper explanations in the notes to the accounts. However, according to Samuel Wright of Denham, Coutts and Patterns: We want to see an end to the present flexibility in company reporting and a system of penalties for those who do not follow regulations. Of course, if accounting policies were completely voluntary, all kinds of methods might be employed by companies intent on presenting themselves in the best possible way. A good example of this is the voluntary guidelines in relation to inflation accounting. For a variety of reasons, many companies have avoided publishing inflation adjusted figures. Problems of avoidance such as this should be solved when current cost accounting becomes compulsory. Yet there are other areas of accounting where discretion is allowed. Take the old case of extraordinary items which are often treated in different ways. Extraordinary costs incurred for such items as plant overhaul and redundancies have in the past been charged differently by different accountants. Nor is it difficult to find discrepancies in the way that assets are valued and depreciated, for it appears that some companies have been recommended not to carry balance sheet assets at their present value but at some anticipated value. Tyne Oil is a good example. Having acquired a new tanker, they valued it an optimum disposal price. The problem centers on the question of flexibility. The system of accounting in the UK is neither at historical cost, as in the US, nor at current cost. It is a system favored by companies because they can revalue their assets at convenient times, such as when their liabilities are heavy. Then a short qualification is made in the auditors report pointing out the difficulty of making an accurate evaluation of assets, and that is all.

72

TASK 2: Identify.
Function: ____________________________________________________ Verb Form Used: ______________________________________________ Type of Text: __________________________________________________

TASK 3: Say what the words in ITALIC refers to.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. this question of standards the profession. the flexible approach the problem A good example of this Tyne Oil is a good example. It is a system and that is all.

TASK 4: Match the terms on the left with their corresponding definition on the right:
TERMS 1. Assets 2. Auditing Firm 3. Balance Sheet 4. Creditors 5. Discrepancies 6. Disposal 7. Guidelines 8. Liabilities 9. Penalties 10. Profit and Loss Account DEFINITIONS A. All debts B. All the entries on a balance sheet which show all of a companys property and resources C. Differences and Disagreements D. Fines and other punishment E. Firm that performs a critical examination and analysis of a companys accounts F. Persons to whom money is owed G. Standards of principles of operation H. Statement of a firms financial position I. Statement of the revenues and expenses of a firm J. Transferring, selling or throwing away

73

TASK 5: Answer in Spanish the following questions.


1. Why is the article entitled Balancing the Books?

2. In Henshaws view, how are the creditors protected in company reporting?

3. State in as few words as possible the difference between Lovetts and Wrights view of company reporting.

4. What one reason is suggested for companies not publishing current cost figures?

5. What does the writer think will probably happen when voluntary current cost accounting comes to an end?

6. Give examples of how accounting practices are still left to the discretion of individual companies.

7. When did Tyne Oil value their new tanker? Why did they value it at an optimum disposal price?

8. In what circumstances might an auditor enter a qualification in his report?

74

TASK 6: Answer according to the reading.


WHAT THREE METHODS OF ACCOUNTING ARE MENTIONED IN THE ARTICLE AND WHICH ONE WOULD YOU USE? WHY? DO IT IN SPANISH.

75

UNIT V: INTENSIVE READING:

WAGES AND SALARIES. Manage with English by Sandler, P.L. & Stott, C.L. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1981. p.32.

BALANCING THE BOOKS. Manage with English by Sandler, P.L. & Stott, C.L. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1981. p.159.

76

Modals Chart

Modal Can Could Will Would May Might Should Must Ought to Have Has to

Past Modal Could Could have Would Would have May have Might have Should have Had Must have Ought to have to Had to

Negative Can't Cannot Could not Won't Will not Wouldn't Would not May not Might not Should not to Must Mustn't Ought not to Don't have Doesn't have to

Negative Past Couldn't Could not Couldn't Could not have Wouldn't Would not Wouldn't Would not have May not have Might not have Should not have not Must not have Ought not to have to Didn't have Did not have to to have have

Have got to Has got to Be going to Was/were Be supposed to Be able to Be to Need Needs to Had better Used to Be about to Would rather Was/were able to Was/were to to Needed to Is/are/am/not going to Wasn't/weren't going to Isn't/aren't/am not supposed to Wasn't/weren't supposed to Isn't/aren't able to Is/are/am/not to Doesn't need to Had better not Didn't use to Was/were about to Is/are/am not about to Would rather have Would rather not Wasn't/weren't about to Would rather not have Wasn't/weren't able to Wasn't/weren't to Didn't Needn't need to

77

MAKE SURE YOU KNOW THE MEANING OF THE THESE PREPOSITIONS About ACERCA DE EN TORNO A Above ENCIMA DE Before ANTES Down DEBAJO Like COMO Out of SIN FUERA DE Outside FUERA Till (until) HASTA

Behind DETRS

For POR/PARA

Near CERCA

To PARA A Towards HACIA

Across A TRAVS DE

Below BAJO DEBAJO DE Beneath BAJO DEBAJO DE Beside AL LADO DE

From DESDE

N EXT TO PRXIMO AL LADO DE Of DE

Over POR ENCIMA

After DESPUS

In EN

Past PASADO

Under DEBAJO

Along A LO LARGO DE

In front of FRENTE A

On EN ENCIMA DE On top of ENCIMA DE

Round ALREDEDOR DE

Up ARRIBA

Among ENTRE (MS DE 2) At EN

Between ENTRE (SLO 2) By POR

Inside DENTRO DE

Since DESDE

With CON

Into DENTRO

Opposite OPUESTO

Through A TRAVS (DE)

Without SIN

78

Taken from: WRITING ACADEMIC ENGLISH By: OSIMA, Alice & A. Hogue. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 1983

Meaning/ Function

Sentence Connectors

To introduce an additional Furthermore idea moreover in addition To introduce an opposite on the other hand idea however in contrast

Clause Connectors Others Coordinators Subordinators And another (+ noun) an additional (+ noun) but although yet though even though whereas while in spite of (+ noun) despite (+ noun)

To introduce an example

for example for instance e.g. To introduce a restatement i.e. or explanation To introduce a conclusion in conclusion or summary in summary to conclude to summarize To clarify chronological first (second. third, order and order of fourth, etc.) next, last. importance finally first of all, above all after that since then more important, most important To introduce a cause or reason

an example of (+ noun) such as (+ noun)

before after while until as soon as

the first (+ noun) the second (+ noun) before the (+ noun) in the year since the (+ noun) the most important (+ noun)

for because since as

because of due to to result from the result of the effect of x on y the consequence of

79

To introduce a cause or as a result of result as a consequence therefore thus consequently hence To introduce a comparison Similarly likewise also too

so

the cause of the reason for the result in to cause to have an effect on to affect

and as just as

To introduce a contrast

on the other hand in contrast however by (in) comparison

but although yet though even though whereas while

Like just like alike similar (to) the same as both... and not only... but also compare to different from dissimilar unlike to differ from to compare to to compare with

80

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS.

VERBOS REGULARES: Son los que forman el pasado y el participio pasado aadiendo la terminacin ' -ed' I work / Yo trabajo I worked / Yo trabaj o trabajaba

Abandon Absolve Abuse

Abandonar Absolver Injuriar

Abolish Absorb Accede Accent Accuse Achieve Act Address Admit Adorn Advertise Affirm Allow Amuse Annoy Apologize Appoint Approve Arrive Assure Attack Attend Avoid Beg Belong Book Carry Cease Check

Abolir Absorber Acceder Acentuar Acusar Llevar a cabo Actuar Dirigir Admitir Adornar Anunciar Afirmar Permitir Divertir Molestar Excusarse Nombrar Aprobar Llegar Asegurar Atacar Asistir Evitar Rogar, pedir Pertenecer Reservar Llevar Cesar Comprobar

Accelerate Acelerar Accept Accustom Acquire Add Admire Adore Advance Advise Agree Amount Announce Answer Appear Approach Arrange Ask Astonish Attempt Attract Bathe Believe Blame Call Cash Change Aceptar Acostumbrar Adquirir Sumar Admirar Adorar Avanzar Aconsejar Acceder Ascender/cantidad Anunciar Contestar Aparecer Acercarse Arreglar Preguntar Asombrar Intentar Atraer Baarse Creer Culpar Llamar Cobrar Cambiar

81

Claim Clear Close Comb Command Compare Compose Consider Contain Copy Cough Cover Crown Damage Dawn Decide Defend Desire Destroy Develop Devour Dislike Divide Drop Earn Employ

Reclamar Aclarar, limpiar Cerrar Peinar Mandar Comparar Componer Considerar Contener Copiar Toser Cubrir Coronar Daar Amanecer Decidir Defender Desear Destruir Desarrollar Devorar Desaprobar Dividir Dejar caer Ganar Emplear

Clean Climb Collect Combine Commit Complain Conceal Consist Continue Correct Count Cross Cry Dance Deceive Declare Deliver Despise Detach Devote Discover Disturb Drag Dry Elect Enclose End Enter Esteem Exchange Explain Expose Extract Fear Fill Fish

Limpiar Trepar Recoger Combinar Cometer Quejarse Ocultar Consistir Continuar Corregir Contar Cruzar Gritar, llorar Bailar Engaar Declarar Entregar Despreciar Separar Dedicar Descubrir Perturbar Arrastrar Secar Elegir Incluir Terminar Entrar Estimar Cambiar Explicar Exponer Extraer Temer Llenar Pescar

Encourage Animar Enjoy Establish Evoke Expect Explode Express Fail Fetch Finish Disfrutar Establecer Evocar Esperar Estallar Expresar Fallar Ir por Acabar

82

Fit Float Follow Gain Gather Grant Guard Handle Happen Heat Hire Hunt Imagine Import Improve Increase Intend Invite Join Jump Kick Kiss Land Laugh Like Live Love Maintain Measure Mention Name Notice Obey Oblige Offer Order

Ajustar Flotar Seguir Ganar Recoger Conceder Guardar Manejar Suceder Calentar Alquilar Cazar Imaginar Importar Mejorar Aumentar Proponerse Invitar Unir Saltar Cocear Besar Aterrizar Rer Gustar Vivir Amar Mantener Medir Mencionar Nombrar

Fix Fold Found Gamble Govern Greet Guess Hang Hate Help Hope Hurry Imply Impress Include Inquire Invent Iron Joke Justify Kill Knock Last Lie Listen Look Lower Marry Mend Move Note

Fijar Doblar Fundar Jugar Gobernar Saludar Adivinar Ahorcar Odiar Ayudar Esperar Apresurarse Implicar Impresionar Incluir Averiguar Inventar Planchar Bromear Justificar Matar Golpear Durar Mentir Escuchar Mirar Bajar Casarse Componer Mover Notar Numerar Obligar Ocupar Abrir Organizar

Notar, darse cuenta Number Obedecer Obligar Ofrecer Ordenar Oblige Occupy Open Organize

83

Pack Pass Place Please Practise Prepare Produce Propose Punish Rain Receive Refuse Remain Remind Rent Repeat Report Require Return Sail Seem Shout Smile Sound Stop Suffer Suppose Talk Taste Touch Thank Translate Trouble Try Unite

Empaquetar Pasar Colocar Agradar Practicar Preparar Producir Proponer Castigar Llover Recibir Rehusar Permanecer Recordar Arrendar Repetir Informar Requerir Volver Navegar Parecer Gritar Sonrer Sonar Parar Sufrir Suponer Hablar Probar Tocar Agradecer Traducir Molestar Probar Unir

Paint Permit Play Possess Prefer Present Promise Pull Push Reach Refer Relieve

Pintar Permitir Jugar Poseer Preferir Presentar Prometer Tirar de Empujar Alcanzar Referir Aliviar

Remember Recordar Remove Repair Reply Request Rest Rush Save Sharpen Sign Smoke Start Study Suggest Surprise Tame Tire Test Tie Travel Trust Turn Use Quitar Reparar Replicar Suplicar, requerir Descansar Precipitarse Ahorrar Afilar Firmar Fumar Empezar Estudiar Sugerir Sorprender Domesticar Cansar Probar Atar Viajar Confiar Girar Usar

84

Vary Wait Want Watch Wish Worry

Variar Esperar Querer Vigilar Desear Preocuparse

Visit Walk Wash Weigh Work Wound

Visitar Andar Lavar Pesar Trabajar Herir

85

VERBOS IRREGULARES: Forman el pasado y participio pasado de manera irregular. Para el presente se comportan como los verbos regulares, aadiendo '-s' a la tercera persona singular (excepto 'to be' y 'to have'). INFINITIVO Arise Awake PASADO SIMPLE PARTICIPIO PASADO Arose Awoke Arisen Awoken Been Borne / Born Beaten Become Begun Bent Bet Bound Bid Bitten Bled Blown Broken Bred Brought Broadcast Built Burnt / Burned Burst Bought Cast Caught Come Cost Cut Chosen Clung Crept Dealt TRADUCCIN Surgir, Levantarse Despertarse Ser / Estar Soportar, dar a luz Golpear Llegar a Ser Empezar Doblar Apostar Atar, encuadernar Pujar Morder Sangrar Soplar Romper Criar Traer Llevar Radiar Edificar Quemar Reventar Comprar Arrojar Coger Venir Costar Cortar Elegir Agarrarse Arrastrarse Tratar

Be/ am, are, is Was / Were Bear Beat Become Begin Bend Bet Bind Bid Bite Bleed Blow Break Breed Bring Broadcast Build Burn Burst Buy Cast Catch Come Cost Cut Choose Cling Creep Deal Bore Beat Became Began Bent Bet Bound Bid Bit Bled Blew Broke Bred Brought Broadcast Built Burnt /Burned Burst Bought Cast Caught Came Cost Cut Chose Clung Crept Dealt

86

Dig Do (Does) Draw Dream Drink Drive Eat Fall Feed Feel Fight Find Flee Fly Forbid Forget Forgive Freeze Get Give Go (Goes) Grow Grind Hang Have Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt Keep Know Kneel Knit Lay Lead

Dug Did Drew

Dug Done Drawn

Cavar Hacer Dibujar Soar Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir Luchar Encontrar Huir Volar Prohibir Olvidar Perdonar Helar Obtener Dar Ir Crecer Moler Colgar Haber o Tener Oir Ocultar Golpear Agarrar Celebrar Herir Conservar Saber Conocer Arrodillarse Hacer punto Poner Conducir

Dreamt / Dreamed Dreamt / Dreamed Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flew Forbade Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Grew Ground Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knew Knelt Knit Laid Led Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Fled Flown Forbidden Forgotten Forgiven Frozen Got / Gotten Given Gone Grown Ground Hung Had Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Known Knelt Knit Laid Led

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Lean Leap Learn Leave Lend Let Lie Light Lose Make Mean Meet Mistake Overcome Pay Put Read Ride Ring Rise Run Say See Seek Sell Send Set Sew Shake Shear Shine Shoot Show Shrink Shut Sing

Leant Leapt Learnt / Learned Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mistook Overcame Paid Put Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shore Shone Shot Showed Shrank Shut Sang

Leant Leapt Learnt / Learned Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mistaken Overcome Paid Put Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Set Sewed / Sewn Shaken Shorn Shone Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung

Apoyarse Brincar Aprender Dejar Prestar Permitir Echarse Encender Perder Hacer Significar Encontrar Equivocar Vencer Pagar Poner Leer Montar Llamar Levantarse Correr Decir Ver Buscar Vender Enviar Poner(se) Coser Sacudir Esquilar Brillar Disparar Mostrar Encogerse Cerrar Cantar

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Sink Sit Sleep Slide Smell Sow Speak Speed Spell Spend Spill Spin Spit Split Spoil Spread Spring Stand Steal Stick Sting Stink Stride Strike Swear Sweat Sweep Swell Swim Swing Take Teach Tear Tell Think Throw

Sank Sat Slept Slid Smelt Sowed Spoke Sped Spelt Spent Spilt / Spilled Spun Spat Split Spoilt / Spoiled Spread Sprang Stood Stole Stuck Stung Stank/Stunk Strode Struck Swore Sweat Swept Swelled Swam Swung Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw

Sunk Sat Slept Slid Smelt Sowed / Sown Spoken Sped Spelt Spent Spilt / Spilled Spun Spat Split Spoilt / Spoiled Spread Sprung Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Stunk Stridden Struck Sworn Sweat Swept Swollen Swum Swung Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown

Hundir Sentarse Dormir Resbalar Oler Sembrar Hablar Acelerar Deletrear Gastar Derramar Hilar Escupir Hender / partir / rajar Estropear Extender Saltar Estar en pie Robar Pegar Engomar Picar Apestar Dar zancadas Golpear Jurar Sudar Barrer Hinchar Nadar Columpiarse Coger Ensear Rasgar Decir Pensar Arrojar Tirar

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Thrust Tread Understand Undergo Undertake Wake Wear Weave Weep Wet Win Wind Withdraw Wring Write

Thrust Trod Understood Underwent Undertook Woke Wore Wove Wept Wet Won Wound Withdrew Wrung Wrote

Thrust Trodden Understood Undergone Undertaken Woken Worn Woven Wept Wet Won Wound Withdrawn Wrung Written

Introducir Pisar, hollar Entender Sufrir Emprender Despertarse Llevar puesto Tejer Llorar Mojar Ganar Enrollar Retirarse Torcer Escribir

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VERBOS COMPUESTOS Verbos que se acompaan de un adverbio (phrasal verbs) o preposicin (prepositional verbs) modificando su sentido segn el adverbio o la preposicin. ADD UP ANSWER BACK ASK ABOUT ASK FOR ASK BACK ASK IN ASK UP BACK AWAY BACK UP BE AWAY BE FOR BE OFF BE OUT BE UP BEND OVER BLOW DOWN BLOW OUT BREAK AWAY BREAK IN BREAK UP BRING BACK BRING ALONG BRING IN BRING UP BURN AWAY BURN OUT BUY FOR BUY UP CALL AT CALL BACK Totalizar contestar de malos modos preguntar por (un asunto) pedir, preguntar por invitar a volver invitar a entrar invitar a subir retroceder Reforzar estar fuera estar a favor de irse, estar apagado estar fuera estar levantado Inclinarse derrumbarse por el viento apagar (se) (una llama) Soltarse irrumpir, interrumpir BACK OUT BE ABOUT BE BACK BE IN BE ON BE OVER BEND DOWN BLOW AWAY BLOW OFF BLOW UP BREAK DOWN BREAK OFF volver atrs estar por (un lugar) estar de vuelta estar en casa estar encendido estar acabado Agacharse llevarse (el viento) dejar salir (el vapor) volar (con explosivos) derruir, averiarse romper (se) (relaciones) estallar (una guerra) Acarrear derribar, rebajar hacer salir, publicar quitar el polvo derrumbarse fuego) (por el ADD UP TO ANSWER FOR ASK AFTER ASK UP TO ASK DOWN ASK OUT alcanzar un total responder de preguntar por la salud pedir hasta (un precio) invitar a bajar invitar a salir

terminar el curso o una BREAK OUT relacin Devolver traer (consigo) hacer entrar criar, educar consumirse (el fuego) consumirse (el fuego) comprar por o para Acaparar Hacer una visita, hacer CALL AWAY escala Llamar (a alguien) para que CALL FOR regrese BRING ABOUT BRING DOWN BRING OUT BRUSH OFF BURN DOWN BURN UP BUY OVER

consumirse (por el fuego) Sobornar

Seguir llamando Pedir a voces, exigir

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CALL IN CALL OUT CALL UP CARRY ALONG CARRY ON CLEAR AWAY CLEAR OUT CLOSE DOWN COME ABOUT COME ALONG COME AWAY COME FOR COME IN COME ON COME TO COME UP TO COUNT ON COUNT UP TO CRY OUT CRY TO CUT IN CUT OUT CUT UP DIE AWAY DIE OUT DO WITHOUT DRAW BACK DRAW IN DRAW ON DRAW UP DRIVE BACK DRIVE IN

Llamar (a alguien) para que CALL ON entre Gritar Telefonear Persuadir Continuar Dispersar (se) Marcharse Cerrar Suceder CALL OVER CALL DOWN CARRY OFF CARRY OUT CLEAR OFF CLEAR UP CLOSE UP COME ACROSS

Ir a ver (a alguien) Pasar lista, enumerar Llamar (a alguien) para que baje Llevarse a la fuerza Llevar a cabo Marcharse Aclararse (el tiempo,un misterio) Acercarse Encontrarse con Embestir Bajar Venir de Desprenderse Salir Subir Incluir Calcular Pedir llorando Lamentarse Reducir gastos, talar Separar de un tajo Acortar por un atajo

Acompaar, venir por (la COME AT calle) Desprenderse Venir por (en busca de) Entrar Vamos! (en imperativo) Ascender (una volver en s. Acercarse a Contar con Contar hasta Llorar a gritos Llamar a gritos Interrumpir Recortar, omitir Trinchar, triturar Cesar poco a poco Extinguirse Pasarse sin (carecer de) Retroceder Economizar, encoger (se) Aproximarse, retirar fondos Para (un vehculo) Rechazar Entrar en coche, introducir DIE DOWN DO UP DRAW AWAY DRAW DOWN DRAW OFF DRAW OUT DRIVE AWAY DRIVE BY DRIVE OUT suma), COME DOWN COME FROM COME OFF COME OUT COME UP COUNT IN COUNT UP CRY FOR CRY OVER CUT DOWN CUT OFF CUT THROUGH

Apaciguarse Abrochar Alejarse Bajar Apartarse Sacar, redactar, alargarse (el da) Ahuyentar, alejarse en coche Pasar en coche Salir en coche, expulsar

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DRIVE OFF EAT AWAY EAT UP FALL DOWN FALL OVER FIGHT ON FILL IN FIND OUT FLY ABOUT FLY AWAY FLY OFF GET ABOUT GET AT GET BACK GET TO GET OUT (OF) GET ON GET OVER GET UP GIVE BACK GIVE OUT GO ABOUT GO AT GO BY GO IN / INTO GO ON GO OVER GO UP GO ACROSS HANG ABOUT HANG BEHIND HANG OFF HOLD BACK HOLD OUT

Alejarse ahuyentar Erosionar Devorar Caerse Tropezar

en

coche, EAT INTO Roer

FALL OFF FIGHT OFF FIGHT UP FILL UP FIX UP FLY AT FLY DOWN

Disminuir, desprenderse Ahuyentar Luchar valerosamente Rellenar, llenar Arreglar (un asunto) Atacar Descender

Seguir luchando Rellenar Averiguar Volar de un lado a otro Huir volando Desprenderse Ir de ac para all Dar a entender Volver, recuperar Llegar a Salir, apearse Subirse, progresar Saltar por recobrarse Levantarse Devolver Agotarse, repartir Ir de un lado para otro Atacar Pasar por Entrar Continuar Repasar Subir Atravesar Vagar Quedarse atrs Colgar (el telfono) Detener Resistir encima,

GET ALONG GET AWAY GET DOWN GET IN / INTO GET OFF GET OUT GET THROUGH GIVE AWAY GIVE OFF GIVE UP GO ALONG GO AWAY GO DOWN GO OFF GO OUT GO THROUGH GO UP TO GO WITHOUT HANG BACK HANG FROM HANG UP HOLD ON HURRY ALONG

Hacer progreso Escaparse Descender Entrar, meterse Apearse, bajarse Producir, salir Abrirse camino Repartir, denunciar Despedir (humo, olor) Entregar, rendirse Ir a lo largo de Marcharse Bajar Explotar, marcharse Salir, pasarse de moda, apagarse Penetrar, sufrir Acercarse a Pasarse sin Retraerse Colgar de Colgar (un cuadro) Continuar Darse prisa

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HURRY AWAY HURRY UP JUMP ABOUT JUMP DOWN JUMP ON KEEP AWAY KEEP DOWN KEEP UP KNOCK AT KNOCK OUT LOOK AFTER LOOK BEHIND LOOK FOR LOOK IN LOOK OUT LOOK ROUND MOVE AWAY MOVE DOWN MOVE OFF MOVE OUT PASS AWAY PASS IN PAY FOR PAY OFF POINT AT POINT TO POINT OUT PULL AWAY PULL OFF PULL UP PUT BACK PUT IN PUT ON PUT UP RUN ABOUT

Irse rpidamente Darse prisa Dar saltos Bajar de un salto Subir de un salto Mantenerse alejado Controlar Mantenerse de pie, resistir Llamar (a la puerta) Dejar fuera de combate Cuidar Mirar atrs Buscar Mirar dentro Mirar fuera Mirar alrededor Alejarse Bajar Marcharse Mudarse (de domicilio) Fallecer Entrar Pagar Liquidar pagar Sealar Sealar Destacar Arrancar Arrancar Parar (un vehculo) Poner en su sitio Meter, instalar Ponerse (una prenda) Subir (algo), alojarse Correr de ac para all (una cuenta),

HURRY OFF

Irse rpidamente

JUMP AT JUMP IN JUMP OVER KEEP BACK KEEP OFF KNOCK ABOUT KNOCK DOWN

Atacar Entrar de un salto Saltar por encima de Mantenerse separado Abstenerse Golpear ac y all Derribar

LOOK AT LOOK DOWN LOOK FORWARD TO LOOK LIKE LOOK OVER LOOK UP MOVE ALONG MOVE IN MOVE ON MOVE UP PASS BY PASS ON PAY IN PAY UP POINT AWAY POINT DOWN POINT UP PULL DOWN PULL OUT PUT AWAY PUT DOWN PUT OFF PUT OUT PUT UP WITH RUN ACROSS

Mirar Mirar abajo Anhelar Parecer Mirar por encima de Mirar arriba, buscar Pasar, no detenerse Mudarse (de domicilio) No detenerse, pasar a (otro asunto) Moverse (para dejar sitio) Pasar por (un sitio) Pasar (de mano en mano) Ingresar (dinero) Pagar (una deuda) Sealar a lo lejos Sealar abajo Sealar arriba Derribar Sacar Poner a un lado Anotar, bajar (algo) Posponer Apagar, sacar Soportar
Encontrarse con, atravesar corriendo

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RUN DOWN RUN OFF RUN OVER SEE ABOUT SEE TO SEND DOWN SEND OFF SEND UP SET DOWN SHUT IN SIT DOWN SIT FOR SPEAK TO STAND BY STAND OUT STAY AT STAY IN STEP ACROSS STEP IN STEP UP STOP BY STOP UP TAKE DOWN TAKE IN TAKE OUT TAKE UP TALK OF TEAR AWAY TEAR UP THROW BACK THROW IN THROW OUT

Pararse (un reloj), enfermar RUN IN Escapar corriendo Atropellar Indagar Encargarse de Bajar (algo) Despachar,despedir (trabajadores) Subir (algo) Asentar, colocar Encerrar Sentarse Presentarse (a un examen) Hablar con Quedarse cerca Destacar Hospedarse Quedarse en casa Atravesar Entrar Subir Quedarse al lado de Empastar (una muela), tapar (una botella) Escribir al dictado, bajar TAKE FOR (algo) Engaar, meter Sacar, quitar Subir (algo) Hablar de Quitar (rasgando) Hacer pedazos (rasgando) Devolver Tirar hacia adentro Arrojar TAKE OFF TAKE TO TALK ABOUT TALK TO TEAR OFF THROW AWAY THROW DOWN THROW OFF THROW UP RUN OUT RUN UP SEE OFF SEND ALONG SEND FOR SEND ROUND SET ABOUT SET OFF SHUT UP SIT UP SPEAK FOR SPEAK UP STAND OFF STAND UP STAY BY STAY OUT STEP DOWN STEP OUT STEP UP TO STOP IN

Entrar corriendo Salir corriendo Subir corriendo Despedir (a alguien) Despachar Enviar por Circular Ponerse (a trabajar) Partir (para un viaje) Callarse, tienda) cerrar (una

Incorporarse, erguido Hablar a favor de

sentarse

Hablar en alta voz Mantenerse alejado Ponerse de pie Permanecer al lado de Quedarse fuera de casa Bajar Salir Acercarse a (alguien) Quedarse en casa

Tomar por (equivocarse) Quitarse (una prenda), despegar Llevar a Hablar acerca de Hablar con Separar (rasgando) Tirar (algo inservible) Tirar hacia abajo Echar fuera Tirar hacia arriba

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TRY ON TURN BACK TURN OFF TURN OUT TURN INTO WALK ABOUT WALK AWAY WALK IN WALK UP WORK UNDER

Probarse una prenda Darse la vuelta

TURN AWAY TURN DOWN

Mirar a otro lado Poner boca abajo Encender (la luz), abrir (una llave) Volcar, poner boca abajo Llegar Andar por Bajar Marcharse Calcular Anotar

Apagar (la luz), cerrar (una TURN ON llave) Apagar Convertirse Andar de ac para all Alejarse andando Entrar Subir Trabajar a las rdenes de TURN OVER TURN UP WALK ALONG WALK DOWN WALK OFF WORK OUT WRITE DOWN

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BANNERS DISEADOS PARA EL AULA VIRTUAL

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