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Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT SECOND DIVISION G.R. No. 143647 November 11, 2005 YUSUKE FUKU UME,* Petitioner, vs. PEOP!E OF T"E P"#!#PP#NES,** Respon ent. DECISION $USTR#$%M$RT#NE , J.& !efore us is a petition for revie" on certiorari un er Rule #$ of the Rules of Court assailing the Decision% of the Court of &ppeals 'C&( ate )arch %*, +,,, in C&-..R. CR No. +%///, "hich affir0e "ith 0o ification the 1u g0ent of the Regional 2rial Court 'R2C( of )a3ati, !ranch %#4 ate October +%, %554 in Cri0inal Case No. 5$-,/*, fin ing herein accuse -appellant guilt6 be6on reasonable oubt of the cri0e of estafa, sentencing hi0 to suffer the penalt6 of i0prison0ent for t"ent6 '+,( 6ears an to pa6 private co0plainant the su0 of P#+#,,,,.,,7 an the C& Resolution ate 8une %4, +,,, en6ing petitioner9s 0otion for reconsi eration.+ 2he facts of the case are as follo"s: Private co0plainant 8avier Ng ;u ';u( is a business0an engage in bu6ing an selling alu0inu0 scrap "ires.*So0eti0e in 8ul6 %55%, ;u, acco0panie b6 a frien , )r. 8ovate,# "ho "as the vice-presi ent of )anila Electric Co0pan6, "ent to the house of herein accuse -appellant ;usu3e <u3u=u0e '<u3u=u0e( in Para>a?ue.$ 8ovate intro uce <u3u=u0e to ;u telling the latter that <u3u=u0e is fro0 <uru3a"a Electric Corporation '<uru3a"a( an that he has at his isposal alu0inu0 scrap "ires.4 <u3u=u0e confir0e this infor0ation an tol ;u that the scrap "ires belong to <uru3a"a but the6 are un er the care of National Po"er Corporation 'N&POCOR(.@ !elieving <u3u=u0e9s representation to be true, ;u agree to bu6 the alu0inu0 scrap "ires fro0 <u3u=u0e./ 2he initial agree purchase price "as P+,,,,,,.,,.5 ;u gave <u3u=u0e su0s of 0one6 on various ates "hich eventuall6 totale P+5,,,,,.,,, bro3en o"n as follo"s: P$,,,,,.,,, given on 8ul6 %+, %55%7 P+,,,,,.,,, given on 8ul6 ++, %55%7 P$,,,,,.,,, given on October %#, %55%7 an , P%@,,,,,.,,, given on October %/, %55%.%, <u3u=u0e a 0itte that he receive the sa0e fro0 ;u an that he still o"es hi0 the a0ount of P+5,,,,,.,,.%% 2o support his clai0 that the alu0inu0 scrap "ires being sol are in ee o"ne b6 <uru3a"a, that these scrap "ires are "ith N&POCOR, an that <uru3a"a9s authori=e representatives are allo"e to "ith ra" an ispose of sai scrap "ires, <u3u=u0e gave ;u t"o certifications ate Dece0ber %@, %55% an Dece0ber +@, %55% purporte l6 issue b6 N&POCOR an signe b6 its legal counsel b6 the na0e of R. ;. Ro rigue=.%+ &t the ti0e that <u3u=u0e gave ;u the secon certification, he as3e 0one6 fro0 the latter telling hi0 that it shall be given as gifts to so0e of the people in N&POCOR. ;u gave <u3u=u0e 0one6 an , in eAchange, the latter issue t"o chec3s, one forP%,,,,,,.,, an the other for P*#,,,,.,,.%* Bo"ever, "hen ;u eposite the chec3s, the6 "ere ishonore on the groun that the account fro0 "hich the chec3s shoul have been ra"n is alrea 6 close .%# Subse?uentl6, ;u calle up <u3u=u0e to infor0 hi0 that the chec3s bounce .%$ <u3u=u0e instea tol hi0 not to "orr6 because in one or t"o "ee3s he "ill give ;u the necessar6 authori=ation to enable hi0 to retrieve the alu0inu0 scrap "ires fro0 N&POCOR.%4 On 8anuar6 %@, %55+, <u3u=u0e gave ;u a letter of even ate, signe b6 the Director of the Overseas Operation an Po"er 2rans0ission Pro1ect Divisions of <uru3a"a, authori=ing <u3u=u0e to ispose of eAcess alu0inu0 con uctor 0aterials "hich are store in their epots in 2ana6 an !ulacan.%@ 2hereafter, <u3u=u0e agree to acco0pan6 ;u "hen the latter is going to ta3e the alu0inu0 scrap "ires fro0 the N&POCOR co0poun .%/ Chen ;u arrive at the N&POCOR co0poun on the sche ule ate, <u3u=u0e "as no"here to be foun .%5 Bence, ;u procee e to sho" the ocu0ents of authori=ation to N&POCOR personnel. Bo"ever, the people fro0 N&POCOR i not honor the authori=ation letter issue b6 <uru3a"a ate 8anuar6 %@, %55+.+,N&POCOR also refuse to ac3no"le ge the certifications ate Dece0ber %@, %55% an Dece0ber +@, %55% clai0ing that these are spurious as the person "ho signe these ocu0ents is no longer connecte "ith N&POCOR as of Dece0ber %55%.+% Dnable to get the alu0inu0 scrap "ires fro0 the N&POCOR co0poun , ;u tal3e to <u3u=u0e an as3e fro0 the latter the refun of the 0one6 he pai hi0.++ <u3u=u0e pro0ise to return ;u9s 0one6.+* Chen <u3u=u0e faile to co0pl6 "ith his un erta3ing, ;u sent hi0 a e0an letter as3ing for the refun of P#+#,,,,.,, plus loss of profits.+# Subse?uentl6, ;u file a co0plaint "ith the National !ureau of Investigation 'N!I(.+$

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In an Infor0ation, ate Nove0ber #, %55#, file "ith the R2C of )a3ati, <u3u=u0e "as charge "ith estafa co00itte as follo"s: 2hat so0eti0e in the 0onth of 8ul6, %55% up to Septe0ber %@, %55+, in the )unicipalit6 of )a3ati, )etro )anila, Philippines, a place "ithin the 1uris iction of this Bonorable Court, the above-na0e accuse , "ith intent to pre1u ice an efrau 8avier ;u 6 Ng, i then an there "illfull6, unla"full6 an feloniousl6 0a3e false representation an frau ulent 0anifestation that he is the ul6 authori=e representative of <uru3a"a Electric Co. Et ., in the Philippines, an "as authori=e to sell eAcess alu0inu0 con uctor 0aterials not being use b6 Napocor an <uru3a"a, the accuse 3no"ing full "ell that those representations "ere false an "ere onl6 0a e to in uce an convince sai 8avier ;u 6 Ng to bu6 sai 0aterials, "ho believing sai representations to be true, gave an elivere the total a0ount of P#+#,,,,.,, but the accuse once in possession of the 0one6, far fro0 co0pl6ing "ith his obligation to eliver sai alu0inu0 con uctor 0aterials to herein co0plainant, "ith intent of gain, unfaithfulness an abuse of confi ence, applie an use for his o"n personal use an benefit the sai a0ount an espite repeate e0an s faile an refuse an still fails an refuses to account for, to the a0age an pre1u ice of 8avier ;u 6 Ng in the afore0entione a0ount of P#+#,,,,.,,. CON2R&R; 2O E&C.+4 Dpon being arraigne on <ebruar6 +/, %55$, <u3u=u0e plea e not guilt6.+@ 2rial ensue . In its Decision ate October +%, %554, the trial court foun <u3u=u0e guilt6 as charge . 2he ispositive portion of the R2C ecision rea s: CBERE<ORE, all the foregoing pre0ises consi ere , the Court hereb6 fin s the accuse .DIE2; be6on reasonable oubt of the cri0e of estafa an hereb6 or ers hi0 to suffer the 0aAi0u0 penalt6 of i0prison0ent for t"ent6 '+,( 6ears. Cith respect to his civil liabilit6, accuse is hereb6 or ere to pa6 co0plainant the a0ount ofP#+#,,,,.,, plus legal interest fro0 the ate of e0an until full6 pai . SO ORDERED.+/ &ggrieve b6 the trial court9s ecision, <u3u=u0e file an appeal "ith the C&. On )arch %*, +,,,, the C& pro0ulgate its ecision affir0ing the fin ings an conclusions of the trial court but 0o if6ing the penalt6 i0pose , thus: F although the trial court correctl6 i0pose the 0aAi0u0 penalt6 of i0prison0ent for t"ent6 '+,( 6ears, it faile to eter0ine the 0ini0u0 penalt6 for the offense co00itte ' prision correccional in its 0aAi0u0 perio to prision mayor in its 0ini0u0 perio but i0pose in the 0aAi0u0 perio (, hence, the penalt6 is 0o ifie to siA '4( 6ears an one '%( a6 of prision mayor in its 0ini0u0 perio , as the 0ini0u0, to not 0ore than t"ent6 '+,( 6ears ofreclusion temporal in its 0aAi0u0 perio , as 0aAi0u0.+5 &ccor ingl6, the ispositive portion of the C& Decision rea s: CBERE<ORE, the 1u g0ent appeale fro0, eAcept for the afore0entione 0o ification in the prison ter0 of appellant, is hereb6 &<<IR)ED. SO ORDERED.*, Bence, herein petition file b6 <u3u=u0e base on the follo"ing groun s: 2BE DECISION O< 2BE BONOR&!EE CODR2 O< &PPE&ES 2B&2 2BE 2RI&E CODR2 O< )&G&2I B&S 8DRISDIC2ION IS NO2 IN &CCORD CI2B E&C OR CI2B 2BE &PPEIC&!EE DECISIONS O< 2BE SDPRE)E CODR2. 2BE BONOR&!EE CODR2 O< &PPE&ES B&D DECIDED & HDES2ION O< SD!S2&NCE IN & C&; NO2 IN &CCORD CI2B E&C OR CI2B 2BE &PPEIC&!EE DECISIONS O< 2BE SDPRE)E CODR2 CBEN I2 CONCEDDED 2B&2 2BE &EEE.ED <&ESE PRE2ENSE C&S EIECD2ED PRIOR 2O OR SI)DE2&NEODS CI2B 2BE &EEE.ED CO))ISSION O< 2BE <R&DD. 2BE BONOR&!EE CODR2 O< &PPE&ES B&D DECIDED & HDES2ION O< SD!S2&NCE IN & C&; NO2 IN &CCORD CI2B E&C OR CI2B 2BE &PPEIC&!EE DECISIONS O< 2BE SDPRE)E CODR2 !; <&IEIN. 2O CONSIDER 2B&2 2BE ORI.IN&E 2R&NS&C2ION !E2CEEN 2BE PE2I2IONER &ND PRIV&2E CO)PE&IN&N2 B&D !EEN NOV&2ED &ND CONVER2ED IN2O & )ERE DE!2OR-

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CREDI2OR REE&2IONSBIP, 2BERE!; EI2IN.DISBIN. 2BE INCIPIEN2 CRI)IN&E EI&!IEI2; 2BEREO<, I< &N;.*% Ce agree "ith <u3u=u0e9s contention that the C& erre in ruling that the R2C of )a3ati has 1uris iction over the offense charge . 2he C& rule : 2he trial court of )a3ati has 1uris iction. Sub1ect to eAisting la"s, in all cri0inal prosecutions, the action shall be institute an trie in the court of the 0unicipalit6 or territor6 "herein the offense "as co00itte or an6 one of the essential ingre ients thereof too3 place 'Rule %%,, Sec. %$, Rules of Court(. &lthough the false representation an verbal contract of sale of the alu0inu0 scrap "ires too3 place at appellant9s resi ence in Para>a?ue, appellant an private co0plainant nevertheless a 0itte that the initial pa60ent of P$,,,,,.,, for sai transaction "as 0a e at the Botel Intercontinental in )a3ati Cit6 'Recor , pp. %$, 4/(. Bence, an ele0ent of the cri0e J that the offen e part6 "as in uce to part "ith his 0one6 because of the false pretense J occurre "ithin the 1uris iction of the lo"er court giving it 1uris iction over the instant case. 2he C& rule on the basis of the s"orn state0ent of ;u file "ith the N!I on &pril %5, %55#*+ an the affi avit of <u3u=u0e "hich "as subscribe on 8ul6 +,, %55#.** Cith respect to the s"orn state0ent of ;u, "hich "as presente in evi ence b6 the prosecution, it is clear that he allege therein that on 8ul6 %+, %55%, he gave <u3u=u0e the a0ount of P$,,,,,.,, at the Intercontinental Botel in )a3ati. Bo"ever, "e agree "ith <u3u=u0e9s contention that ;u testifie uring his irect eAa0ination that on 8ul6 %+, %55% he gave the a0ount of P$,,,,,.,, to <u3u=u0e in the latter9s house. It is not ispute that <u3u=u0e9s house is locate in Para>a?ue. ;u testifie thus: H )r. Citness, 6ou testifie the last ti0e that 6ou 3no" the accuse in this case, )r. ;usu3e <u3u=u0eK & ;es, sir. H No", "oul 6ou enlighten us un er "hat circu0stance 6ou ca0e to 3no" the accuse K & I 3no" the accuse )r. ;usu3e <u3u=u0e through )r. Bubati. H &n "h6 or ho" i )r. Bubati co0e to 3no" the accuse , if 6ou 3no"K & )r. Bubati ca0e to 06 place ealing "ith the alu0inu0 scrap "ires. &22;. N. SERIN. ;our Bonor, 0a6 I 0ove to stri3e out the ans"er. It is not responsive to the ?uestion. CODR2 Please "ait until the ans"er is co0plete . H No", 6ou 0et this )r. Bubati. Bo"K & Be ca0e to 0e offering 0e alu0inu0 scrap "ires. <ISC&E E. BIR&N. H Chen "as that, )r. CitnessK & 2hat "as in %55%, sir. CODR2 ChenK <ISC&E E. BIR&N. ;our Bonor please, 0a6 the "itness be allo"e to consult his 0e0oran u0. & 8ul6 %+, %55%, sir. H &n "hat transpire uring that ti0e 6ou 0et )r. BubatiK & Ce "ent to the house of )r. <u3u=u0e an ga0e 'sic( hi0 so0e a0ount of 0one6. H No", "oul 6ou tell the Court the reason "h6 6ou parte to the accuse in this case the a0ount of 0one6K & In pa60ent of the alu0inu0 scrap "ires an "e have ocu0ents to that effect. H No", please tell us "hat reall6 "as that transaction that too3 place at the house of )r. <u3u=u0e on that particular ateK & Our agree0ent "ith )r. Bubati an "ith )r. <u3u=u0e is that, I a0 going to give 0one6 in pa60ent of the alu0inu0 scrap "ires co0ing fro0 <uru3a"a Eletric Co0pan6. H Bo" 0uch is the a0ount of 0one6 "hich 6ou agree to give to the accuse K & Our first agree0ent "as for P+,,,,,,. H Chere is that alu0inu0 scrap locate K & 2he electric alu0inu0 scrap "ires "as or "ere un er the care of the National Po"er Corporation but accor ing to )r. <u3u=u0e it belongs to <uru3a"a Electric Co0pan6.

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H In short, )r. Citness, on 8ul6 %+, %55%, 6ou onl6 gave to the accuse the a0ount of P$,,,,,K &22;. N. SERIN. Ob1ection, ;our Bonor. <ISC&E E. BIR&N. 2he co0plainant testifie he gave P$,,,,,. I a0 as3ing ho" 0uch the co0plainant gave to the accuse on that particular ate. & On 8ul6 %+, I gave hi0 P$,,,,, on that ate. H Not P+,,,,,,K & No, sir.*# Settle is the rule that "henever there is inconsistenc6 bet"een the affi avit an the testi0on6 of a "itness in court, the testi0on6 co00an s greater "eight consi ering that affi avits ta3en ex parte are inferior to testi0on6 given in court, the for0er being al0ost invariabl6 inco0plete an oftenti0es inaccurate.*$ )ore i0portantl6, "e fin nothing in the irect or cross-eAa0ination of ;u to establish that he gave an6 0one6 to <u3u=u0e or transacte business "ith hi0 "ith respect to the sub1ect alu0inu0 scrap "ires insi e or "ithin the pre0ises of the Intercontinental Botel in )a3ati, or an6"here in )a3ati for that 0atter. Venue in cri0inal cases is an essential ele0ent of 1uris iction. *4 Citing Uy vs. Court of Appeals,*@ "e hel in the fairl6 recent case of Macasaet vs. People*/ that: It is a fun a0ental rule that for 1uris iction to be ac?uire b6 courts in cri0inal cases the offense shoul have been co00itte or an6 one of its essential ingre ients too3 place "ithin the territorial 1uris iction of the court. 2erritorial 1uris iction in cri0inal cases is the territor6 "here the court has 1uris iction to ta3e cogni=ance or to tr6 the offense allege l6 co00itte therein b6 the accuse . 2hus, it cannot ta3e 1uris iction over a person charge "ith an offense allege l6 co00itte outsi e of that li0ite territor6. <urther0ore, the 1uris iction of a court over the cri0inal case is eter0ine b6 the allegations in the co0plaint or infor0ation. &n once it is so sho"n, the court 0a6 vali l6 ta3e cogni=ance of the case. "o'ever, () *+e ev(,e-.e /,,0.e, ,0r(-1 *+e *r(/2 3+o' *+/* *+e o))e-3e '/3 .omm(**e, 3ome'+ere e23e, *+e .o0r* 3+o02, ,(3m(33 *+e /.*(o- )or '/-* o) 40r(3,(.*(o-.*5'E0phasis supplie ( Chere life or libert6 is affecte b6 its procee ings, the court 0ust 3eep strictl6 "ithin the li0its of the la" authori=ing it to ta3e 1uris iction an to tr6 the case an to ren er 1u g0ent.#, In the present case, the cri0inal infor0ation against <u3u=u0e "as file "ith an trie b6 the R2C of )a3ati. Be "as charge "ith estafa as efine un er &rticle *%$, paragraph +'a( of the Revise Penal Co e, the ele0ents of "hich are as follo"s: %. 2hat there 0ust be a false pretense, frau ulent act or frau ulent 0eans. +. 2hat such false pretense, frau ulent act or frau ulent 0eans 0ust be 0a e or eAecute prior to or si0ultaneousl6 "ith the co00ission of the frau . *. 2hat the offen e part6 0ust have relie on the false pretense, frau ulent act, or frau ulent 0eans, that is, he "as in uce to part "ith his 0one6 or propert6 because of the false pretense, frau ulent act, or frau ulent 0eans. #. 2hat as a result thereof, the offen e part6 suffere a0age.#% 2he cri0e "as allege in the Infor0ation as having been co00itte in )a3ati. Bo"ever, asi e fro0 the s"orn state0ent eAecute b6 ;u on &pril %5, %55#, the prosecution presente no other evi ence, testi0onial or ocu0entar6, to corroborate ;u9s s"orn state0ent or to prove that an6 of the above-enu0erate ele0ents of the offense charge "as co00itte in )a3ati. In ee , the prosecution faile to establish that an6 of the subse?uent pa60ents 0a e b6 ;u in the a0ounts of P$,,,,,.,, on 8ul6 %+, %55%, P+,,,,,.,, on 8ul6 ++, %55%, P$,,,,,.,, on October %#, %55% an P%@,,,,,.,, on October %/, %55% "as given in )a3ati. Neither "as there proof to sho" that the certifications purporting to prove that N&POCOR has in its custo 6 the sub1ect alu0inu0 scrap "ires an that <u3u=u0e is authori=e b6 <uru3a"a to sell the sa0e "ere given b6 <u3u=u0e to ;u in )a3ati. On the contrar6, the testi0on6 of ;u establishe that all the ele0ents of the offense charge ha been co00itte in Para>a?ue, to "it: that on 8ul6 %+, %55%, ;u "ent to the house of <u3u=u0e in Para>a?ue7 that "ith the intention of selling the sub1ect alu0inu0 scrap "ires, the latter preten e that he is a representative of <uru3a"a "ho is authori=e to sell

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the sai scrap "ires7 that base on the false pretense of <u3u=u0e, ;u agree to bu6 the sub1ect alu0inu0 scrap "ires7 that ;u pai <u3u=u0e the initial a0ount of P$,,,,,.,,7 that as a result, ;u suffere a0age. State ifferentl6, the cri0e of estafa, as efine an penali=e un er &rticle *%$, paragraph +'a( of the Revise Penal Co e, "as consu00ate "hen ;u an <u3u=u0e 0et at the latter9s house in Para>a?ue an , b6 falsel6 preten ing to sell alu0inu0 scrap "ires, <u3u=u0e "as able to in uce ;u to part "ith his 0one6. 2he Office of the Solicitor .eneral argues that <u3u=u0e hi0self allege in his affi avit ate 8ul6 +,, %55# that in an unspecifie ate, he receive P$,,,,,.,, fro0 ;u at the Intercontinental Botel in )a3ati. Bo"ever, "e cannot rel6 on this affi avit for the reason that it for0s part of the recor s of the preli0inar6 investigation an , therefore, 0a6 not be consi ere evi ence. It is settle that the recor of the preli0inar6 investigation, "hether con ucte b6 a 1u ge or a prosecutor, shall not for0 part of the recor of the case in the R2C. #+ In People vs. Crispin,#* this Court hel that the fact that the affi avit for0e part of the recor of the preli0inar6 investigation oes not 1ustif6 its being treate as evi ence because the recor of the preli0inar6 investigation oes not for0 part of the recor of the case in the R2C. Such recor 0ust be intro uce as evi ence uring trial, an the trial court is not co0pelle to ta3e 1u icial notice of the sa0e.## Since neither prosecution nor efense presente in evi ence <u3u=u0e9s affi avit, the sa0e 0a6 not be consi ere part of the recor s, 0uch less evi ence. <ro0 the foregoing, it is evi ent that the prosecution faile to prove that <u3u=u0e co00itte the cri0e of estafa in )a3ati or that an6 of the essential ingre ients of the offense too3 place in the sai cit6. Bence, the 1u g0ent of the trial court convicting <u3u=u0e of the cri0e of estafa shoul be set asi e for "ant of 1uris iction, "ithout pre1u ice, ho"ever, to the filing of appropriate charges "ith the court of co0petent 1uris iction. It is note that it "as onl6 in his petition "ith the C& that <u3u=u0e raise the issue of the trial court9s 1uris iction over the offense charge . Nonetheless, the rule is settle that an ob1ection base on the groun that the court lac3s 1uris iction over the offense charge 0a6 be raise or consi ere motu propio b6 the court at an6 stage of the procee ings or on appeal.#$ )oreover, 1uris iction over the sub1ect 0atter in a cri0inal case cannot be conferre upon the court b6 the accuse , b6 eApress "aiver or other"ise, since such 1uris iction is conferre b6 the sovereign authorit6 "hich organi=e the court, an is given onl6 b6 la" in the 0anner an for0 prescribe b6 la". #4 Chile an eAception to this rule "as recogni=e b6 this Court beginning "ith the lan 0ar3 case of Tijam vs. Sibonghanoy,#@ "herein the efense of lac3 of 1uris iction b6 the court "hich ren ere the ?uestione ruling "as consi ere to be barre b6 laches, "e fin that the factual circu0stances involve in sai case, a civil case, "hich 1ustifie the eparture fro0 the general rule are not present in the instant cri0inal case. 2hus, having foun that the R2C of )a3ati i not have 1uris iction to tr6 the case against <u3u=u0e, "e fin it unnecessar6 to consi er the other issues raise in the present petition. CBERE<ORE, the instant petition is GR$NTE5. 2he assaile C&-..R. CR No. +%/// ecision an resolution of the Court of &ppeals in

are SET $S#5E on groun of lac3 of 1uris iction on the part of the Regional 2rial Court of )a3ati, !ranch %#4. Cri0inal Case No. 5$-,/* is 5#SM#SSE5 "ithout pre1u ice. SO ORDERED. M$. $!#C#$ $USTR#$%M$RT#NE &ssociate 8ustice