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SPANISH

GRAMMAR

?y

CHARLES

PHILIP University
of

WAGNER
Michigan

Ann
THE

Arbor,
ANN,
ARBOR

Mich.
PRESS

I909

copyright, By Chari.es
Philip

i909
Wagner.

ICLA251357

PREFACE

The

present
which

grammar the

represents
author
to

the been

third

stage
on

of in

an

experiment
for of all of oral

has

carrying
drill in
form the the

his

classes, in the work,

attempt
without

provide

the

maximum

of

material elements

sacrificing that
in his

Grammar

which,

opinion,
under

must

basis

of

language
the class of in share certain
a a

study
room,

pursued
The of
first

the
was

artificial
the
use,

conditions

stage

for

three

seasons,

pamphlet.
class of this of

conversation
of the

material, the
advance

second,
of
a

the

use

beginners,
respects,

sheets

large
In

book.
the from result the of

important
a

this of
have

ment experimar grambeen

presents
nowr

radical in vogue.

departure
Detached for drill of

types

most
a

sentences

used have

in

few

exercises

wrork;
their In

but

elsewhere
to

they
the

been

discarded element and

because

failure

provide
based
and
up

important

of

interest. have of

their

place, connected
on a

dialogue carefully
first part the

description
facts each
to

been

introduced,

selected

vocabulary
of
form and lesson. the

every-day
syntax
sort

words,
make

trating illusthe tells

the of

which
foot-note
or

The

of

which
the
as

student
without

"use

subjunctive"
why,
of with has exercise the
new

to

"omit

cle" artiwell.
from factory satis-

telling him
to

been has

discarded been

The
the

English
current

Spanish
because work
a

banished

lesson

difficultyof, doing
material.

composition
lesson familiar has been made in material of the

Every
preceded
of

fourth

composition
which
about

lesson, containing only


and

new
on

combinations,

by

synopsis
The
be found

review

it is based.
a

grammatical
somewhat

facts
more

given part
than
is

speech
the the

will
rangement ar-

scattered determined the

usual,
verb

having
to

been
as

largely by
facts of the

desire and the

present

as

soon

possible

IV

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

personal
connected

pronoun,

and

occasionally by
matter

the

exercise. found
use

Certain

often

exigenciesof the given a prominent


A
case

place will be point is the


forms
related

relegatedto
of the

the later lessons.


pronouns the forms verbs and

in

intimate

the

other
are

to

them, although

themselves
are

given early in
and the

the

paradigms.
to

Model
up the

not

used,

regular verbs from and he is made do stem to endings. So far as possible, this also with are irregular verbs, whose regular forms This devoted from omitted the general section to verbs.
section
not

student

is made

build

has
at

been

reduced

to

its lowest

prove

list of

to terrifying irregularverbs contains

all

and should terms, the beginner. The reference

only
may

such

as.

might
will

be

countered en-

in the

average

non-technical
lessons in this

text.

A
out

word

as

to

how

the

be

used

not

be

of

place here, though


out
too

regard
on

work
to

his

own
or

salvation. not, will

Whether

teacher will every the lessons are found of each

be

long
the

depend

the character

class, and
be

length of the recitation period. They may convenientlydivided before or after the vocabulary. In
case

either

the

sentences

used form
a

to

illustrate

rules

may

erly prop-

be As
to

considered the
oral

to

part

of

the

first half-lesson.

practiceis as follows. The first part is read aloud sentence by sentence by the of teacher, and translated,with books closed, by members the class. It is then translated orally by the teacher and re-translated into Spanish by the class. Next, the questions
exercise, the author's
in the

asked last part of the exercise are each answered by the class, and finally, ask
a

by the teacher

and
to
or
a

pupil
Whether

is made all

question bearing assigned


can

on

the

lesson.

part of this program


work

is carried hour.

out, The
a

for the

depends upon questions are


the

the other not


at

all

exhaustive, and
teacher the
do

represent only
with

part of what
On
be
"

ingenious
text

the material.

completing the book,


with
any the

method
be

here

class may

employed may using as a reader.

used

PREFACE

In

the

composition
in
to

lessons,
the

the

synopsis
and who
a

has full feels

been hour that

found

great
devoted

help

controlling
if desired.

review,
teacher

may these

he

it

The
sufficient

lessons

do from

not

provide
to

composition

material,
book. will
cate communi-

may

pass

them

any
users

good
of

composition
this
about is grammar desirable
to

It

is

hoped
with

that the

freely
necessary

author It in

changes
the

and book

corrections.

desired future

improve

in

every

possible
author's

way sincerest P. Bird and

any

edition.*
due
to

The
Professor valuable D.

thanks
and for of Mr.

are

his A.

colleagues. Kenyon,
and
to

James

Herbert
the and

for

suggestions
Valenzuela
of

reading Bogota
for

proof,
Sr. the
D.

Sr.

Augusto

Guillermo

Fernandez

Mexico

City

revising

Spanish

cises. exer-

C.
Ann

P.

W.

Arbor,

Sept..

1909.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Pronunciation

i
.......

Essentials
LESSONS

oe

Grammar
......

I.

Gender

and

number

of

nouns.

Definite Case
and

and

nite indefio

articles.
II.

Possessive

The

verb.

Infinitives.

Stem

Endings.
of

ent Presnoun.

Indicative.
Indirect

Non-inflection Word-order

Spanish
. .

object.
pronouns.

.11
.

III.

Subject

Tener,
purpose.

tener

que

and

deber. 16
. .

Expression
IV.
V.

of
review.

Word-order

Synopsis

of

Composition
number,
use.

20
...

Adjectives,
and

gender,

agreement,
Numerals
1-10.

position Age.
.21
.

substantive
.

Ser.
. .

Word-order
. .

VI.

Past

participle. participle.
estar
.

Haber.

Perfect

tense.

Present
ser

Bstar.
. .

Comparison
. .

of

and
.25

VII.

Possessive of

adjectives plural
review.

and of

pronouns.
nouns

Special
pronouns

use

masculine

and

29

VIII.

Synopsis
Noun of of

of

Composition
Personal Demonstrative forms
.....

33

IX.

material.

object.

Agreement
and
.

adjectives.

adjectives
of

pronouns.

Prepositional
Ir.

personal

nouns. pro34

Idiomatic
of

X.

Object
Double
querer,

forms

personal object
hacer.

pronouns.

Position.

pronoun

construction.
....

Poder,
39

decir,
and

Gustar

XI.

Imperfect

past

definite.

Irregular
The

imperfects. pluperfect
.

Orthographical

irregularities.

44

Vlll

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSONS

PAGE

XII. XIII. XIV.

Synopsis
Reflexive

of

review.
and

Composition
verbs.

...

48
cudl.

pronouns

Que

and

Ver.

49

Irregular past
of

definites. 11-39.

Infirfitives

after

tions. preposiTime
54

Numerals

Tener

idiomatic.

day
and

........

XV.

Future

conditional.

Future
Use of

and the

conditional
articles
.

perfects. Comparison.
XVI. XVII.

57 61

Synopsis
The

of

review.

Composition

...

subjunctive in subject and


of tenses.

object clauses.
infinitives
.

quence Se62
.

Dependent

XVIII.

Radical-changing
final letter

verbs.
....

Adjectives that
. . .

lose
.

the .66

XIX.

Constructions

with Dar.

two

object

pronouns.

Neuter of articles 70 74

gender.
XX. XXI.

Acabar.

Omission

Synopsis

of

review.

Composition
clauses and
as

...

Subjunctive in main
present

regular imperative. Ir-

subjunctives.

Inceptive verbs.
....

Greeting and
XXII.

leave-taking

75

Imperfect
fact. and

subjunctives. Quisiera. Salir

Conditions and

contrary

to

venir.

Days, months,
79

seasons
.......

XXIII.

Subjunctive
weather

in

adjective and

adverb Use of

clauses. infinitive.

definite InThe

negative words.
........

83 Composition 87

XXIV. XXV.

Synopsis
Future

of

review.

subjunctive. points.
. .

Endings
Distance.
. .

of

imperative. More
and saber.

orthographical
Cardinal decer

changes.

Conocer

Cualquiera. Agra.88
. . .

XXVI.

Subjunctive in object clauses.


Uno. articles
pronouns.

Pcdir

and

comprar. Definite

Demonstratives used for Adverbs

as

correlatives. and
.

demonstratives in
-mcntc

personal
.

.93

CONTENTS

IX

LESSONS

PAGE

XXVII.

Cardinal

numerals.

Relative

pronouns.

Causative

construction. used.

Object
idiomatic.

pronouns
.....

impersonally
97
.

Haber
of

XXVIII. XXIX.

Synopsis
Clauses

review.
on

Composition prepositions.
Possessive

102

depending
or

Verbs

with

subjunctive

infinitive. Indirect

adjectives
session. pos-

(long forms).

object

to

express

Parecer, hacer
XXI".

falta, and

poner.

Tal

103

Compound

tenses

of Valer

the
......

subjunctive.

son. Compari108

Cuyo.
XXXI.

Irregular
definite.

use

of

tenses.

The

perfect of the
and Traer
.

past

Personal
no.

objective. Nunca
article.

jamas.
.112

Si
XXXII. XXXIII.

and

Definite

Synopsis
Hacer
an

of

review.

Composition
Oir. Oir Todo.
.

.117 with

in time

expressions.
an

and

ver

object and
with of

infinitive.

Impersonal
.118
. .

verb

indirect

object

XXXIV.

Position

adjectives. Grande
Ann. Dar

and

santo.
. .

Otro.
122
.

Cada. XXXV.
More

Sino.

idiomatic

about

personal
Adverbial

pronouns.

Reciprocal involving
Andar
.

struction. con-

clauses verbs.

two

junctives. sub.

Impersonal
XXXVI. XXXVII.

127

Synopsis
The

of

review.
its

Composition
substitutes.
Ac
or

.131

passive and
past
cordar. Idioms.

Bstar
dar
se

with de and

the
re-

participle. Dcjar.
......

133

XXXVIII.
XXXIX.

El

cuerpo

humano of indefinite and article.


menor.

138
Verbs in -uir. and

Omission
cluir.

Con-

Mayor

Joven

viejo.
140

Correlatives XL. XLL


Review Use of and the

composition imperative mode.


Volver
a.

143

tives. Irregular imperaJugar.


Caer
and
144

Prometer. reir

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSONS

PAGE

XLII.

Spanish

money.
.

Price.

Suffixes -evo,
Ni and

-eria,

-ito,
.147

-uelo -illo,
......

Traducir.

tampoco.

ping Shop-

XLIII.
"

Idiomatic. Ordinal

Dimensions. numerals. Noun

Prepositions
construction.

150

XLIV.

Definite

article.

Suffixes of nationality. Caber.


and

Madrid
.

153 157
.

The

Verb.

Paradigms

List

of

Irregular
. . .

Verbs
.

English-Spanish
Index

Vocabulary

177
193

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

PRONUNCIATION

1.
are:

The
a,

Alphabet.
c,

The
e,

signs
g,
x, and in

of

the

Spanish

alphabet
my n,
n"

b,
r,

ch,

d,
v,

f,

h, i
y,
rr

j, (k), I, 11,

o,

P, q"
The

rr,

s, t, u,

(w),
be found

z.

combinations

ch, 11, n,
to

are

considered dictionaries

letters after

of
c,

the

alphabet.
and
r

They

are

the

I, nt

respectively.
and
w

k
are

do
a

not

properly foreign

belong

to

the
k

Spanish
has

alphabet.
sound of

They English

used and
zv

in

few
of

words
v or w.

only,

the

that
or

English
letters

Mute
are

silent

are

common

in

English.
are

Spanish important

letters
ceptions. ex-

almost

invariably

pronounced.

There

two

h
i" e or

is always is
i
:

mute,
if

and

must

be
or

ignored
g

in
at

pronunciation.
same

mute

it follows
say,

and
the

the

time
gue,

precedes
gui, que,

that

is

to

it is

mute

in

combination

qui.

2.
are

The

Vowels.
to

The their

vowels
resonance

are

a,

e,

i,

o,

u.

They

graded according
weak

into has

strong
its

(a, e, o)

and

(i, u)
sound.

vowels.

Each

vowel

acteristic distinct, char-

a e

has has

the
the

sound
sound

of of of of of

English English English


a

in in

"father." "fate."

i has
o u

the
the the
It

sound sound sound


is certain those
as

i in
o oo

"machine."
in in

has has
Note.

English
English

"no." "moon."
natter,
result
or

that

the

vowels
;

sometimes but
vowel
as

assume

or

more

open

sounds
causes,

than
such

given
unaccented with

above the

this
in

is

the and

natural other advisable

position
full
to

the

word, Spanish

purely of proximity
the

of

sounds

that

interfere
has
a

sound,
the

since

English
it
seems

speaking

student
to

natural

tendency

flatten

vowels,

ignore

these

distinctions

here.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

and Diphthongs Triphthongs. (a) An vowels diphthong consists of two pronounced as The sound. Spanish diphthong is a combination vowels
so

3.

English
a

single
of
two

rapidly pronounced
vowels lose side

as

to

make

but

single syllable.
value.

The

little of

their do

individual

(b) Two diphthong.


a

strong

and

w^eak then:

vowels

make necessarily a The only possible diphthongs are composed of weak vowel a (a, e, o, with i, u), or of two (i with u). The possible combinations are,
not eu, ou,

vowels

by

side

ai, ei, oi, au,


ue,
a

iu,

or,

transposing the vowels,


in unstressed the other. decided

ia, ie, io, ua,

uo,

ui. stands
more an

(c)
neither

When
vowel

diphthong
in
a

syllable,
When
stress
a

is stressed

than

diphthong
placed
on

stands

stressed

a syllable,

is

the

strong

vowel,
on

or,

in

case

the weak of
a a

diphthong
vowel.

con:

sist of two

weak

vowels,
a

the

second

(d)
Possible

A
two

triphthong is
weak

combination

strong vowel
stressed

tween be-

vowels,

occurring

in

syllable.

triphthongs are
The
as

iai, iei,uai, uei, iau.


found
a

(e)

letter y the

is sometimes of

in

diphthong
of i.

or :

triphthong

last letter

word

instead

Ex.

hay, doy, buey.


4. The

Consonants,

f, 1, m,
alike

n,

p, and

need and

not

be

discussed, since
b,
v.

they

sound

in

English

Spanish.

The

together and Spanish b, the


sound
our
v

English b is made by pressing the lipsfirmly In violently separating them. making the
pressure is much is the fainter. has
a

merest

contact, and
is

the

sulting re-

It

something
more

between

and

w.

This
m

sound
n,

somewhat
it way

character

after
v

or

and the

when
same

Spanish
identical
consonants.

is made with it in

in

explosive is uttered emphatically. as Spanish b, and is


never

sound,

but

it is

written

before

PRONUNCIATION

3 with the

ch.

This

sound

is

identical

English

ch

in

"cheese."
d is similar the
to

the

English sound,
upper
contact

but

is made of

tongue
much

against
like the

the

teeth

instead

by putting against the


d
a

palate.
very

This

different

gives Spanish

sound

English
of ch

th
a

in "these." very

j has quite like


11 has
n

sound

roughly aspirated
Hi in "million." in "onion."
u,

h.

It is

German the sound the sound


occurs

in "Bach." of

English

has
never

of

English ni
before

q of

except

when

it has

the

sound

English k.
r

is

never

slighted.
with
a

It is

and of
rr a

distinct

always pronounced roll when coming at


after the another

very

tinctly, dis-

the

ning begin-

word, when
r

final,or

consonant.

is has

an

that

is trilled with

tip of

the

tongue.
that

the

sound

of

in

"sister,"never

of

in

"please."
t

is similar upper

to

English
teeth the

t, but, like of

against the
y

instead

Spanish d, is against the palate.


value
of

made

has

sometimes

consonant

"yes," and
z

is sometimes the sound

identical

with
th

English Spanish i.
in

in

has

of

English

mute

"thing."
the other

5.

c, g.

These

consonants

differ from
has
two

ish Spansounds.

consonants
c

in that
a, o, u,
or

each
a

quite different
has the
same

before qu

consonant,

sound

as

Spanish
c

(English k).
e

before

or

i has

the

sound

of

Spanish English

(English th
g in

in

"thing").
g before g
a,
e

o,
or

u,

has

the the

sound sound

of of

"go."
h-

before

i, has

Spanish j (rough

sound).

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

g, gu, their and spellings,


c,

qu,

z,

j, gii. The
relation
to

sounds each

represented by
other, offer
The
:

these

the

chief

in difficulty will help to

the make

spellingof Spanish.
these
matters

following table

clear

Note in
i.

a.

In

que,

It

is

merely
and ui

preceding
the

consonant.
ue

qui, gue, gui, the u is silent,as already stated that the an orthographical sign-post, to show these before is pronounced In binations, comas u. a, o,
do not, the of
u

course,
to

gui, diphthongs.
Note

diaeresis b. In

causes

be

diphthongs. pronounced, and ue,


be written before

make

In ui

giie,
are

Ex.

/ or traje, paje, dije, jeronimo,


a

few

words

may zigzag,

or

i.

zinc,

etc.

6.

Syllabification,a.
groups of
consonants not

In of

dividing a
which the
to

word second

into is 1
are

bles, syllaor

r,

may

be

separated. Exceptions
sr.

this

rule

the

groups

rl, si, tl, and

(Inseparable)
b. A

la-bra-dor, de-cla-rar, re-fre-nar, re-gla. es-la-bon, Is-ra-el,At-las, Car-los.

arable) (Sep-

single

consonant

between
x are

vowels

ch, 11, n,
e-xa-men.

rr,

and

considered

begins a syllable, single consonants.

ba-rra, me-dal, o-lor,a-mi-go, cie-no,pa-na-de-ro, ma-cho, ca-lle,

c.

The
an

second
s,

of
a

two

consonants

not

less inseparable,un-

it be

begins

syllable.

res-pon-der, ar-zo-bis-po, es-ta-do, ser-vir, cuan-to, en-ga-no, trans-pi-rar. cons-ti-tuir, pers-pi-ca-cia, ins-truc-cion,
d.

The

second
a

of two

vowels

that

do

not

make

thong, diph-

begins
cre-er,

syllable.
ma-cs-tro,

bre-a, co-o-pe-rar,

pa-is, co-mi-ais, ba-id.

PRONUNCIATION

e.

Spanish compounds
nos-otros,

are

regularly divided

according

10

their elements. des-am-pa-ro,


vos-otros.

following simple rules for determining the stressed syllable of a Spanish word, are now universallyfollowed, although a different system prevails issued previous to 1888, at which in books time these fixed by the Spanish Academy. rules were
and
on

7.

Stress

Accent.

The

ending in a vowel, or n or s, is regularly stressed last syllable (penult). the next to imposible, antiguo, venia, fragua, etc. alto,grande, tierra,aman,
a.

word

the

b. A word stressed on

ending in
the
last

consonant,

other

than

or

larly s, is regu-

syllable. usted, mujer, abril,vecindad.


are

conform these to irregular, and do not the syllable to be stressed rules. words Such always have plainly the vowel. indicated by the acute accent (') over (Exceptions to a.) hable, liego, comi, tendrds, iambien. (Exceptions to b.) huesped, cardcter, drbol, etc.
c.

Many

words

Any syllable,must

d.

word
have

stressed

the

dnima,
e.

than the stressed the acute accent on espiritu,digamelo, timidamente.

farther

back

next

to

the

last

syllable.

Monosyllables

regularly require no rey, yo, de, cal. placed


over a

written

accent.

written f. A diphthong, falls on

accent

syllable that

the

vowels,

in accordance takes

the

accent

the second of strong vowel, or on with the principle expressed in 3 c. the strong vowel. over

contains weak two


A

thong triph-

8.
accent
a.

The used
The

Acute in modern
acute

Accent.

The

acute

accent

is the

only

Spanish.
is used in
up

accent

chiefly
7.
a

to

point

out

irregularly

stressed b.

syllables, as
It is also
used

indicated
to

diphthong: that is, to show which that contiguous vowels normally make diphthong a used or triphthong (see 3 b), belong to different syllables. When in this way the accent stands weak vowel always over (over the a first weak in the case of two the weak in the case of weaks, over and and the first weak of weak, a over triphthong). a a strong baul, pais, impios, Huido, comiais.
would

break

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

c.

It is often

used the

to

distinguish
but

two

words
a

which

and
use.

pronounced

same,

which

have

different

are spelled or meaning

tu, you el,he este, this


d.
one

tu, your

el, the
este, this

(adj.)

"

With

few

monosyllables it is used arbitrarily. a, 6, u, e, di, vi, fiue, etc.

9. is in

of the capitalsin Spanish Capitalization. The use in English. as general the same
pronoun yo,

"I," the days of the week, not capitalized are adjectives, proper year, when they stand in the body of a sentence, (b) Adjectives of nationality Names used be not as or capitalized, (c) nouns, may may of languages are not escapitalized. Ex. : Los Espanoles hablan panol. The Spaniards speak Spanish.
the months of the and

'Exceptions, (a) The

10.

Punctuation.
"

The
Inverted
at

chief

a. punctuation are: points (i)

the of In

of Spanish peculiarities clamation question marks (i) and exbeginning of questions and dash instead

exclamations, marks of d. the in

b.

Use
c.

the
an

dialogue,
mark of
use

extensive
the

quotation quotation, the use

of

quotation

Frequent

beginning of each line. suspension points (...) to indicate an (")


at

incomplete

sentence.

The of Pronunciation. Irregularities tion pronunciaof Spanish indicated above, is based on the speech of educated The Spanish of certain parts native of Madrid. an of Spain, and of certain Spanish-American countries varies from the Engsomewhat this standard, but no than more lish
11. of London from the would each and of New York and of that New
an

Orleans

fer dif-

other. the

It is thought

exposition of
of

of peculiarities

Spanish spoken

outside student.
anyone

Castile,
In tice prachas a

tend,

at

this
very

they
tolerable

are

the point, to confuse readily acquired by the


use

who

in facility

of

the

Castilian.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

arioso,

rine,
sur,

rufiar, ahora,
y.

safiudo,
vehiculo.

rana,

arre,

parra,

arrimar,

marrullero,

horror,
d, madera,
pavura, c$

b,

v,

boda,
de,
yerro,

beber, don, huye,

bayeta, maduro,
yema,

badila, vivir,
yo,

sabido,
varonil,

fabula,
voto,

burro, revelar,

red,

tened,
raya, gu,

villa,
Qu,
z,

hoyo. cecina,
coz,

g,

'"

calle, toco,
zurron,

recuperar,

decimo, logico,

racimo,

duque,
guerra,

maquina, guijo,
zero, cero,

caza,

zizaiia,

haz,

pagar,

geologo, Jesus,

guiar,
zorro, consonant

caja,
mazo,

j anion,

majadero,
quemar,

judicar, gula. blando, pluma,

figura,

jiba,

jumelos,
groups
:

Inseparable
clima, tecla,

tabla,

brazo, aplomo,

abrasar,

crocodilo, miraglo,
patrono.
consonant

necrosis,
grefia,

drama,

padre,

flor,

franela,

peri-

frasis, apretado,

gloton,
tren,

vinagre,

profeta,

Separable grima,
lota, alerta, eslabon,

groups:

esbelto, esquela,

escaldar, esquina,
olmo,

esforzar,
estanco,

es-

esmalta,
empresa,

esparcido, hombre,
apto,

Car-

doctor,
cesante,

manzana,

fornido,

ordenes, balcon, honra,


or-

excepto,

burgo, hermano,

expansivo, designar, golpe,

atlantico,
tratarse,
parezca,

alhaja, conyugal,
questa,

falange,
volvera, servir,

carbon,

dando,

ensalzaba,

ninfa,

albergue,

ennegrecer,

aceder,
rasgo,

adlatere, enfado,

admirar,

dogma,

himno,

anhelo,

monjita,
envolver,

Archena,
Elche.

inmenso,

inquisidor,

plazga,

Jorge,

transcurrir,
tar,

esclavo,
exclamar,

escribir,

esdrujulo,

explosion,
entrar,

transparen-

obscuro,

transformacion,

complacer,

pamfleta,

constructor.

Diphthongs
caudillo,

and

triphthongs deuda, prestigio, aprecieis,

retraimiento, ciudad,
Miura,

baile,

reinado, viaja,

boina, bou,

jaula, nadie,
nuevas,

reunion,

familia, guardarropa,
cuota,

sociedad,
frecuentar,

tierra,

dio, perpetua, virtuosa,


Biblia,

cuando,

agiiero,

antiguo, influencia,
maestro,

ruidoso, Miau,

Luis, hay,

argiiir,
voy, rev,

fiais, apreciais,
muy, guay,
:

averigiiais,

averigiieis, eleccion,

buey,

monstruo.

Non-diphthongs
creeme, pua,

Bilbao,
huiais.

Joaquin, baul, todavia,

coexistir, varien,

leon,

idea,

loor, duo,
Names

pais,

creimos,

oido,

continue,

impios,
of

fluido, of

letters

the

alphabet:
ene, ene,

a,

be,
o,

ce, cu,

che,
ere,

de,

e,

efe,
ese,

ge,
te,

hache,
u, ve,

i, jota, equis,
y

ka,

ele, elle,
zeta.

erne,

pe,

erre,

griega,

ESSENTIALS

OF

GRAMMAR

LESSON
Remark. All words

I.
lesson should be memorized.

given

in

this

13.
names

Gender

of have
us

Nouns. either
a

Spanish
masculine
to

nouns,
or

including
feminine
in

the

of
nouns

things, give

gender.
form,

Some
or

clue

their

gender,

their

their
Note.

meaning.
For
the

benefit the

of that

those of of the
the

who

have

studied
noun

French

or

L,atin,
that

it

may

be

stated French

that

gender

Spanish
L/atin

is except

generally
that

of
neuters

the

related
are

masculine

and noun, in Spanish.

noun,

L,atin

a.

Most
a are

nouns

that

end The

in
most

are

masculine.

Most

nouns are

that
mano,

end

in

feminine.

important

exceptions

f., "hand,"
b.

and
names
are

dia,

m.,

"day." beings
are

The

of

male

masculine,

and

the

names

of

female
c.

beings
Names of male brother

feminine.
female

of

beings
that

are

often

like in
a.

the

corresponding

names

beings,

except

they

end

hermano, hi jo, son muchacho,


senor,

nino, child
maestro,

boy (male) gentleman


teacher

(man)

sister hermana, hija, daughter muchacha, girl nina, child (female) senor a, lady teacher (woman) maestro,

14. their the

Plural

of

Nouns.
^ or

In
es

general, Spanish
to

nouns

form
to

plural by adding

the

singular according

following
a.

rules

Nouns

ending

in

vowel

(or

diphthong)
hermanas.

add

s:

hijo, hijos; hermana,


b.
Nouns

ending

in

consonant
senores.

(including

y)

add

es:

senor,
c.

As

does

not

regularly
z

stand

before

e,
es.

nouns

ending 5.)

in

this

letter

must

change
voz,

to

before
voces,

adding
voices.

(See

voice;

IO

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

15.
has

Definite
the

Article.

The
:

definite

"the" article,

in

lish, Eng-

following forms

Masculine.

Feminine.
a.

Singular el. Plural los. Singular la. Plural las.


definite
agrees

The

article

always
los

precedes
and

the

noun

it modifies.,

and

regularly
Note.

with

it in

number

el senor,

la maestra,
noun

gender. muchachos, las hijas.

The
with

agua,
a

that

begin
agreement

stressed

"water," and all feminine singular nouns masculine the article el or ha, require
:

instead of

of the

feminine is
to

la, thus
avoid the

el agua.

This

violation

of the of

rules
a-

unpleasant

prolongation

the

sound. b. with The

it to it to

del. al.

preposition de, "of, from," followed The preposition a, "to, at," followed

by el, contracts by "// contracts

with

16.

Indefinite
like the It has

Article.

The

indefinite

article,English
noun

"a, an,"
with
una,

definite article, precedes its


but
two

and

agrees

it.

forms

un,

masculine

singular, and

feminine

singular.
un

nino,

una

nlna.

a.

In
to

English
serve

the
or

article
more noun

(both
nouns. :

definite
In

and

indefinite), may
must

be be

made

two

Spanish, the articles

repeated
El
Una
nino
senora

before
y

each

la nina.
y
un

The

boy and
A

girl. gentleman.

senor.

lady and

17.

Possessive for the

Case.

As

the

Spanish
is necessary relation del

noun

has
to

no

special form
the de la

possessive, it
express

employ
el
brero som-

prepositionde
nina, the

to

this

thus:

child's hat ; las Hores

muchacho,

1lie

boy's flowers.
Exercise.
Give the

gender

of

the

following

nouns

libro,book
casa,

padre, father
mesa,

house
man

table

hombre,

perro, dog

dinero, money presidente, president

MSSON

II

II

Give

the

learned, and

plurals give the

of

the

following
for

nouns,

and form
:

of

those

already

reason

the

plural

clase, f., class, recitation comedor, m., dining-room sombrero, m., hat King m., rey, flower f., lengua, f.,language flor, despacho, m., sitting-room, office voz, f., voice
Translate
libros de los

orally into English


maestros. 3.

i.
voces a

El comedor
de la
casa.

del

rey.

2.

Los

Las clase

las

ninas. 6. Del del

de
rey.
mesa

la

muchacha.

5.

De
a

la la

padre presidente al
4. dia.
9.

El

Del despacho 7. del comedor. 10.

clase.
perros

8.

Las

clases

La

Los

del
1.

nifio.

Translate
the man's 7.

orally into Spanish:


to

The
A

dining-room
sister. The
of

the The

5.

sitting-room, 3. gentlemen's books.


8.
10.

From King's son. 2. boy of the class. 4. A 6. The girl's hands.


9.

children's
the

father.

president'sbrother.
ladies'
money.

The

guage lan-

gentlemen.

The

LESSON

II.

18.

The

Verb,
verb the of

Infinitives, the
has
more

Three than the

The The found

Spanish
name

forms the

Conjugations. English verb.


it is to be

verb, and

form

by which

in the end

vocabularies, is the infinitive. All


in -ar,
to

Spanish
live.

finitive in-

-er,

or

-ir.
to

hablar,
Verbs
are

speak;

comer,

eat;

vivir, to

grouped into three conjugations on the basis of the of the first conjugation three infinitive endings. Verbs {-ar verbs) of the from verbs second differ widely in form {-er verbs) and third second and of Verbs third conthe jugations {-ir verbs) conjugations. of fiftyout conjugated alike in all but four forms are
nine.
,

19. found

Stem

and

Endings.
the
com-

The

stem

of

verb

may

be

by cutting off
habl-

infinitive

ending.
vivstem

To
are

this

stem,

which

we

shall

call the

of the

tive, infini-

added

the

"endings," which
mode.

express

distinctions

of

person,

number,

tense, and

12

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

20. is one,
:

Regular
all of whose

and

Irregular
forms

Verbs.

regular
the

verb tive infini-

i. e., all of

whose the

endings to
verb may have
more

be derived from may forms be made by may of the infinitive. An stem


one

than

stem,

or

it may

adding appropriate irregular have ular" "irreg-

endings.
21. The Present Indicative.

The
:

endings

for

the

present

tense, indicative

mode,
SINGULAR

are

PERSON
I.

2.

3-

i.
2.

3-

Applying

these

endings
como,

to

stems

of

regular verbs, vives, vive,


lives

we

get

hablo, I speak hablas, you speak habla, he speaks, she speaks hablamos, we speak habldis, you speak hablan, they speak
Note. and
verb person

eat eat

vivo, I live
you

comes, come,
eats

you

live

he

eats,
eat eat eat

she

he

lives,

she

comemos,

we

comeis,
comen,

you

they

live vivhnos, we vivis, you live viven, they live

Tt is clear from these models that the endings the number express of the in this tion functhe subject of the verb, and perform respect of the personal pronouns, If the which are usually omitted. subject of a is a noun, the verb with it in number. agrees El The mucho. deal. a discipulo estudia pupil studies great Los mucho. The deal. discipulos estudian pupils study a great

DRILL.
In

similar
in the
In

given
the
the

form the present indicative vocabulary. Repeat orally.


way

of

each

of

the

verbs

Note.
stress stem

conjugating

orally the
In the

learner

form. verb of each in all forms the except

present second first and

consider should the indicative


persons

most stress

carefully
falls
on

plural.

22.

Use

of the

Present express,

Indicative.
not

The

forms
statements

of the in

present

indicative

only simple

LESSON

II

T3

present

time, but

English by the present (Eng.,


hablamos,

emphatic present, expressed in auxiliary"dd," "does," and the progressive


am

also

the

"I
we

speaking," etc.).
speak,
we are

speaking,

we

do

speak.

23.
noun

Non-inflection
not

of

Spanish
to

Noun.

does
case,

vary

in form

express

the

Spanish objective(accusative)

The

possessive (genitive) case, or the indirect Its form is the same whether used objective(dative) case. as subject,direct or indirect object of a verb, or object of a preposition. (For the possessive see 17.) Object. The preceded by
John

the

24.

Noun

as

Indirect
a

noun

used

as

direct ina,

object
"to,"
or

of

verb, is

the

preposition

para,
compra
lleva
These

"for."
el libro para el libro
a

Juan Juan
Note.
are

Maria.

buys the book


the
as

for Mar)'.

Maria.
are
never

John

takes

book

to

Mary.
often

prepositions
the the book. book.

omitted

their

equivalents

in

English. John John buys


takes

Mary Mary

25.
of the

Word-order,

a.

Affirmative.
is:

The

normal

order

simple

affirmative

sentence

subject (if expressed),

verb, object (if any).


Maria

compra
un

libro

s.

Mary

buys
We
are

books.

Compramos
b.

sombrero.

buying

hat.

is Interrogative. An affirmative sentence by invertingthe order of subject and


Maria

made verb.

terroga in-

Compra
no

librosf

Is

Mary

buying

books?

in as expressed, the order is the same the inflection sentence. the affirmative or Question marks is interrogative. that the sentence of the voice show If

subject

is

jCompran
John?

un

sombrero

para

Juan?

Are

they buying

hat

for

14

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

interrogative sentence, the object may is not a pronoun, if it be shorter than particularly
an

In

if the
come

subject of
before the

the

verb

subject,
son

the
f

subject.
Is the

jCompra
books?
c.

libros el hijo del

maestro

teacher's

ing buy-

Negative.
may the be verb.
no

An

affirmative

or

an

tence interrogativesen-

made

negative by placing the


libros. sombrero

adverb

no

fore be-

Maria
j No

compra
un

Mary
para

does Juan?

not

buy
Are

books.
not

compran

they

buying

hat

for

John?
In

help of Spanish.
to

Note. the
In

made English, sentences are is no There auxiliary *'do." be must no negative sentences,

interrogative or for equivalent


translated "no"

negative
this
or

with

the

auxiliary in ing "not," accord-

the

sentence.

VOCABULARY
VERBS.

aprender, to learn. bajar, to go down, to beber, to drink. cantar, to sing.


comer,
to

leccion, f., lesson. Maria, Mary.


come

down.

senor,

-a,

Sir, Madam.

tienda, store, shop.*


ADVERBS.

eat. to

comprar,
correr, entrar
to

buy.
to

run.

en,

go

into,

to

come

into.

aqui, bien, well. demasiado, too, too much. mal, badly. mncho, much, a great deal.
no,
no,

here.

escribir, to estudiar, to

write.

not.

study.
smoke.

poco, talk.

little. also.
PREPOSITIONS.

fumar,

to

si, yes.
to

hablar, to hallar, to llevar, to


tomar,
to

speak,
find.
carry,

tambien,

to

bring.
con,
en,

take.
to

with.

trabajar, vivir, to live.

work.

in,

on.

para,

for.
CONJUNCTIONS.

NOUNS.

6,

or.

discipulo,-a, pupil.
Juan, John.

but. pero, y, and.

"Gender

of

nouns

in

vocabularies

is not

indicated, if regular.

(See

13.)

i6

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON
26. Personal

III.

Pronouns have different

used

pronouns used
as

subject or object. The


Person
.

Subject. The personal forms, according as they are forms used as subject follow :
as

Form

English

27.
a.

Use
We have

of the

Subject

Pronouns.

nothing in English corresponding to the so-called of the second "intimate" forms singular and plural. They person the and German du tu. nearly to ihr, and French correspond more relatives and in intimate friends, used near addressing They are inferiors. Since but and animals well they might be used as as will this in in but occur Spain, they rarely rarely by foreigners ing. will find them book. constantly in his readNaturally, the student
b. Usted
arc

and

ustedes the

are

the

pronouns

They

used

with

third

person
talk
eat

ordinary address. plural of the singular and


of deal.

verb, respectively.
Usted habla
comen

mncho. poco.
for

You You

great

Ustedes
Note.
two

little.
is that
use

The

reason

words

meaning
grace has

"your

this peculiar usage A similar grace."

usted

is derived
in

prevails

English,

from with

titles. Your
r.

Your
...,

Majesty
are

is

etc.
...,

Usted

and

ustedes

commonly
usted in
person

abbreviated

V
.,

VV.,

or

Vd., Vds.
d.

With
agree

the with

exception of
their verb

and

ustedes,
and

the

subject

nouns pro-

number.

I^SSON

HI

17
in

e.

Since
that

names

of

it is clear

el and

things have grammatical gender referring to things, are ella,when


DRILL.

Spanish,

translated

by English

"it"

verb in Lesson each II, placing before Conjugate orally any Yo the form trabajo, corresponding subject-pronoun or pronouns. itc. atively, Conjugate negatively, Yo no trabajo, etc. Conjugate interrogjTrabajo yo? etc., and both negatively and interrogatively, \No trabajo yo? etc.

28.

Omission
makes

of

Subject
most

Pronouns. the

Since
person and

the

verb-

ending
of
must

clear, in

cases,

number It

the be

subject,the
the

subject pronoun
when
to

is often it is not
out

omitted.

expressed, however,

perfectlyclear

what

where
more

trast. emphasis or conand ustedes Ustcd are generally expressed, even If is no there they stand as subject of ambiguity. than one verb, they are commonly expressed but once.

subject is, and

also

bring

Apr
El
Juan

end
cant y

o. a

Estudiamos. pero ella


no

Trabajdis
canta.

estudidis.
for

(Expressed
estndia

Maria

trabajan. El
Usted habla
y

tambien.

contrast.) (Not clear

out with-

pronoun.)
Usted

habla.
y

escribe.

iHabla
29.
presses

escribe

usted?

The

irregular verb
or

tetter.

ownership

temporary
PRESENT

1/ Tener, "to have/' exregular. possession. It is quite ir-

INDICATIVE.
PLURAI, 1. 2.

SINGULAR i. 2.

tengo, Uenes,
have

I have
you

have

tenemos, tenets, you

we

have
have
you

3.

tiene, he

has, she

has,

you

3.

ticnen, they have,

have

30.
a.

English
form
que que que

"must"

and

"ought."
are

Obligation and
of

compulsion
must

expressed
que,
now.

in

Spanish

by

some

tener, followed
he

by
eat

and

an

infinitive.

Tengo
j Tiene

I ahora. comer estudiarf Does

have
to

to

study?

Tienen

trabajar. They

have

work.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

b. verb

Duty or deber, and


debe

moral
an

obligation is expressed by
una

the

regular
a

infinitive.

Usted Debemos

aprender

lengua.
We

You should

ought study

to

learn

guage. lan-

estudiar

la lection.

the

lesson.

31.

Para and

with the

Infinitive.

Purpose
The
child

may

be

expressed
to

by
to)

para
El
learn.

infinitive.
para

nino

estudia

aprender.

studies

(in

order

an

If a Interrogative Word-order. interrogative word, it generally begins

32.

sentence

contains

the

sentence.

jPor que estudia msted vive el muchacho? jDonde el maestro? jQue compra

ahora? Where What

Why

do does

the

is the

study now? boy live? teacher buying?


you

VOCABULARY.
VERBS.

pizarron,
want.

m.,

blackboard.

deber, desear,
ensenar,

to to

owe,

"ought."

sustantivo,

noun.

wish,
to

vcrbo,
in

verb.
ADVERBS.

teach.
go

entrar,

to

in,
mean,

come

transitive). (inallor
antes,

a,

now.

first. afterwards.

to significar,

signify.
to, "must."

d:spucs,

tener,
tener

to

have.
to to

hoy, to-day. (conj.). (interjection.) jective what? (interrogative adque? or pronoun.) (interrogative que? why? por adverb.) dondc? where? (interrogative adverb.) whom? quicn? who? ative (interrogpronoun.)
porque, Hola! because Hello!

que,

have

terminar,

finish, end.
NOUNS.

ami go,

-a,

friend.

carta, letter.

ejercicio,exercise. Espana, Spain. espanol, m., Spanish. ingles, m., English. Jose, Joseph.
palabra,
word.

EXERCISE

III.

(a).
usted?
I Tenemos

iQue
un

tengo?
perro. ?

Usted

tiene
tiene

un

sombrero.

iQue
i No

tiene

Tengo

iQue

Maria?

Maria
y

tiene la carta.
tienen

amigos

Ustedes

tienen

amigos

amigas.

WESSON

III

19

ustedes

hermanos?

Tenemos tiene usted?


porque

una

hermana.
y

";Tiene

el

maestro

dis-

cipulos?
(b).
entrar?
en

El

maestro

discipulos
Deseo deseo
1
una

la

maestra 1 Por
con

tiene
que

discipulas.
desea usted escribe
para

iQue
Deseo

desea
entrar

entrar.

hablar

Jose.
el

Jose

el

despacho. No,

j Hola
senor.

Jose.

Escribe
carta.

usted

ejercicio
escribe el

el

maestro? la carta?

Escribo
la
en

,;A quien ";D6nde


usted
que

usted

Escribo
Vive deseo
carta

carta

un

amigo. ";No
tiene

vive

amigo? hoy?
ahora

iVive Si;
y pero

aqui?
antes

Espafia.
terminar la

estudiar

carta.

Usted

debe

estudiar

terminar

la

despues.
el maestro? el maestro?
el maestro?

(c). iQue quien iDonde


I

iQue

ensena
ensena

El El

maestro

ensefia
ensena

una

lengua. ";A

lengua
ensena

maestro

espanol.
a

espanol
las

Ensena Escribe
las

espanol palabras

los
en

discipulos.
el

escribe

palabras? espanol? palabras


en

pizarron.
cribe? es-

Escribe

ingles
Escribe

6
las

Escribe
sustantivo

espanol.
y

iQue iQue

palabras

verbo.

significan
y

sustantivo

verbo

ingles?

Sustantivo

significa "noun"

verbo

significa "verb." (d). iQue ^Donde iCon


I A

desea

el

senor?

desea

el

senor

entrar?

quien quien
que que

desea

hablar?

escribe
no

Juan?

iPor
I Por

estudia?

no

estudia

antes

iNo
I Tiene

debe
que

trabajar trabajar

antes?

despues?

iQue i'Que
I

aprendemos? lengua
ensena

aprendemos? espanol? ingles


6

Quien

iEstudiamos eiQue iQue iQue iHabla


I Habla

espanol?
en

significa "casa" significa lengua

ingles?
en

"blackboard"
el maestro?

espanol?

habla

ingles el discipulo?
usted

espanol ?

20

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON

IV.

SYNOPSIS.
Note. lessons. The

figures in

heavy

type

refer

to

the

paragraphs

of

the

going fore-

ARTICLE" NOUN"

(a) (b)

indefinite, forms definite, forms

and
and

use, use,

(16) (15)

(a) gender, (13) (b) number, (14) (c) case, (17, 23, 24)
"

PRONOUN

Personal"

(a) (b) (c)

subject forms,
" " "

(26)

"

(27) use, omission, (28) (18,


and
19,

VERB
"

"

regular, (a)

infinitives, stem,
indicative,
present

endings,
forms

20)

(b) present irregular, (a) tener,

use,

(21, 22)

indicative, (29)

MISCELLANEOUS"

Word-order,

(25, 32) "Must" and "ought," (30) with Para infinitive, (31)

EXERCISE
Turn into into the
an

IV.

Spanish.
store.

1.

The
A

boy buy
class.
a

learns
a

the
to

lessons.
a

2.

The
4. A The finds

girls go pupil
children
money

3.

girl writes
We the

letter

friend. 6.
son

writes
carry
on

exercise. the book 8.


too to

5.

flowers 7.

for

Mary.
money.

The
with

teacher's the

the
not

table. smoke
am

He

buys
much. and
you

hat
10.

9.
a

The
great

King
deal? also.
13.

does
11.

I Are the

working
you

John smoke (intimate sing.) are


in order
to

Does

working
learn? and
now.

12.

studying
friend 15.
a

(ordinary sing.)
here?
14.

Does

lady's

live The and

He

speaks English
to

she 16.

We

speaks Spanish. (fern.) have


Must
come

children
you

sister the I You What


23.

come ought (intimate phi.) have

in
a

er. broth-

17.

sing
20. 21.

for
19.

teacher? have
to

18.
go

Do

you
to

wish the

phi.)
to
on

to

in? letter.

down

(ordinary sitting-room
words guage lanWThat the

finish the the

should
does To
come

(intimate phi.) write the


the word
are

blackboard. do
you

mean?
you

22.

teach? the the


not

whom
in? 26.

bringing
boys

water?

24.

Why
Are

does with
you

dog

not

25.

The do
too

and

studying
27. do

teacher.

Where

they
much? "verb"?

girls are (fern.) live?


28.
29.

running
write the

(intimate sing.)
words

Where Is
not

they (mase.)

"noun"

and

LESSON

21

We are coming in because living in Spain? we Joseph now 30. You but to (intimate sing to-day. plu.) well, study they ought 31. books.* I have (fern.) sing badly. 32. some John has not S3classes to-day. any

LESSON

V.

33.
in form

Agreement for gender


with
niha

of and
noun

Adjectives.
number,
and it modifies.

An
must

adjective varies in gender agree


boys.

\^

and

number
una

the
a

buena,
of their

good

girl; nihos

buenos, good

34.

Plural form

jectives Descriptive Adjectives. Descriptiveadwav as nouns. (See plural in the same

ho
americano, 35. Gender americanos;
of

ingles, ingleses; fdcil, fdciles.

Descriptive Adjectives.
in
o

adjectives end change


Those
to o

in

the

to

to

form

the

feminine

descriptive masculine singular, and singular.


masculine, do
nina
an a

Most

bueno,
which
the do
not

buena;
in
0

malo, mala.
in the
;
una

end

the
same.

not

change

form

feminine,
un

but

remain

muchacho

grande

grande.
tionality, na-

a.

An

important
if it ends in

exception is that
a

adjective signifying
to

consonant,

adds

the

masculine

to

form

the

feminine.

espanol, espanola, Spanish. f ranees, franc esa, French.

Descriptive Adjectives. Descriptive adjectivesregularly follow the noun they modify.


36.
a.

Position

of

Otro, "other," "another," and


their
noun.

all

adjectives of quantity
book.

cede pre-

otro

libro

espanol, another
books.
indefinite

Spanish

muchos
*

libros, many
32

In

and
sentences

33

the

"some"
to

no

these classes

being

equivalent

and "any" are "I have books,"

not

to

be

lated, trans-

and

"John

has

to-day."

22

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

b.

When

two

adjectives of equal value

modify

the

same

noun,

connected with each other they follow it, and are by the conjunction word before with i a (e beginning or hi). y
un

libro grand
In
case

hermoso,
are

large handsome
of

book.
one

c. comes

the the

adjectives
noun

unequal
follows

value, the
the

which and

nearest

in

English,

Spanish
French

noun,

the

other el

precedes

it.

hermoso

muchacho

francos, the handsome

boy.

37. used the

Adjectives
modified
tiene and
un

used

as

Nouns.

substantively
noun

accompanied
libro bueno
a

Adjectives are often by the appropriate article,


tengo
un

being implied.
y yo

listed

malo.

You

have
trious indus-

good

book

I have

bad

one. no

Los Los
a.

work,

aplicados trabajan y los perezosos and the lazy do not work.

trabajan.

The
in

Espanoles

v'wen

en

Espana.

The

Spanish live

Spain.

Adjectives of nationality used substantively for the name masculine This definite article. article the a language, require is generally omitted after the after the prepositions en de, and or and verbs estudiar an hablar, aprender, ensenar, escribir, unless
of adverb article stands is used. between the verb and the in which adjective,
case

the

El El
and

ingles
senor

es

dificil. English is hard. ingles


y

habla

espahol.
We

The

gentleman
are

lish speaks Eng-

Spanish.
aprendemos
el

Nosotros

frances.

learning French.
are

Escribimos
in

ejercicioen
espanol
bien

espanol.
mnchos

We

writing the

cise exer-

Spanish.
maestro

El
of

de
many

tiene

discipulos. The
The

teacher

Spanish

has

pupils.
el

El well.

discip'itlohabla

ingles.

pupil speaks

English

38. verb

The
ser,
SINGULAR

verb

ser.

The
as

present indicative
follows
:

of the

ular irreg-

"to be/' is

PLURAL

i.

soy,
eres,

I he

am are are

i. 2.

somos,
so

we

are are

2.

you

3.

es,

(she, it) is, you

3.

is, you they son,

are,

you

are

24

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY.
VERBS.

ADJECTIVES.

llamar,
tratar,

to to

call, knock.
treat.

alemdn,

-a,

German.
-a,

amcricano,

American.

NOUNS.

aplicado, -a, industrious. bonito, -a, pretty. bueno, -a, good.


corto-a,
short. much? cndnto, -a? how cndntos, -as? how many? hard, difficult. dificil,

aho,

year.

capitulo, chapter. clase, f., class, kind.


tica, grammar. grama Luis, Louis. pdgina, page.

regla, rule.
ADVERBS.

contrario, alii,there.
manana,

at

on

the

contrary.

to-morrow. very.

cspanol, -a, Spanish. fdcil, easy. francos, -a, French. grande, big, large. hermoso, -a, handsomeingles, -a, English. largo, -a, long. malo, -a, bad.
otro,
-a,
morrow. to-

muy,

pasado
un

manana,

day

after

peqneno, perezoso,

other, another. little,small. -a,


-a,

lazy.
OR PRONOUN.

poquito,

little bit.
PRONOUN.

ADJECTIVE

POSSESSIVE

mucho, muchos,
que,

-a,
-as.

much.
many.

de

quien? of whom,

whose?

which,

that, (relative pron.).

EXERCISE

V.
un

(a).
y

Los Es

ninos

estudian de

en

libro.

Tienen
es

un

libro

grande
Es
un

hermoso. de

el libro

Luis
son

(or el libro aplicados.


que
trata

de

Luis).
la

libro
para

gramatica. largo.
son

Los

ninos el
que

Estudian
del

leccion

maiiana. es

Estudian
Tienen

capitulo
contrario
pero

sustantivo.

El

capitulo reglas
trata
son no

aprender

dos
son

paginas de reglas. Las


muy
son en

dificiles.

Al

faciles.

El

libro ninos

de

gramatica espanola
pero

las reglas

ingles. Los
un

ingleses
no

estudian Uno de

espahol.
los ninos tienen
es son

Hablan tiene dos

espafiol
ocho clases
pero
y

poquito
y

pero

muy

bien.

afios
manana

el

otro

tiene
cuatro.

diez.

Son

hermanos. de la los

Hoy
ninos
maestra

tienen Muchos malos


y

La

maestra

pequefia buenos,

bonita.
son

de

los

discipulos de

otros

perezosos.

(b).

iQue
I

tienen
un es

los ninos libro

alii?

Tienen

pequeno?

iDe

quien

el libro?

LESSON

VI

Que
Son

clase

de

libro
los

es? nifios? de ?

perezosos

Estudian

la leccion estudian

hoy?

Que
Es

capitulo
largo
el

capitulo?
de

Cuantas Son Trata Cuantas Cuantas Cuantos Tienen

paginas
las el

reglas tienen

que

aprendcr? espanola
"J

faciles

reglas?
de

libro clases
tienen afios

gramatica
los

francesa

tienen manana? tienen

nifios

hoy?

los

nifios?

los

ninos

hermanos? de los nifios ? la maestra?

Es

grande
clase

la maestra de

Que (c). Soy


Es
Habla

discipulos
6
el

tiene

americano americano

espaiiol?
nino?

ingles

espaiiol?
6 franees?

Es

usted
somos

espanol
muchos

Que
Tiene

nosotros?

usted

amigos
f ranceses
un

f ranceses tiene

Cuantos Tienen

amigos
los

usted?
aleman

discipulos
6

maestro

americano?

Son

americanos

alemanes

los

muchachos?

LESSON

VI.

42.

Past

form
stem

gation Participle. Regular verbs of the first conjutheir past participlesby adding -ado the to
infinitive. -ido. Verbs of the second
and

of

the

third

jugations con-

add hablado, sido, been.


a.

spoken;

vivido, lived;
past

tenido, had;
escribir

comldo,

eaten;

The

irregular

participle of

is escrito.

43.
"to

The

have/' is

auxiliary haber. chiefly used as an


tenses

The

irregular verb haber, auxiliary in the formation

of

compound

of

other

verbs.

26

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

PRESENT
1. 2.

INDICATIVE
i. 2.

he,
has ha.
a.

have,

etc.

hemos,
habeis
han

we

have,

etc.

3-

3.

used

third person, a hay, "there is," "there are." impersonally to mean There el comedor. is a table, etc. mesa en Hay una Hay much os discipulos en la clase. There are many,

There

is

also

form

of

the

which

is

etc.

44.

The
tense

Perfect formed

Tense. from the

The

perfect tense
indicative be
to to

is of

pound com-

present
main

haber,
use

and

the

of the verb past participle in the be

inflected. that of of the


a

The

corresponds present perfect,but it may


tense.
"

of this tense

English

used

instead

simple past

PERFECT

INDICATIVE

Comer

(I have
1.
.

eaten,

have

been
i.
2.

eating,
hemos habeis han

ate.)

he has

comido

comido

2.

comido
comido The

ccmido
comido

3.

ha
a.

3.

auxiliary

verb

must

not

be

separated

from

its participle.

j Ha

trabajado
han

listed? los

Have nihos?

you

been Have

working?
the children
not

4N0 studying?
45.

estudiado

been

The

Present

Participle. Verbs
their
stem

regularly form ending


second -ando and
to

conjugation by adding the present participle


the infinitive. -iendo. Verbs of the

of the

first

the

of

third

never participles

conjugations add change in form.

The

present

hablando, speaking; comiendo, being; teniendo, having.


46. of the The verb

eating; viviendo, living; siendo,

irregular

verb is

estar.
as

The
:

present

indicative

estar, "to be"

follows

SINGULAR 1. 2.

PLURAL

estoy,
estds estd The

I am,

etc.

1.

estamos,
estdis estdn
estar
are

we

are,

etc.

2.

3.

3.

present

and

past

of participles

regular.

LESSON

VI

27

47. both
A.
a.
:

mean

Comparison "to be/'


Estar
is used
a :

of
are

ser

and used

estar.

These

verbs, though

not

interchangeably.
that

To

express

condition

or

quality

is temporary

or

dental acci-

Bstoy
El
agna

cansado.
estd

am

tired. The How


water
are

caliente. listed?

is

warm.

jComo
b.
or

estd

you?
or

To

express
:

"place

where"

position,
is in

whether

permanent

temporary

El El

hombre
cuarto

estd estd estd

en en

Paris. la
casa.

The
The Where

man room

Paris.
the

is in

house.

jDonde
c.

el maestro?

is the
express

teacher? continued action.

With

the

present
I

participle to
am

Estoy
Usted B.
a. :

comiendo. estd

eating.
You
are

escribiendo.
:

writing.

Ser
To

is used
express

condition

or

quality

that

is permanent

or

herent in-

La

maestro

es

bonita.

The
Is
noun

teacher
lesson
or

is pretty

jEs
b. Los

fdcil la leccion?
With
senores es es
a

the

easy?
:

predicate
son una

pronoun

amigos.
ciudad.
Who

The Madrid
are

Madrid

gentlemen are is a city.


you?
or

friends.

jQuien
c.

usted?

To

express
es es

ownership,
de de

material

origin :
straw. to

El El
La d.

sombrero sombrero
carta
es

paja.
usted.

The The
The

hat
hat

is of

belongs
is from

you.

de

Espafia.

letter
:

Spain.
No,
the

In

impersonal No,
Cases the the look
es

expressions
temprano.
in

Es
Note

tarde?
a.

Is

it late? with

it is
use

early.
of
ser

arise

connection takes
a

and

estar,
own:

where
as we

in

Spaniard expression, La
youth
are as

different
es

sefiora
a

joven, "The

where
to

upon

the
Note

rules

given
Some
with

rare,

and

temporary will be

viewpoint from our lady is young,'" quality. Such exceptions acquired by practice only.
meanings
are

b. used

adjectives have
ser or

different The
estar estar estar estar
commonest

according
these
:

as

they
ser ser ser ser

are

estar.

bueno, to be good malo, to be bad cansado, to be tiresome triste,to be a dull person

bueno, to be well malo, to be sick cansado, to be tired

triste,to

be

sad

28

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY.
Remark. Words in vocabularies will from be

"

now

on

arranged

alphabetically.
arriba, adv., up-stairs. bastante, adv., enough, plenty. biblioteca, library, study.
calient c, warm,
hot. tired.

Luisa, Louise. madre, mother. Madrid. Madrid,

pajctjstraw.
Paris,
Paris. pre para r, to prepare. qaienes? who? (plur. of

cansado,

-a,

ciudad, f., city. cocina, kitchen.


comof how?
room.

quien?)
over.

repasar,

to

review,

go

cuarto,

chocolate, m., chocolate. del todo, adv., at all. desayuno, breakfast. enfermo, -a, ill,sick. frio, -a, cold. listo, -a, ready.
EXERCISE

subir, to go up, come up. tarde, adv., late. adv., early. temprano, todavia, adv., still,yet.
tostadas, toast. triste, sad. adv., already. ya,
VI.

(a).
usted ha
con

Maria,

^donde

esta

usted?

Estoy
el de

en

la

cocina.

iEsta
":No

trabajando? Juan

Estoy preparando
todavia?

el chocolate
en

para

Juan.

bajado
Luisa.
y

Si;

esta

despacho hoy?
listo

(la biblioteca)
Ella
esta

";Estan repasando
escribiendo
una

la leccion
carta.
en

estudi-

ando

el esta
y

";Esta
mesa.

el

desayuno?

El

chocolate

las tostadas tarde


ya
y

estan

la ha

\b).
madre?
que
esta
no

Es
Esta

Juan

no

bajado

todavia. de

";D6nde Madre,
enfermo bastante.

esta "Jpor-

arriba.

Ha No

subido
esta

al cuarto del

Juan.
Esta

baja Juan? iHay

bueno

todo.

(or

malo). (c).

agua

caliente?
?v

En

la cocina

hay

iEs temprano
";D6nde iQue
I Para esta esta

Maria?

"

preparando
esta

en

la

cocina?^
el

quien
esta esta
no

preparando
de
con

desayuno?,

,;D6nde
I Quien
"; Por

el cuarto

Juan?^
Juan? Juan
todavia?

arriba
ha

que

bajado

^ Como

esta

el nifio ? el nifio ha tenido 6


esta

":Es
,; Por

malo
que

enfermo?
que

madre

subir

al cuarto

de

Juan

LESSON

VII

2Q

('"/). ^Donde
I Por que

estamos?
estamos

aqui?
estudiando?

iQue
i Cuanto

estamos

hemos

aprendido hay
muchachas? las

?
en

;Cuantas

muchachas
son

la

clase?

;Quienes
I Por
;

que

esta

usted
en

triste? Paris?

Ha

estado
que

usted

;En
; ;

ciudad libros
esta

estamos?

Cuantos Como

hay

en

la

mesa

del

maestro

usted?

LESSON

VII.

49.

Use

of

the

Possessive
to

Adjectives.
to

There

is

possessive adjective
The
person

correspond
number be of

each

personal

noun. pro-

and shall

the

possessor

determine
agrees number

which, possessive
with
and

used, and

the

possessive
in

the

noun

modified Its
libro.

gender.
Tcngo
Hemos
tu

(the thing possessed) modified. position is before the noun


I

have
nuestra

your

book. We have studied


our

estudiado
ami g

leccion. and their

son. les-

Ellos

sus

os.

They

friends.

30
If the

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

a.

possessive adjective
before
y

modifies

more

than

one

noun,

it is expressed mi hermano

each

noun

modified.
my

mi

hermana,

brother

and

sister.

50.
the third

The

possessive adjective
su, sus,

sit.

person,

may be

mean

possessive of "his," "her," its,"


usted
are

The

"your,"
and used

"their."

It should take

noted verb of

that particularly in the third person,

ustedes,
also
to

which the

the

with avoid

possessive
as

the
exact

third

person. of

times, Somesu,
:

doubt

to

the

meaning

the

following
la la la la la la
a. casa casa casa casa

substitute
de de de de de de also el ella ellos ellas usted ustedes find

possessive
his her

construction

is used

house house house house


=

!" their

su

casa

casa
casa

[" your
double
casa

We
casa

the

de

el, su

de

ellos,su

de

possessive usted, etc.

construction

su

casa

51.
SINGULAR

Possessive

Pronouns.
PUJRAI,

ENGLISH

el

mio,

la mia la tuya la suya la nuestra

los

mios,

las mias las "tuyas las suyas

mine
yours

el tuyo el suyo,

los tuyos, los suyos, los las los

his, hers,
ours

yours,

its

el nuestro, el vuestro, el suyo,

nuestros,
nuestras

la vuestra

vuestros,
suyos,

las vuestras los las suyas

la suya

theirs,

yours

52. pronoun

Use

of

the
to

Possessive the

Pronouns. of
a a noun

A and
a

is used

take it.

place

possessive possessive
to

adjective modifying correspond to each


pronoun agrees in

possessive possessive adjective. The


and number with the

There

is

pronoun

possessive

gender

thing

sessed. pos-

and la tuya, my house yours. libros. libro y usted tiene dos Yo ten go un book have I los a son pero pequenos. suyos small. is large, but yours Mine books. areMi
casa

El and

mio
you

es

gvande,
two

have

32

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

VII.
y tu

(a).
y
su

Mi

padre
Usted

yo. y
su

Tu
tio.
y

hi jo.
y

El

su

madre.

Ella
Vosdueno.

hermano.
y vuestras
sus

Nosotros
sus

nuestros

amigos.
y
su

otros

tias.

Ellos
Ustedes

libros.
sus

El

libro

Ellas

sombreros.

maestros.

(b).
Ellos
ustedes
y

Ella
ellas
y

el y el los tios

amigo
de

de

ella.

Usted
y

el y el maestro ellos
y

de

el. de

ellos.

Ustedes

los

padres

(or
Mi

sus

padres de ustedes).
madre
y
tu

(c).
el tuyo. de los ella mios. ella y de
y

madre. Nuestro libro de


y

La

mia

y
y

la tuya. el de

Mi

padre hijos

Tu

hi jo y el.

el mio. Nuestro
maestros

padre
el de
y

ella. Nuestros

El amigo
y

el de

usted. los

ustedes. las

Los

usted
y

nuestros.

Las tuyos

tias de
y

vuestras.

Tus

primos

mis

primos.

Los

lo'

(d).
esposo

Mi mi

madre madre.
esposo

es

la

esposa

de el

mi

padre
de
tu

y tu

mi

padre
6

es

el
tu
un

de

Tu
de
tu

tio

es es

hermano

padre
Luisa
tios

de

madre.

El
Su
de

tia

tambien
sus

tio.

tiene de

primo.
El primo
libro tiene
y

primo
Luisa dos tias de
: su

es

el

hijo de'
un

tios

(i.e., de
es

los

ella).
El
Usted

tiene

tio. duefios

Su
son

tio

el
y

padre de
su

Luisa.

tiene
tres

dnefios. la

Sus

Luisa

hermana.. de
su

hermana tio de
y

de

su

padre, la hermana
Nuestras
nuestros
es

madre,

la esposa
nuestros

usted.

primas
tios.

son

las hermanas hermano


y

de
es

primos
vuestro

las

hijas de
Luis El
de de

Vuestro

el

hijo de
son es

padre.

el de

primo
es

de

Maria
el
su

Maria

Eduardo
el. ellos

hermanos.
su

primo
ellos usted.

ella

tambien

primo

de de

Usted
es

hermano
su

por

consiguiente hijos
y
son

primo
tros nues-

tambien
son

primo

Los

las mi

hijas de padre
el

tios madre. hermano de

nuestros

primos.
son

Mis

padres
y
son

mi mi

Mis
y

hermanos hermana.

mis
y

hermanos

mis

hermanas
porque

mi

-Usted
son

Luisa

primos
y

padre
de

ella y el

padre de usted
la misma
y

hermanos.
porque

Ustedes tienen ellos


son

las hermanas mismo


maestro.

Luis
Su

estudian
maestro

leccion el maestro

el

de

ustedes
es es

de

el mismo.

(*')" dQuien ,;Quien


,;Cuantos

mi

padre?
de

la madre
son

Eduardo?

^;Quienes ;Quien

nuestros

padres?
Manuela?

primos
es

tenemos?

la tia de

LESSON

VIII

iQuienes
";De quien

son es

vuestros

sobrinos?
que

el libro
son

tengo?
que

iDe iEs
";Ha
;Es

quienes
es

los

libros
que

ustedes tiene?
en

tienen?

";De quien
mio 6

el libro

Maria
que
esta

tuyo

el libro mi de

la mesa?

hallado

usted

pluma
6 de

la

tuya?

el sombrero

ella

Maria?

LESSON

VIII.

SYNOPSIS.

ADJECTIVES

"

(a)

descriptive

(i) (2) (3) "(4) (5)

number

(34)
(35) (33)
_

gender
agreement

position (36) used substantively


1-10

(37)

(b) (c)
NOUNS PRONOUNS
"

numeral,

cardinal,

(39)

possessive,
of masculine

(48,

49,

50)

special
"

use

plural (54) 53)

possessive,
regular

(51,

52,

VERBS

"

(a)

(1) present participle (45) (2) past participle (42) (44) (3) perfect indicative (1) (2) (3)
ser

(b)

irregular

estar
"

haber

(38) (46) compared (43) (41)


age,

with

ser

(47)

MISCELLANEOUS"
"

word

order

idiomatic,

(40)

EXERCISE
Remark. their The "intimate"
pronouns

VIII.
of be

the
used

second hard

person

and

corresponding possessives are not to A Turn into Spanish. 1. good girl wishes learn. A she to 2. deal) because
lessons. is
a

in this

lesson.
a

studies bad
to

(i.e.s
not

great
review

boy
learn

does

his

3.

Many
room,

lazy children
but cousin class?
are

have is

rules. 5.

4.

The

kitchen is very

small and in

the

library Spanish long. 8.

large.
6. How

The
many

teacher

pretty
are

her his

is handsome. 7.
too

French
the sons les-

girls
Whose
10.

there
your

is

quite
the
my

easy,
grammar

but

of

grammar

Is

John's?
and sister.

is

it?

9.

Louis
years

and old and


sons

Emma Edward
and

are

brother
11. 12.

Louise
nieces

is ten
are

and

my

brothers'

eight. daughters.
is

My
We

nephews
are

not

34
at

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

My uncle and aunt are in Have city of Madrid. 14. We eaten The not are is water already yet? eating. you 15. 16. cold and the chocolate is hot. I am fast preparing the breakfor my mother. cousin is prepar17. Being industrious, my ing 18. Being sick,she does the lesson for day after to-morrow. wish to eat. not They have had to go up. They are upstairs 19. teacher and you the the pupil. 21. I You and are am 20. now. Did the hat American. I are 22. to-day? 23. Having buy you no they are sad. 24. Have you not been in Paris ? 25. You money, mother and your mother the sister,consequently my are are my 26. Your same. (plu.)toast is on the table. Ours is in the kitchen. friend is in the library. 28. Who are nephews? 27. Her your
are

all well.

We

very

sick.

13.

Paris but

they

have

relatives

in the

29.

The

house

is mine,
31. We

ours,

yours,

his.
a

30.

Whose
of
tour

is the
pages.

pen

which
many

I have?
are

have

learned How

lesson
you

How

there in yours?

32.

are

(/"/".)?

LESSON

IX.

55.

Noun

of

Material,
a

etc.

Material
a

is

expressed in
of material,

Spanishby
as

the

de preposition
noun

followed by
as an

noun

instead of by
in
un un

used

of material, adjective

English.
sombrero de encaje,a lace hat. traje de seda, a silk dress.

a.

another

general,Spanish is opposed to the use of like an adjective. The noun directly, a joinedby preposition.
In tienda de zapatos,
verano,
a a

noun

to
are

ify modferably pre-

nouns

una un

shoe-store. dress.

trajede
mesa

summer

la

del

la calle de

despacho, the sitting-roomtable. Seville street. Sevilla, "Personal"

56.
as

Noun

as

Object.

When

noun

used

of a verb denotes a person, a living higher object the is used before a preposition animal, or a personification,
direct it. This

which may construction,

be called the

personalob-

WESSON

IX

35

jective
since
El
He
we

or

personal accusative, is not naturally associate a with the

easy

to

remember,

indirect

object only.*

calls his son. father padre llama a su hijo. The have I al bought the dog. comprado perro. Are usted Maria? looking for Mary? a iBusca you nate the object is not The when is omitted a definite,determia. a
person
or

animal.
un

He b. the

comprado
For
nino
to

perro.
of

have

bought
a

dog.

the

sake

clearness, the
there
a

personal objective when


El
lleva
su

is also

hermano

before generally omitted indirect object. The his la escuela. boy takes
an

is

brother
c.

school.
a

The

is omitted

before

the

personal object after


brothers.

the

verb

tener.

Tengo
57. lish to omitted
A

dos

hermanos.

I have

two

Possessive "at

Construction.
etc.

It is current In

in the

Engnoun

say, in

Wanamaker's,"
must

Spanish

English
de

be

supplied.

d la tienda
a casa

Wanamaker.

de

Eduardo.

58. modifies the

Agreement
two
or more

of

Adjectives,
nouns

a. same

An

of

the

adjective that gender is put in


modified.
suit
are

plural,and
un

takes

the

gender
hermosos,

of the
a

nouns

traje y
y

un

sombrero
son

handsome and

and

hat.

Maria b. An

Luisa

bonitas.

Mary

Louise

pretty.
of different

two or nouns more adjective that modifies the masculine in is genders plural. usually put father mi and son buenos, my padre y mi madre are good.

my

mother

59.

Demonstrative

Adjectives.

*The but
not to

use nouns

of

the personal preceded by


He

accusative
a

is extended

to

nouns

in

the

plural,

numeral.
a

Busco

mis

amigos.
dos
perros.

comprado

36
a.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

demonstrative
agrees

adjective

stands and

before

the

noun

fies it modi-

and

with
este

it in number

gender.
esa

libro, aquellos ninos, correspond


that used
to
a

muchacha.
in
use

b.

These

demonstratives

to

the

English
is

monstrati de-

between to, used


person
or

ese

and

adjectives, except aquel. Ese is


some

sharp distinction is only to point out what


person

drawn
near

what

has
to

relation
out

the

addressed.
both

Aquel
and

is the

only

point

what

is remote

from

speaker

addressed.

60.
a.

Demonstrative
In

Pronouns.
pronouns
are

form,

the

demonstrative

distinguished from
bear the

the

demonstrative
on

the

adjectives only stressed syllable.

in

that

they

written

cent ac-

este, estas, aquel, aquella,


b.

etc.

The

demonstrative

pronouns

correspond
are

in

meaning
the

to

the of

demonstrative
a

adjectives,
which
este
es

but

they
in

used

to

take

place

noun,

with

they
libro
y

agree
tu

number
ese.

and

gender.

Yo

tengo
libro

tienes
es

Ese

pequeno,

aquel

grande.

Personal Pronouns. of the Prepositional Forms used of the personal pronouns The forms as object of a the subject forms as (see 26), preposition are the same second with the exception of the first and singular, persons mi and the specialforms have ti, respectively. which 61.
a

mi,

to

me.

de
con
a

ti,from

you.

el, con
nosotros,

ella,wTith him,
to
us.

with

her.

de de

usted,

de

ustedes,
from

from

you.

vosotros,

you.

para
a.

ellos,para
and
"with and

ellas,for

them
are

"With

me"

the

special

forms

conmigo

you" (intimate) coniigo.

expressed

by

62. Present

The

Irregular Verb,
Past

ir, "to

go."

Infinitive

ir,

Part., yendo,

Part., ido.

ussson

ix

37

Remark.
a.

Note followed to."

that

in with

this
an

tense

the

stem

is

v-.

Ir

by
This
un

infinitive also
I
am

means

"to

be

about

to,"

"to

be

going
a

construction sombrero.
un

expresses

purpose.

Voy
Deseo
a

comprar
ir
a

going
I
want

to to

buy
go

hat.

comprar

sombrero.

and

(to) buy

hat.

63.
not

Spanish

use

of

names

of

places after
idiom.

and Note

en

does lowing fol-

always correspond
:

to

the

English

the

al
a en en
.

despacho,

to

the

office

(like English idiom).

la escuela, to la escuela, at
casa, casa,
casa

school.

school, in school.

at

a a

home
de

home (place). (direction). Juan, to John's.

home,

VOCABULARY.

(direction). alia, adv., there barato, cheap. buscar, to look for. calle, f., street. Carmen,
casa, cerca,

Carmen. home.
near

house, adv.,

noche, f.,night, evening. pair. m., to spend. pasar, pass, to remain, stay. qiicdar, time (short period of), rato, spell,while.
par,
to responder, Rico, a family seda, silk.
answer. name.

by.

thing. dcjar, to leave.


cosa,

encaje, m., lace. escuela, school. esta noche, adv., to-night.


guante,
m.,

glove.

Seville, Seville. si, conj., if. simpdtico, likeable, "nice" of persons).


without. sin, prep., solo, adj., alone. tarde, f., afternoon. traje, m., suit, dress.
verano,
summer.

(used

juntos, -as, together. lectura, reading. lejos, adv., far, a long Lopez, a family name. morning. manana, mejor, adj., best.
necesitar,
to

way

off.

zapato,

shoe.

need.

38

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

IX.

(a). iDe quien


es ese

es

esta

pluma?
libro

Esa
de

pluma
lectura

es

mia. de

";De quien
usted.
son

libro
son

de

lectura?

Este

es

,iDe Juan
mia.
son

quienes
y

aquellos
su
en

sombreros?

Aquellos
de
estos

sombreros

de
no

Luis.

He
suyos

iEs esta dejado la mia


(de usted). (b).
La

pluma
casa.

(la pluma iSon


son

usted)?
mis libros?

Esa

es
no

Esos

Aquellos
de
a

de
no

usted
esta

(suyos).
cerca. a

escuela
no va

Luisa*
en

Esta

lejos, Esta
Su
hermano

mafiana

Luisa
va

quedar
Maria busca

casa.

Va

la escuela.
no

Juan
esta
su

con

ella.

Van

juntos.
llama
a su

Ahora
a

Juan

esta
no

listo hermana.

todavia. Maria
no

Juan.
hermano. tiene
que

Juan
Busca ir sin

aqui. No responde a
tambien
sus

libros. ir sola.

Si Juan

esta

listo,Maria

el.

Tiene

que

(c). iEsta lejos


";D6nde
I Por I que
va va no

la

escuela

de

Luisa?

ella esta
va a

mafiana?
casa
a

de

su

amiga

Quien

con

ella

la escuela?

IA

quien
que

llama
no

Maria?
el?
su

iPor

responde
Maria ella?
sus a

"jD6nde iDonde
I Tiene

busca halla

hermano?

";A quien
ha

dejado

libros?
su

ella que

ir sin
a un

hermano?
a

(d). Esta
necesito
de mucho.

tarde

voy

la ciudad
sombrero
un

comprar

unas

cosas

que

Necesito
y

de de

encaje, un
verano.

par

de

guantes
de

seda, zapatos,

seda

para

traje
y
es

En
Mi

la tienda

Rico

hay

sedas
va

encajes

hermosos

muy

baratos.

amiga
Es
una

men Carmu-

Lopez
chacha
muy

conmigo. padres
noche ha

Ella

mi
y
su

mejor
madre

amiga.
son

simpatica. Su padre
y

tambien
a

muy
un

simrato

paticos.
con

Mis

yo
vamos

vamos

muchas alia.

noches

pasar

ellos.

Esta

(e). iDonde
iQue
I I

comprado
usted

usted
comprar

estos

guantes?

necesita
va con

ahora?

Quien

usted?

Quien ";En que iSon iPasa iVa

es

Carmen calle vive


sus

Lopez?
Carmen?

simpaticos
usted usted
a

padres?
en

las noches
casa

casa?

ahora?

40

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

verb-form written Deseo

continues
accent

to

have

the
on

stress

on

is

now

required
I wish
to

present
to

original syllable,a participles.

the

hablarte.

speak
or

you.

llamdndolas, calling them.


b.
upon

In
an

the

case

of

an

infinitive
tener

the
the

object

auxiliary (desear, precede pronoun may


Le
deseo hablar

participle depending ir a), que, deber, estar, querer, the auxiliary, or be attached to
a

present

infinitive.

Desco

hablarle
hablando le

\l
\
r
T

wish ,
.

t0

sPeak
,
.

to

hlm-

Le
~
_

estoy
77,.,,

am

speaking

to

him.

Estoy 66. be the


mean

hablando

Double that

Pronoun there is
a

Object
chance the for third

Construction.
confusion in the

It
use

will of

noted

object pronouns
"I the

of

person.
or

Le

hablo

might

speak

to

him," "to her,"


clearness

"to

you," according
to

to

context.

For

it is customary

add, after
of the noun, pro-

the

verb, the
Le
Lcs La
a.

form corresponding prepositional depending upon the prepositiona.


hablo hablo busco A
a a a

listed. ellas. ella.

speak to you. speak to them. I am looking for her.


I is

in any where employed person, The is desired. unable, are object pronouns emphasis or contrast of themselves, to emphasis. express habla Me He a mi, pero no le habla a usted. speaks to me, but he does to not speak you. buscan Nos les buscan ustedes. They are a a nosotros, pero no not looking for you. looking for us, but they are b. The

similar

construction

prepositionalform

of

the

pronoun

may

be

placed, for

greater
A
c.

the emphasis, before ti te digo. I tell you. The double le

regular object form.


le
. . .

construction
It is

usted, is considered
when
not

more

polite than
clearness Note. is
or

alone.

constantly used

needed

for

emphasis.
The the
use use

of of

in

these the

constructions

with

parallel to
67.

d with

personal object.
Note that

object, (See 56.)


of the

direct

Some of the

forms all of

Irregular Verbs. these irregularverbs are endings are so.

many regular, and that

nearly

WESSON

41

a.

poder,
Past

"to

be

able," "can,"

"may."

Pres.

Part.,

pudiendo,

Part., podido.
PRESENT INDICATIVE

puedo,
puedes puede b. Pres. querer,

can,

etc.

podemos, podcis
pueden

we

can,

etc.

"to

wish,"
Past

"be

Part., queriendo.

willing," "want," Part., querido.

"love."

PRESENT

INDICATIVE

quiero, I want, quieres, quiere


Note
1.

etc.

queremos,

we

want,

etc.

quereis quierep,
the of Will

Querer
not

expresses

willingness, but
i

in

the

sense

English "will" futurity.


you go

in

the

sense

of

Quiere listed ir conmigof

with

me?

Note direct Yo La
c.

2. by the personal objective or Querer followed "to of the personal pronoun, mean object form may

by

-a

love."

I love quiero a la niha. quiero. I love her.

the

girl.

decir,

"to

tell," "to
PRESENT

say."
INDICATIVE

Pres.

Part., dieiendo.

Past

Part., dicho.
digo,
dices
I say,
etc.

dccimos,
decis dicen

we

say,

etc.

dice,
d. Past

hacer,

"to

do,"
PRESENT

"make."

Pres.

Part.,

haciendo.

Part., hecho.
INDICATIVE
"

hago,
haces hace

do,

etc.

hacemos,
haceis haceii

we

do,

etc.

68.

Idiomatic.

English
with
an

"to

like."

To

express

the

English "like," used


regular
pronoun.

verb

"to gustar, The object of

the Spanobject, we must use ish ject please," with the indirect obthe English verb becomes the

subject of
Este

the
me

Spanish
gusta.

sentence.
I like

libro

this bock.

(This

book

pleases me.)

42
No

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

me

gustan
don't Maria?

aquellos
please me.)
Do

sombreros.

don't

like

those

hats.

(Those

hats

i~Le gusta

you

like Mary?

VOCABULARY.
few algunos, -as, some, a (adj. or pron.). amable, kind, agreeable. Barcelona, Barcelona. castigar, to punish. color, m., color. completo, -a, complete. purchase. compra, politely. cortesmente, dependiente, clerk, employee. donde, where (relative).
ensenar,
to to m.,

magnifico, splendid, "fine."


mas,

adv.,
m.,

more,

most.

modelo,
pan,

pattern,
bread.

design, style.

Pedro, Peter. pluma, feather. primero, adv., first. que, conj., that. who (relative). que, what! how! (excl.) que!
recomendar,
to

recommend.

show.

esperar,

expect,
favor.

wait

for.

favor,
gusto,

pleasure. liabilidad,f.,ability,skill.
hace usted
que

Sanchez, a family name. saludar,*to greet. surtido, stock, assortment. visitar,to visit.
.?
. .

j Me

el

favor de
me

Will
are

you

please
to

?
. . .

Es

favor

usted

hace.

You

very

kind

say

so.

EXERCISE

X. Me ha

(a).
Tu

Mi
te

madre
busca.

me

llama.

comprado amiga
Os
nos

un

sombrero.

padre
una

Te
Vuestro le

habla.
maestro

Nuestra
os

visita.
un un

Nos libro.

escribe

carta.

ensena.

ensefia hecho
va a

La

madre

de

Luis Luisa

(lo) quiere mucho.


que
casa

Le

ha

traje.
la
es-

El

padre

de
Ha

le dice
en

la
para

quiere. Maria
aprenderla.
pan
su es

aprender
la
esta

leccion. tudiando

quedado
Lo
ha

Ahora

(esta
comerlo.

estudiandola).
come.

El

bueno.

Juan
ha

desea les

(quiere)

Ninos,
muchas
a va

madre
cosas.

(de ustedes)
Las
las

(los) quiere.
para

Les

comprado
dice las
en

comprado
La
madre
a

ustedes. el maestro nifios los

El

padre
dice
que

las
a

ninas

que

quiere mucho.

Ninas,
de
sus

castigar (a ustedes).
del
maestro.

los

ha

dejado puede

casa

El padre busca

hijos, pero (b).


Le
he

no

hallarlos.

iHa

llamado
pero
va

usted
dice
a

Juan?
no

llamado,
que

que

puede
Pedro Pedro tarde?

ir

con es

nosotras.
su

Espera
amigo,
a

Pedro

Sanchez
le

visitarle.

mejor

Juan

quiere mucho.
vamos

Tambien
esta

le

quiere mucho

el.

I Donde

primero

LESSON

43

Quiero
recomendar

hacer

algunas
usted
compras
un

compras.

iQue
?

tienda

me

puede

usted

(puede
clase de

recomendarme) quiere
sombrero. la usted

iQue
I

hacer?

Quiero
mi
me

comprar

A
son

gusta
y

mucho la
casa

tienda
un

de

Rico.
muy

Los

dependientes completo.
el

muy

amables,
Cuando
cortesmente,

tiene

surtido

(c).
la

una

sefiora
y

entra

en

una

tienda,
ique

dependiente
usted?

saluda
le

le hace

dice:

Sefiora,
el favor

desea ensefiarme

La

sefiora

responde
? mucho

i Me

usted

de

algunos

sombreros Con Me

gusto.
mas

"jNo

le

gusta

usted
es

este?

gusta

aquel.
hace
un

Esta

pluma

demasiado

grande.

(d).

iQue
haciendo bonito
que
es

usted, traje
Y
j que
me

Maria? de
verano.

Estoy
i

Que

es

! usted

habilidad
hace.

tiene usted la ha

usted
muy

para

estas

'

cosas

Es

favor

(Es

amable.)
usted?

Esta
La
he

seda

magnifica.
en

";D6nde

comprado

comprado
me

Barcelona.

El

modelo

gusta

mucho,

tambien

el

color.

(e). iQuien
I

iQue

quiere
a

Juan?

quiere quiere
llama dice

Juan Juan?
la
sefiora?

quien quien
le

I A
"

iQue iQue iQue


I
I

Juan?
le de

tienda clase

gusta

mas

usted? tiene favor? ha


a

dependientes
hacerme decirme el
un

esta

tienda?

Quiere Quiere

usted usted
ensefia

donde

comprado
sefiora?

esa

seda?

iQue iQue
":No

dependiente

la

le

dice

ella? usted
en

puede

no

quiere

usted
are

hacer
very

mi

traje?
kind"

iComo
I Como

decimos decimos
en

espafiol, "you espafiol, "will


you

please

show

me

that

book"

44

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON

XL

69.
are

Indicative

Imperfect
of
are

and

Past

Definite. that

There

two

simple

tenses

the

indicative
the

in past time. Definite

These

called
of

action express Imperfect and the Past


tenses

(Preterite). Each
one

these
first

has

two

sets

of

endings:
and
-er
one

for verbs verbs of

of the the

for -ir
to

second

Conjugation (-ar verbs), and third conjugations


are,

and

verbs).
stem

These

endings

in

regular verbs,

added

the

of the infinitive

(19).

ENDINGS.
PAST FIRST

DEFINITE
2D AND

CONJ.
SINGULAR

3D

CONJ.

PAST

DEFINITE

ensene

ensefiastc
enseno

ensenamos

evsenasteis
ensenaron

respondi rcspondistc respondio respondimos respond isteis


respond
that the
stress
eron

Note the In the


stem

a.

In the the verb

present

tense

it

was

found

falls

on

of

in four

forms

the

imperfect and past definite first syllable of the ending.


b. Notice the that the

only (sing., 1, 2, 3, and plu. falls in all forms the stress

3.).
on

that

in

first and

third

plu. is like the

present

alike, and imperfect 1st and 3d sing, are def. the first conjugations past person indie, first person plu.

LESSON

XI

45

70.
a.

Use
The
at

of
past
some

Imperfect
definite

and

Past
a

Definite.
act

expresses

definite
act at

occurring
time
not

and
tinuous. con-

completed
time. Juan No b. past

point

of

past

time

; an

in past
some

It

expresses

what

"took

place"
to
me

particular past

me

hablo

ayer.

John
did
not

spoke

yesterday.
act

cantaron.

They
habitual

sing.
represents past.
an as

The
or

imperfect commonly
as

continuing
be

in

time,

in with I
was

the the

It must

sometimes

lated trans-

by "was"
Hscribia En
hard.
c. una

("were")
carta.

present
a

or participle,

by
used

"used

to."

writing
mucho.

letter. Madrid
we

Madrid

estudidbamos

In

to

study

When

two

actions

occur

simultaneously,
by
I
was

one

the the

interrupted act is expressed interrupting act by the past definite. Comia cuando mi llamo. padre me
other, the
called
In
me.

the

interrupting imperfect, and


when
my

eating

father d. the and

scenic

descriptive background things. The past


los dos
a mozos

narrative and the

imperfect is used qualities and conditions


tells what When in mantillas of their their
were

the

to

describe
persons

of

definite

occurred. the the faces and


two

Cuando
ron,
en

llegay

young

encontraron

Rita de

Elvira
cucar

arrived, they found


covered
so

Rita the

and

fellows vira ElTheir

la puerta.
la

Sus
no

mantillas la

doorway.
lower

brian de
mas

parte
que

manera

que

la

baja a. dejaban fuera frente y los ojos.

part
that alone

completely
foreheads

eyes

visible.

Irregular Imperfects. Only three Spanish verbs, ir and "to see/' are dicative irregular in the imperfect inser, ver, All other imperfects are formed ing regularly by addof the infinitive. The endings to the stem Imperfects ir are of ser below. and given

71.

46
72. Past

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

gressive Proestar. Progressive Conjugation with action in past time may be expressed not only by the simple imperfect (see yob), but also by the imperfect used the present participle. (Compare of estar with 47 A, c.) Bstaba trabajando. I comiendo. Estdbamos
a.

was

We

working. were eating.


action
a,

Past of

customary
the verb

or

habitual

may

be

expressed
with
an

by the
itive. infin-

imperfect

acosiaimbrarse

"to

be

used/'
used

Acostumbrdbamos

trabajar mucho.

We

to

work

hard.

Orthographically Irregular Verbs. ish Many Spanverbs which are conjugated regularly undergo certain in order to preserve jugation changes of spelling throughout the conthe has
or

73.

sound

which Verbs g of

the

final consonant

of

the in

stem
-car

in -gar,

the

infinitive.
c

whose
the
stem
e.

infinitive ends
to

change
the the

and

when

ending begins with


Past

qu and gu Of the forms

tively respec-

already
affected

learned, only by this rule.

Definite,

1st

person

sing.,is

(buscar) busquc, I sought; 74.


The

(castigar) castigue, I punished.

This compound tense Pluperfect Indicative. is formed by the imperfect of haber, and the past participle is similar to that of of the verb to be conjugated. Its use the English pluperfect.
Habia Habiamos comido. I had
eaten.

estudiado

la

leccion.

We

had

studied

the

lesson.

VOCABULARY. acomfianar,
pany.
to

be

with,

accom-

de, prep., etc.)


dclante before.

about

(with
in

hablar, of,

agradable, agreea^e. algo, pron., sometning.


asiento,
seat.

de,
to

prep.,

front

encontrar,
cntonccs,
near.

cafe,
cerca

m.,

coffee, cafe.
prep.,

meet, adv., then.

come

upon.

de,

cudndof

when?

helado, ice, ice-cream. inz'icrno, winter.


it
a

cuando,

conj., when.

fiasco, to

go

to

walk.

-4-8
(d). iCuando
IA

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

paso

usted

por

la Calle de Sevilla?

usted cerca del Cafe Ingles? quien encontro usted? ^Donde le encontro le Quien acompafiaba? I usted? iCuando les encontro Pedro a iLe presento su hijo? ustedes entonces? iDonde entraron
I Para que entraron

ustedes

en

el cafe?

ustedes asientos? ^Donde tomaron A llamo Suarez? quien I iTomo usted algo? nada el hijo de Suarez? ";No tomo mientras ustedes I Quien entro que

hablaban?

Cuando
6 iba usted
I Quien IA
a

le encontre la escuela? el hombre

usted

esta

manana

";ibausted
entro
en

paseo,

era

con

quien usted

el cafe?

quien busco

usted alii?

LESSON
SYNOPSIS.

XII.

ADJECTIVES"
NOUN"

(a) descriptive, agreement (b) demonstrative (59)

(58)

PRONOUN

(a) of material (55) (b) as personal object (56) (c) possessive construction (57) (a) personal (1) prepositionalforms (2) object forms (64)
"

(61)

"
"

" "

position (65)
double construction past

(66) (69) (70)

VERB

"

(60) (b) demonstrative (1) indicative,imperfect and (a) regular

forms definite,
use

(72) (3) indicative pluperfect (74) (b) irregular (1) orthographical changes (73) (2) irregular imperfects (71) (3) ir, piesent indicative, etc. (62) etc. (67) (4) poder, auerer, decir, hacer, pres. indicative, MISCELLANEOUS" idiomatic, "to like" (68)

(2) past progressive construction

EXERCISE
Turn he husband where
we

XII.
my
son

into
was

Spanish.
bad.
2.
were

1.

punished

this afternoon

cause be-

She
with

and

father
two

is tired every her. 4. We

evening. 3. stayed in Wanamaker's,


a

Carmen's

bought

pairsof silk gloves and

lace dress. 5. While

licsson

xiii

49

looked of the window out at friends, we waiting for our in 6. He front of the cafe. the greeted passing people wrho were her. I when I Seville St. met me through was going politely. 7. He I am 8. (intimate sing.) something. going to tell you 9. It he is that 10. (intimate plu.) to-morrow. going to visit you says I can recommend is my is calling me. mother's voice. She 11. and kind clerks they have very (ordinary sing.) a store where you Did stock. treat 12. they (ordinary plu. fern.) complete a you very there first? well? do not we together May Why 13. you go go the things that talk about afterwards? She to always wants 14. The that her. have night to they wish to go togirls say happened 15.
we were

and
very
you meet

that and
to

Peter I

may

go

with

them.

16.

These

shoes

are

not

take
21. came

those better than Do yonder. 17. did your uncle purchases ? 18. Whom this morning the Cafe did you not near Ingles? 19. Why Did 20. they spend a pleasant evening at Louisa's? anything? What the teacher were they doing at school this morning when

cheap,

like
a

them

wish

make

few

in?
answer

22.

When in
am

will

you

go

to

walk
not

with need

me?
my

23.

Can

you

not

him
I

consequently
nice
me

Spanish? going to
not to

24.

I do it at

reading book;
She
is
a

leave
go

home. 26. 27. Will What her? Had he

25.
you
were

very

girl and
another
Are

ought

alone. color? him


or

pattern

and

another for
not

buying them you for you (ordinary) and sister to the president? (ordinary fern.). I you girl.

28.

for
30.

29.

please show saying? you was looking


his I loves love the
me.

for

him. him

he

introduced

31.

I love
you

and

loves He

love

(ordinary fern.).

LESSON

XIII.

75. action

Reflexive is directed verb

Verbs. back
upon

reflexive
the

verb

is the

one

whose

meaning The this way. object of a reflexive of indirect, according to the nature is expressed by a reflexive pronoun and person the subject. as
transitive
I

whose

subject of will permit,


verb the of

verb. be be

Any
in
or

may

used

may verb. the

direct

This
same

object
number

strike

myself. glass.

The We

himself in the boy sees hats. buy ourselves

50
76. Reflexive for

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Pronouns. each

In

English
number

we

have

flexive re-

(myself, yourself, which one Spanish reflexive, se, for third person and serves singular and plural, masculine feminine, direct or indirect object. For the other persons, the regular personal object pronouns used. are
pronoun etc.). In
i. 2.

and person there is but

me,

myself,

to

myself

i.
2.

nos, os,

ourselves,
yourselves,

to to

ourselves

te,
se,

yourself,to

yourself (int.)

yourselves, yourselves,

{int.)
3.

himself, herself, itself, yourself, to yourself, etc.


When the the reflexive
pronoun

3.

se, to

themselves,
themselves,
as

to

yourselves
of
a

a.

is used
for

object
third

sition, prepo-

the preposition con, when first In the conmigo, contigo). (parallel and forms of the personal second the prepositional regular persons, used. (See 61.) are pronouns el sombrero I buy the hat for myself. Compro para mi.
or

form

phi., m. consigo

prepositional form or f.), excepting


is used

si is used after
to

the

person

(sing.

the

77. of accordance El
Me

Position
a

of

Reflexive

Pronoun

Object.

The
verb in

sition poin

reflexive with
se

is before after the or pronoun the rule stated for object pronouns
ensena.
un

65.

muchacho he

The
sombrero. make

boy
oneself himself

teaches

himself.

'comprado
un

I have
a

bought
dress.

myself

hat.

Hacerse

traje.
bien.

To

Tratdndose

Treating

well.

78. be:
a.

Kinds

of

Reflexive

Verbs.

reflexive verb

may

meaning.
b. A of

without simple transitive verb used reflexively the examples in jj. Such are given above
transitive
or

change of
with

intransitive

verb

used

reflexively

change
mar

meaning. char, to march;


to to

marcharse,
to to

to

go

away.

llamar,
hallar,
c.

call; llamarse,
And
;

be find

hallarse,

called, be named. oneself, to happen


used

to

be,

to

be.

Verbs
are

These

intrinsicallyreflexive, i. e., always translated and are generally not rare,


to

reflexively. reflexively into


cold.

English.
atrcverse,

dare;

constiparse,to

catch

LESSON

XIII

51

DRILL.

Conjugate
definite, and

atreverse

in in the

the

hallarse

indie.,constiparse in the pres. imperfect indicative.


with

past

79. Force.
se

Reflexives A the
very
common

used

Impersonal

or

Passive
use

with

third

person
as a

impersonal force, or
a.

Spanish construction singular or plural of passive.


verb is in

is the
a

of

verb, with
third

If

no

subject is expressed, the


que

the

person

singular.
Se

dice
etc.
se

Juan mucho is
an

estd

enfermo. They

They
don't

say

(it is said) that


much is in

John,
No
b.

bebe there

en

Espana. expressed
number hablan

drink

Spain.
or

If

plural according to the Muchas lengnas se in Europe. spoken


El

subject, the verb of the subject. Europa. Many en Spanish


is

singular

languages
in

are

espanol

se

habla

en

Espana.

spoken

Spain.

80.
sort

Interrogatives

que

and

cudl.

Que,

"what,"

is and

of be

may

general utilityinterrogative. It is uninfected, used as subject or as object, as adjective or in past lessons.) (See sentences
as a

noun. pro-

Cudl, plu. cudles, is generally used "which." It also preposition de, to mean
a.

pronoun

with "which"

the
or

expresses

"what"
4

before

any
estos

form

of

the
es

verb
su

ser.

Cudl Cudl
of

de

hombres los

amigof
Unidosf

Which What

of

these is the
.

men

is his
j

friend?
es

la

lengua de

Estados

guage lan-

the

United
When

States ?
a

Exception.
by
que.
es

definition What
is

is

asked

for,

"what"

before

ser

is

pressed ex-

cQue

gramatica?

grammar?

81. of

Impersonal
the verb

Construction. used

The

third

person

ral plu-

is sometimes

impersonally,as
they speak Spanish

in

lish. EngSpain?
With

j En

Espana

hablan

espanol ?
with

Do

in

"

82. of

Definite countries

Article the

Names article

of Countries.
may,
or

names

definite

may

not

be

52
used. the
noun

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Usage varies, but is governed by


Espana
Vivo
en :

the
a

article

is

generally omitted
la America

if

preposition.
America
He
are :

Espana Espana.
la

vlajado por America. always accompanied by the these preposition. Among are :
Estados
Unidos.

a.

Some

article,even

geographical names when governed by a El Brasil, el Canada,

los

83.
Present

The

Irregular Verb
Past

ver,

"to see."
visto.

Infinitive

ver,

Part., viendo,

Part.,
INDICATIVE

PRESENT veo,
ves ve

see,

etc.

vemos,

we

see,

etc.

veis
ven

IMPERFECT

INDICATIVE

veiaj
veias veia Note. built
on

saw,

etc.

veiamos,
veiais veian

we

saw,

etc.

On
the
stem

this
of

imperfect
the

see

71.

The

past

definite is regular,

infinitive, v-.

83 the the

Superfluous Pronoun Object. An extension of double object construction explained in 66 is pronoun of a superfluouspronoun use object of the same ber numand gender as an monly expressed noun object. This is comwhen used a tence personal object stands first in a senA.
or

clause.
hermana la

A sister. No but
my

mi

quiere

todo

el mundo. mi

Everybody
padre.
I

loves like

my

me

gnsta
does

mi, pero
like it.

le gusta

don't

it,

father

VOCABULARY.

alcgrarse, to be glad. asi, adv., thus, so, in this way. bastante, adv., quite, considerably.
el el Brasil, Brazil. Canada, Canada.

causa,
a

cause,

reason.

of. de, prep., because colegio, school, college.


causa

Chile,
comof cudnto

Chile. what?

ticmpof

how

long?

capital,f.,capital (city).

Cuba, Cuba.

LESSON

XIII

53

los los

(las) demds,

the

rest, the the

perfectamente, adv., perfectly.


por

others.

supuesto,
-a,

Estados States.
to

Unidos,

United

portugues,
que,

adv., of course. Portuguese.

principal,adj., principal.
than. be
c

Buropa,
llamarse,
named.

Europe.
ailed,
to

be

marcharse,
Mejico,
mes,
m.,

to

go

away.

Mexico. month.
,

muchisimo

adv.,

very
a

much.

mucho

tiempo, adv.,

long time,

public a, republic. salud, f., health. Santiago. Santiago, so lament e, adv., only. America. South Sud- America, tiempo, time. (adj. todo, -a, -os, -as, all, whole
re

long. world. mundo, Norte-America,

and todo North America.

pron.)
el mundo,
the whole

world,

pais, m., country. patria, native land.


EXERCISE

everybody. viajar, to travel.

XIII. mucho. de

(a).
He tambien

Se

dice

que

usted

ha Por

viajado
los

viajado
en

bastante.

principales paises
le gusta A mas?

Europa

Sud-America.
de los
mas

iCual
Me
mas su

paises
mi Pero

que

ha

visto

gusta

pais (mi patria).


todos debemos

todo si

el mundo

le gusta Asi
se

patria.
mucho.

viajar lenguas.
el

podemos.

aprende
Por Hablo necesita

supuesto
bastante
mas

habla bien
que

usted el

varias

ingles,
tres

espafiol y viajar
los

el
por

frances. todo

No

se

lenguas lenguas
se se

estas
en

para

el mundo.

iQue
En
America

hablan habla

Sud-America? En
demas

el Brasil hablan
ensefia

portugues.

paises

de

Sud-

espafiol. ingles
llama de
en

iSe
En

las

escuelas

de

Sud-America?

algunas
se

(varias)
la Chile

ciudades

hay colegios ingleses.


de la

iComo
La
porque

capital
se

republica
de
en

de

Chile?

capital hay
otro

llama
en

Santiago
y otro

Chile. Cuba.

Se

llama

asi

Santiago
mucho

Espana
en

I Paso

usted
meses

tiempo

Santiago
marche

?
a causa

Algunos
salud
de mi

solamente.

Me

de

la

mala

esposa.

iEsta
Me

buena

ahora?

Perfectamente.

alegro

mucho.

54

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

(b)\
I Por I Se
I

iC6mo.se
cuales dice
que
son

llama los

este

serior? de Norte-America varias ha

de

paises
seiior

viajado?

este

habla

lenguas ?

Cuales

las
se

principales lenguas de
necesita todos hablan
en

Europa?
Sud- America?

iQue
I Para

lenguas
que

para

viajar

en

debemos
se

viajar?
Norte-America? de

iQue

lenguas
cual de

iEn

los

paises
en

Sud-America Sud-America?

se

habla el

portugues?
Canada?

"jHay colegios ingleses iDonde iPor


I Como
se

";en

ensefia

nuestra

lengua?
en

iCuanto tiempo
que
se
se se se

paso

usted

el Brasil?

marcho la

usted?

llama llama halla

capital de esposa?

nuestro

pais?

iComo iComo

usted?
su

LESSON

XIV.

84.

Irregular
of and

Past

Definites.
ser,

Learn
tener,

the

irregular
querer,

past

definites

haber,
ir.
of

estar,

poder,
539,
The
common,

decir, hacer,
The definites
stem

(See
ser

531-535,
and. ir
are

537,
alike. in

54^,

543-)*
past
The
the
on

in

past definites this group past b. The


stress

other
a.

have

certain all
cases

points
third

of

the

definite

is in in the the

distinct

from

that

of

infinitive, the
stem

first and

persons

singular, is

instead

of

on

ending. The
the infinitive force

85. used the

Infinitives
a

with

Preposition.
have in

after

preposition,may
comer,

Spanish

of

English present participle.


despues
sin
antes
a.

de

estudiar, without
de

eating. studying. levantarse, before getting


after

after

up.

The

infinitive

al, is translated

by

on

with

present

participle.
al

verla,

on

seeing her.
is and reminded that the

*The

student
of
ser

imperfects
71.)

of

these

verbs,

with

the

exception

ir,

are

regular.

(See

50
Las
dies de

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

(A. M.),
Las
Note
cuatro

Ten o'clock la manana, de la noche. in the' evening, at night (P. M.). de la tarde. of the
use

in the

ing morn-

Four

o'clock verb

in the and

afternoon.

the
the Y

use

plural
of

article
to

with
agree

all with

hours hora

except
omitted.
menos

first, and
expresses

feminine after the the

article hour

minutes after
or

and

before

the
next

half,
hour.

expresses may

minutes be

half

and

before

the

Minutos

expressed

omitted.

Spanish the definite before names article is used instead of a possessiveadjective of parts of the body or articles of clothing,provided its use
89. Use of Definite

Article.

In

leaves
El

no

doubt

as

to

mitchacho

abrio

the possessor. los ojos. The boy opened

his

eyes.

VOCABULARY.

abrir, to open. fuerza de, prep., by dint of, by. antes de, prep., before.
a

liegar,

to

arrive

medio,
menos,

-a,

(see 73), adj., half.

adv., less.
minute. ask

Carlos, Charles.
cerrado,
cuarto,
-a,

shut.

minuto, ojo, eye.


preguntar,

(noun) quarter. desayunarse, to have breakfast. despues de, prep., after. hambre, f.,hunger. hora, hour, time. to irse, to go away, along. go to levantarse, get up.

to

(a question).

prisa, haste.
puerta,
door.
m.,

watch, clock (prorelo). sleep. sueno, universidad, f.,university. reloj,


nounced

EXERCISE
a.

XIV.
sueno

Esta
de

manana,

al abrir mire
que

Antes
cuarto.

levantarme

mi

ojos, tenia mucho reloj y vi que eran ya


los
en

todavia.
menos no

las ocho

Teniendo

estar
me

la fui
y

universidad sin
me comer.

las

ocho,

tuve

tiempo de desayunarme, y Cafe Ingles, un amigo me Le dije (or respondi) que fuerza de correr llegue a
puerta
b. and cerrada. Read the such
same

Al si
y

pasar
no

delante

del

llamo tenia

pregunto

mucha
a

prisa
ocho
y

que

queria entrar. no podia. A


y encontre

la clase

las

cinco

la

above

making Repeat in the

other

paragraph aloud, making the subject Carlos, changes as the laws of agreement require. the subject. making nosotros way,

LESSON

xv

57

iDonde iQue hora iQue tomo


c.

estaba
era

Carlos

cuando
se

abrio

los

ojos?

cuando de
ipor

Carlos irse
que
a

levanto?

antes

la universidad?
no

Si tenia
I Por I Por que que

hambre,
no no

tomo antes

nada? de irse?

pudo
quiso
usted
se

desayunarse
entrar
en

el cafe?
que

iQue ";Se
I A

dijo
levanto
que

Carlos

al

amigo
6

le

habia

llamado?

tarde levanto
a

temprano?
esta
su

hora hora es?

usted usted

mafiana? madre?

";A
Al

que

le llamo

iQue llegar

hora

Carlos

la

clase,

ique

hora

era?

LESSON 90. of these The


tenses

XV.

Future has but

and
one

Conditional
set

Indicative.
to
serve

Each
for the

of

endings

three

conjugations.

Note.

The the

endings
and

of

endings imperfect
receive
the

of
of

the the
stress

conditional
second
on

of

all

conjugations

are

and first

third

conditionals

the

conjugations. (or only) syllable of

All the

like the futures

ending.

The
is the

stem

of the

future
:

and

conditional, in regular verbs,


stem

whole with would


FUTURE

infinitive the be

i. e., the

of

the future

infinitive and

gether to-

infinitive formed

ending.
as

The
:

tional condi-

then

follows

CONDITIONAL

estudiare, I shall estudiaras, You

study.
will

study,

etc.

write. escribiria,I should would You write, escribirias,

etc.

DRILL.

Conjugate
verb, and
tenses.

in

the
ver,

future
ser

and and

conditional estar, which

any
are

familiar

regular
in these

also

ir,

regular

58
91. is used
Los
lesson,
a.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Use in the
ire ninos

of Future

and in

Conditional.
express
I shall

The

future

tense

main,
a

as

English,to
To-morrow

simple futurity.
go to

Mariana

Madrid.

Madrid.
will learn

aprenderdn
conditional
to
a

la leccion.

The

children

the

The

commonly
some

future
he he
my
son.

in reference

verb

action expresses in past time.


that I should him if he
go

that

is

dije

que

iria

Madrid. mi

I told him

to

rid. Mad-

pregunte

si veria

hijo. I asked

would

see

Note.

For

should

meaning

ought

review

30b.

92. of these

Irregular
all

Futures
even

and
most

Conditionals.

The

ings endin

tenses.

conditional
a.

are irregular, in the Verbs having irregularities have irregularstems.

verbs,

the

regular
future

and

The

vowel

of

the

infinitive whose
stems

ending
are

haber, poder, and


b.
as
c. as

querer,

dropped, as in habr-, podr-, and querr-.


may

be

may

be

substituted
stem

for

the

vowel

of

the

infinitive

ing, end-

in tener, whose The infinitive and

is tendr-. be

may

shortened
stems
are

by the
dirand

loss

of

two

letters,

in decir

hacer, whose

har-.

Learn
mentioned

the in

irregular future this paragraph.

and

conditional

of the

verbs

(See

531,

533"534,

538"539"

5430
93. Future Perfect and

Conditional

Perfect.

These

compound
conditional

tenses, formed
of haber
are

They difficulty.
Habrdn No ido
ya.

and from the future respectively offer no and a especial past participle, of the English. literal translations
will have would
gone
not

They
visto.

already.
have
seen

lo habrian

They

him.

94.
a.

Comparison
Equality.
the

of

Adjectives.
equal
como,

of Comparison and adjective, tan, "as," before tan Juan aplicado como es yo.

degree
is
as

is

expressed by
it.
as

"as," after

John

industrious

I.

wesson

xv
.

59
degree
is and

b.
mas,

Inequality.
or

Comparison

of

unequal
the

expressed
que,

"more,"
it. Juan Maria
es es

menos,

"less," before
que yo.

adjective
more

by "than,"
than I.

after

mas mas

aplicado
bonita
es menos

Esta

leccion other,

John is Luisa. Mary que fdcil que la otra.

industrious

is

prettier than
lesson

Louise.
easy

This

is less

than, the
c.

Superlative. Superlative degree is expressed by el {la, los, before the adjective. el (la, los, las) menos or las) mas,
los
mas menos

cortos,

the

shortest. least
noun, most

la
Note Note
el
i.

fdcil,the
follows
the the

easy.
the famous

If el

the

adjective
mas a

article

precedes

it.

medico

famoso,

doctor. de. doctor of the in the

2.

"In"
mas

after
famoso

medico
3.

is expressed superlative la ciudad, the de most

by
the

famous

city.

Note

The

mis

possessive discipulos mas

adjective

may

take
most

place

article,

aplicados, my

industrious

pupils.

95.
accompany

Use

of Definite

Article. in direct
Suarez.
estd Dona
are

The

definite

article

must

titles, except
Suarez, Mr. Sudrez, jcomo
"

address.
How Mr. that
name

el sehor

Senor

listed?
are

are

you,

Suarez?
have Maria*
no

Exception.

Don

and

Spanish
before the Don

titles

English equivalent. They and are never accompanied


96. Omission
not

used the

Christian

only,

by

article.

Carlos,

Dona

of

Indefinite
a

Article.

The

indefinite

article is

used

with

profession,occupation,
Mi
Don

rank

denoting class, predicate noun and nationality.


friend
is
not

amigo
Carlos
es

es

americano.
es

My
Are

is
a a

an

American.

maestro.

Charles
you

teacher. doctor?
an

jNo
a.

listed the

medico?
noun

If the

predicate
must
es

is limited

by

adjective
Mr.

or

wise, other-

article

be
un

used. medico
muy

El 'famous

Sr.

Lopez

famoso.

Lopez

is

very

doctor.

97.

Present

by

present buy
a

Participle participlemay
diner o}

Clauses.
express
una

A
a
casa.

clause

introduced

condition.
If I

Teniendo should Siendo

yo

compraria
usted

had If you

money,

house.

medico,
you

jtrabajaria
work
Don

dia

noche?

were

doctor, would

day
and
Dona

and

night?
are

*Sefior, Sefiora,

abbreviated

Sr., Sra., D., Da.

60

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY.

Alfonso Alphonso.
,

besar, to kiss.
desde.
.

wife. mujer, woman, ocupado, -a, busy.


.

from. .hasta,

.to.

office. oficina,

Diego, James. criado,-a, servant. ejemplo, instance,example. famoso, -a, famous. Fernandez, a family name. leehe, f.,milk. medico, physician. mediodia, m., noon.

pie,m., foot. a pie,on foot. periodico, newspaper.


por, prep., for, in, during. tan, adv., as, so. tanto, adv., so much. tasa, cup.

todo el dia, toda la noche, toda la manana, all day, all all the morning. in the morning, mornings. por la manana, por la tarde,in the afternoon,afternoons. por la noche, at night,in the evening, nights, evenings. por el dia,during the day.

night,

EXERCISE
a.
se

XV. D.

El Sr. Fernandez
Da.

se

llama
es

Diego.
Es

Su
un no

esposa

(mujer)
famoso. famoso

llama

Carmen.
D. Alfonso

D.
es

Diego

medico.

medico
es

Su

hermano

tambien

medico, pero

tan

de los medicos D. Diego. Sr. Fernandez es mas uno como famosos el dia del pais. Es el mejor medico de la ciudad. Todo

El

D.

Diego
a

esta

muy

ocupado.
menos

Por

ejemplo:
Tomara

Mariana
una

la criada de la
y
se

le
con

llamara

las siete 6 la

cuarto.

taza

cafe

leche, y
comedor.
a su

pan

tostadas,repasando (mirando)
manana

al mismo
en

tiempo
mesa

el

periodico de

las cartas
a

que
a

hallara
su

del
a

Entonces
desde las

besara

sus

hijos y

mujer,

ira

pie
Alii
que

donde oficina,
a

estara

enfermos. le estaran esperando muchos Por ocho la tarde tendra hasta mediodia.
que
no

visitar b.

los enfermos

han

podido

ir

verle

en

la oficina.

iEs
es

maestro

el Sr. Fernandez?

iQue

el Sr. Fernandez?
se

,;C6mo

llama?

iQue hace por la manana? famoso ":Es mas que su hermano? ocupado? iCual de los dos es el mas iComo pasara D. Diego el dia manana? iQue hara mientras que esta comiendo? ^Quien es el mejor medico de la ciudad? iComo ira a la oficina? sus ";Le veran hijos antes de irse el a la

oficina?

LESSON

XVI

Para

ir

iTendra
"jPor
que

la oficina, ":por mucho estar que


no van

que

calle

tendra

que

pasar?
en

tiempo
enfermos

alii?
a.

todos el?

los

verle

la oficina?

iDonde
Teniendo

los
que

visita

trabajar tanto, ^desearia usted ser Estando ";llamaria usted a D. Diego? enfermo, su amigo de Vd. por la tarde? iSe marcho
IA
que

medico?

hora

come

Vd.

por

la mafiana?

LESSON

XVI.

SYNOPSIS.

ARTICLE"

(a) (b)
"

(82, definite; use indefinite, omission

89, 95)

(96)

ADJECTIVE

(94) (a) descriptive, comparison cardinal (87) (b) numeral, 11-39 pronoun-adjectives (c) interrogative
Reflexive

que

and

cual

(80)

PRONOUN"

(a) (b)

forms

(76) position (77)

VERB

"

(a)

Regular

(b)

and conditional (1). future (90, 91) conditional and perfect (93) (2) future verbs (3) reflexive (75, 78, 79) construction (81) (4) impersonal after preposition (5) infinitive (85) clauses participle (97) (6) present definite (1) irregular Irregular (84) past futures and conditionals (2) irregular (83) (3) ver use (86) (4) tener, idiomatic Time

(92)

MISCELLANEOUS"

of

day

(88)

EXERCISE
Turn
a

XVI.
you

into

Spanish.
2.

1.

Will doctor five.

please
We and

tell

me

where

there

is

doctor's three

office?
to
a

The

will be
3.

in his have his

office this afternoon,


been

from
summer

quarter
arrive

past

traveling

this said

that

gentleman They 4. ing twenty-eight. 5. By dint of workshall speak German hard {mucho), we perfectly. 6. Brazil is and United than the Canada. States, as larger large as Santiago 7. is the largest city in the Republic of Chile. 8. James's college is far away; before consequently, in order to have breakfast very ing gohe has his We foot to get up wanted to class, to on early. 9. How in Mexico? but could not. 10. were They in, long they go do like South there not They say that you 11. not were long.
with

Portuguese
at

wife.

they

should

nine

America.

12.

On

the

contrary,

I like

it very

much.

13.

What

is

02

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

this did

servant's

they
world

teaches the

At Alphonso. 14. Mr. is Suarez famous away? a go 15. very in the University of Barcelona. 16. The best
name

name?

His

is

what
man.'

time He in

country
a

they
time I
saw

have it
was.

is my time
19.

native
to

land. their
we

17.

The

children 18.
near

are

in

hurry, but
us

kiss

mother.
seats

They
the
so

asked
20.

what
When after able
to

Shall

take
was

door? I went
we

Charles
a

in his minutes What

he office, with kind should of

very

busy,
What

away

talking
do
you
to

few
22.

him.
man

(^"
is the do? 25. If
you 24.

shall

be Cuba?
we

then?
were

President How

of

sick, what
in order will
to

wait
What take

see

you them? 27.

long shall
made
you very

23. If have suit? should

Who
were

that

26.
you

mother

say?
28.

hungry

her of My wife, because health, poor takes She coffee of morning. only a cup 29. very with Did for milk. Are buy the watch yourself? 30. you 31. shut? why are your sleepy? Then May I accompany 32. you eyes Have shall I the to-night. 34. not seen (fern.)? 33. you go you My best friend is not a teacher magnificent lace at Rico's? 35. should He is a doctor. study every 36. You evening.
eats

ice-cream?

little in the

LESSON

XVII.

98.
The
It will If be

Subjunctive
use

Mode.
rare

subjunctive has become very recognized in the following examples :


of the

in

English.

it be

he, let him


he
on come

come

in.
go to-morrow.
once.

Were

I you, that I desire In


so common

I should

at

Spanish,
that

the

other is
a

hand, the
range

use

of ideas

the

subjunctive is
cannot

there
a

whole

of

which To

be these

expressed
ideas, the
and

without

knowledge
has full

of

its

forms. of
tense

express

subjunctive to one compound,

a complement correspond to each

tenses, of the

both

simple

indicative.

99.
A direct verb

Subjunctive
in the either

and

Indicative.

indicative, in both

English
negative,
and

and
or

Spanish, makes
asks
a

statement, It is used

positive or in simple sentences blowing, but


or

direct clauses.

tion. ques-

independent
cold.

John
The
Has

is sick. wind is it is not

John

gone,

is he

still in his

room?

64

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

(b)

verb

that

expresses

fear, a
that he

desire

or

other

tion. emo-

Espero
Temo
Remark.

que que
no

se

halle buena.
estudie of

hope
may

she

is well.

bastante. this
group

I fear be

doesn't

study enough.
by
her
at
an

Verbs clauses

followed

infinitive

clause, if both

have

the de

same

Espero
Deseo

hallarla
entrar
en

mejor

salud. I wish

subject: hope to
to
come

find in

better.

scguida.

once.

Subjunctive in Dependent subjunctiveis used in a clause which


102. of Es
shall
see

Subject
stands

Clauses.

The

as

ject logicalsub-

an

impersonal
que

verb.
veamos

probable
her this

la

esta

tarde.

It is

probable

that

we

afternoon. verbs

Exception.
that
express

Se
afternoon.

dice

impersonal verb se dice, and impersonal followed certainty, are by the indicative. They say he will arrive llegard esta tarde. que
que
no

The

this

Es
not

cierto

aprendemos

mucho.

It is certain

that

we

are

learning
Remark.

much. An

impersonal
verb has
no

verb

may

be

followed

by

an

infinitive

if the

dependent

expressed

subject.
to

Es

preciso ir

ahora.

It is necessary

go

now.

103. clause clause


he

Sequence
is in the

of

Tenses.

verb

in

the

dependent
in the main

present subjunctive if the verb


or

is present, future
dire
que
entre.

perfect indicative.
tell her
to
come

I shall

in.

(See

also

amples ex-

above.)
that Note. of the The
verb

time expressed by the main of the clause, or

present

subjunctive
to

is

identical

with

subsequent

it.

104.

Irregular
of
most
ver

subjunctives
those

of ir and

Subjunctives. The present irregularverbs are irregular. Learn (see 535 and 546).
Present Infinitives. infinitive do mit Many verbs which adnot require a preposition this class

105. of between
a

Dependent dependent
verb and

infinitive.

To

belong

querer,

LESSON

XVII

65
of

desear,
verbs
Me Vamos Tratar

deber do
a

and

which
enseno

poder. Note the following examples * require a preposition.


bien. We To
He
are

hablar
a

Aprendemos
a

escribir. We bueno.
are

taught me learning
to eat.

to to

speak well.
write.

comer. ser

going
try
to

de

be

good.

VOCABULARY.

fin, adv., finally,at last. adv., often, frequently. menudo, a bastante, adv., enough. bueno de salud, in good health. cierto, certain, sure. dejar, to let, allow. delgado, thin, slender.
al

mis

mo,

own.

molestar,
momenta*
no mas

to

trouble.

moment.

que,

only.
mark

despeinado, dishevelled.
f., age. en seguida, adv., at once. to hope, expect. esperar, escalera, stairs. edad,

(in school). particular,private. permitir, to permit. posible, possible. preciso, necessary. probable, probable. prohibir, to forbid.
nota,
note,

fuerte, strong. guisar, to cook.


hasta,
until. malo de
prep.,
as

adv., pronto, sala, parlor.


sill a, chair.
up

soon.

far

as,

to,

sucio, dirty.
t enter, to

fear.
to

salud, in

poor

health.

tratar

de,

try

to.

EXERCISE
a.

XVII.
en

(Dos
dice

senoras

estan

sentadas

la

sala

de

una

casa

ticular.) par-

Se
Temo

que
no

su se

hijo Alfonso
halle
mas

no

esta
como

muy

bueno

de

salud.

que

tan

fuerte

desearia.

Es
edad.

cierto

que

esta

delgado
estudie

que

algunos nifios de
Le
tener

su

misma

Es

muy

probable
la
esta

que pero

demasiado. mucho
trate

he

prohibido
notas, de el

que y

trabaje por su padre le


clase.

noche,

el desea

buenas
ser

diciendo

siempre

que

de

mejor

la

iEsta

en

casa

su

hija?
en

cocina, aprendiendo esta (or donde sucia esta tan guisar, despeinada aprendiendo) no y y puedo que permitir que entre aqui. Vd. de dejarle que hace el favor entre iNo me no mas que
Si, esta;
pero
a

esta

la

por

un

momento?
Hereafter,
be

Deseo

tanto

verla.
before

verbs

that in

require
the

preposition

dependent

tive, infini-

will

indicated

vocabularies.

66

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

(La
un

madre
Al

permite
fin la

la
se

nina

que

entre,
para

los

tres y

hablan la

por

rato.

sefiora

levanta

marcharse,

madre

de

la nina

le dice
tan

:) pronto? preciso
Vd.
nos se

"jSe va Vd. Si, sefiora.


Entonces
No

Es

que
a

me

halle hasta

en

casa

antes

de

las

seis.

la acompafiare
que

Vd.

la

puerta
Nuestra

de

la escalera.

quiero Espero que


cerca

moleste.

Vd.

visite

menudo.

casa

esta

tan

de b.

la

suya.
se

iQue iQue teme


I No
es

dice
su

de

Alfonso?

madre?
que
esta

cierto

f uerte

iEs posible

que

trabaje demasiado?
buenas
notas?

iQue le ha prohibido su madre? iQuien le ha dicho que trate de tener le dice su padre? ";Que mas seiiora Por esta su no quiere que que I es preciso que la otra seiiora que I Por
Al

hija
se

entre

en

la sala?

marche
":que

acompafiar

la sefiora

hasta

la puerta,

? temprano le dice la madre


tan

de

la nina?
c.

iNo

quiere Vd.
que

que

vea

su

libro?

iDesea Vd. ha iNo me ";No espera


tienda?
I

estudiemos Vd.
que
que nuestra

juntos?
repase

dicho

mis

lecciones
nos

ahora?

Vd.

madre

compre

algo "k

en

esta

Quiere Vd. que pafiol? permite Vd. I Me i-Que edad tiene

mi* madre

le

ensene

guisar?

hablar

es-

que
su

vaya

casa

de

Luisa ?

hijo

de

Vd.

LESSON

XVIII.

There is a large group Radical-changing Verbs. consists of the of Spanish verbs whose only irregularity under certain conditions,of another systematicsubstitution, vowel, or a diphthong, for the vowel of the stem.
106.

vestirse, to dress dormir,


to

; me

visto, I dress.

sleep; duerme,

he

sleeps; durmieron,

they slept.

LESSON

XVIII

67

rootradical-changing {i. e., changing). They are divided into three classes according of their vowel character to the changes. In the infinitive ical-chan they are not to be distinguished from verbs that are not rad-

These

verbs

are

called

107. first
or

First second

Class.

Verbs and

of

this have

class
stem-

belong
vowel
o e

to
or

the
o.

conjugation,
stem-vowel
e

They change
in all forms learned and

to

ie, and
on

stem-vowel
stem.
are

to

ue,

whose which

stress

falls such of the

the

The

forms

ready al-

have

stress

the

present
the

tive indicason per-

subjunctive, all
verbs
not

singular,and
are

third

plural. The
this class:

Forms

given below be given may


to

representative of assumed to be regular.

EntendER,
PrES. Indic

understand.

entiendo, entiendes, entiende, entendemos, entienda, enfiendas, entienda, entendamos, VolvER,


to

entendeis, entendais,

entienden. PrES.

Subj.

entiendan. turn.*

PrES.
PrES.

Indic

Subj.
108.

vnelvo, vuelves, vuelve, volvemos, vaelva, vuelvas, vuelva, volvamos, Class. and have Verbs of

volveis, vuelven.
volvais, vuelvan.

Second

this class
e as or

third these

conjugation
stem-vowels in the
to

stem-vowTel
same

o.

belong to the They change


of the first

in the
same o

way

do

verbs

class,and
vowel and
e

i, and

second

persons

ending begins
present

with

past definite,third

places. In addition they change stemto u (1) in the present subjunctive,first whose plural, and (2) in those forms io or ie. This last change occurs in the singular and plural, and in the person

participle.
Sentir,
to

feel, regret, be

sorry.

Present
PrES. PrES. Past
*

Participle, Indic

sintiendo.

siento, sientes, siente, sentimos, sentis, sienten. Subj. sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintdis, sientan. Def. senti, sentiste, sintio, sentimos, sentisteis, sintieron.
Volver has in addition
an

irregular

past

participle, vuelto.

68

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Dormir,
Participle, Present PrES. Indic. duermo, PrES. Subj. duerma,
man.

to

sleep.

durmiendo.

duermes, duennas,

duerme, dormimos, dormis, duermen. duenna, durmamos, durm"is, duerdormimos, dormisteis,


dur-

Past

Dee.
mieron.

dormi,

dormiste, durmio,

109.

Third

Class.

Verbs

of

this class

belong

to

the

This e. conjugation, and all have the stem- vowel stem-vowel is changed to i in all forms falls whose stress indicative the stem and on (i. subjunctive, e., the present and the third person all of the singular, plural). In addition first and they change e to i (i).in the present subjunctive, second ings endplural,and (2) in those forms whose persons begin with io or ie. third Vestir,
to

dress.

vistiendo. Participle, Present Indic PrES. visto, vistes, viste, yestimos, vestis, visten. PrES. Subj. vista, vistas, vista, vistamos, vistdis, vistan. vistieron. Past Def. vesti, vestiste,vistio, vestimos, vestisteis,

DRILL.

Conjugate
also recomendar first class.

the
and

radical-changing
encontrar,
which

verbs
are

in

the

vocabulary,

and the

radical-changing of

Irregular Present and subjunctives of querer


110. learned
at

Subjunctives.
poder
may be like

The

present

conveniently
the

they are just subjunctives of radical-changingverbs of (See 537 and 539O


point,
111.

this

since

present

the

first class.

The

adjectives bueno,
stand loses

malo,

alguno,
In this

"'some,"
pos-

tercero, ninguno, "no," primero, "first," trero, the

"third," and

"last," may
form

before

their
o.
un

noun.

position
algihi dia.

masculine
el primer

its final
teatro
;

Jwmbre;

ningun

buett muchacho;

LESSON

XVIII

"

6q

112.
a

Mismo
noun or

(-a, -os,
pronoun

tensify -as), "self/'is often used to inive subject,or a prepositionalreflex-

pronoun.
Mi

padre
muchacho

mismo

me

llamo.

My

father

called
came

me

himself. himself.

Ellas mismas
Bl

entraron.
se enseno

They
a

themselves

in.

si mismo.

The

boy taught

VOCABULARY. acostarse,
to

lie

down,

go

to

bed

(R-ch I)* aguja, needle,

dos, las dos, the two, both. indicar, to indicate, show.


los

(of a watch). night. anoche, conj., although. aunque, comedia, play, comedy. de prisa, adv., fast, rapidly despacio, adv., slowly. (transitive, despertar, to wake R-ch. I).
hand

medianoche,
nuevo,
new.

f.,midnight. forget.
adv., completely. adv., ordinarily. adv., rarely.
to

adv., last

olvidar, to
parte,
par por

1, part. completo,

lo comun,

"

raramente, representar,

act,

play, give,

despertarse,

to

awake,

wake

up.

diveriirse, to
have
a

enjoy
time until.

good

oneself, to (R-ch. II).

(of shows). sabio, learned.


teatro, theater.

hasta,

prep.,

vestirse, to
volverse,
that
come

dress
to

(intransitive).
go

interesante, interesting. that lo que which, what, (relative pron.)

return,

back

back.

EXERCISE
a.

XVIII.

hombre Hablando sabio. es un padre de Carlos muy el el siempre aprendo entiendo bien algo. con no Aunque muy espafiol,el habla siempre tan despacio que entiendo perfectamente dice todo lo que dice. raramente (El cosas no puedo entender que Los quiero a los dos (a el y a su hijo). Algun perfectamente.) dia iremos fui con ellos al teatro, donde juntos a visitarles. Anoche
se a

El

represento
casa

una

comedia

nueva.

Me
doce
me

diverti de la

muchisimo Me
el
y

no

volvi
en

hasta
Por

medianoche lo
comun

(las
mi mismo

seguida.
pero
esta
me cosa nueve

padre

noche). despierta cuando


hasta
yo

acoste
se

levanta

mafiana

el por

durmio Cuando

las
me

ocho,

al

tarse, desper-

olvido hice fue

completo.
mi Me

que

mirar

reloj, y
levante

vi que
en

las

desperte, la primera las agujas indicaban


y
me

menos

veinte.

seguida

vesti

muy

de

prisa.
b.

En

la

primera
esta

parte

de

esta

leccion, ^quien

es

que

habla?

^De
*

quien

hablando?
vocabularies all

In

succeeding

radical-changing

verbs

will

be

noted.

70 iQue
clase de

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

persona

es

el

padre
dice?

de

Carlos?

iEntiende

el muchacho

lo que

habla demasiado de prisa? iNo fueron los tres anoche? iDonde iLes gusto la comedia? la comedia? ";D6nde se represento casa? ";Se volvieron a temprano

iQue
c.

hicieron

entonces?

Vd. cuando entiende iMe hable mas iQuieren Vds. que Por lo comun, ^a
que

hablo

de

prisa?
por

hora

se

despacio? despierta Vd.

la mafiana?

iLe despierta a Vd. su madre? tiene sueno? iQue hace Vd." cuando
I Se
acuesta

Vd.
por
es

tarde

temprano

iA'que ";A que


Al

hora,
hora

lo comun?

preciso

que

se

acuesten

los

nifios?

Vds. Despues de la clase, ";se vuelven en hace Vd. levantarse, ";que primero? le recomiende buen iQuiere Vd. que un

seguida* a casa? despues? iy


maestro

de

espanol?

Espero Espero

que que

Vds.
Vd.

se

diviertan. bien.
^

duerma

LESSON

XIX.

has verb two a Pronoun-objects. When direct and the other indirect,both are pronoun-objects,one commonly expressed by the regular forms, whose position with regard to the verb is the same that of a singleproas noun-obje (see 65).* The indirect object regularly precedes the direct,though the reflexive of the third person, se, direct or indirect. whether first, always comes
Mi Lo

113.

Two

padre
compre
se se

me

lo did.

My

father I it to

gave

it
it to

to

me.

para

ddrtelo.

bought
me.

give

to

you.

ensendndomela,
Ella
Juan lo hizo.
me

showing
She
made

it for

herself. himself
to
me.

presents.
position
of two verb-form.

John

introduced

Posterior
accent
on

object-pronouns

always

makes

necessary

written

the

72
117. Neuter

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Gender.

Since
or

in

beings and
of

ideas
a.

things are masculine and qualities be may


definite
the article has
a

Spanish all names feminine, only the names


form of the

of

neuter.
neuter

The
before

used

singular quality. lo bueno, that which is good. lo dzul, blue is blue). (that which
the
notion of b. Related
to

masculine

form

lo, which may adjective, to

be
press ex-

the

and form

prepositional form
lo. Both
are

personal ello, and


to

pronouns

are

the

neuter

subject

the
to

neuter

object and
or

predicate
They
is it.
to

used
no

refer

ideas
it.

sentences.

Se

John

dice que Juan is not strong.


es

estd

fuerte. "No
believe

puedo
of

creerlo. it"

say
not

I can't estd

Ello
strong.

que

no

fuerte.
de ello. second of the

The
I
want

"thing
to

is, he
about

Quiero
Lo avoid the
r

informarme
used
an

find

out

is often

in the

part

of

compound
and in

sentence
answers

repetition of
scr,
to

idea

first part,

with

verb Juan his Maria

avoid

repetition of
y
su

part

of

the

estd sister
es

enfermo
is too.

hermana
su

lo estd

tambien.
lo
es.

question. John Mary


I

is sick

and

aplicada pero
brother medico?

hermano
Are

no

is industrious

but

her

is not.

jEs
c. are

usted The
to
es

Lo

soy.

you

doctor?

am.

neuter

demonstrative
out
a

pronouns
or

esto,

eso

and

aquello,

used

point
malo. de Vd.
neuter

sentence matter

idea.

Esto
..

This

is bad.
matter

Aquello
Eso
d.
que

Juan.
me

That

concerning
which
you

John.
me.

dice.
form

That
of the

tell

The

possessive
or

pronoun

expresses

in

the idea of possession general way is mine. lo mio, that which

property.

Irregular verb and Imperfect, Future


118.

dar, "to give." The


Conditional
and of dar

Participles, are regular.


the Past

Learn

the

Present

Indicative

Subjunctive,and

Definite. 119. Both

(See 530.)
Omisson
are

of

Definite

and

Indefinite
a noun

Articles.
in apposition.

articles

regularlyomitted
medico

before

El
doctor.

Sr.

Fernandez, Rey
de

famoso.
Alphonso,

Mr. the

Fernandez, King
of

famous

Alfonso,

Espaha.

Spain.

LESSON

XIX

73
verb
or an

120. is used

Idiomatic.

Acabar. in the

The

acabar, "to finish/'

idiomatically
and
an

present

by

de

to describe infinitive,
or

imperfect, followed act as just completed

in the

present
de de

in

the
I

past.
just arrived. They had just
eaten.

Acabo Acababan

liegar.
comer.

have

VOCABULARY.

amarillo, yellow.
atreverse a, to

dare

to.

noticia,piece of news. preferir, to prefer (R-ch. II).


pues,
querer

azul, blue.

conj., then, for, well.

enfermedad, f., illness. joven, m., f., young man,


woman.

young

llorar,

to

cry.
to

morirse,

die

(R-ch. II).*
EXERCISE

decir, to mean. recibir,to receive. to sitpiicar, entreat, and 101a). verdadero, true.

beg

(see 73

XIX.

a.

iQue
Vd. ?

tiene

quiere decir esto? is the matter {What


recibir
una

iPor
with
muy

que

esta

Vd.

llorando?

iQue

you?)
mala.

Acabo

de

noticia is the

iQue
Ello
es

hay?
que
se se

(What
mi
teme

matter

f)
de mi

tio

Juan, hermano
se muera.

madre,

esta

muy

en-

fermo,
I

que

que

Quien
lo

lo ha mi

dicho hermano.

?
A
ser

Me

dijo

el

se

lo

dijo mi
1

tia misma. lo ha dicho Vd.

Entonces
a su

la noticia

debe

verdadera.

Se

madre? No
Pues

sefior;
Vd.

no

me

atrevo

a en

decirselo.

debe

hacerlo

seguida.

Si Vd.

no

quiere, yo

mismo

lo hare.
i

Me
1

hace

Vd.

ese

favor?
a

b. tio?

Quien quien
la dio

le dio

la

nina

la noticia

de

la enfermedad

de

su

iDe
;

tuvo

(or recibio)
a su

su

hermano
?

la noticia?

Se

la nina

madre

I Por I
c.

que? Quien le hizo


La
nina
que

la nina muchas

el favor flores A

de azules

decirselo
y

su

madre?

tiene la

amarillas.
no

Se

las

dio lo

Juan, joven
*

quiere mucho.
past

la nina

le gusta

mucho

Also

has

irregular

participle

muerto.

74
amarillo. las
pero
va
a

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Prefiere dar
no a su

azul ; hermana. hacerlo


pero
no a

lo

ella
a

dare

mi

quiere hermana,

consiguiente las Le he suplicado que lo quiere). (or no


por

flores
me

amarillas
de
"

las dice

mi,
las

Me

Se

Vd.

la nina? a iQue color le gusta mas iQue color prefiere la nina? el joven iCual es el color de las flores que d.

le ha

dado

la

nina?

"jSe las quiere dar quien se las va IA


"jPrefiere

ella
a

la

joven, amiga
amarillo?

de

su

hermana?

dar
a

ella? lo

Vd.

lo

azul

Quiere Vd. que le presente a mi amigo? ":Se le presento Juan (a Vd.) ? le (a Vd.) ? se presento I Quien Vds. Suarez ? discipulos del senor I Son de noticia ello? iHa recibido V.
I

LESSON
SYNOPSIS.

XX.

ARTICLE

"

(a) (b)

omission
neuter

of forms

definite

and

indefinite

(119)

(117a)

ADJECTIVE"
PRONOUN
"

(a) lose final o (m) "self" (112) (b) mismo, (a) personal
substitute (114) se (115) object construction (3) double used alone (116) (4) prepositional form lo (117b) ello and (5) neuter forms (ii7d) possessive, neuter forms neuter (117c) demonstrative,

(1) (2)

position of

two

objects

(113)

(b) (c) VERB


"

(a) Regular

(100) subjunctive present of tenses (5) subiunctive sequence (6) infinitive, dependent (105) of (1) present (b) Irregular subjunctive ir, (104, no) (2)
dar

(1) (2) (3) (4)

subjunctive
'

mode
use use

in in

(98, 99) subject clauses object clauses

(102)

(101) (103)
ver,

poder,

querer

(118)
verbs

(3) radical-changing MISCELLANEOUS"


,

(106-109)

Idiomatic,

acabar

(120)

EXERCISE
Turn
it hard
to

XX. is not 3.
so

into

great
Rico's

deal

Spanish. get up early of ability. 4.


5. The

1.

Yellow the

pretty
This the

as

blue.
man news

2.

Is
a

in

winter?
had

young

has of

They
child

illness.

could

just received not speak of

it without

Juan crying.

WESSON

xxi

75
and that much for chairs is true the in that
me

6. 8. she

That
I have
can

is

what

mean.

7. 9.

Both

were

dirty
says

dishevelled. she
to

just
see

waked

up.
come

The
10.

servant

not

let them
a

in.
11.

I want is
necessary

very

is sorry to the go
to

theatre

and
a

play.
12.

It
are me.

children
the I
to

sleep
13.
go

good
home
moment.

deal.
gave

There
them
to

only
14.

three It
to

parlor.
did
come

She
back
a

herself

not

until 16. month

noon.

15.

beg
most

you

for is

That of the
19.

is the
year. Do

permit interesting
The children
to return

in

age.

17.
not

This
to

the

third their
course

18. you

tried home

trouble
20.

teacher. she
21.

dare

late? she
soon.

Of
to

going
22.

die.
you

is very afraid that not sick, but they are It is not probable that I shall go to bed
to

is

Are

willing
to

give
24.

them

to

me? did We

23.
you

I did

not

give
For
in of I

them
you.

to

him,
At

but last 27. this


see

her.

For
you.

whom 26.
to

buy
go

it? there

25.

understand

often

the

evening.
28. you In
to

Every
street

one

likes is
a

receive

there In

magnificent
of
an

good private
a

piece
house.

news.

want

it.

29.

what wait time

part
for
at
us

Europe
hour

have and
32.
a

they
I shall
new.

been
31.
not

ing? travel-

30.

They
had told
my
a me.

will

half.

Last

night they
what hands father father
you

good
33.

Charles's. I

forget
The His
your 35.

Ordinarily
a

prefer
himself

what

is

34.

of

watch
to

indicated

quarter
is.
wants

before
at

eleven.
once. are

tells him
a

teacher
man

get up and of French?


learned her father
as

dress He he has

37.
to

You be. her

36. Is a good
She
so

boy.
in

38. good
40.

No

is

as

30.
to

is not much.

health, and
Will
you

forbidden

study

please speak

more

slowly?

LESSON

XXI.

121. is often

Subjunctive
found clause
upon

in

Main

Clauses.

The

subjunctive
an

in
; but
an

sentence

which

is
may

apparently
be construed

pendent indeas

such

sentences

pending deor

unexpressed
May
them
come us

verb

of

wishing, ordering

permitting.
Que Que
Vd. suban. descanse.
you
eat rest

well.

Let
ahora.

up.

Comamos
*

Let
verb
sort

now.*
special
.

Ir

is
to

the
use

only
in

which
of

has

form

(vamos

instead

of

vayamos)

this

subjunctive

clause.

j6

SPANISH
"

GRAMMAR

a.

If
que

the and the

subject of
before verb. suba
en

such

sentence
or

is
may

noun,

it may

stand the ject sub-

after

the

verb,

que

be

omitted

and

follow

Que
Suba
b. verb. made

Juan

Juan
If the

seguida. Let John seguida. Let John come


en

come

up
at

at

once.

up

once.

sentence

is
are

negative, object
attached
to

pronouns
a

precede
accent

the is

Otherwise
necessary.

they
Let

it, and

written

Compremoslo.
No lo compremos. Comprelo Juan,

us

buy it.
us

Let Let

not

buy it.
it. in

John

buy

Note.
first person

reflexive

verb

used have

this way

drops

the

of

the

plural. Desaymtamonos.

Let

us

breakfast.

122. of third in

Present the

Subjunctive

as

Imperative.
in
121

An
use

sion exten-

construction

discussed

is the

of

the

person

singular or

the

commands, with usted In positive commands the object pronouns are joined to verb be accented must form, which mands ; in negative comthe object pronouns precede the verb.
Coma Coman Vds. Vd. ahora. Escriba Vd el ejercicio. Write ahora.
the
once.

plural of the present subjunctive (ustedes) expressed or implied,

Eat
exercise. amiable.

now.

Vayan
Trate No
corra

Vds. Vd. de

en ser

seguida.
amable.
tanto.

Go

at

Try
run me.

to

be
so

Vd, Vds. V.

Don't for

much. mother.

Bsperenme

Wait madre.

Compremelo
123.

Buy

it for

me,

regular Subjunctives. Learn the irhacer, present subjunctives of ser, estar, tener, decir, haber. (See 53I"534, 542-543-) Note that the present subjunctivesof tener, hacer and

Irregular

Present

decir

are

formed

on

the that

same

stem

as

the

first person

ent presis

indicative, and

the

present

subjunctiveof

estar

regular except
124.
see

for the

written

accent.

Verbs

with

Inceptive Endings.
conocer.

For

these

verbs

513, and

learn

of irregularities

WESSON

XXI

77

VOCABULARY.

adelante, adv., forward.

frase, f.,phrase., sentence.


How do

/A dios!
you

Good-bye.
do?
,

amabxlidad

ness. f., amiability, kindto

aprovechar,

be

of

profit.
+

bondad, f., goodness. caballero, gentleman, Sir.

gracias, thanks. luego, adv., at once, bye soon, and bye. modo, manner. way, novedad, f., novelty, change. orden, f., order, command^

perdonar,
sentarse,
be
quainted ac-

forgive,
to

excuse.

comprender,
conocer, to

to

understand.

sit down
young

know

(i.e.}

to

senorito,

-a,

(R-ch. I). gentleman,

with), to make acquaintance of. conocido, acquaintance.


descansar,
to rest.

the

lady. Senorita, Miss.


servidor,
-a, servant

(not used

literally). bye good(R-ch. III). help oneself. siguiente, following. The idea! (from ir). jVaya! view. vista, sight,
servir, to servirse,
serve

despedirse (de), to say (to) (R-ch. III).


Dios,
God.
to use, to

to

emplear,

employ.
find oneself, to be.

encontrarse,

familia, family.
EXERCISE
XXI.

(A.)
Buenas Buenas

Buenos

dias, Sr.
Rico. Juan.

Suarez.
Good

Good

morning,
Mrs.

Mr. Rico.

Suarez.

tardes, Sra.

afternoon,

noches,
are or

Good

evening, John.
The

These
same

the
:
"

ordinary
tenga tenga

salutations.

reply
to

may

be

in

the

words,

Muy Muy
Still
de Vd.

buenos buenas
more

los las formal

Vd. Vd.
are

Good Good
:
"

morning
afternoon

you.

(evening)
de

to

you.

replies greeting
a

Servidor

Vd.

la

orden

Acknowledging
a

one

may

say:

"

Tanto

gusto

en

ver

Vd.
IA

dios

Carlos!

is

very

informal

greeting

to

intimate

friends.

person's

followed greeting is commonly by an inquiry as to the other of the following forms health, using one : estd Vd.f jComo halla Vd.f jComo se Vds.f encuentran jComo se lo pasa Vd.f (Literally,How j C onto are passing it?) you More
to

informal "How the Asi


goes

are:

"

jComo

le vaf

and

Hola,

jque

talf

alent equivVd.f

if?
"

Note Asi asi.

replies: Muy bien, gracias. pasando. (After a fashion.)

Bien, gracias
Sin novedad.

jy

j8
To

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

inquire about
onto

the

health

of the

members

of

another's

fam~

fly:j

estd
se se

su

senor
su

padre?
senora
su

jComo jComo
4 Como

halla

madref
senor

encuentra

esposof

estdn estd

los la

de

su

casaf

jComo
A

familia?
does

gentleman gentleman's wife


friend.
He
como

or

the inquire about unless he sisters, happens


not
:
"

health
to

of
an

another intimate

be

says

instead
en

jY
On
are

estdn

casaf

tardes and Buenas noches taking leave, Buenos dias, Buenas used. formally: Also, more Dios. (To one leaving.) Vaya Vd. con left Dios. Vd. one (To con behind.) Quede Vd. lo pase bien. (May it go well with you.) Adios is less formal, and less commonly used than, is generally
"
. .

supposed.
On and
to

leaving
one

anyone

at

night,
to

we

may

say:
or

who

is
se

going
used

the

theatre

Que Vd. descanse, other ment, place of amuse"

Que

Vd.

divierta.
among
to-morrow.

Very
Hasta Hasta

commonly
manana.

acquaintances (That
vista.

are

"

Until See
you

luego.
la vista
is

later.

is, in the

course

of

the

day.)
Hasta "Please"
or

Hasta

otra

Vd. el expressed by Sirvasc la bondad Vd. la Vds. amabilide..., Tenga favor de..., Tengan The when confer first is generally used wishes de... dad to one asks a favor. one a favor, the others when Sirvase
Vd.
sentarse.
mas

(Indefinite.) (Sirvanse)t Hdgame

de hablar Tenga Vd. la bondad Vd. el favor del pan. Hdgame The expression already given in

despacio.
earlier because hace lesson, jMe of the interrogative

an

Vd.

el

favor?

is

shade

more

courteous

form.

boarding-house, or the compartment of a train, it is proper those to greet On already seated. others the table before the are through, one leaving Que says : les aproveche a Vds.
On
a
"

entering the dining-room

of

To

ask

another

person

to

repeat
le

what

he

has

said

:
"

j Como? j

Que

ha

dicho

Vd.? No

No he

comprendo

(entiendo)

muy

bien.

Perdoneme

Vd.

entendido.

80

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

DRILL.

Apply
as:
"

of familiar endings to stems regular verbs, such acabar, aprender, perdonar, ocurrir, permitir, responder. these

126. second

Subjunctives. The first and imperfect subjunctives are interchangeable. The


Use of

Imperfect
of

first is the the the

commoner

the

two.

The
a

commonest

use

of

imperfect subjunctives is
verb
or

in

of

the

main

clause

is

dependent clause when imperfect, past definite,pluperfect


ayer.

conditional.

Aro

era

posible
go que

que

fuese

(fuera)
en

It

was

not

possible
to

for
in

him

to

yesterday.
entrase

Le
at

dije
madre told have

(entrara)
mandado
up. que

seguida.
subiese

told

him

go

once. me me

Mi had Me like
to

habia
to go

(subiera).
con

My

er moth-

gustaria
you

que
eat

V. with

comiese
us.

{cornier a)
by
the

nosotros.

I should

with

The Note. of time the

time expressed in the the verb

main

clause,

imperfect subjunctive to or subsequent

is it.

identical

127.

Irregular Imperfect
any

Subjunctives.
be the

The
found

fect imperif
we

subjunctive of
know the but its past third
a

irregular verb
or

definite,by
-se plural,

may for substituting


-ra.

final -Iron
a

of

person

This

is not

scientific

practicalmethod

for

deriving these

forms.

sentir; sintieron; sintiera; sintiese. dormir; durmieron; durmiese; durmiera. fuera. fueron; fuese; ser; hacer; hicieron; hiciese; hiciera. dar; dieron; diese; diera.
DRILL.
the imperfect Conjugate decir, ver. ir,poder, querer,

subjunctives of

estar,

haber, tener,

1 28.
to

Conditions fact

Contrary

to

Fact.

In conditions

trary con-

which if a certain state that (/. e.y conditions be true also), the true, something else would thing were imperfect subjunctive (either one) is used in the condition

LESSON

XXII

SI

(the "if-clause) and


Si
we

the

conditional

is

used

in

the

clusion. con-

fuesemos
buy
not
a

ricos, comprariamos
house.
no so

una

casa.

If

we

were

rich If

should Si
mi

hermano

estudiara

tanto,
he

seria

mas more

amable.

my

brother
a. -ra

did
In be

study

much,
to

would
the

be

agreeable.
conclusion.
I

conditions substituted diner o, Madrid.

contrary for iria

fact,

imperfect subjunctive in
in the If had
money I

may

the

conditional
a

Si
should b.
may

tuviese
go In
to
a

(fuera)
to

Madrid.

condition first.
mas,

contrary
si

fact, the conclusion


I

or

the

tion condi-

stand

Trabajaria
you.
Note.
sentences

fuese Vd.

should

work

harder, if

were

In offer both

no

from aside conditions general, The Spanish. difficulty in he sido

to contrary indicative

is

fact, conditional ployed emgenerally


it is because I

in Si have been

clauses.
es

soy

rico,

porque

aplicado.

If

am

rich

industrious.

129.
be

"I

should

like

..."

This

expressed by Desearia, by Me Either expression is followed by change of subject,or by que and


if there
Me

expression may gustaria, or by Quisiera.


infinitive if there is
no

useful

an

the

imperfect subjunctive
go

is.
ir
eon comer

Desearia

Vd.
buenas

I should ahora.
notas.
en

like to should
I should

with
to

you.
eat
now.

gustaria
tener

like

Quisiera
Desearia
return at
once.

like to
I should

have

good

marks.
you

que

Vd.

volviese mi Vd. be these hi jo

seguida. fumara

like to

have

Me
not

gustaria
so

que

no

tanto.

I wish

my

son

would should

smoke
No

much.
que you

quisiera
to

not

like
a.

have
use

as

fuese tan lazy as

perezoso

como

Juan.

John.
is of
course

The
persons

of
than
no

constructions

extended

to

other
A

the le

first.

mi

padre
father

gustaria
not

mucho
very

que

mi
to

hermano
have
my

fuese
brother

con

Vd. with

My
you.

would

like

much

go

130.

Irregular
of

verbs
come

salir and

venir.

Learn

the

jugation con-

salir, "to
and

out/' "go out/' and

venir, "to

come."

(See 541

547.)

82

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

131. week
are:

Days,

Months

and

Seasons.

The
martes, of

days
the year

of

the

domingo
marzo,

(Sunday), limes,
The
months

miercoles,
are :

jueves, viernes,
enero,

sabado.

febrero,
la

septiembre,*
are :

octubre,

abril, mayo, noviembre,


el verano,
seasons are

junio, julio,agosto,
diciembre.
el otono,

The

sons sea-

primavera,
of the

el invierno.

Note. the article.

Names

generally accompanied

by

132. time that

Use
are

of used

Definite with
not

Article. adverbial in

Many
force,
are

expressions of
accompanied

by
la el

the
semana

article, though

English.
week. proximo, next next ano proximo, year. el tunes, on Monday. la el
sent an a

pasado, last week. pasado, last year. ano los viernes, on Fridays, every

Friday.
VOCABULARY.
al ano, al mes,
per per year.

p"ues, conj., well.


semana,

month.

week.

antier, day
eontento,

before

yesterday.
unfortu-

sentirse todos

bueno,
dias,

to

feel well.

satisfied.

los

every very

adv., desgraciadainente,

ultimo, last

(the

day. last).
a

nately.
error, m.,
error.
seems. sense

verdad, f., truth. f., time (one vez,


of of
una

of

number

parece,

it

times).
vez, veces,
once.

pasado, last (in the just past).

dos

twice.

proximo,

next.

EXERCISE
.

XXII.
con

a.

i Por

que

no

salio
no

Vd.
me

los

demas
que

discipulos?
saliese.

Porque el maestro le decia el I Que


Me Pero No estaba Vd.
soy
es

permitio
cuando

maestro

vine ?

diciendo
uno

trabajase mas. de los mejores discipulos de la clase.


que
como a

tan

bueno

Vd.

estuviese eontento no trabajado, y sentiria mucho que habria hubiera hecho Si no tan (hubiese) estudiado, no conmigo. al el bien ahora. escribir hasta esta Desgraciadamente, manana,
*

le parece el maestro

; pero

es

cierto

que

he

Pronounced

and

sometimes

spelled, setiembre.

WESSON

XXIII

83
de
he
mas

ejercicio
verclad antier
es

en

el
que

pizarron,
toda
me

hice

muchos

errores no me

gramatica.
sentido

L,a
y

la

semana

pasada
que

bueno,

mi

madre
si yo

prohibio
Vd.,
al
se

estudiase
todo

por

la noche.

Pues,
b.

fuera

lo diria

al maestro.
?
as

iCuantas se iCuando iCuantos


iCuales

horas marcha

dia
?

trabaja

Vd. in

Vd.

(Answer
semana? afio?
de

many

ways

as

sible.) pos-

dias
son

hay
meses

en

la

^Cuales

son?

los

del
el
un mes

iCuantos iCuantas
iCual
trero?
es

dias
semanas

ticne
en

enero?

";el mes

de

junio?
^ el

mes? de la semana?

el

primer
dia
que

dia

";el tercero?
lunes?

pos-

";Cual

es mes

el

viene

despues
de marzo? la

del

i*Que
otono?

viene
son

despues
meses

iCuales

los

de

primavera? (also iHoy,

"jdel verano?
que

";del
dia

es

idel iQu'e dia hoy?)


H6y
I A
es

invierno?
de

la

semana

es

hoy?

es?

or

iQue

miercoles. del
mes

cuantos

estamos

is it? the

Use

cardinal
x

numerals

in

(What hoy? day of the replying, to give any date

month

except

yrst.")
Estamos

a mes en

veinticuatro.
estamos

";En

que

ahora?

Estamos

agosto.

LESSON

XXIII.

133.

Subjunctive
in
an

in

Adverb clause of the

Clauses.
a (i.e.,

The

tive subjunclike

is used
an

adverb

clause

which,
main

adverb, limits the action


expresses

verb

of the

clause)
action

which

purpose, time.
are

contingency, uncertainty or
by
are: a

in indefinite
a.

future
clauses

Such

generally introduced
commonest

conjunction
para
que, que,

or

conjunctive phrase.
order

The

of

these "even

"in

that," "so

that,"

aunque,

"although,"

if," sin
soon

out," "with-

que,

"unless," antes "while," hasta

que, que,

"before," luego que, "until," and cuando,

"as

as," mientras

"when."

84
Hablo

'SPANISH

GRAMMAR

very

despacio para muy slowly in order that you Me ami su dijo que iria, que
he Lo should
go,
even

que may

Vd.

me

entienda
me se

bien.

I He

speak
told
his

understand
no

easily.
him
to.

padre
se

lo

permitiese.

me

if his
su

father lo

hiso

sin

que

padre

not permit dijese. He did

did

it without

father

telling him to. Repasare el periodico luego


the
paper
a

que

over

Iremos him when

I go visiiarle cuando
as soon as

down
Vd.

baje al despacho. I shall look to the sitting room. shall go visit and qiiiera. We
llbvierd.
I wanted
to

you

wish.
a casa

Qulse
before

liegar

antes

que

get

home

it rained.
Seme
clause

Remark. when the Nunca

of
amable

these
cuando

conjunctions
states
a

are or

followed
states

by
never

the took

indicative

they

introduce

fact,

what
am

I
as

am

estoy sick. Mi padre me


he
came

estoy
que

enfermo.

place. pleasant when


me

castigo luego

entro.

My

father

punished

as

soon

in.

b.

An

adverb

clause

may

be

introduced

by
etc.

conjunctive
are :

pression ex-

meaning dondequiera
que, que,
cosa

"however,"
wherever. however. whatever*. much.
que

"whenever,"

Such
que,

cuandoquiera

whenever.
whoever.

comoquiera
cualquiera
por
mas*

quienquiera que,
whichever.

que,

cualquiera (cualesquiera) que, diga,


seem veremos eso no me

que,

however
cosa

Cualquiera
you may

Vd. doesn't

paree'e bien
me.

ever Whatwe

say,

that
que

right

to

Dondequiera
go,
we

vayamos,
same

lo. mismo.

Wherever
However

shall
mas

see

the

Por much he

que

thing. trabaje no puede


he
cannot

aprender
the

la

leccion.

may

work,

learn

lesson.

134. is

The subjunctive Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses. that" is inused in an troduced adjectiveclause (i. e., a clause

the
for

main
Busco
a

by a relative clause) which


una casa

and

modifies

noun

or

pronoun

of

qualifiesan
pueda
pasar
winter.
que
no

indefinite
I

expression.
am

donde I
can

el invierno.

lookingSend
read
me

house

where Vd. which Vd.

pass

the

Mdndeme
any

cualquiera libro
not

haya
bueno.

Icido. Don't

book No that ATo

I have

read.
que
no sea

lea

book

is not who

nhigun gocd.
a

libro le

any

conozco

nadie teach

que you

enseue

Vd.

espahol.

I don't

know

anybody
*

will

Spanish.
expression big it
este may may

The
noun

second with

or

its

of this part modifier.


sea,

be be. however

an

adverb,

an

adjective,

por may

grande

poco per have.

que dinero

however

que

tenga

hombre,

little money

this

man

ucsson

xxni

85

The indefinite negNegative Words. ative "no words one/' ninguno, "no," "none," "nobody," nada and nadie, "nobody,'' "no one," and ninguna cosa, with "nothing," are found most a commonly in connection then often translated They are negative verb. positively also translated etc. "any," "anyone," They are positively in an when which they occur interrogativesentence requires a negative answer.
135. Indefinite
ATo No
in
my
me

tengo
hand.

loves Nobody quiere nadie. nada {ninguna cosa) en

me.

la

mano.

have

nothing
book.

No No
a.

iengo

ningun
nada
are a

libro nadie.

f ranees.
I
am

I
not

haven't

any

French
to

digo They
or

saying anything
when alone. No
one

anybody.
first in
a

translated when

negatively they stand


es

they stand
of
my

sentence

clause, and
de

Ninguno
French. Nadie
j
me

mis

amigos Nobody
Nada.

franees.
loves What
me.

friends

is

quiere.
Vd.f

Que

desea

do

you

want?

Nothing.

136.

Infinitive of

expressions
an

Expressions of Quantity. be followed quantity may by que


after

tain Cer-

and

infinitive.
nada mucho
que
comer,

algo bueno
que

nothing to eat. decir, something good que do. to hacer, much


to

to

say.

little to buy. comprar, poco que bastante escribir,considerable que

write.

137.
a noun

The of

Weather.
to

Similar
express

to

the

use or

of

tener

with
state

condition is the
use

physical
with
a noun

mental describe

(see 86),
weather.
Race Hacia
j

of

hacer

to

the

frio. It is cold.
viento. It hace? is it? It is bad
was

Hace

calor. sol. buen mucho*

It is It is

warm.

windy.
What kind

Hace

sunny.

Que
of

tiempo
weather
un

Hace
Hace

tiempo.

It is It

good
is
very

weather.

Hace

tiempo malo.

frio.

weather.

cold.

Nouns

used

as

above
an

take
adverb

an

adjective modifier,
is

while

in

the

lent equiva-

English

expressions

used.

86

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY.

absolutamente,
acera,

adv., absolutely.

sidewalk.
m.,

color,
tener

heat.
to-

frio, cold. tener frio, to be cold. importante, important. (R-ch. I). pintnra, painting. picture-gallery. Prado, a famous mountain-range. sierra, saw,
to

color,

be

warm.

cofdlogo, catalogue. cielo, sky, heaven. claro, clear, bright, light. clima, m., climate. dorse prlsa, to hurry. dentro de, prep., inside of, within, in.

tor, pensar,
no

to

notice, note. think, intend.

sol,

m.,

sun. sun.

al sol, in the

diferencio, difference. All right! Estd blen! extronjero, foreigner (pron.

es-

tranjero).
EXERCISE
a.

shadow, shade. la sombra, in the shade. a iiernpo, weather. viento, wind.


sombra,
XXIII.
que

Muchos

extranjeros piensan
el clima mucho
a

el clima

de

Madrid

es

muy que

malo.
en se

En
verano
en

verdad,
hace las

de calor

Madrid
a

el
ven

calles lo

esta

hora Mientras

es magnifico. Es mediodia, y que pocas dondequiera que pero

cierto

personasvayamos
y tan

encontraremos

mismo.
en

que

un

cielo

tan

claro

azul,
frio
a

no

lo

vemos

ningun
hace
una acera

pais.
a

En
calor

el

invierno

hace
nota

mucho bien la frio

la sombra,

pero

bastante

al sol. Por la

Se

diferencia
a causa

pasando
de los

de

otra.

noche

hace

vientos

frios

que que

bajan de la sierra.
hacer de
esta

b.

":Tiene Vd.
y

mucho nada.

manana? todas
que
a

Absolutamente
para

Acabo hacer

tarde, iQuiere Vd.


esta

puedo
que

aprender cualquiera cosa


al Prado?

mis

lecciones le guste.

Vd.

visitemos de

Esta
Dese iado

bien.

Dentro

algunos minutos
nos

estare antes

listo.
que

Vd.

prisa
Vd.

para

que

volvamos

haga
un

demas-

calor.
I Conoce

alguna
del
no

tienda

donde

pueda

comprar

catalogo

de

las

pinturas
; pero

Prado? necesita
yo

Si
conozca

Vd.
que

mejor
me c.

ningun las pinturas mas


como

catalogo. No hay nadie que importantes, y no hay nada


a

que

de Dos

tanto

gusto

ensenarselas

Vd.

hablando de uno de ellos. el cuarto en jovenes estaban lecciones el dia siguiente, de aprender sus Este dijo que acababa para Se su a amigo le gustara. podia hacer cualquiera cosa y que que demasiado hiciese Prado dieron visitar antes al prisa para que desearia calor. El joven dijo que entrar en alguna tienda donde no pudiese comprar un catalogo. Su amigo le dijo entonces que

88

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

of the walk

Prado? with
a

5. friend. It
a

Nothing
6. The

gives

me

greater

pleasure
finds in the

than

to

go

to

teacher
at

rarely
noon

mistakes Puerta
so

in

John's
Sol.
the

exercises. 8.
sun

7. take
come

is

Please
may
on

always warm catalogue. 9.


10.

del that

Open
time

the that
11.

windows
I
went

in.

The of

last

the the

thirteenth windows
a

October.
even

The
warm.

to Spain, I arrived Spaniards always


12.

sleep
13.

with

closed,
may say, you.

if it is the
not

On the
son

ing arrivclimate. is
not next

in

Madrid

stranger
be
are

notices it is 15.
to

difference
true

in
my to

Whatever
14.

they
God
you

that
not

strong.
month
to

with
which

shall
me. me

go

Paris should

unless
some

willing
to

go

with teach

find

book
you

would do
were on

i6v to speak
18. I should
my

like

Spanish.
was

17.

Haven't last
every

anything
19.
20. 21.

weather theatre month


are

week.

If

in

Thursday? Madrid,
come

It

fine
to

go

the
a

night. (per month).


22.

They
The

used

to

to

house of the

twice

principal
introduce in the knows 27. the

theatres

capital
How

closed.
one

does
we

greet
arrive

shall

Sir, to me, an acquaintance before they open


Allow here knew Have be
29.
was

myself
street? 25. 26.
me

to

you.

23.
we

24.

If

doors.

Is

there He sir.
more

hurry nobody
there do
not

(Isn't there was nobody


understand 28. it is However
warm

anybody)
there
you very

who him.

you?
Excuse
to

said I

who

well.
it may
sun.

the

kindness

speak

cold in the

in the

shade
before

Day
30.

(Por mas yesterday


is here. I

calor
was

que

slowly. haga) Sunday.


and
morrow to-

Consequently,
will

yesterday
be tell you.

Monday,
Come
His mother

to-day

Tuesday
have
to out

Wednesday.
31.
a

something
of 32. that 35. the We it is

important
kitchen

to

told him
she

go
came.

and
that

to

sit in
are

chair

in the

library until
s^to

regret
very

you 34.

not

satisfied,
me

It

seems

to

me

windy.
Come

Remember
see me

John

and

the

rest.

Good

Night !

and

often.

LESSON

XXV.

138. learned

The
are

simple
the

forms

of

the

regular
and the

verb

not

yet

Future

Subjunctive
in the them

Imperative. completeness, reading.

These
and and
are

are

comparativelylittle used included at this point for


the student will meet

ordinary conversation,
sake of in his

because

so
139.

Note.

The
added

stress to

is the

in
stem

all of

forms the

on

the

first

syllable

of

the

ending.

Endings

are

infinitive.

140.

Use

of

Future

Subjunctive.
or

The

future

junctive subthat junctive sub-

express

only in adverb future contingency. In is generally used, and


for it in all
cases

is found

its the

adjective clauses place the present


be

except
estuviere

present may after si, "if."


(este) enfermo.
I

tuted substi-

Ire

manana even

aunque if I am

shall

go

morrow to-

sick. le dieren
I

Toma
you.

Vd.

lo

que

(den).
shall
go

Take

what the

they

may

give

Ire

si tuviere

el dinero.

if I have

money.

The Subjunctives. Irregular Future be found subjunctive of any irregular verb may by
141.
-re

future tuting substison per-

for

the

final
r..

-ron

of
,""

the

past

definite,third

plural. 1

aijeron,

dijere

sintieron, sintiere
142.
but
two

Imperative plural. The

Mode.

The
person
are

forms, the second

imperative singular, and


to

mode the
stem

has second of the

person

endings

added

the

infinitive.
ENDINGS.
FIRST

CONJ.
-a

2D -e

CONJ.

3D
-e

CONJ.

-ad

-ed

-id of

Adding

these

endings

to

stems

regular verbs,
escribe escribid

we

get

trabaja trabajad
Note.
in the

responde responded
is
on

The
which
are

stress

the

stem

in in

plural.
in What

forms

second The plural this conjugation the other three?

of

the

third

differs

the and ending on singular, four of the is one conjugation second from the tion. conjugaending the

90
143.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Orthographical
522 b, and

Changing

Verbs.

Learn
to

505coger,

508

and

cruzar,

dirigirand
Irregular
means

apply the principles learned seguir of this lesson.


verb

144. Saber

saber, "to

know." process,
to

Learn
possess

540.
as

"to

know"

by
mean

mental

It may also knowledge. a dependent infinitive "to


Juan Se Mi No
a. no

"to knowhow."
does
not

about," and
the that about
to

with

know

sabe Juan

la lection.
no

John

know

lesson.

que

estudia

bast ante. Mother I don't with

know

John
it

doesn't

study enough.
madre
se

lo supo hablar

ayer.

learned know how


means

espanol.
contrasted

yesterday. speak Spanish.


know"

Conocer,
"to be

saber,
"to* make

"to

by

the

senses,

acquainted with,"

the

acquaintance of," and


know

"to

recognise." Vd. a Juan Sudres jNo conoce le conoci el ano Si; pasado
La i Conoce
in Paris. last year conocimos seguida. en Vd.
este

f
en

Don't Paris.

you

John
I made

Suarez?
his
quaintance ac-

Yes,
her with

We Are

recognized
you

at

once.

librof

familiar

this

book?

145.

Cardinal

Points. el

The

cardinal

Norte,
"West."

"North,"

Sur, "South," el
be

el points are Este, "East," el Oeste,

They

must

accompanied

by

the

masculine

nite defi-

article.

146. the third

Distance. person

Distance

singular
desde

of

expressed by idiomatically haber, impersonally used.*


How far is it from far. here

is

jCudnto
to

hay
?

aqui
No

la escuelaf

the No

school

hay mucho,

or

hay mucha

distancia.

It is not

147. is both its

Cualquiera, plural cualesquiera,"any whatever," fore and as an adjectivebeadjective. Used pronoun


noun

it may

drop

the

final

a.

Cualquier (a) cafe. Any Cafe. Cualesqnicr (a) libros. Any books Cualquiera de los libros. Any one
*

at

all. the books.

of

Any
except

third
the

person

tense

present

be singular of haber may has a special impersonal

used form.

impersonally,

but

no

LESSON

XXV

91

a.

It

may

be

used

after

singular adjective preceded


hacerlo.

by
do

the

indefinite U11 b.
No

article. hombre

cualquiera podria
used in No

Any

man

might
no

it.

It

is not

tengo

libros, or

negative sentences. ningunos libros. tengo

I have

books.

148. for which


to

Agradecer,
thanks
are

"to

thank/' takes
as

as

direct

object
the
conocer

that
son per-

whom

thanks

given, and are given.


su

object Conjugated like


Thank
you very

indirect

(see 513).
he
your

agradezco

tnucho

amabilidad.

much

for

kindness.

VOCABULARY.

coche, m., carriage, cab. en coche, in a cab.


cochero,
coger, cruzar, to to

isquierdo,left.
a

la the

tzquierda,
left.

on

the

left, to

coachman,
catch.
cross.

cabman.

lado, side. al otro lado,


lo
on

on
a

the lo

other

side.

derecho,
a

la

the

right. derecha, right.


mo

menos, at

or

menos,

adv.,

the

right, to (manner).
to

least, arrival.
to

llegada,
how? liegar por
a,

jde

que

do?

get

to, reach.

directo, straight.

aqui,
donde?

this

way

(lit.through
way,

dirigirse
towards.

a,

to

address,

go

here).
por
what how

(lit.

distancia, distance. (of esquina, corner


estacion, f., station,

street).

season.

through where?) point, place. punto, salida, departure.


-

ferrocarril, m.,

railroad. railroad

sallffXo
seguir,
on,

leave.
go

gnia, f., guide. de ferrocarriles, gnia

guide,
much. ir bien road

time-table.

infinito, adv.,
para,
to. to

infinitely,
be
on

very

follow, continue, to keep on (R-ch. III). safe, sure. seguro, tranzia, m., street-car. tranvia, in a car. en

the

right
XXV.
el

EXERCISE
a. va a

Caballero,
la estacion mucho

";me

haria

Vd.

favor

de
a

decirme la

por

donde

se

del
no

Este?

(or de

dirigirme
Me
seguro.

estacion?)
que esta

Siento directa
y
no a

poder

hacerlo.

parece

calle

va

la estacion, pero no estoy bien la ciudad. conozco muy


^me

Soy Preguntelo Vd.


de indicarme
esta

tambien
a

extranjero
para
or
e

aquel cochero.
de

Cochero,
la

hace

Vd.

el

favor

estacion si

del
se va

Este
por

decirme

(or, de aqui a

decirme la

donde

si voy bien la estacion?

estacion?)

Q2

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Si
cruce,

seiior.

Siga
la

Vd.
a

esta

calle

hasta
y

la

primera
hasta necesito la

calle estacion.

que

la

vuelva

esquina
de alia?

la

derecha, ^Cuanto

siga

iCuanto
para

hay

aqui?

tiempo

(se

necesita)

ir

(llegar)
bastante Vd.

Hay
pero

distancia. subir
en

Necesita mi

Vd.
le

media llevare

hora alia

lo

menos;

si

quiere

coche,

dentro

de

algunos
No
su

minutos.

tengo

prisa

prefiero

ir

pie.

Le

agradezco

Vd.

infinite)

"

amabilidad. No b.

hay
i

de

que.

Sabe

Vd.

si

el

tren

para

Paris

sale

de

vla

estacion

del

Norte No de la
I

?
senor.

Sale

de

la

estacion

del

Este,

que

esta

al

otro

lado

ciudad.

Sabe

Vd.

la
pero

hora
en

de

la

salida

del cafe hora

tren
se

de

la

noche?
ver una

No

senor;

cualquier
hallara Vd.

(a)
la

puede
la salida

Guia
la

de

Ferrocarriles.
de

En

ella
tren.

de

de

llegada

cualquier
c.

(a)

Cuando
a

una

persona

que

no

conoce

bien
"ja

la
se

ciudad

desea

llegar
No

(dirigirse
sabiendo Vd.
que

a)
por

un

punto
ir

cualquiera,
a

quien
punto,

dirige?
":a

donde

cualquier

(a)

quien

se

dirigiria
";De

? modo iria

Vd.

^Tomaria
en

Vd.
ciudad?

un

coche?

"jCuantas ":Se "jNo puede hay

estaciones

hay
por que
esta

esta

^Cuales

son?

llegar
tranvia
calles
a

calle delante
antes

la de

estacion? la

pase

puerta?
alia?
";nos

iCuantas
Al la

cruzamos

de calle

llegar
de

llegar

la

esquina

de

la

Sevilla

volvemos

derecha?
I Se I No

puede
hay
que

ir

alia

pie,
libro

6
que

es

preciso
de la

ir hora

en

coche? de la

ningun
de
coger
son

llegada

de

los

trenes

vienen

Paris? el
cuatro
en

I Se

puede

tranvia

aqui ?"
del
que sepa

iCuales ";No hay

las nadie

estaciones clase

ano?

esta

responder

en

espafiol?

tESSON

xxvi

93

LESSON 149.

XXVI.

Subjunctive
in
a

in

Object
stands
or

Clauses.
as

The

tive subjuncthat
tions ques-

is used expresses

clause

that

doubt, disbelief
statement
que

the
Dudo father will

contained

object of a verb uncertainty, or which in the object clause.


noche. sabio he
I

mi

arrive Vd. this


que
man

padre llcgue to-night.


este

esta

doubt

whether

my

jCree
you

hombre
as

sea as

tan

como

se

piensaf

Do

think
No
a. creo

is lo
sea.

learned
I

is

believed? is.

que

do

not may

think be main

Verbs

that

express
same

belief for

followed and the

by the indicative,

or

if the

subject
que
ser es

is the

the

dependent

verb.

by the

infinitive.
muy

Creo Cree
not.

sabio.
no

I think lo
es.

that

he

sabio

pero

He

thinks

is very learned. he is learned but

he

is

150. direct

Verbs

meaning
asked of whom
Vd.

"to
or

ask"

and

"to

buy"
as or

take

as

object the thing


person

the

the
la

bought, and thing is asked


Of whom
it of

indirect

ject ob-

bought.
you

jA
house?

quien

com

pro
Sr.
un

casa?

did
Mr.

buy

the

La La her Me Le Le

al compre nina pidio

Fernandez.

favor

su

I bought The amigo.

Fernandez.
a

girl asked

favor

of

friend.

pidio
voy
a

un

favor.

She

asked
a

me

a am

favor.

preguntar
que
no

algo

Juan.

going
not to

to

ask do

John

thing. some-

suplico

lo haga.

I beg

you

it.

151. definite used


to
an mean

Uno,
pronoun

-a,
or

-os,

-as.

Uno

may

be

used

as

an

in-'

adjective. In impersonally. The plural may


"some

the be
a

singular
numeral

it may

be

used, like algunos,


it expresses

few," while
number.
entrarf
muy

before

approximate
j No

puede
unos

uno

May

one

not

come

in?
a

Ten go books.

libros

inter esantes. siete

I have

few

interesting
cost
some

El
seven

billete costard pesetas.

unos

pesetas.

The

ticket

will

94

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

152. used

Use
a

of

Definite

Article. used
a

The
a

definite article

is

before
a

singularnoun
before

in

class, or
class.
tiene
an

noun plural,

to repgeneral sense resent used for inclusively

the

whole
El
Me
a.

hombre

que

morir.
I like is

Man

must

die.

gust

las

Hores.
the
way.

flowers.

used

in

Similarly, a general
vida
es

article

required before

an

abstract

noun

La
b.

corta.

Life

is short. definite
as

Similarly,
used in
or

the

masculine
way

article is found
name

before

an

infinitive when

subject
verbal

a general predicate.

the

of is then

an

The

infinitive

act, particularly equivalent to the

English
El

noun es

in

v'wir

barato

-ing. en Espana.
as

Living

is

cheap

in

Spain.
as

153.

Demonstratives
este
means

correlatives.

Used
means

relatives, cor-

"the

former, and
libro
es

aquel
lectura

"the

latter."

Tengo gramdtica;
154.

dos
este

libros
es

espanol; un dificil, pero aquel


en

de

un

libro

de

fdcil.
Personal
or or a

Definite Pronoun.

Article A

used

for

and

strative Demon-

personal pronoun

demonstrative que. In

found before de is seldom pronoun their place the definite article is used las used
or

relative

de, and
the

el que, may

la

que,
contract

los in

que, the

article

(el de, la de, los de, las que). When so with a regular way
hat. of

de.
La del sombrero Los de Madrid
azul.
y

She
de

of

the

blue

los

Paris. los

Those

Madrid

and

those

of

Paris.

El
studies

muchacho and those


que
a

que

estudia
do
not

que

no

estudian.

The

boy

who hard

who

La
learns

estudia deal.
me

mucho did mi
to

study. aprende mucho.


Those
you

She
gave
me

who

studies

great
que
casa

Los
Mi

Vd.
y

ayer.

yesterday.
of
my

la de
Similar

amigo.
this third
use

My
of
the

house
article

and
is

that
its

friend.
for the

Remark.

substitution

possessive
Mi

pronoun
casa

of

la

de

the el.

person

(see
and

53).

My

house

his.

155. consists

Adverbs of those

in -mente.

The

largestclass
These
may

of adverbs

ending

in -mente.

be

formed

96
coche
y

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

de

tin

punto
llevan
en

a a

otro
uno

es a

mas

barato,
cuesta
caro

porque

mediante la

una

peseta

media

le

cualquiera
hoteles
mas

parte

de

ciudad.
caro, segun

El

vivir

(La
que

vida)
el

los
por

mejores
tren
es

igualmente
mas

mientras
se

viajar

barato 6 de
tercera

toma

(compra) iQue
clases de

billetes diferencia billetes?

de

primera, hay

de

segunda
es

clase.
estas
tres

(Cual

la

diferencia)
a son

entre

La
didad

diferencia de las

del

precio corresponde
Los
ellos de

la diferencia
tan

de
como

la

como-

coches.
y y
en

primera
muchos

buenos

los
cuanto y

de

cualquier
a

pais,
tercera

viajan
estan

extranjeros.
son

En

los

de

de
pero
y
en

segunda,
no

aquellos segunda viajan espahola.


se

bastante
en

malos

estos

muy

comfortables,
de
tercera

calentados

el invierno. la mayor

En

los

coches

los

de
que

viajan
con

parte
y

de
los

los
que

naturales,
desean
ver

los la

extranjeros
verdadera
peso

poco

dinero,

vida

I Cuanto

de

equipaje

transporta
Pero
es

libre?
muy
mas

Treinta

kilogramos
tin una

solamente.
meses en

posible, viajando equipaje puede


uno

solo,
maletas

pasar
y
en

par
manta

de

Espafia
Estas

sin

que

dos llevar

de

viaje.

cosas

las

consigo
b. Alii

el coche. Vd. al
otro

1 Puede

dirigirme
lado
estas

al la

despacho
estacion. al

de

billetes?

esta,

de
cosas

Mozo,
Deme

lleve Vd.

Vd.
tin

despacho
clase

de
para

equipajes.
Sevilla

billete

de

tercera

(or,

more

simply,

Sevilla, tercera).
que

lA
c.

hora

sale

el

tren? caballero
que

iDonde quien
le de

piensa pide
que

ir este informes

el

afio

que

viene?

I A

los

necesita?

iAcerca iQue iQue


I

necesita
su

informes? cuando le

contesta

amigo

pide

informes?

desea lo

saber decir
su

primero?
su

Se

puede
es

amigo?
sabe barato
tanto
acerca
en

iComo
I Cree
":Cuanto

que que
cuesta

amigo
mas en

de

la

vida
que

espafiola? aqui
?

Vd.

sea

el vivir de
una

Espafia
a

el ir
en

coche

estacion de

otra?

"jEs
IA

cara

la vida clases

los

mejores
tienen

hoteles los del de los

Madrid?

iCuantas
que
mas

de

coches

trenes

espanoles?
los 6

corresponde
comfortables de los

la diferencia los coches

";Son

precio de segunda
naturales? solo

billetes?
de tercera?

los

iEn

cuales

coches
se

viajan
para

r;Cuanto

equipaje

necesita

viajar

en

Espafia?

lesson

xxvn

97

LESSON

XXVII.

156.
cuarenta

Cardinal

Numerals.
40 50

Review

39
-as -as -as -as -as

and

87.
500 600 700 800
goo IJ"00

quinientos,
seiscientos, setecientos, ochocientos, novecientos,
m" dos cien
un

cincuenta
sesenta setenta

60 70 80
90
100

ochenta
noventa

ciento, cien doscientos, -as trescientos, -as cuatrocientos,


a.

mil mil

2,000
100,000

200

300
-as

millon millones before


a

1,000,000 2,000,000

400

dos

Ciento
a noun

becomes
or

cien when

it stands

jective, descriptive ad-

mil.
a.

Cien
b.
c.

hombres,
Mil Of The is the
an

hundred

men.

adjective and
hundreds,
500,

millon 700 and

is

noun.

900

are

irregularly formed.
serve as

d.

following compound
109
120 121

numbers

will

types.
y

ciento

ciento
ciento

(y) nueve (y) veinte


veinte
setenta

cuatrocientos siete mil novecientos


noventa y

cuarenta

447

y y

uno

(y)
ocho ordinals

nueve

1909

ciento
e.

cuatro

mil, seiscientos
are

174,698 might
be
etc.

The in

cardinals
to

o'ften the

used of

where
a

the

used This
is el

English,
true
0.

is also

of

give days of
la

number the

page,

volume,

century,

month,

excepting the
The of fifteenth March.

which first,

primer

La
grammar.

leccion

quince de
de
marzo.

gramdtica.
The

lesson

of

the

El dia cinco

5th day The

157.
of

Relative relatives
or

Pronouns. is que, which

most

commonly
a

used
to

the

is invariable.

It relates

persons when

things, and is subject or object of be the object. of relating to things may


a,

verb, and

the

tions preposi-

de,
libro

en,
que

or
me me

con.

Un

interesa. visit 6.

A The

book
man

which
who house

interests visited
me.

me.

El
La

hombre
casa

que que

he

comprado.

The

which

I have

bought.

98
Las La
to
senoras

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

que

visile ayer.
le liable.

The The

ladies school

whom about

visited I

terday. yes-

escuela

de

que

which

spoke

you.*

158.

Quien, quienes.
to

The
and

relatives
are

quien, quienes,
instead
of que

"who," relate
as

persons

only,

used

follows
o.

:
a

With
hombre In

to
a

form

the
conozco.

objective
A

case.

Un
.

quien

man

whom

I know.

b.

general after
con

La
was

seiiora

monosyllabic prepositions. The quien estaba hablando. lady with place of


with the and in

whom

talking.
c.

To of

take

the

pronoun,
one.

introducing
no

clause

equal value
encontre
a

Hoy

To-day
d.

I met In

preceding Juan, quien (y el) me who John, (and he) told me


and

dijo
he

que

estd

bueno.

is not

well.
the
cedent. ante-

literary texts
da

proverbs
veces.

chiefly,to
who

include

Quien
doubly.
159.

luego da

dos

He

gives promptly, gives

El

que

(la

que,

los

que,

las

que)

and
may

el cual refer tion inflec-

(la cual,
to

los cuales, las


or

cuales). These
because of

relatives

persons
are

things, and

their for where

complete
que the and

substitutes valuable as chiefly to avoid possibleambiguity in cases separated from its antecedent. Estudio
I
am

quien
is

relative

la

gramdtica
also
a

de

Salvd, la cual
which for is
a

(la que)
very

es

nitty
one.

buena.

studying Salva's
a.

grammar,

good
the

They
and
talon

are

used

euphony

after

longer

tions preposiThe

after

comma.

El
check Me

mediante of which

el

by

means

(el que) recogi el equipaje. the baggage. I claimed


cual
trenes

gust a

via jar
I like

en

los

comfortables.
very

to

travel

in

the

americanos, los cuales son American trains, which

muy
are

comfortable.

Such
in

sen.tence

as

"The
a

impossible preposition

Spanish,

because

which

governs

would about" I school spoke to you is never (2) the relative omitted, and must relative precede it.

(1)

be the

wesson

xxvn

99
the
neuter

160. and
Maria

Lo

que

and

lo
to
a

cual. whole
lo
que

These
clause.
(lo
I
am

are

tives, rela-

they
cstd

relate

muy

enferma,

cual)
very

siento
sorry

muchisimo.
for.

Mary

is very

sick, (a matter)

which

161.

Causative

Construction. "to

The

verb

hacer

is

used, like the English "to make/'


causative
and
a

force.

It is followed clause.
Make las

have," "to get," with or by the infinitive, by que


the child
come

subjunctive object
Vd.
se

Haga
Juan
seven.

entrar

al

mno. a

in. himself called


at

hiso

llamar le llamas el

siete.

John

had

Juan
at
seven. a

hiso
hacer

que

en

las siete.
I

John
to

had
have

them the

call him

Voy weighed.
Hare

pesar

equipaje.

am

going
I shall

baggage
call him

que

Juan

le llame

temprano.

have

John

early.
a.

Mandar,
mandado mandado
me a

"to

order," is similarly used.


un me

He He make

hacer que

traje.
hagan
un

I have

ordered I have

suit ordered

made. them
to

traje.

suit.

162.

Object
with

Pronouns

used
are

impersonally.
often used
as

The

ject ob-

pronouns pronouns

le, la, los, las,


the

indefinite
to

meaning
the
en

of

"some/'
Si,
los la

"any," "one,"
hay.
Is there
I
no

avoid
j No

repetitionof
hay
this

noun.

biblioteca
house?

esta

casaf is
si any
one.

brary li-

in like

Yes

there haul have

Quisiera
to

buy

un comprar trunk if you

Vd.

tiene
ones.

fuertes.

should

strong

163.
persons

Idiomatic.

Haber. the various

Hay,
tenses

and

the

other
may

third used

singular of
que

of haber

be

with

and

an

to infinitive,

express

impersonal obligation.
to

Hay
at ten

que

estar

en

casa

las dies. One

It is necessary had
to

be

at

home

o'clock.
que

Habia
a.

estudiar with de

mucho.
and
an

study

hard.
a

Haber
or

infinitive

expresses

mild

sort

of

obligation

expectation.

100

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

He
j

de

ir

con

el.
de

am

(expect to)
ahoraf
the above
I

go
are

with
we

him.
to

Que
tener

hemos

hacer
with

What
the
must

do

now?
of

Remark.

Contrast
que. que
estar

personal
be there

expression early.

tion obliga-

by

Tengo

alii temprano.

164.

Is

it

not? iNo?

The

expressions
are

"iNo when

es

verdad?

iVerdad?

alone, or
of
a

alone

used

firmation seeking con-

statement.

The

English

translation

depends

upon

the
Race Usted Vd.

statement. buen

It is fine weather, isn't it? tiempo. gVerdadf You es are a Spaniard, are you not? espahol, jVerdad? didn't you? You acaba de llegar, jNof just came,

VOCABULARY. aduana, custom-house. ancho, wide, broad.

aqui tiene Vd., here ayudar, to help.


banco,
billete bank. de
m.,

is.

gratia, grace. Inglaterra, England. Italia, Italy. lialiano,Italian.


madrileno
,

of
money,
m.,

Madrid. coin.

banco, bank-note.
trunk.

moneda,
paquete,

baul,

package.

bulto, piece

(of baggage, change.

etc.).

caja, box.
cambiar,
"

to

parar, pagar, pesar,


sacar,

to to

stop.

cambiar
cars.

de

tren,

to

change

(see 507). pay weigh. registrar, to examined


to to remove,

take

out.

(See

companion. compahero, conocimiento, knowledge.


exceso,
excess

507.) sobre, prep.,


sobre

above.

(pron., esceso).

facturar, to check. Francia, France. frontera, frontier.

fuera de,
side of.

prep.,

aside

from,

out-

adv., particularly, especially. tarjeta, card. talon, m., check, stub. vnelia, return, change,
todo,
XXVII. lleve
sus cosas

EXERCISE
a.

Llame

Vd.

un

mozo

que

al
en

despacho
el facturar

de

Vd. esta equipajes, mientras que Vd. de billetes. Despues vaya Es posible que tenga Vd. baul.
Vd. lo
que

comprando
con

el billete
para

despacho
el

el billete
pagar
un

hacer

que

exceso.

Si le hay, pague
el cual

debe,
sacar

le daran

a a

Vd.
su

talon, mediante
a

(el

que)

puede
b.

el

equipaje
bultos tambien?

llegada
facturar dos?

Sevilla.
este

iMe
los

hace

Vd.

el favor
que

de
estos

baul

esta

";No tiene
Vd.
que

Vd.

mas

Esos

paquetes,

caja? ":quiere

facture

LESSON

XXVII

IOI

No;

los voy

llevar dos

conmigo
bultos

en

el tren. ciento
y

Bastante.

Estos

pesan

";Hay exceso? seis kilogramos.

iCuanto
Cuarenta
I Puede

hay
y

que

pagar?
pesetas.
este y

dos

Vd. tiene
y

cambiarme Vd.
ocho la vnelta

billete
el talon.

de

banco

de

cien

pesetas ?

Aqui

Cincuenta
c.

pesetas.
Vd.
vez en

Esta
veces

bien.
en

"jHa
es

estado la

muchas
; pero

Esta
en

segunda
todo Vd.
que

fuera
e

de

Espana? Espana he

viajado mucho

Europa,
";C6mo
He

sobre
es

Italia
tan

Inglaterra.*
bien
y

habla

el espafiol? mi conocimiento
a

tenido hablo
que

muy

buenos

maestros,
me

del
el

italiano,

el cual

";De

perfectamente, pais es Vd. ?

ha

ayudado

aprender

espanol.

Y del Norte. Vd. Soy Americano es espanol, iverdad? Permitame Vd. Espanol y madrileno. Aqui me a presente que Y tiene mi Vd. de ? ";cual es su tarjeta. gracia {Polite way of asking a stranger's name.) Me servir a Vd. llamo Siento no tener tarJohn Brown, para conocerle mucho tenerle en compafiero jetas. Tengo gusto en y por hora la de viaje. iSabe Vd. a frontera, a llegaremos que y si hay que

cambiar

de

tren?
a

Llegaremos
los
treries

la
no

una,

tenemos

que

cambiar

de

tren

porque

espafioles

los
que

ferrocarriles
para

bajemos el equipaje.
iCuanto
Bastante

anchos pueden pasar la frontera, siendo mas los tambien franceses, y es espafioles que preciso de los aduana la empleados puedan registrar que alii?
comer

tiempo tiempo

paramos para

para

cambiar

nuestra

moneda

espafiola por
d.

francesa.
se

iDonde
exceso?

facturan

En
pagar

los ferrocarriles

equipajes? espafioles,ipor que que)


sacamos

los

es

preciso muchas equipaje


es

veces

iCon
minar

que

(Mediante
nos

nuestro

al

ter-

el viaje?

Si
un

un

billete banco
son se

cuesta

dieciocho

pesetas,

";cual

la vuelta

de

billete de

de

cincuenta
que

pesetas ?
nos

iCuales ^;C6mo
Madrid?

las

lenguas
los

ayudan
de

aprender
del

el

espanol?
";de

llaman

naturales

America

Norte?

iComo
jamos?
*

se

llaman

las

personas

con

quienes

(las cuales) via-

becomes

before
ie

word

beginning

with

or

hi, unless

these

form

part

of

the

diphthong

(hie).

102

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

iQue
como se

frase llama?
que
no

empleamos pueden

para

preguntar

cortesmente

un

hombre
de

I Por

los trenes

franceses

pasar

la f rontera

Espafia?
I Por que

iQue iHay

hay que bajar del capitulo estudiamos?


muchachas
en

tren

en

la frontera?

la clase?

LESSON

XXVIII.

SYNOPSIS.

ARTICLE

"

definite,(a) used

with

(i) cardinal points (145) in general used (2) nouns nouns (152 a) (3) abstract

sense

(152)

(152 b) (4) infinitives used as nouns (164) personal or demonstrative pronouns ADJECTIVES" numeral, cardinal (156) for ordinals used (156 e) PRONOUNS used impersonally (162) (a) personal, object forms correlatives as (153) (b) demonstratives el cual (159) (c) relative, que (157), quien (158), el que, lo cual lo que, (160) (151) (d) indefinite, cualquiera (147), uno VERBS Regular (a) future subjunctive (139) (b) imperative mode (142) Irregular (a) future subjunctive (141) (b) orthographical changing (505-508, 522 b) (c) saber (540) Use (a) future subjunctive (14c) contrasted and (b) saber conocer (144) of doubting (149) (c) subjunctive with verbs (d) ordering (161) of haber uses (e) idiomatic (146, 163) (f) verbs of asking, etc. (150) (g) agradecer (148) in -mente ADVERBS (155) Cardinal MISCELLANEOUS" points (145) Distance (146) Is it not? (164)
(b) used
for
"
"

"

"

"

EXERCISE
Turn into

XXVIII.

1492? 2. We travel buy in the ticket office. 3. It is necessary to buy a ticket before having the baggage did not think that I weighed as much He checked, is it not? 4. he. 5. Unfortunately, not knowing how not able to cook, I was as 6. Wherever to avail myself of the kitchen. we travel,we may
1.

Spanish.
by
means

What
a

happened

in

on

the

railroad

of

ticket which

we

ii

104
Me mother

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

alegro de
is better.
en en

que

su

madre

este

major
it. insisted

de salad.

am

glad

your

Insistio Insistio

ello.
que

He

insisted He

on

fuesemos.
with

that

we

should'

go.

166.

Verbs de and

Subjunctive
en,

or

Infinitive.

Preferir,

alegrarse

insistir verb

"to insist/'are the

followed there
no

by
is

an a

object change
of

clause of

with

in
an

subjunctive if
is

and subject,

by
to

infinitive if there

change

subject.
Prefiero ir. Prefiero que go).
Insisto
en en

prefer
vaya.

go.

Vd.

prefer that
on

you

should

go

(to have

you

entrar.

I insist
entren.

coming
insist
to
see

in.
on

Insistire
Me Me
a.

que

I shall I
am

their

coming
we were

in.
there.
or

alegro de alegre de Aconsejar, aconsejo

verle.
que

glad

you.
was

estuviesemos

alii.

glad by
He the

"to

advise," is followed
temprano.

subjunctive
me

the

infinitive. Me ir

(que fuese)

advised

to

go

early. Dejar, permitir and despite the general ir. Vd. Let me Dejeme
167. Possessive
b.

prohibir
statement

are

often
101
a.

found

with

the

finitive in-

in

go.

of of

Adjectives. In addition to the possessive adjectivesalready given, there These long rarely used. longer forms, more
the suyo, and
a.

the is
a

forms series
are

forms

merely
tuyo,
noun,

possessive pronouns nuestro, vuestro).


are

without

the

article follow

(mio,
their

They always

used

:
:

In

direct

address

Amigo
b. word When like

mip.
the
un

My
noun

friend. modified
is

preceded by

some

indefinite

This is equivalent to cierto, algunos, muchos, etc. the forms would use saying that they are used where in English we "of mine," "of his," etc. of ours. friend A Un amigo nuestro. conocidos Muchos acquaintances of his. Many suyos.

168. and hacer

Parecer

and

hacer
a

falta.

Parecer,
are

"to

seem,"

falta, "to make

lack/'

transidiomatically

LESSON

XXIX

I05
used

lated
an

"to

think"

and

"to need.'''
parecer

When
see

so

they require
is not
you

indirect
Me

object. For
que
no

513.
that he

parece
le

est a

fuerte.
estas

think

strong.
think

gNo
these
I

parecen

hermosas

pinturasf
think!

Don't

paintings are do you Que le parece I What do jQue le hace falta? What I need Me hace falta diner o.
a.

beautiful?

you money.

need?

Parecer used

(like

creer

and

when

interrogatively or Do think we the parece que vayamos? you No sea fuerte. I don't think me parece que
169. Possessive Construction
was

pcnsar) negative^.

may

take

the

subjunctive go?

should he

is strong.

with

Article

and

direct In-

89 that the definite article substituted for a possessive. In many is often such cases is expressed as indirect the possessor object of the verb. This indirect object may double be a pronoun, a or a noun, with both and noun object construction pronoun. Object.
It

stated

in

Me

puse
em

el

sombrero.
me

put
el

on

my

hat.

El
my

plead 0

registro
al

equipaje.
I al

The
the

employee
child's The hat

examined for felt him. the

baggage.
Puse el sombrero medico
le
tomo

nino. el

put

on

El
teacher's

pulso

maestro.

doctor

pulse.

170.

Poner,
used
se

"to

put," "place," "set," "put

on."

See

538.
a.

Poner nina

La

"to become," "to get." mean reflexively may sick. The child became enferma. (got) puso

171.
is

Tal, tales, "such," "such


never

a."

This

noun adjective-proPreceded

followed article
I

by the
it
means

indefinite article.
"a
certain
any

by

the
Me No
a.

indefinite
lo
creo

certain."
Suarez
such
tal

dijo
tal

un cosa.

tal Suarez.
don't

told

me

so.

believe

thing. equivalent
to
a

Preceded

by

the

definite

article

is

monstrati de-

El
will

tal Fernandez
to-morrow.

llegard
que

manana.

That

(mentioned)

Fernandez

arrive b.
In

questions
tal

tal is
or

jQue along?

sigue Vd.f

equivalent to como. simply, jQue tal? How

are

you

getting

io6

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

171
cambiar

A.
de
-

Idiomatic. traje,
think
to

change

clothes. pensar
en,

to

about.

ahora

mismo, this very minute. de prim era first class. clase, /No faltaba mas! The idea!
el momento

tiempo, on time. actualmente, at the present time. hoy mismo, this very day. tener sed, to be thirsty. Man alive! jHombre!
actual,
at

este en en momento, Faltan cinco minutos cinco minutos con de cinco minutos con de

the

present
minutes

time.
to
seven.

para

las

siete.
five

It

is five late.

anticipacion, five
retraso,

minutes

early.

minutes

VOCABULARY.

actual, present.

gasto,

expense. prep., -a,

afortunado, fortunate.
algo, adv., somewhat. Alemania, Germany. amo, -a, proprietor. calendario, calendar.
cruz, I cuanto
cuanto

hacia,
casa

towards.

huesped,
de house. lavar
n

host, guest.

hucspedes, boardingto
,

(se)
o,

wash.

f.,cross.
I

timer

number.

How,
as

how
soon

much!
as

antes,

ble. possi-

omnibus, omnibus.* restaurdn, m., restaurant. sed, f., thirst.


tele grama,
m.,

estancia, stay. falta, lack, fault. faltar, to lack. gab an, m., overcoat.

telegram.

steamer. steam, m., vapor, por vapor, by boat.

vaso,

glass.

EXERCISE
a.

XXIX.

Jose

acaba
que

de

recibir

un

telegrama

de

un

amigo
y

suyo,

un

tal Sr. Brown ha venido


y

conocio

el afio los
a

pasado
Estados

en

America.

El tal amigo

por

vapor

desde

Unidos,

pasando
mes

por

Alemania
a

Francia, llegara
de
es

Madrid Mirando

el veintisiete el calendario ha de

del

actual,
nota

las

nueve

la el

mafiana.

hoy mismo reloj ve


pone

dia

en

que

su

amigo
doce sale cinco

Jose llegar. Sacando


las hacia de
nueve.

que

el

que

faltan
y

solamente el

minutos corriendo minutos

para

Se

el

sombrero

Afortunadamente

el tren
para
me

gaban y llega con


a su

la

estacion.
y

retraso,

Juan
llevar

llega

tiempo
\ Cuanto

recibir

amigo. verle, D. el viaje?


Eduardo
!

b.

alegro
tal paso

de

Dejeme

la maleta.

iQue

Vd.

'

Nouns

ending

in

in

the

singular, have

the

same

form

for

the

plural.

LESSON

XXIX

IO7
tenido Vd.

i/Muy
esperar

bien,
mncho de

pero

me

hallo

algo

cansado.

^Ha
Vd.
un

que

tiempo?
llegar ahora
todo Vd. mucha

Acabo

mismo.
sed.

1 No

tiene
a

hambre
vaso

? de
agua.

Si, y sobre iNo quiere


Prefiero
lavarme
y

Vamos

buscar de

comer algo en cuanto (que vayamos) cambiarme de traje antes

el restauran
antes

la estacion? deseo el

ir

al hotel, porque

de

comer.

";Cual
Se
dice

es

mejor
Hotel

hotel ?

Hay
de
a

tres
es

6 de de

cuatro

igualmente
pero
una

buenos.
yo

que

el

Paris
una casa numero

primera clase, huespedes. Hay


veinte.
muy

le

aconsejo
buena al
amo,
en

ir la
y

(que vaya)
calle de
seguro

muy

la

Cruz,
de
casa.

Conozco bien
a

muy

bien Un

estoy
en

que

le tratara

Vd.

primo
casa como

mio

vive

la misma

I Por

que

me

aconseja
no es un

Vd.
tan

ir

una

de
en

huespedes?
los

Porque
Sera
la

el gasto

grande

hoteles.

"jTomamos
mas

omnibus?
coger

facil

(tomar)
sacar su

el tranvia

que

pasa

delante
a

de
casa

puerta.
enferma los

Despues
y
en

de

equipaje
amo.

iremos
no

juntos
que

la

de
esta
casa

huespedes,
dias

le

presentare
momento, estancia faltaba
estare
en en

al

Si
en

fuera
que

mi

madre
en

este
su

insistiria Madrid. No

Vd.

pasara

mi

de
no

I Hombre,
casa

mas!

de
se

huespedes
ponga

madre

buena

piense Vd. en tal Espero perfectamente. que seguida, y que tenga pronto

cosa. su

En

la

sefiora

el gusto

de

conocerla.
c.

":De

quien
conocio

ha

recibido al tal

Jose

un

telegrama?
Brown
antes

iDonde
I Por

cuales

Juan paises ha

amigo? pasado el tal

de

venir

Espana?
sabe su a Jose que amigo va iComo de salir? antes iQue se pone el tren? iLlega a tiempo D. Jose? se ^De que alegra tanto Juan a su amigo? iQue le pregunta todo desea sobre su ";Que amigo? de comer? iQue desea hacer antes hoteles de los mejores iCual es uno iPor amigo aconseja Jose a su que hotel ?

llegar hoy

mismo?

de
que

Madrid?
no

vaya

ningun
la calle

iComo
de la Cruz
I Por
su

sabe
es

Jose

que

la

casa

de

huespedes
su

que

esta

en

buena?
no

que

insiste

Jose

en

que

amigo

pase

algunos

dias

en

casa?

I08

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON

XXX.

172.

Compound

Tenses

of

the

perfect,the two pluperfectsand the formed respectively with subjunctive,are present, the imperfects and the future of
of in

Subjunctive. future perfect of


the the

The
the the

help

of

subjunctive haber. use difficulty.They are used presents no dependent clauses to translate the English perfect,pluperfect and future perfectindicative. (See 502.)
Their
a.

The
clause
to

perfect subjunctive
as

follows

the
but

same

tenses

of time

the
terior an-

main

the of the ella

present
verb
no

subjunctive,
in

it expresses

that
que

the

main

clause. todavia. I
am

Siento
not
come

hay a

venido

sorry

she

has

yet.
The clause
to

b. main

the pluperfect subjunctives follow the as imperfect subjunctives, but that


no

same

tenses

of

the time

they

express

anterior

of

the

verb

of

the

main liegad

clause.
0.

not

Senti que arrived.


c.

hubiese

{hubiera)

I was*

sorry

she

had

The
to

pluperfectsubjunctives are
fact,
in those

also the

used

in past

conditions

contrary
would be

places
conditions

where

used

in present tenido I should

contrary
to

Si
had had d.

hubiese
money,

diner 0, habria have gone

imperfect subjunctives to fact (see 128). ido If I Madrid. (hubiera) a


Madrid.
may
not

The

future perfect subjunctive


which it does

take

the

future subjunctive, from meaning. Mi escribird hijo me


son

differ

place of the essentially in

cuando he arrives

hubiere

will

write

me

when

(shall

have

llegado {llegare). My arrived).

173.
a.

Comparison
comparative
mas
or

of
of

Adverbs.
adverbs is

The with

formed,

like

that

of

tives, adjec-

menos.

mas

fdcilmente, more
The
in

easily;
of adverbs

menos

fdcilmente, less easily.


not

b.

superlative
form.

does

differ

from

the

parative com-

Los
den who
mas.

que

aprenden
Those the
most.

mas

fdcilmente
the
most

no

who

learn

siempre son not easily are

los que

aprehthose

always

learn

UCSSON

XXX

109

Superlative without comparison may degree without before an adjective or adverb


174.

comparison.
be
an

Superlative

expressed by placing adverb expressing high


very

degree.
Muy
a.

fdcil, muy
The
suffix

fdcilmente,
-isimo

very

easy,

easily.
adverbs take the

sumamente

bien, extremely

well.
to

applied
and words

adjectives and
in -isimo
may

presses ex-

superlative degree,
adverbial suffix

tional addi-

-mente. ;

pronto,
most

prontisimo, prontisimamente promptly.


A

promptly,
may

very

promptly,

b.

superlative without
an

comparison
article

be

formed after the

by placing
adverb

before
an

adverb of

the

neuter

lo, and
as

expression
lo

mejor
mas

lo

possibility. posible, the best possible, as well that I could. pude, the most que
After
an

possible.

175.
is

Than.

adjective,adverb
que. Note the

or

verb, "than''
tions excep-

regularly expressed by
:
a.

following
de

In

numeral,

and
mas

"than" is expressed positive sentence, by in a negative sentence, generally by que. de dos mil libros. I have
more

before

Tengo
books. La four
casa

than The

two

thousand has

no

tiene

mas

que

cuatro

pisos.
clause
del

house

only

stories. b. After
a noun

and
is

before

in
que

which

the
la

same

noun

is

understood,
de las
casa

"than"

que,

que), the
tiene
mas

expressed by article agreeing


de los
you

(de
noun

que,

de

los

with Vd. have

the ha
seen.

understood. The house-

La has
more

cuartos

que

visto.

rooms

than
a

(the rooms)
to to

c.

Before
must
an

clause

which

the

verb the

of

the and
que.

first part before


a

of

the

sentence

be

added "than"
mas

complete
de

sense,

clause

after La
more

adverb,
casa

is

expressed by
lo que
more

de

lo

tiene
than
de lo I

cuartos

pensaba.
than
I

The

house

has

rooms

thought
que

Es

mas

(it had). It is pensaba.

thought.

an so

Cuyo, -a, -os, interrogative pronoun, It used. commonly as an adjective.

176.

-as,

"whose."
to

equivalent
is
more

Cuyo is primarily de quien but not


after
a

often

used

sition prepo-

no

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

jCuyos
j En

(de

quien)

son

estos

librosf In

Whose whose

books
room

are

these?
the

cuyo

cuarto

pongo

el baulf

do

I put

trunk?
a.

Like
case

other it does

interrogatives,
not

cuyo

may

be and

used

relatively, in
as an

which

have

the

written

accent,

is used

jective ad-

only.
La
senora

en

cuya

casa

vive.

The

lady

in whose

house

he

lives.

177.

Valer, "to be worth."

See

545.

VOCABULARY.

abajo, adv., below, downstairs. abundancia, abundance. adelantado, adj., in advance.


ademds

etcetera,

et

cetera.

de,

prep.,

in

addition

to.

alcoba, alegre, cheerful, happy. alto, high, tall. ally (generasiinto, affair, business in plu.). used bajo, low. banar (se), to bathe. bano, bath. de bano, bathroom. cuarto comestibles, food, eatables. ner comida, food, meal, board, din(at night). cubrir (de), to cover (with).* dar to on. give a, on, open under. de, debajo prep., desocupado, unoccupied. despensa, pantry. edificio,building.
en

bedroom.

exterior, outside, outer. guar dar, to keep. habitacion, {., room, apartment. interior, interior, inner. (see 511). leer, to read

^mencionar, to

mention.

natural, adj., natural. nombrc, m., name.


ocupar,
to

occupy.

patio, courtyard. piso, story, floor. door. portal, m., big outer janitor. portero, -a, pueblo, people, town. quedarse con, to take/
sotano,
up.

cellar.
up,

subir, to bring

take

up,

carry

superior, upper. tejado, roof. visita,visit,visitor.


superior,

medio of.

de,

prep.,

in the middle

EXERCISE
a.

XXX.

(los hay) en Nueva York, edificios hay corao edificios tienen altos Los mas no mas pisos. de los las seis. edificios casas Los lars particupueblos pequenos y que Hainan el piso tienen Los tantos. se casa pisos de una no bajo, el primer piso 6 principal, el segundo, el tercero, etcetera. familia. El portero En el piso bajo vive el portero su con perEn
Madrid
no

de

treinta

cuarenta

Past

participle cubierto.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

iCuantos pisos tiene iEn que piso estamos?


d.
I Por

el edificio

en

el que

estamos?

donde
se

subimos llaman
en

iComo iQuien
Ademas

vive de
se

la

los pisds superiores? casa? pisos de una el piso bajo de una casa espanola? habitation del portero, ";que hay en
a

los

el

piso bajo?

iComo iQue
I Donde I Cuales I Para I

llama clases los los sirve


en

una

puerta
cuartos

que

da

la calle?
casas

dos

de

tienen

las

espanoles?

estan
son

patios de
cuartos

las casas?
una

de

casa?
";una

que
se

la

despensa?

alcoba?

Que

hace
se

la biblioteca ? las visitas?


pagar
en

I Donde I Cuanto comida? I Cuanto I Cuanto

reciben
que

hay hay hay

Madrid

por

un

buen

cuarto

con

la

que
que

pagar pagar

aqui ?
para

la comida

sola?

dice en esparto1, "Hi take this room?" se iComo Vd. cuarto tener iQuisiera mas un grande del que tiene ahora? esta debajo del piso bajo? iCual es la parte de la casa que

LESSON 178.
a.

XXXI. of Tenses.
may

Irregular Use
in
to

As
or

English, the present


very

be of

used
acts

to

express

future time.

time,

express

vividly
Where

series shall

in the

past
trunk?

j Donde

pongo
Vd.

el haul?

I put

jSabe
corro

hacia

el iren. b.

lo que hagof Co la estacion,a donde I seized my hat, etc.

jo el sombrero, bajo la escalera, minuto de salir antes llego medio

the and conditional future and future perfect, and used then to conjecture. They are perfect are express equivalent to the present, perfect,imperfect and pluperfect respectively.

The

conditional

Que

edad

tendrd

esta

nihof He
su

How is casaf

old

do

you

suppose

this

child

is? Tendrd
j Por

unos

que las

cinco anos. habrd vendido cuando toda

probably

about

I wonder It had

why

five years he has nine

old.
sold when all

his house? Scrian I awoke. Habria

nueve

me

desperte.
He

was

about

estudiado

la noche.

probably

studied

night.

LESSON

XXXI

113

179.
tense

The

Perfect with
the

of

the

Past

Definite.

The

perfect

formed mentioned instead

been

used
to

of what

express

auxiliary has not it is so before because It is rarely used. the pluperfect after conjunctions of time, took something place immediately before
0 a

past definite of the

else. Cuando
I had
a.

Kube

liegad
I went

casa,
once

fui
to

en

seguida
room.

mi

cuarto.

When

got
The

home,
use or

at

nry

of

this
a a

tense

is often

avoided

by

the

use

of

the

past

definite Cuando
A I liegar

by
casa,
tense

prepositional phrase.
casa, etc. etc.

llegue
a

b.

In

this

the

past
it

separated "when,"
"as
soon

from as." hube


a

by

come participle may the conjunction que,

before here

the

iliary, aux-

meaning
etc.

Llegado 180.
are

que

casa,

etc.

When

I had

got

home,

Personal

Object.

When

to

be things, the personal a may distinguish it from the subject.


""

subject placed before

both

and

the

object object

hi

The ^rnrft \ 41ZZdrLfngZj! al \ principle


sigue
cociao.

COO!*

Allows

the

Stew.

181. found
etc.

Nunca

and double

that

the is

It was "never," "not ever." negative is the rule with nada, nadie, of the
a

jamas,

This
are

which

equally true usually found


stand
nunca

adverbs

nunca

and

jamas,
may,

after

negative
or

verb.

Thev

however,
No Nunca
a.

first in

sentence
en

clause.

he

estado he

(jamas)
en

)
"

Espana.
estado and

have

never

been

in

Spain.

Espana. jamas
are

)
translated after Did
more

Nunca

negative
jVio
Ahora Vd.
mas nunca

answers,

and

tal cosaf
nunca.

positively in questions a comparative. such ever see a thing? you


than
ever.

pecting ex-

que

Now

182. second of

Si and
two

no.

Si

and

no

are

used
or

in the ellipticaily
to

contrasted the verb.

sentences

clauses,

avoid

the

repetitionof

114

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

En
terra

Espana
In

no

se

come

miicho
eat

por
much

si.

Spain they don't


los

la manana, Inglapero en in the morning, but in England


a

they do. A mi padre le gustan


eggs,

huevos, pero
Yo
no.

mi

no.

My
get
up

father

likes I

but

I don't. levdnfa Vd.

iSe
don't.
a.

tempranof
with
a

Do

you

early?

Used
follow.
no.

apart
Not

pronoun,

noun,

or

another

adverb, si
Todavia
no.

and

no

Ella
Not

she.

Mi

padre

no.

Not

my

father.

yet.
b.

Certain
no

si and

followed by commonly The verb in answering questions. verbs

que

of

the

require que before derstood. question is un-

Supongo

que que
no.

si. I

I suppose

so.

Espero
Die
en

hope
say

not.
so.

que

si.
que

They
no.

Respondio
183.

He

answered

that

he

would

not.

Definite
before
a

Article.
noun
or

The

definite

article is used
a

in
noun pro-

Spanish

in

apposition with
in
You
a

personal

understood
Nosotros los

implied
We
. . .

verb-form.
have
. . .

espanoles.

Los

espanoles teneis
In

Spaniards. Spaniards

184.

address

sefior

and

senora
a

are

currently,often
the
name,

untranslatably, employed

before

or title,

of

profession.
Senor Sefior

Marques.
Presidente.

Marquis.
Mr. President,

185.

Traer,

"to

bring/'

For

conjugation see

544.

186.
a a a

Idiomatic.
espanola, in the
am

la la la

Spanish style.
American

eric ana,

in the in the

francesa,

French

style. style.

VOCABULARY. aceite,
m.,

olive-oil.
a, to

almuerzo,
get
have used
to. asar, to

lunch,
roast. meat,

noon

meal.

acoslumbrarse

almorzar,

(noon

lunch, meal) See 519.


to

lunch

asado,
came,

roast

f., meat.

LESSON

XXXI

115

cocido,
cocer, to

boiled boil

dish,

stew.

(see 508b, 519). cocina, cooking. to \componer {de), compose (see 538). (of), dine to (at night). comer,
m

national, national. ordinario, ordinary,


par,
m.,

common.

couple.
a, to

parecer ble.

look

like,

resem-

consistir
Iclarol

en,

to

consist sure!

of.

To

be

pimiento, pepper (the fruit). plato, plate, dish. (masc. plu.). postres, dessert

ensalada,

salad.

principio,
course.

beginning,

principal

frito, fried. frnta, fruit. garbanzos, chick-peas. huevo, egg. importancia, importance. de' los platos, lista, list;
"

sano,
so

healthy, wholesome.
soup.
to

pa,

suponer,
bill-

suppose
tomato.

(see 538).

tocino, bacon.
tomate,
m.,

of-fare.

tortilla, omelet, pan-cake.


butter.

mantequilla,

verdura,

greens.

EXERCISE

XXXI.

a.

iLlamo
sefior
amo.

Vd.,

D.

Eduardo?
saber
los
acerca

Si,
que
veces en

Deseaba
como en

de

las comidas.
lo
no comemos menos

Supongo
tres tanto

Espana,
al dia.
mafiana
no

demas

Claro
como

; pero

nosotros

los

paises, comeran Espafioles


6 cafe

por

la

Vds.
mas

los
que

Ingleses.
chocolate

Ordinariamente
con

(Por
y quilla. mante-

lo

comun)
Eso
por

tomamos

pan

esta

bien.
pero

No si

me me

he

acostumbrado
comer a su

nunca

tomar

mucho

la mafiana, La criada

gusta

temprano.
cuarto
a

le traera

el

desayuno
almuerzo?
y
comemos

la

hora

que

Vd.

quiera. iCual ";En


Al
agua,

es

la hora
a

del

Almorzamos
que

mediodia

las ocho

de

la noche.

consisten
se

las comidas
come un

aqui?
de huevos
y entonces

almuerzo 6
una

par

tortilla la

de

huevos,
de la

fruta. Al los

Para

comida el

noche
que
es

hay
carne

pasados por algun plato de carne y el cocido. siempre sopa y


6 asada
con

fritos

cocido

sigue
es

principio,

ensalada,

postres.

iQue
El
nacional
con

el cocido?
que
se

cocido,
de

llama
esta

tambien compuesto

olla
de

puchero,
cocida

es

el 6

plato

Espana, y garbanzos y verdura. La lista de los platos


todas las
son, y
cosas

carne

tocino,

parece

mucho

la de
son

mi

pais, y
sanas.

me

parece

que

que

ha

mencionado

Vd.
comer

muy
a.

Lo

le

gustara

seguramente

la

espanola,

si

le

Il6

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

gustan
que
estos

los

platos
tres

preparados
comestibles

con

aceite,
mucha

pimientos importancia

tomate;
en

porla

tienen

cocina

espafiola.
b.

iCon
de

quien
que

estaba deseaba los

hablando

el

extranjero?

^Acerca ^Donde
I I
I

preguntarle?
el

toman

espafioles

desayuno?

Quien
A A
que que que que

se

lo

trae? almuerzan almorzamos el los

hora hora

espafioles?
los de de la

nosotros

americanos?
?

iEn ";En
";Comen iComemos "jEn
";De

consiste consiste

desayuno desayuno
6 la
por

Vd.
los noche?

el
a

espafioles?

mas

mediodia

nosotros

por

noche de la

mas

tarde

que

los

espafioles?

que que
es

consiste
esta

la

comida
el

noche?

compuesto

cocido?

iQue
Ademas de

el del

principio?
de

cocido,

ique

otros

nombres

tiene

el

plato

nacionaT

Espafia?
En
la lista de los

platos

de

los

espafioles

";que

cosa

le

gusta

mas?

iMe
tengan

hace mucha

Vd.

el

favor

de la

mencionar cocina

algunos espanola?
Vd.
en

comestibles

que

importancia significa significa


se

en

iQue iQue "jC6mo


I

sano?

Responda par?
las
tres

espanol.

un

llaman

comidas?

Prefiere

Vd.
modo

los

huevos

fritos,
Vd.
que

las

tortillas

? los

":De

que

prefiere

se

preparen

huevos?

LESSON

XXXII

117

LESSON

XXXII.

SYNOPSIS.

ARTICLE

"

definite, used
"

before

nouns

in

apposition

with

pronoun

(183)

ADJECTIVE
"

descriptive, superlative forms long possessive,

without

comparison
in

(174)
to

(167)
ends
of
to
s

NOUN PRONOUN

"

"

whose plural of nouns with personal objective


"

singular
names

things
express

(note (180) possession

vocab.

XXIX)

"

"

"

indirect personal, object ^interrogative, (176) cuyo relative, cuyo (176) indefinite, tal (171) "*^ the

(169)

VERB

"

"

"

of perfect compound irregular verbs that

tenses
use

"

(179) subjunctive (172) of tenses (178) take infinitive, preferir, alegrarse subjunctive or de, sistir aconsejar, dejar, permitir, prohibir (166) en,
past
of the hacer falta

definite

in-

"

parecer

and

(168)

"

irregular,
"

poner

(170, jamas (182)


to

538), (181)

valer

(545)"

traer

(544)

ADVERBS

comparison
nunca

(173-174)

"

and and
no

"

si

PREPOSITIONS" MISCELLANEOUS"

used

introduce
in address

clause

(165)

Senor
"Than
"

(184)

(175)

idiomatic

(171 a)

EXERCISE Turn
gay
as

XXXII.

into those and

Spanish.
of the steamer-rug.
was so

1.

The
2.

Northern Don't shall

South.

Spaniards forget to (de)


them that
4.

are

not

so

bring
we

your

overcoat

We

need insisted
of
water.

before the
Do
to

get

back.

3.

John
by

stop in order
to

that train
Is

he
or

thirsty that he might get a glass


by
boat? 5.
on

cab
you

should

prefer
a

travel

should floor?

like 6.

take their

bath ing cookare

before the three


me are a

dinner.

the

bath-room
a

this of floor All the

In

Spaniards use families living on list of things you


from November is
to
a

great
the
upper 9.
to

deal

olive-oil. of
rooms

7. house.

There 8.

this

Give

need.

of

this

apartment
of the I could

heated

March.
ours. n.

10.

The
I
am

-proprietor
sure

boarding-house
never 12.

cousin

of
meat
some

that

get
In

used

eating
are a

at

breakfast

like

you

Americans.
13.
two

America

there of

extremely
and is
Do
us no

high buildings.
three

The,
of is
a

apartment which
restaurant
an

consists
on on

sitting-room
14.

bed-rooms,
know
for

open

the the of

court.

There
15.

kitchen, but
}^ou

there
you

ground
mine?

floor. 16.

that

semble re-

aunt

Let

suppose,

instance, that

Il8

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

you
not

have
to

just
at

received

telegram
Did hands. with
22.
as us

from

Germany.
your

read washed father

night.
the lunch cellar.
soon

18.

you
20.

wash This

17. hands?
young

I told
19.

him The

mother whose the

child's

is the
21.

gentleman
janitor put thing never
for the
rived ar-

took the As she

yesterday.
am sure

The
a

boxes

in

that

such her think

happened. 23. following day,


yet.
omelet. than
20,000

Mary
bed.
more

had
24. eggs

prepared
I do than
not

lessons

went

to
were

they have
to

^5)
me.

There ! 27. 28. I

I needed
was

make

the
more

26.

Man

it cost

the tell you house It is worth the at


are

worth
time if
we

much
more

present
to-morrow

than is'

pesetas.
29. 30. you

weather.
the
31.

My
How

They nephew
much
cross

coming
that thanked other he
me

it

good
taken him! All that
never

said he
to

was

glad
for of 'the
not

had
I did

not

house. I advise inner house

what

for 32.
me

to
are

the

side

station.
seem

the the

rooms was

worth What
outer to

unoccupied. S3he paid what


you
rooms

It did for it.

to

34. of floor.

Thanks,
fruit. $7watch

smoke.
occupy

35. three
me

need
on a

is

an

abundance second the


at

36.

We

the

forbade here I in this

bring
minute. several
41.

such
39.

very

thing into On looking


late.
to

house.
my

My 38. Bring
I
saw

father it

that

should the

arrive

minutes addition
42. many

40. soup

shall and like

put
the

all the main

food

pantry.
is salad

In

the

course,

there don't. is
a

and

dessert. how of

The

natives

garbanzos

but
44.

I It

43. business

I wonder
matter

families

live in this house?

little

importance.

LESSON

XXXIII.

187.

Hacer

in Time
an

Expressions.
of time
as

Hacer its

is used

personal imcate indi-

with
the
'

expression
which
the

object,to
forward.
the had

point from
hacia
and

time

is reckoned
with has
a

a. or

Hace,

hard, used
time

verb

in

past

definite
or

pluperfect, express will have elapsed since Llego hace tin ano. Habia Uegado hacia Llego hard un ano.
b.

that

something
He
tin

took
a

elapsed, place.
ago.

elapsed,

arrived
ano.

year

He be
a

had
year

arrived since
a

It will

he

before. year arrived. present,


perfect imhas

Hace,
or

hacia

and
express

hard, used
the time
on

with

verb

in the

future,
on,

during

which
been

been

going

had

been

going

or

will have

something going on.

120

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

188.
a.

Oir, uto hear/'


and also
ver

For
as

conjugation
the

see

536.
an

Oir
may

may
an

take

object
If the

which
a

take the I

object.
her
come

subject subject of the

of

infinitive,
is

infinitive

noun,

it follows

infinitive. in.

La

vi

entrar.

sawr

see

una Quisiera ver preparar a Spanish meal prepared.

comida

espahola.

should

like

to

Anoche

oi
ver

cantar

Caruso.
el cocido
a

Last

Voy
prepare

preparar

Maria.

Caruso night I heard I am going to see

sing. Mary

the

cocido.

189.

Todo,
of

-a,

-os,

-as,

"all,""every/*
be noted.

"whole.

"

The

following uses
a.

todo

should

In

the

definite Tod b. of

article and
Jiombre les the
os

in the plural with the a or singular before noun, of todo is translated time, expression "every.'' an debe saberlo.

To do

Every
definite whole." I have

man

should

know

it.

meses.

Every

month. the article and


an

In

singular with
is translated he

expression
(all) day.

time, todo
Todo
c.

"the

el dia

trabajado.

worked
a

the
pronoun
so

whole

The

masculine When the article hermoso. todo

singular is used as object of a verb, todo


lo.

meaning
is

erything." "ev-

used

accompanied

by the
Todo Se

neuter
es

Everything
I told him lo sabe. This

is beautiful. knows

lo

dije todo.
Jiombre

everything.
man

Este

everything.

190. used of
a

Impersonal
an

Verbs. pronoun

with

indirect

impersonal verb may be instead object and infinitive,


possible for
of
me

An

clause.
me es

No

posible ir.
how

It is not

to

go.

191.
noun

Note

the

use

noun

to

modify
See
sopa,

another

is avoided

in the

following phrases.
cuchiHo de

55

a.

taza para cafe, coffee-cup. cajon del aparador, sideboard

mesa,

table-knife.
soup-spoon,

cuchara

para

drawer.

VOCABULARY. aceiiuna, olive.


ausentc,
asucar,
m.,

absent.
m.,

agrio, sour.
aparador,
armario,
sideboard.

sugar.

wardrobe,

bookcase, cupboard, clothespress.

bcbida, drink. bistc, m., beefsteak, boca, mouth.

LESSON

XXXIII

121

botella, bottle. cajon, m., drawer. de cerdo, pork. came


came

manera,

manner;

de

"

que,

so

that
,

(with
m.,

subjunctive).
table-cloth. show

mantel,
mevcado,
mosirar,

de

vaca,

beef. condiment.

market.
to

condimento,
convidado,

(R-ch. I).

invited

guest

(plu.

necesario,

necessary.

company).
cordero,
cortar,
to

pataia, potato.

lamb.
cut. m.,

pescado, fish. pimenton, m.,


corridor,
hall.

pepper

(the

corredor, cuchara,

spice).

spoon

(large).

polio, chicken.
queso,

eucharilla, teaspoon.
cuchillo, knife. dulce,
sweet

cheese.
m.,

rosbif, (plu. sweets,


throw.
can-

roast-beef.

dy).
ecliar, to
estante,
pour,
m.,

sal, L, salt. servilleta, napkin.


te,
m.,

tea.
m.,

shelf.

tenedor,
tern era,

fork.

instruction, f., instruction.


ham. jamon, m., limp 10, clean.
mama,
mamma.

veal.
m.,

vinagre,
vino,
EXERCISE
XXXIII.
no

vinegar.

wine.

a.

Hombre,
Vd. mi
hasta
a casa a

me

parece

que

llegara

nunca

la

hora

de

la

comida.

iTiene
Si.
que
me a

tanta

hambre?
acostumbramos

J
a no comer a

En

pais
las

las

seis de
me

aqui hay
la comida, llamaron

esperar

ocho. cinco

Ayer,
y

sabiendo
y

la hora

volvi
ccmer,

las

media,
estaba

cuando

al

fin

hacia
i

dos
que
a no

horas

que

esperando.
llame ?

b.

Por

viniste llamar.
que

cuando

No Me

la oi has

Vd.

cJ^c^*-'.
a es

dicho

quieres aprender
convidados
estara y

poner

la
que
en

mesa. nos

Pues

bien,
a a

esta y
me a es

roche Rosa.

tenemos

preciso
el dia
carne

mi mi

Ella

ocupada
a

todo
comprar

la
y

necesario
es

ir al mercado la mesa, lo
te

ayudes cocina, y polios. Lo


Has visto lo todo

que

quiero

que
veces

pongas
a

mejor

que

puedas.
hallaras
que este

hacerlo
que

varias

Rosa,

enseiiare

donde

necesites.
a

Si

deseas

instrucciones

mientras

ausente,

pideselas
Esta
tenta

Rosa.
mama.

bien

Tratare

de

hacerlo

de

manera

que

este

con-

un

conmigo. hay mantel limpio


Primero,
los
y
vasos

que
y

llevar

todo

esto
en

la cocina. del

Entonces
corredor.
en

busca

ocho
para

servilletas vino
y

el armario
para

Los
este

platos
otro

las

tazas

cafe, hallaras
estan

armario.
las

En

el

cajon
para

del
sopa

aparador
y

los
y

cuchillos, los
las cucharillas.

tenedores,

cucharas

para

servir,

I22

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

En
me

el

estante

volvere Al
c.

hay luego.

sal, pimenton
estara

vinagre.

Me

voy

ahora,

pero

volverse

Vd., todo

listo. Vd.
esta
en

iCuanto
?

tiempo
hace ha

hace

que

esta

escuela

(univerclase?

sidad)

AiCuanto
;Cuantas

tiempo
cuando cuando
en

que

estudiamos

espanol

en

esta

lenguas
no

estudiado ha

Vd. ? Vd.
?

^Cuales
aleman

son? 6

^Desde
;

estudiado

frances?^-?*^
de
no

Desde
entrar

estudiamos
la escuela ";cuanto

espanol

Al

(octubre) pasado,
iCuantos
d.
i Con que que
se

(universidad) en tiempo hacia que


que
entramos
carne en

el

mes

septiembre
habia
diado? estu-

Vd.

minutos
que
se

hace
corta
a

este

edificio?

la

";Con iPara iQue

la llevamos sirven necesita


se son

la boca?

las
para

cucharas?
poner

la

mesa?

iEn
sarios

que

sirve los

la carne? comestibles
. .

":el vino?
que

iCuales
para

le

parecen

Vd.

mas

nece-

la vida?

le gusta mas Vd. ? a ,:Que clase de carne todos? ";Que condimentos empleamos bebidas beben se en iQue Espafia? ^aqui? echa el vino? se iDe donde dulce? mas iCual es el condimento ":el mas necesario? agrio? "jelmas dice en the se iComo espanol: "Please pass

fuerte?

";elmas

salt"?

LESSON

XXXIV.

192. before with


etc. to

Adjectives.
its
noun as or

Position.
names case a

if it

stand adjectivemay quality generally associated An "white

the

noun,

in the

of

snow,"

"black

ink,"

Emphasis

precede its meaning when


la blanca

an figurativeuse may also cause adjective Some noun. adjectives regularly have one when they precede and another they follow.

nieve, pobre muchacho,


ciertas cosas,

white
poor

snow;

una
un

casa

blanca,

white
man

house.

boy;

hombre
una

pobre,
cierta,

poor

erally). (litthing.

certain

things;

cosa

an

assured

LESSON

XXXIV

123

193.

Grande

and the
noun

santo.

Grande,
it
means

"great," follows
Meaning syllablebefore
size.
un una a.

when it

"big," "grand," literally large in


may
noun.

"great,"
a

precedes,
or

and

lose

its final

masculine

feminine

muchacho
gran

grande,
casa,
a

(de)

great

big boy. (remarkable)

house. the
name

Santo,
Saint

male

una

San

used "holy," "blessed," when last its loses syllable. generally santa mujer, a saintly woman. Juan, St. John.

before

of

194. Otro it

Otro,
its

-a,

-os,

-as,

"other"

/'another/' "others.''
Used
as an

is both

pronoun
noun.

and

adjective.
indefinite
or

adjective
be used it precedes.

precedes
it.

The
a

article may of

not

with

Used

with

numeral

adverb

quantity
book.

otro

libro, another

book;

el otro

libro, the

other

another. Trdigame otro. Bring me the others. Trdigame los otros. Bring me I have Tengo otros muchos, otros dos. many el otro the other day. dia,

others, two

others.

194

A. and

Cada,
as an a

"each," "every."

Cada
noun.

is

invariable

in

form,

associated
cada
a.

with
casa,

adjective precedes its numerical expression.


house cada
de
; cada

It is often

each
pronoun

dos

casas,

every
uno

two
or

houses. cual. the

As

a una con

is associated

with

Cada
Hable of the

{cual)
cada

cual

muchachas, each one (uno) de los discipulos.

las

of

girls.
with
each

I talked

pupils.

195.
pero
to
a

Sino,
introduce

"if
a

not," "but."

Sino

is used that

instead

of

with
No but
on a.

positive statement preceding negative one.


pobre, sino
contrary
with
sino

is contrasted

es

al contrario he is and

es

bastante

rico.

He

is not

poor,

the
No

quite wealthy.
a

sino dies
0

verb

may

mean

"only"

or

"except."
madre. I

No No have
no

tengo tengo
money

diner

sino
ten

pesetas. dies
pesetas

I have

but
que

(only)
me

ten

pesetas.
me.

pesetas
which

did
gave

mi

except

mother

124

SPiVNISH

GRAMMAR

196.
"to

Dar

is often

used

in

idioms

with

the

meaning

strike."
Est
Le No
an

dando dado
con

las
ya

dos.

It is

striking
him

two.

gHan
di
me

las once? I

Has don't

it struck feel like

eleven with it. the

yet?
umbrella. notion

el paraguas. da la gana.

I struck

(Lit., The

doesn't

strike

me.) The
a

197.

Aun.

adverb

aun

is

equivalent
and
an

to

todavia,
with and it
means
a

meaning

'"still" in

positive sentence,
a

"yet"
accent

negative. When pronounced as


"even."
Tenemos
Aun Aun
aim

it follows
two

verb As

it bears
a

is

syllables.

conjunction

tenemos
no

tiempo.H } w "We tiempoA


venido.
a

"u t stl11 have


,

,-

timecome.

ha if

He
aun

has

not

yet
a

Llegaremos
time,
even we

tiempo,
go
on

yendo

pie.

We

shall

get

there

on

foot.

198.
d ver,

Idiomatic.
see.

let's
ganas,

por feel

eso,

on

that

account.

tener

to

like.

jde
de de ocho
care.

que
otra esta

manera?
manera,
manera,
a a

in what in another in this

way?
way. way.

de de No No

buena mala

gana, gana,

gladly. unwillingly.
matter.

me

No import a. importa.
me me. on

dias,

week.

I don't

quince dias,
the
tener

fortnight.
to

Lo
por

mismo
same

da. this

It's all

puesto,
una a

have al

on.

to

cchar
account.

carta

correo,

to

esto,

"mail"

letter.

VOCABULARY. apurarse,
to

be

worried,

tressed. cuniplcafws, m., disempezar

(d),
start

automozil, buzon, m.,


cama,

m.,

automobile.

birthday. mence, begin, com(R-ch. I, 507 d),


to

letter-box.

bed.

Enrique, Henry. enviar, to send


estanco,

(see 510).

campo,

country,

field.

tobacco-store.

cantidad, f., amount, quantity. jcaramba! (exclamation).


cartero, letter-carrier.
ioo
=

centimo,
cerrar,
to

peseta,

extranjero, foreign. (por), to congratulate felicitar (on). fehz, happy, fortunate.


gana,
to

shut

(R-ch. I).

inclination.
to

cortes, polite.
correo,

importar,
bill.

be
to

of make

importance,
a

mail. post-office, account,

matter,

ence. differ-

cuenta,

LESSON

XXXIV

125

importe, etc.).
invitar

m.,

amount

(of

bill,

pobre, poor. postal, postal.

(a),

to

invite
cause;

(to).
con
"

motivo,

motive,

de,

querido, dear. rico, rich.


sello, stamp. sastre, tailor. sobre,
m.,

concerning, on. nada, adv., (not)


peor,
worse,

at

all.

worst.

envelope,

wrapper.

EXERCISE
a.
en

XXXIV.

\ Levantese,

hombre

";Va Vd.

quedar

todo

el

santo

dia

la cama?

Dejeme
No
nos es

Carlos. temprano
a

Aun

es

temprano. tarde
en

sino
pasar
con

bastante el dia

; y
casa

Vd.
de

sabe
campo

bien de

que
su

Juan tio,
y

ha

invitado
a

la

que

viene

buscarnos ! ir. la

el automovil.
por

Si, ; caramba
tengo^ganas
de

Lo

olvidaba

complete
para sol
ver

Verdaderamente
si hace
en

no

Abra
ventana

la ventana
y

buen

tiempo.
Aun

(Carlos
en

abre muchos
es

el

entra
con

abundancia.

el

verano

espanoles
no

duermen

las ventanas

cerradas.)
pero

El
no

dia

magnifico
mi
me

quiere ir, a
Si quiero.
antes.

(Hace un importa.
le

tiempo
Iremos
no,
aun

magnifico),
otro

si Vd.

dia.
suefio.
para

Cuando

dije

que

tenia el agua

Me
mi

visto
y

cuanto

Digale

Rosa

que

prepare

bano,

que

traiga
Todavia

el chocolate.
no;

";Han

traido Vd.

el dos

periodico?
cartas y

pero

aqui
y

tiene

El
carta
con

cartero

las

ha azul

traido

ahora

mismo.

;De

tarjeta quien viene


una

tal. posesta

el sobre mi
que

el sello

extranjero?
desde
ver

De

pobre
no se

primo.
encuentre

Esta

enfermo
A

hace
que

Espero
carta y

peor.

lo

dice.

algun tiempo. (Abre la


cada

la

lee).

Querido
dia
me

Enrique;
mejor
carta
...

Voy
sera

empezar

mi

carta

diciendole

que

siento
otra

Esta
dias

de de

mi
su

sastre, quien
cuenta.

me no es

escribe nada

cada
cortes.

dos

pidiendome
No
se

el por

importe
eso.

Y
este

apure

Estoy
que

rico

en

de

buena

gana

la cantidad

le hace

momento, y le prestare falta. ^De quien es la tarjeta?

De

mi

sobrina

Luisa, quien
su

me

felicita

por

(con

motivo

de)

mi

cumpleanos.
I Cuando

fue

cumpleanos?
lo sabia. Creo

Ayer.
j Hombre

no

Que
tener

Vd.

los

tenga
para

siempre

felices.
a

Muchas

gracias.

tiempo

responder

estas

126

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

cartas

antes

que

llegue Juan. ninguno


da. sino

";Tiene Vd.
de cinco las
cartas

sellos

de

correo

de

quince

centimos No

tengo
mismo

centimos.
.

Lo
calle de b.

Echaremos

al

correo

al

pasar

por

la

Carretas.
escribir
una

de
a

de Despues quince centimos

carta

ponemos

en

el sobre de

un

selio

si deseamos del

enviarla

de los

cualquier
poner
un

otro

punto
de

pais.
6

Para

algun punto Espafia paises extranjeros hay


Los
sellos
se

que
en

sello los

veinticinco
como en

centimos.

compran
correos.

Espafia
los de
c.

en

estancos,

aqui,
donde
para
a

en

la

oficina
echar al
correo.

de las

En
y

estancos

hay
sacan

buzones los
a

podemos
llevarlas

cartas,

donde

las

carteros

iQuien
van

viene
a a

despertarle
el dia?
a

Enrique?
y
a

I Donde

pasar

iQuien
";De
que cuya

viene
manera casa

buscar

Enrique
van
van

Carlos?

(modo)
de
que campo

al
a

campo?
pasar

iEn
i Sabe

el dia? duermen
con

Vd.

por

los

espanoles
frio de la

las

ventanas

cerradas?

Porque ":Quien ":Que iDe iQue iCuantas


le

temen
nos

el viento
trae

noche.

las de le

cartas? las

trae

ademas
cartas
eran

cartas?
cartero
a

trajo el
las

Enrique?

quienes

cartas?
a

pidio el
a

sastre

Enrique?
el
que

";Le escribe

menudo le ha
a

el sastre?

no iPor que le dijo iQuien

pagado

joven?
no se

Enrique
le presta
comprar

apurase

con

motivo

de

la

cuenta

?
";Cuanto

dinero

Carlos
los

su

amigo?
de correo?
una

I Donde

podemos
es

sellos
en

"iDe
ipara

cuanto

el

sello de la

que
nuestro

ponemos

carta

para

Espafia? ide

cualquier punto

pais?
de
correos

iEn
Madrid?

que

calle

esta

oficina

de

esta

ciudad?

iQuien iCuando
I Cuanto

hizo
es

el

traje
de

que
su

Vd.

tiene

puesto?
de
un

el dia
un

cumpleanos
sastre

Vd.

pide
modo
empezo

buen

por
cartas

^De iHa

que

enviamos

las
a

de

traje? un gaban? ""por pueblo a (para) otro? un


dentro

,;Cuando
dado

Vd.

estudiar

espanol?
dara

ya

la una?

iQue

hora

de pocos

minutos?

128

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Subjunctives. clauses expressive of uncertainty alternative There are many contain two or indefiniteness,which subjunctives. The first may generallybe explained as a sort of imperative, the The whole second an as imperative or an adjectiveclause. alternative adverb clause expression is an modifying the
201.
two

Adverbial

Clauses

with

verb

of the main

clause.

Digan
Llueva
not, that
we

lo que
go
to

quieran, me
-morrow.

ire mafiana.

Let

them Whether

say

what

they
or

will, I shall
6 shall
que,

no

llucva, llegaremos
on

tiempo.

it rain

arrive

time. 6
no

lloviese,llegariamos a tiempo. He it rained on not. we time, whether or Cueste lo que costare (cueste), lo neeesito y lo comprare. it may, I need it and I shall buy it. what ricos 6 sean Sean Be they rich or pobres, etc. (be they) Dijo
should arrive
etc.

lloviese

said

Cost

poor,

202. the forces

Impersonal
of
nature
are

Verbs.

Verbs

that and

describe

acts

of

ing consequently lackof their in most commonly found only in the infinitive, the third and present and past participles, are singular of each tense. : Among the commonest person "to snow," (R-ch. I), Hover, "to rain/' (R-ch. I), nevar, helar, "to freeze," (R-ch. I), relampaguear, "to lighten," "to thunder," tronar, (R-ch. I), anochecer, "to become "to dawn," "to become night," (see 513), and amanecer, morning" (see 513).

impersonal forms. They are

203.

Collective
verb in the
their

Nouns.

Collective

nouns

generally
In
summer

take
rich

singular.
rica
va a

En

el verano,
go
to

la gente

su

casa

de

campo.

folks

country

houses.

204. exclamations is

Indefinite

Article

omitted
a

in

exclamations.

In

of the type "What


tan
or

pretty flower !" the article


before
child!

omitted, and
/Que
niha
mas

mas

is inserted
What What
a

the

adjective.

bonita!

pretty

jQue gente

tan

simpdtica!

charming

people!

LESSON

XXXV

T29

205.
see

Andar,
525.

"to

go," "move,"
is used is

"travel." of
ir when

For
no

tion conjugadefinite

Andar

instead
or

object
El
Los
Andar

or

destination
anda
con

expressed
velocidad.

implied.
train
go
to
some

tren

mucha

The

travels

very

fast.

omnibus
a

andan To

pie.

walk

despacio. (as opposed

Omnibuses

slowly.
other
means

of

locomotion).

206.
tardar
en,

Idiomatic.
to

be

long,
at

to

take

caballo,

on

horseback. the
open
to

long.
_

al de

fresco,
nn a

in

air.
a

principios
of mediados middle of
de

julio, July.
enero,

the

ginning be-

dar

paseo,

take

walk

(or
about the dar
una

ride).
vuelta,
to

de

take

turn

January.
marzo,

(short
toward the

walk).

fines
end of

March.

VOCABULARY.

alguno
other.

que

otro,

some
...

or

mar,

m.,

sea.

montaha,
air. shower.

mountain.

aire,

m.,

aguaccro,

drool, m., tree. below. bajo, prep., banos, bathing resort bianco, white. caballo, horse.

black, negro. negro, nieve, f., snow. nube, f., cloud. objeto, object.

(plu.).

paraguas,

m., to

umbrella take
a

pas

ear

se,

walk

(or

ride).
paseo,
a

Castilla, Castile.
ccro,
zero. vez en

walk
stone.

(or

ride).

piedra,
cnando,
postpone,
from time
to

de

puro,
raro,

pure.
rare.

time.

diferir,
ch.

to

defer

(R-

sin

II).
air,

estio, mid-summer. fresco, fresh, cool, fresh f., people, folks. gente, grado, degree, grade. hacienda, farm, estate.
hielo, ice, frost.

nevertheless. embargo, sociedad, f., society. to sorprender, surprise. to tardar, delay.

temperatnra,

temperature.

tempeslad,
termometro,

f!,thunder-storm.
thermometer.

lluvla, rain. llnvioso, rainy.


llenar,
to

tierra, earth, land, country. f., velocity, speed. velocidad, seller. vcndedor,

fill.

I30

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE
a.
:

XXXV. anda
este

Con

cuanta

velocidad

automovil

(iQue

de

prisa, etc.) iLe gusta? ha Siempre me de cualquier modo,


a

gustado
pero

andar todo

de
en

prisa,

me

gusta

pasearme

sobre

automovil.

";Cuanto hace
en

la hacienda
Hace

de

su

tio ? distancia ?
se

bastante
puro,
y

pero

no

tardaremos

llegar.
del
este

j Que

aire

mas

verdad

Si,
I Sabe
"

sin

Vd.

la ciudad en embargo ver me sorprende no que

estaran
mas

muriendo
en

calor. ? los

arboles
y

campo
no

En
Mire

Castilla de
vez

hay sino
tener

Vd.

hay mas que cuando, 6 en las aquella nube negra.


no en

tierra

piedras.
altas.
parece

Arboles

montarias
"

No

le

que

vamos

lluvia?

Es
agosto.
Pero
cuarto

posible.

Las
que
no

tempestades
sea mas

no un

son

raras

mediados
pronto dentro

de
pase.

Espero
llueva de 6 hora todos 6
sea en a

que

aguacero y

que

no,

tenemos

paraguas,

llegaremos

de

un

la hacienda. los la tarde, espanoles les gusta pasearse por andar de Los que no otra pueden manera de el sol en tomar es objeto de este paseo
en sea

b.
a

caballo
a

coche.

andan invierno

pie.
y

El

el

el
en

fresco

el

verano,

de

saludar hasta
se

los

conocidos.

Claro
cer.

es

que esta

el estio las

difieren
y y

hora de
agua

aceras

el paseo los cafes bebidas


que

despues del anochede

llenan

gente,
mucho sociedad
que

los
que

vendedores
hacer

fresca

de

heladas la lo
son su

tienen alta
pero
casa mar.

entonces.

Las

familias

componen
que
no

de

Madrid,

las familias
a

ricas, y muchas

quieren
campo

parecerlo, salen alguno que para


la ciudad dinero.
c.
a

principios de
de los

junio

para

de

6
a mas

otro

muchos

bafios
no

de

Se

vuelven

fines

de

septiembre 6 cuando

tengan

(tuvieren)

prefiere Vd. pasearse? (manera) iDe que modo de Castilla? sorprende en el campo iQue nos iQue hay alii si no hay arboles? los arboles pues? iDonde se encuentran tenemos tempestades aqui? iEn que meses
I

Tenemos

tempestades
en

en

el

mes

de

diciembre?

ique

tenemos

pues? iNieva
"Ha

abril?
mucho

";que
este

hace

pues?
";esta lloviendo ahora?

llovido

afio?

illovera

hoy?

ihelo anoche? ihabra nieve? afio? hielo el este ";Es caro

iesta

nevando?

LESSON

XXXVI

131

iLe iQue
cero?

parece

que

el

hielo indica
sobre la

debe

ser

barato
?

en

temperatura
el

el termometro
cero?

Espafia? grados bajo ^cuantos


ide
una

icuantos

grados
color de

iCual
que
trae

es

nieve?

";del pizarron?

nube

lluvia?

iAndan
;

despacio los
van mas a

trenes

americanos?
los

donde

fines de

Mayo

madrilefios
los

ricos?

iAndan
j Agua

de !

f resca

prisa los caballos que la quiere ? 1 Quien

automoviles?

LESSON

XXXVI.

SYNOPSIS.

ARTICLE

"

indefinite,

omitted

in

certain

exclamations

(204)
(193)

ADJECTIVE"
NOUN PRONOUN

(a) position (192) (b) loss of final syllable of grande collective,


"

and

santo

"

agreement

(203) (a)
(b)

(1)

personal

subject
position
ethical

forms
of

nos

and

vos

(c) (2)
VERB
"

form object dative (199 c)


otro

(199 a) (199 b)

indefinite,
use

todo

(189),

(194),

cada

(194 A)

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

reciprocal
"

of with

reflexive

(200)

impersonal, subjunctive
hacer andar cir dar
aun

indirect
of

object
natural

(190)
phenomena (adverb (202) clauses), (201)

descriptive
in

alternative

expressions

in

time

expressions 525)
(196)

(187)

(205, (188,
in

536)

idioms

ADVERB" MISCELLANEOUS"

(197)
idiomatic

(198,
instead

206)
of
nouns as

phrases

modifiers

(191)

EXERCISE
Turn peseta;

XXXVI. hundred
costs
me a 2.

Spanish. consequently if
into
pay
a

1. a

There
of

are

centimos peseta

in and
me

a a a

bottle

wine

half, couple helps


there

hundred
eggs

and and
a

fifty centimos
cup

for God the

it.

Bring
rrlan

of

fried

of

tea.

3.

helps the
book-case
to
me.

who hall like send will

himself.
is
a

4.

On

the

upper Ask

shelf
Rosa
to
or

of

in
5.

the
I
to

reading book.
whether

bring it
boiled. Castile.

potatoes,
this

(be
to
a

they)
small

fried
town

6.

wish

postal

card

in

How

much

I32

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

it

cost

me? 8. Last
more

7.

This

dish
we

is dined
10.

composed
in Have that
one

of
open

sugar,

butter,
9.
seen

eggs

and

milk. somewhat
11.

night

the

air.
never no

Walk the

(go)
sea? in the

slowly.
me was corner

you
were
a

What
12.

surprised
On
to every

there finds

automobiles
13.

streets.
man

letter-box.
14.

Every
all last

ought
15. 16.

know have

how
not

to

boil

potatoes.

It the
two

snowed
most

week.

bought
and
to

anything
St.

except
were

necessary

things.
17. Does

St.
matter

Joseph
much

John
18. of

very

holy
is much
not
a

men.

it
19.

you?
minutes

Mr. nine.
21.

Fernandez
20.

great
time

doctor. do in about
24. you

It

lacks
to
22.

twenty
in

How
were

intend

spend
A

the

country?
of
23.
my

They
me

long
him

returning.
the end asked 25. these the

friend

mine What

invited
a

to

visit

of
me

February.
to

pretty
until

foreign
the is
to

stamp.
of
you

She

postpone

departure
instructions

middle teach rich ! 28.

December.
to

The

object
well. 26.
at not

of

these In

do

things
27.

midsummer What bills time freeze


a so

all black often.

the cloud
29.

people
tunately Forfish

leave

city.
all

Look
do
ate.

the send

sky.
their

tailors I
ever

This
it I

is the
too.

worst

30.

Every
will
on or

that

it thunders
32.

lightens
did
not
or

31.

Do

you

think I
was

it

to-night?
road
not
on

know
not.
see

whether
33.

{si)

the not, is
so

right
we

to

the be

post-office
34.

Whether

it freeze 35.
you

shall
snow

cold. those these and


as

Let's

that

calendar.

There be

always
kind
as no

mountains

yonder.
3'j. there it make
a

36.
would

Will do it

to

mail

packages?
you

willingly
near

but

I have where

stamps,
I
can

know,
Does
we

is

no

tobacco-store difference
or

here
you

buy
with
you
very

them.

38.

any

to

whether 39.

(que
have is door
not

subjunctive)
your

take
40.

ride
me

go

to

walk? fork.
at

Why
one

best

hat
41.

on? The

Bring
have
you

another been

This
the

clean. minutes. it? had be time.


42.

guests
don't

waiting
and slice
44.
we see

outer

for
open

five

Why May
absent
ones.

go

down

(a
of

with

infinitive)
43.

give
for 45. him

you
a

another

ham? all

My
from

mother

been

fortnight.

May
each
tree.

your

birthdays
time thermometer and
to

happy 46.
indicates
tierra
49.

Nevertheless sit down of under frost. but here

other 47. words


mean

saw

the

The

eight

degrees
each have

48. they
it has do

The
not

pais, campo
the
once. same

resemble

other,
been

thing.

Since

we

not

rained

LESSON

XXXVII

133

LESSON

XXXVII.

there is a complete Theoretically forms sist conpassive conjugation of the verb (see 503), whose the past and forms of the auxiliary ser of the various of the. verb to be conjugated. The participle past participle is inflected with the subject in like an adjective to agree gender and number. 207. Passive Voice.

Soy
Hemos

querido.
sido ninas After
son

am

loved. We have been

olvidados.

Las
a.

castigadas. The

girls are

forgotten. punished. by por, physical


are

be it may in character. but

passive verb, "by" is generally expressed is not expressed by de if the action described
a

Los
Hemos

ninos sido
our

son

castigados
de

por
nuestros

el

maestro.

The
We

children have

punished by the teacher.


olvidados friends.

amigos.

been

gotten for-

by
208.

Passive

Absolute

Construction.

An

inflected

past

is often or participleagreeing with a noun pronoun found taking the place of a passive verb introduced by a conjunction (after,when, since, etc). temporal or concessive constructions Such stand first in the sentence. past participle
Hecho
esio.

When
los

this As

had

been the
as

done.
lesson

Aprendida
Facturados

la leccion. baules.

After
soon

had
trunks

been had

learned. been

the

checked.

tion Participle. In a construcis used similar to the passive, estar as auxiliary very inflected past participle. This is not instead of ser, with an not true act a an passive, since it expresses, performed, but in which the condition something (somebody) is found.

209.

Estar

with

the

Past

Esta

habitacion
a

estd

mal

calentada.

This

room

is poorly

heated

(i.e.,in
a.

poorly
the
es

heated

condition).
true por act

Compare
habitacion

following
calentada
laid
on

passive.
la of

La

chimenea.

The

room

is

heated

by

fireplace.

(Stress

is

the

heating.)

134

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

210.

Reflexive

Substitute

for

the

Passive.

The

true

If passive is really little used except in the past tenses. flexive instead, an active verb, or a repossible the Spaniard uses The substitute. stitute simplest type of this reflexive subis that already mentioned in 79 b. When that which is acted of the the upon
El

upon

is

an

inanimate agrees
se,

object,it subject is

becomes

the

subject

verb, which
itself.

with the

it in number.

reflexive

object
se

By the use of represented as acting


spoken in Spain. Many languages are
is

espanol
in

habla
se

en

Espana.
en

Spanish
Euro pa.

Muehas

lengaas

hablan

spoken
a.

Europe.
this

the

the

substitute (so-called because personal reflexive reflexive verb has an be exexpressed subject), the agent may pressed with the true as passive. El espanol se habla Spanish is spoken by por los espanoles. Spaniards.
With

211.

Impersonal
an

Reflexive

Substitute

for

the

sive. Pas-

When
it is made the

animate indirect

always singular and


be may
Se
No
a noun or a

being is represented as acted upon, object of the reflexive verb, which is impersonal. The indirect object may
With this construction
no

pronoun.

agent

be
me
se

expressed.
dice.
te
cree. a

am

told.
are

(It tells itself


not

to

me.)

You los Vd.

believed. children
were

Se Se
and
your

castigo
biisca
a

ninos.
y
a

The

punished.
are

su

hermano.

They

looking

for

you

brother.
It
_

Remark. ways in Fui Me

is

often
muy
muy

possible
bien.
bien.

to

express

an

English

passive

in

three

Spanish.
tratado
trataron
me

)
"
"

was

very

well

treated.

Se

trtto

muy

bien.

or

may

Dejar. Already used in the sense "to allow,''dejar, when followed by de "to leave off," or "to fail to." mean
No
your

212.

of and
an

"to leave,"
infinitive

dejar c de

seguir

sus

instrucciones.
que

I shall
ausente.

not

fail to Don't

low folleave

instructions.
este

off

deje Vd. de estudiar mientras awav. studying while I am


No

I36

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

(a title). doctor, Doctor to doler, ache, pain, hurt, (RI). dolor, ache, pain, grief durante, prep., during.
ch.

limb. mlembro, member, oido, hearing (the sense). peligro, danger. perder, to lose (R-ch. I). pulso, pulse.

enccndido,
flushed. enicro,

inflamed,

heated,

rccado,
receta,

message.

entire, whole.
stomach.

estomago,

receipt, prescription. rcmedio, remedy. resfriado, a cold.


resultado, result,
to outcome.

estornudar, to sneeze. cxccsivo, excessive, extreme. horrible, terrible, horrible. mandar, marido,

lengua, tongue. to send, command.


husband. fear.

mledo,

save. salvar, sufrir, to suffer, to bear. telefono, telephone. telefonar, to telephone. tos, f., cough. toser, to cough.

EXERCISE
a.

XXXVII. de Manuela recado al de


me

(Da.
he

Manuela
a

es

el Da.
un

ama

una

casa

huespedes.)
siento diciendo
muy que

La Desearia
no

llamado
que
se

Vd.

porque

malo.

mandase
lo

despacho

hoy

podre
Se
Me

ir.
en

Se

agradecere iQue

infinite.
tiene

hara duele

seguida.
excesivamente.
a

Vd. ?

":Le duele
capa,
y antes

la

cabeza? de

Ayer
y
creo

sali sin
que
con me

llegar cogido
miemHe

a un

la oficina

empezo

Hover,

constipe (que
en

he los

resfriado).
y

Me

acoste y

anoche

dolores

todos la

bros,

he casi

tosido toda la
que

estornudado noche le sin

mucho dormir.

durante

noche.

pasado
I No

quiere
No

traiga algo caliente, apetito. ";Vive


si Vd. el Doctor minutos D. fuerte desea

una

taza

de

te

de

caldo?

Gracias.

tengo

cerca

de

aqui algun
un

medico? llamare

Ninguno
por
en

bueno;
tardara

pero

consultar
y

medico, siempre
Vd. !
no

telefeno
casa en no

al nuestro, diez

Fernandez,
en

si estuviere

(esta)
hace
es sus

llegar, pues
tiene

visitas

automovil. solamente de

Pero
un

Vd.
me

tendra acuerdo

Jose, eso que constipado.


de mi
estuvo entero

nada. bien

\ Hombre

j Que

la ultima Durante

enfermedad
un

pobre
Los

marido. del

Aquello
corazon

si fue
y

horrible.

aho

enfermo

de mejores la ciudad de salvarle, y se trataron le dio muchos remedios, pero todo sin resultado. Hacia Se murio el afio pasado. mucho tiempo habia casi oido. el Lo peor perdido es ya completo que por que el pobre tenia tanto miedo de morir.

del

estomago.

Sufrio

agudos

dolores.

medicos

Pero

ique

estoy

haciendo?

Si

no

dejo

de

hablar

de

enferme-

LESSON

XXXVII

137

dades
y

va

Vd.

ponerse

peor.

Voy

corriendo

telefonar

al

despacho

al

medico.

(El
I
treme

medico
le la
que
no

entra

despues
caballero? Bastante
el
cosa

de

un

rato.)
tomarle Vd.
100

Que
Vd.

pasa,

Dejeme
sucia.

el
la

pulso.
cara

Mues-

lengua.
indica
sera

tiene

encendida. tiene
en un

A
tura,

ver

lo pero

termometro.

grados.

Vd.
cama,

calenpar
receta

de Mande

cuidado. Vd.
una

Guardando

de
en

dias

se

pone y

bueno. dele al
pero

Sra.

ama,

preparar

esta tres

la'botica,
debe
para b.
comer

enfermo dele
esta

cucharadita cuando Hasta


al

cada

horas.
por

No tarde

hoy,
como

agua

pida.
entonces, ama?

Vuelvo
pues.

la

ver

lo ha
se causa

pasando.
D.

1 Para

que

llamado siente del


el

Jose

,;Desde

cuando fue la

malo?

";Cual iQue ":D6nde


I Como
;

constipado
ama?

que

ha

cogido?

quiere
le ha
que
va no

traerle duele
a

D.
la

Jose?
noche
tomar
en

pasado
quiere
Manuela

? nada?

Por

Se

Da.

seguida

telefonar

al

despacho?

,:que

hace

pues?

iQue
^;De
I Cree

le
que

recuerda murio
su

la

enfermedad

de

su

marido?

marido?
sea

Vd.

que

le

interesante de
la

D. sefiora?

Jose

oir

hablar

de

las

enfermedades
I I

del ella hace

marido
mucho
en

buena de
entra

Tarda

dejar
cuando
el
en

hablar? ?
que

"

Que

el

medico tendra tardara

;Cuanto
I Cuantos

tiempo
dias
se

enfermo
ponerse

guardar
? medicos?
a

cama?

bueno de
que

;D6nde
I Como i Como
;

preparan llaman llama la los

las

recetas

los
curan

se se

hombres

los

enfermos

enfermedad

de

D.

Jose?

Tiene

miedo
peor

de
manana

morir?
que le

":Estara
;

hoy?
recado
a su

Quiere

Vd.

que

de
lo

algun
que

amigo
resfriado? 6
no me

cuando

le

vea?

r;Se
I No

acuerda
me

Vd.

de 6

quiere
el

decir

oye

Vd.,

ha

perdido

oido,

entiende?

138

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON

XXXVIII.

VOCABULARY. alma,
soul.

anterior, fore, anterior. arteria, artery. barba, chfn, beard. brazo, arm. bigote, m., moustache.
calvo, bald. cerebro, brain.

higado, liver. hueso, bone. humano, human. inferior, lower,


labio, lip.
manco,

inferior.

intestinos, intestines.
one-armed.

medula
person. person.
mover

ciego, blind, blind cojo, lame, lame


comun,
common.

contener,

to

contain

(see 543).

mudo, musculo, muscle. nariz, f., nose.

spinal,spinal-cord. (R-ch. I). (se), to move silent. dumb, mute,


c

crdnec, skull.

cuello, collar, neck.


cuerpo, body. cutis,m., skin. debit,weak. dedo, finger.
dedo dedo dedo

olfato, smell oreja, ear.


organo, organ.

(sense of).

anular, ring-finger.
del del

middle finger. corazon, pie, toe. dedo indice, index finger. dedo menique, little finger. dedo pulgar, thumb. dedo pulgar del pie, big toe. diente, m., tooth. to digerir, digest (R-ch. II). encarnado, red. ders). espalda, back (in plu., shoul-

palma, palm. pecho, breast, chest. pelo, hair. pierna, leg. planta, plant, sole. posterior, hinder, rear, back. pulmones, lungs. fist, hand-writing. puno, respiracion, f., breathing. respirar, to breathe.
sangre,

f., blood.

sentido, sense. sordo, deaf, dull.


tacto, feeling (sense of). (of body or tronco, trunk tuerto, one-eyed.
uso,
vena,
use.

tree).

espinazo, spfnal frente, f.,forehead.


garganta,
throat.

column.

vein. stomach.

gordo,

fat,
taste

stout.

vientre, belly,
vital, vital.
XXXVIII.

(the sense). gusto, habla, speech.


EXERCISE

r;En

que
se

consiste llaman brazos

iComo

la mayor parte del cuerpo del las partes principales tenemos?

humano?

cuerpo?

,;Cuantos
This

lesson

may

be

omitted

if desired.

LESSON

XXXVIII

139

iComo iCuales iComo


cerrada?

se son se

llaman
los

los
organos

miembros vitales

con

que

andamos?

principales?
del

llama

la

parte
de el

exterior
la
tronco

cuerpo?
";la parte

";la
inferior

mano

":la parte

interior
esta entre

mano?
y

del
que

pie?
contiene
i

ila parte
la

que

la
que

cabeza? contiene
de

ila
el

parte

medula de

espinal?
la cara?

"jla parte
";la parte ";la parte

cerebro?

la

parte

superior
del
y

inferior

la

cara?

";la ":la

parte

anterior anterior Cual


t es

tronco?
del

posterior

del

tronco?

parte

superior
nombre cubre

tronco?

el

del el

pelo

que

cubre

la

cabeza

1 que

cubre

la

barba?

;que
que esta

labio la

superior?
cabeza?
que

":De
i Como

cubierta al nunca?
un no

llamamos ha tiene bien?


es un

hombre

ha

perdido
que
no no

el

uso

de sino

los

ojos,

que que

no

visto

,jal hombre
brazo? tiene mudo? el
uso

tiene
oye

un.ojo? ^al
que

,;al
no

solamente

"jal
de i'un

que

bien?

anda

";al

que

la

lengua?
";un

iQue
tuerto?
i I

cojo?

iun

sordo?

manco?

"un

iun

ciego?
se

Como Para ?

puede
sirven

conocer

al

hombre

fuerte?

que

los

pulmones?

^los labios

la

lengua?

;los

miisculos

iPor
I Cual

donde
es

corre

la de cinco

sangre?
la
sangre ?

el
son

color
los

^Cuales iTenemos ^Cuales ";Cual


olf ato
?
es

sentidos? comun? de la la vista?

todos
son

sentido
organos

los organo

":del oido?
?

"idel tacto?

el

de

habla

(palabra)

idel

gusto?

;del

iCon
I Para
;

cual
que

de

los el
las

organos

digerimos
? vitales?

lo

"

que

comemos

sirve

cerebro

Donde donde hace

estan

partes
la

iDe
;

viene Vd.
el

voz? de mencionar
los

Me ?

favor

nombres

de

los

cinco

dedos
I

Como

se

llaman
y

los

huesos

de
y

la

boca
su

"rEs gordo
,;C6mo
Y el
se

fuerte

debil

delgado

hermano

de

Vd.

llama
"

esto? esta?

alma,

donde

i-10

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON

XXXIX.

216. article is

Omission
more

of

Indefinite in

Article. than the

The

indefinite nite indefi-

definite It is

meaning
in
note

English

article. of
a

consequently
where should rule
a a

omitted

general
The
to

nature,

English
such
cover

in many expressions the article would be


as

used.

student make
to to
a

omissions,
all
cases.

possible it is im-

which

will

tener
iener

barb a,

have have

beard.
beau.
to

hacerse doctor. buscar


to mar

medico,
casa, casa, to to

to

become for
a

novio,
para
a

estudiar
for
estar

abogado,
be
on

study
a

look take

house.

lawyer.

house.

de

visita,to

visit.

217. and other

Verbs verbs

in in

-uir.

For
see

the

conjugation

of

concluir

-uir,

523.

218. and

Concluir,
in
so means

"to far

conclude,'' is
as

synonym

of

acabar

terminar,

it

means

minate/' "ter"to end/' "'finish,''

It also
is decidir
a.

"to in the

decide," although "to decide


concluir past reflexively, all has

to,"
the "to

Used

passive meanings
have
He
we

"to
end."
Vd.f

be

gone,"

"to

be

all

over,"

come

to

an

iHa
should

concluido concluido
not

Are

you

through?
hacerlo. bread I have concluded that

que

no

debemos

do

it. el pan.

Se

ha

concluido

The

is all gone.

219. of
mas

Mayor
and

and pequeno, When

menor

grande

pequeno.

irregular comparatives and equivalent to mas grande and "older" applied to persons they mean
are

the

and

"younger."
Juan
Maria
a. es es

mayor
menor

que
que

Maria. Juan.
mayor

John Mary
and

is older is younger
menor

than

Mary.
than

John.
mayor

The

superlatives of

are

el

and

el

menor.

]y",ssox

xxxix

141

Juan children.
Juan

es

el

menor

de

mis
los

hijos. John
John
is the

is the elder

youngest
of

of

my

es

el mayor

de

dos.

the

two.

are

the

of

Joven, "young," and Synonyms. viejo, "old/' or old, without generally applied to what is reallyyoung "old" idea of comparison. in the sense Antiguo means "former," "of long standing," or "antique."
220.
Un Un Un
h ombre

libro

joven; viejo; an
companero

young

man.

old

book. mio
;
an

antiguo
The

old

chum

of

mine.

before used correlatives, comparatives, are expressed by cuanto (-a, -os, -as) tanto (-a, -os, -as).
. . . .

221.

.the.

These

Cuantos
I

mas more mas

iibros
I want. gam,

ten go,

tantos

mas

deseo. The

The

more

books the

have, the
Cuanto he

tanto

menos

gasta.

more

he

earns

less

spends.
VOCABULARY.

lawyer. (of), aficionado (a), fond (about). Alejandro, Alexander.


abogado,
A

en thusiastic en-

Un, in short.
to

cquivocarsc,

be Never

mistaken in my choose

(sec
life!

5"7)\
/En
mi vidal
to

n ion io, Anthony. Ana, Anna. anteojos, (plu.) eyeglasses. arruinar, to ruin, spoil.

pick, 508). especial, especial.


escoger,
e

(sec

calce
casar,
casarse

tines,hose.
to

(transitive). marry {con), to marry. catedrdtko, professor.


ciencia, science.
contestar

study. to imagine. Vd.l /Figurese Just imagine. fuera de, except, excepting.
s

studio

figurarse,

ganar,

to

gain, win,
a

earn.

Granada,
to
answer.

city
become

in

southern

(d),
and

Spain.
Jiacerse,
a

conque,

so.

to

(/.e.,

to

Cordoba,
southern
cuanto
as
cur

Cordova,

city

in

Spain. (relative),
as,

how

much,

oneself). idioma, m.. language. Id pic, m., pencil.

make

of

much
m.,

all that.

listo,bright,
used with

smart,

clever

(when

a,

chico, -a, girl.


dcdicarse

parish priest. small (person), (a),


m.,

ser).

boy,

mathematics. matemdtica, niedicina, medicine.


mesa

to

devote

oneself

de

escribir, writing
be born

table.

(to). dcntista,

desk. dentist.
nacer, to

(see 513,548).

142

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

novio, beau, fiance, bridegroom. novia, sweetheart, fiancee, bride. obedecer (d), to obey (see 513). {en), to busy oneself. ocuparse
papel, m., paper. papel secante, blotting-paper.

soltero,

-a,

unmarried

person.

tinta, ink.

tintcro, inkstand. si lo es! /Vaya


he is !

should widow.

say

viiido, -a, widower,


vice
versa,

profesion, f., profession.


regreso,
return.

vice

versa.

;Ya
EXERCISE

lo creo!

I should

say

so.

si,why.
XXXIX. Manuela
a

a.

cribir? recibido tintero.

iMe permite Vd. Quiero contestar


durante
mi

Da.

sentarme

su

mesa

de
que

es-

(responder)
y
se

las

muchas

cartas

he mi

enfermedad,

ha

concluido

la tinta

de

Sientese

Vd., D.
en a

Jose.
ocuparme \ Que

En

la le
en mas

mesa

encontrara

Vd.

plumas,
que

lapiz,papel secante, esta escribiendo, voy


I Para i Vaya

fin cuanto

haga
hacer

falta.

Mientras
para

Vd.

calcetines

el chico.

Antonio si lo No
es

? !

chico

listo ! visto
otro tan

En
hacer

mi

yida he
que
unos

aficionado
\

los !

estudios. Ya he

anteojos. Si se esta arruinando estudie la vista con estudiar. Cuanto le digo que tanto mas no por la noche, tanto obedece. ha la Es menos me escogido profesion que de muchos fue durante catedratico la afios su padre, el que en
tenido

mas quiere comprarle que

leer

estudiar.

Figurese

Vd.

Universidad.

iEntre
Entre
Todos

sus

estudios

todos

le gustan

(los idiomas). aprender facilmente


idiomas,
i Ya
y

hay algunas a que se dedica especialmente? naturales. las ciencias prefiere la matematica y de las lenguas fuera de la gramatica y el estudio notado han los de mis He hijos que podido que
la

matematica,
otros

no

han

tenido

cabeza

para

los

vice Vd.
creo! el del
me

versa.

iConque
lo
es

tiene

hijos?
menos.

Tres,

nada

Dos octubre
mes

Antonio

menor.

Nacio

el 8 de
que

mujeres y del 1883.


que

un

hombre.
en

Estamos

septiembre
afios.

No,
20
un

99, de manera he equivocado.


que
y

el

viene Ana
alios

tendra mi
que

quince
mayor

Tendra
Hace

16

anos.

hija
esta

tiene
con

afios

mas

Antonio.
en

muchos

casada

abogado,
desde

vive dos
que

Cordoba.

Alejandro,
de
empezar

casado
a

tambien,
estudiar la
y
se

viudo

hace

afios, despues
ya y

medicina,
fue
su a

concluyo
Estados
a no

habia
se

demasiados

medicos
y

malos,
bueno.

los

Unidos

hizo

dentista,
mucho
para

muy

Desde

regreso que

Espafia, esta
haya querido

ganando
estudiar

dinero.
cura,

Sin
asi

embargo
son

siento chicos

pero

los

de

hoy.

144

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

deal. don't his 18. of

15.

Do
to

you
cry.

remember 17. know He he the

the said has sick

number that been child I

of

the

house? him for


a

16.
so

Please much of

begin
Dr.

I reminded
a

poor

wife.

You

widower
to

several

years.

Suarez
every

ordered five
me

be

given
20.

water

minutes.
more

19.

shall
you. 42

have

it hurts

than

it does

tablespoonful though to punish you, alI was born (past


21.

definite) on the first day of January, died? he when 22. caring for him
been
some

years

ago.

Who I

was

He
a

died

of

hunger,
if he
you

have

told.

23.
one.

He

would
24.

have did

consulted Anna

doctor

had

known

suppose? wras us an by lawyers. 25. ruined. 28. The Is there are completely napkins danger? 27. any beefsteak ate our we During only once. stay in Cordova, 29. married What horrible by a priest. 31. a They wrere sight ! 30. himself his studies. is not He to permitted to devote 2"2"- I 32. mistake. So then, he has a sweetheart, a 34. hope you have not made Don't fail has he? to the for to store telephone drug 35. foot hurts! You (cudiito) my (por) the stamps. 36. How ine imagdo When I not look it. 27I have like some glasses on, my such All can't I a imagine thing. 38. good boys professor? 39. His and are girls (chicos) obey their parents. shut, but 40. eyes
T,et make end. 26. He ruined the his he mouth needed. is open.
41.

good

How

catch

cold, do

I told

him

I would

lend

him

as

much

as

LESSON 222. Use of

XLI. Mode. Review

Imperative

142.

The

intimate imperative is -used to express positive commands are expressed by the negative commands only. Intimate second singular and plural of the present subjunctive. persons

don't Jiables, no habla, Jiablad, speak; no Jiableis, speak. no responde, responded, answer; respondas, no responddis, don't
answer.

escribe,escribid, wTrite; no
a. to

escvibas, no
the in

don't escribdis,
pronouns
a are

write.

In verb.

positive commands
This necessitates

object

attached
accent.

the

certain

cases

written

hablame, compramclo,
b. the Tn

habladle, coniprddmelo.
the

negative
Jiables. lo

commands

object
me.
so.

pronouns

come

before

verb. No
Xo
me
se

Don't Don't

speak

to

digdis.

tell him

LESSON

XU

145
the

c.

Before

the

reflexive

object

os,

imperative

plural drops

its final d.

ocapaos,

busy

yourselves.

Irregular Imperatives. Most irregular verbs are are irregular in regular in the imperative plural,and many the singular. Study the imperatives in 515, 521, 523, 525, 538-547223. 224. infinitive
the person,
Pro
met
c m

Prometer,
or

"to

promise," object
of

may

the and
c

indicative.
the
me

It takes

direct

by the the indirect object of the thing promised.


be

followed

que

compraras

algo.

Promise
He

me

that

you

will

buy
return

me

something.
prometio
soon.

Me Te
rr

que

volveria

temprano. )
r

promised
"

me

he

would

prometo

volver
.

temprano.
,\

le

prometo

que

7 solvere

temprano.

T I promise v
n n

you
J

." 1 wTill return


,

soon.

225.

Volver

followed infinitive

(whatever
No
No

the
a

by a and an infinitive expresses) again."


I shall
not not

means

"to

volvere he vuelto

hacerlo.
a

do
seen

verle.

have

it again. him again.

226.
the
name

Jugar,
of
ninos
a

"to

game.

play/' is always followed See 516.


a

by
are

before

Los ball.

estdn

jugando

la pelota.

The

children

playing

226 522
a,

A.

For

caer,

"to

fall/'and

reir,

"to

laugh/'

see

and

528.
VOCABULARY.

acd, adv., here


with
amar,

verb
to

of

(used, like motion).


Alas! fun of.

alia

contar,
ch.

to

count,
to

tell, relate

(R(see

love. Ouch! make

/Ay!
burlarse
caerse,

Oh!

I). desobedecer, 513).


detrds

disobey
behind.

besOy kiss. de,


to

de,

prep.,

to

ensuciar,
esconder

to

fall down.

dirty, make (se), to hide.

dirty.

eamisa, shirt.
easOy case,

affair, circumstance.

Federieo, Frederick. feo, homely, ugly, wicked.

I46
hacer
caso

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

a,

to

pay

attention

to.

;Por

Dios!

exclamation.

limpiar, to clean. mentir, to lie (R-ch. II). m'entira, lie,lying. breeches. pantalon, m., trousers, sin. pecado, (see pegar, to strike, hit, stick 507 b).
pelota, ball.

take off. quitar, to remove, reuse (de), to laugh (at). to break, tear romper, (see 549). saltacamero, leap-frog (literally, leap-sheep). toro, bull (in plural, "biill-fighting"). vergiienza, shame.
tener

perdon, m., pillo, young

pardon.
scamp,

vergiienza,

to

be

rowdy.

ashamed.

EXERCISE
a.

XLL Cuentalo
todo
tu

Hija,
llores.
no

ipor
me

que pego

lloras?
y
me

madre.

Federico
No

llamo
caso a

fea.
tu

No

le

hagas
detras

hermano.

No

eres

fea.

derico, Fe-

la puerta. Te estoy viendo. No burlando de tu madre ? estas Ven mal muchacho. te rias. aca, 1 Te tienes No sabes los debeis nirios amaros? ";No vergiienza? que I
te

escondas

de

Pero,

; que
te
se.

s.ucio
has
roto

estas

" por
y

que

te

has

iComo
No

el

pantalon

ensuciado

quitado los zapatos ? la camisa limpia?

No mientas. la verdad. Sabes la mentira Federico, dime que estado has feo. ^No es jugando a la pelota 6 a los un pecado muy de la calle? los toros con pillos ha Estabamos jugando a saltacarnero, cuando me cai, y se me el pantalon. roto la calle,y tendre Te he prohibido jugar en castigarte. que Vd. Dios No ! Le me castigue prometo i Ay, mama, que por
no

volvere Pues

desobedecerla.
esta
vez

por
;

te

perdono.
debes

Ahora

vete
a

tu

cuarto y

limdarle

piarte bien
un

pero

antes

pedir perdon
?

tu

hermana

beso. b.
I

1 Por

que

esta

la nifia llorando todo? las nifias que


se

quien iLes duele Que


Donde

lo cuenta
mas a

las pegue,

6 que

se

las llame

feas le dice
trata
su

madre

la nifia?

Federico
de la

de

esconderse?

Que
Tiene
Le

hace

detras

mucha

puerta? vergiienza?
a su

dice
que

la verdad estado estaba


se

madre?

ique

hace

pues?
el

En

encuentra?
cuando
se

Donde

jugando

le

rompio

pantalon:

I^SSON

XUI

14/

";A

que

estaba

jugando?
Vd.
nunca

";No ha visto iQue iQue


";Por
es

jugar
a su

los toros?

mentir? promete
se

le
que

Federico

madre?

lo

promete?
su

";A donde

le manda
a su

madre? antes?

ipara

que?

iQue ":Que
I

pide
le

hermana

da

ella? los
en

que
es

juegan
el
caso

nifios
que
a

iCual
^Hacen
I Por

dia los

espafioles? no se puede
las ordenes los
de

comer

carne

sin

pecado?

nifios

de

sus

padres?
?
antes

que

se

ha

quitado Federico
en

zapatos
carta

iQue
al correo?

hay

que

pegar

el

sobre

una

de

echarla

LESSON

XLII.

227.
into
100

Spanish
centimos. coins

Money,
Five

The

unit

is the
a

peseta,
duro
or

divided peso.

pesetas
de

make

The

copper

centimos

grande).
dos and

(monedas cobre) are (perra chica) and the 10 centimo de plata) Silver coins (monedas
and duro. Bank
notes
are

the

piece of 5 piece (perra


the

are

peseta,
100,

pesetas
1000

of 25, 50, loose


or

500

pesetas.

Exchange
for
a

is

cambio,

change
las vuelunit is

suelto, and
tas.

change
and

coin

or

la vuelta bill,

In
centavo

Mexico

the

(=one
used
to

is often coin
to

Spanish America generally, the cent). In Spain the real (=2$ in reckoning price, but there
it.

timos) cen-

is

no

correspond
Idiomatic.

228.
Bstas
are

Price.
venden dozen.
Dos
a

navanjas
at
a

se a

peseta
la

la

docena. What What

These
is this do

oranges

sold

peseta
vale

jCudnto
Two for
reals
a

estof

reales

libra.
la

worth? ask

/Cudnto
this? Uvas
A de

pound. pide Vd.


dollar
a a

por

estof

Duro

vara.

you

yard.
libra.

real

la

Grapes

at

real

pound.

I48
229. forms dealer

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Suffix derivatives

-ero.

The

suffix

-ero,

applied
in

to

nouns,

indicatingthe
of.
cocker

person

charge of,

the

in, or

manufacturer

puerta, porter 0 ; coche, za (cobbler or pat ero zapato, ; cuchillo, cuchillero

(grocer)
230.
a or

; vaca,

vaquero

0 ; libro, librero (bookseller) ; shoe-dealer) ; reloj, relojero (watchmaker) (cutler) ; especia (spice); especiero (cow-boy).

Suffix

-eria.

The

suffix

eria

indicates
or

generally
a

place where
business.

something

is manufactured

sold, or

trade

er's; Ubreria, book-store; zapateria, shoe-store; relojeria, watchmakcutlery store; especieria, cuchilleria, grocery.

231.

Diminutive
nouns are

Suffixes.

These
even

are

applied to
commonest

and

and adjectives,

commonly very The to adverbs.


young

-ito,-illo,-uelo

(-ita,-ilia,-uela).
chap
;

Hbrito.

little book

little child ; mozuelo, ; chiquillo,

prontito, quite promptly.


232. 6. In
a

Either
...

or,

in

positivesentence
. . .

is 6
. . .

negative
. .

sentence,
.

ni Ni further

ni,

which

also and

presses ex-

neither

nor.
or

expresses

not.

Tampoco
found after

means a

neither

not

either.
come

It

is

generally
the
tence. sen-

negative,
instead

but of
no

it may in

first in

It is used second of twro

replying negativelyto
He will
come

the

questions.
noche, 6 manana earl)'.
ni chocolate have taken

Vendrd

6 esta
to-morrow

temprano.

either either do

to-night
No chocolate

or

hemos
or

tornado
tea.

(We

We ni tc. have not neither chocolate I have


any. want to
no

taken
nor

tea.)
nor

No
I hope Yo

ten go to
no

diner o, ni (and I do not Vd.

espero

tenerlo. I don't
yo

money,

hope to) have


Ni

qniero ir tampoco.
tiene have Vd.

go

either.
you any
ey? mon-

j No Nor

diner of
No.
u women

tampoco.

Haven't

I either.

jQuiere
a.

pan?

jTostadasf
before
or a

Tampoco.

O, "or," becomes mujeres u h ombres,

word

beginning with

or

ho.

men.

233. -ucir
see

For 529.

traducir, "to

translate,"

and

other

verbs

in

LESSON

XIJJ.

149

VOCABULARY.

bacalao, codfish. bazar, m., bazaar,


store.

department

camiceria, meat-market. carnicero, butcher. cerdo, pig, hog.


correr,
to

libra, pound. limon, m., lemon. lomo, loin. ripe, mature. maduro,
manzana,

melocoton,
melon,
m.,

apple. peach. m.,


musk-melon.

be

current.

crude. crndo, unripe, raw, docena, dozen. especie, f., species, kind. fino, fine, delicate, excellent. fresa, strawberry.

naranja, orange. pescaderia, fish-market, pescadero, fisherman,

er. fish-deal-

podrido,

rotten.

frijoles,beans
genera, generos,

(Mexico). gender, kind. genus, dry-goods.


pomegranate.

selecto, choice, select. tendero, store-keeper. trncha, trout.


uva,

granada,

grape.
to

harina, flour.

(Spain). judias, kilo, kilogramo.


beans

vender, z-erde,

sell.

green,

unripe.

EXERCISE
a.

XLII.

Vamos de

primero
generos
una
.

al
. .

mercado.

Despues

iremos

al

bazar

las

tiendas

de

Hoy necesito los mejores.


Los
tengo el
muy

cantidad

de

cosas.

Primero, frijoles (judias)

finos. de mostrarlos. Verdad


que
son

Haga
cuanto
se

favor

finos.

,;A

venden? el kilo. tiene


no

A No

peseta
los
pero

(A
mas

dos

reales

la

libra).

Vd
son

baratos? selectos.

Si,
tiene

tan
a

Bueno. Vd.? Tenemos nadas,


y

Mandeme

casa

cinco

kilos.

iQue

clase

de

frutas

naranjas,
de
estos

manzanas,

melocotones,
estan

limones,
estan

uvas,

gra-

melones.
melocotones

Muchos

verdes,

otros

podridos.
de limones

Escoja Vd. Me quedo


y
un

los
con

mejores.
estos

seis.

Tambien

media

docena

melon.

iNo Hoy

necesita
no.

Vd.

naranjas

ni

uvas?

I Granadas

?
. . .

Tampoco
Ahora
asar, y
a

la carniceria, donde
a

comprare comprar

un

lomo
y

de

cerdo

para

entonces

la

especieria a

harina,

bacalao.

150

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

b.
I
un

,;D6nde
?
1
un

compramos

el ? al los

pescado?
libros
que
y

,;la
? vende
ique

carne?

^los

zapatos?

reloj iComo

cuchillp

llamamos
ique

hombre
vacas

libros? hace

";que

vende
"jque
una

cuchillos? tiene tienda

guarda
de

toros?

reloj
ique

es? tiene

una

tienda

zapatos?

ique

vende

carne?

cualquiera? iQue "jQue significa palabra


la

palabra

especieria?
demasiado maduro?

ipescaderia?
";no

";

bazar?
ma

significa

bastante

duro? Deme

Vd.
frutas.

los

nombres

de

algunos

pescados

muy

comunes.

De

algunas iComo iQue

se

llaman

en

Mejico
una

las libreria? de cobic

judias?
"ien

compramos
son

en

el
corren

mercado?
en

iCuales
de

las

monedas

que

Espafia?

;las

plata? iCuanto iCuantos iCuantos iCual


I
es

vale reales
centavos

una

peseta
en una

en

moneda

americana?

peseta?
un

";en

un

peso?

en

peso?
lomo?

el

peso

de

este

(^Cuanto

pesa

este

lomo?)

Tiene

Vd.
frutas

suelto?
tenemos esta

iQue

en

estacion?

152

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY.

abanico, fan. algodon, m., cotton. alhaja, jewel, thing altiira, height.

m,

even.

pano,
of value.

cloth

(woolen).

paniielo, handkerchief.

anchura, width.
asegurar,
assure.

collar, m., necklace. divino, divine, lovely.


escaparate, espesura, gastar,
to to estilarse, m.,

show-window.

thickness.
be in style. spend, waste,

perla, pearl. profitndidad, f., depth. pnlgada, inch. down. rcbajar, to diminish, come to bargain, haggle. regatear, (collective). ropa, clothes blanca, linen (clothes). ropa
wear.

gris, gray. big, thick. grueso, linen. kilo, thread, yarn, lana, wool. legitimo, genuine, lawful, legitimate.
lienzo, linen cloth.

ropa ropa ropa

de

cama,

bed

clothes. clothes dress

interior,

underclothes

sucia, soiled

sdbana, sheet. tcjido, anything goods. tejido de algodon,


tela, cloth, stuff.

woven,

cotton

goods.

ioalla,towel.
valer
vara, mas, to

longitud, f., length.


manga,

be

better.

sleeve.
metre.

metro,

yard. vcstido,dress,

costume

("traie).

muestra,

sample.
EXERCISE
XLIII.
a

a.

,;Tiene

Vd.

una

seda tiene
una

gris igual
seda

la

muestra?
y

Si duro la

sefiora.
vara.

Aqui

muy

fuerte

muy

bonita

Es
Le Madrid Me
es

mucho.
aseguro
un a

Vd.
como

que

no

podra

encontrar

mas

barato

en

todo

genero

este.
creo

gusta

el color, y
tanto

que
un

me

sentara

muy

bien,
me

pero

no

me

posible gastar Conque ies


Lo
siento
nos

por

vestido.

Tampoco rebajar
pesetas
y

gusta

tear. rega-

el ultimo

precio?
pero
no

muchisimo,
cuesta
esta
a

puedo
cuatro

ni

un

centimo. la
vara.

Este

genero I Cuanto

nosotros,
negra poco
varas.

media

vale

seda
un

?
mas

Esta
Deme
es

la

puedo
diez

poner
y

barato. Vd.

Cuatro
un

pesetas.

Vd.

seis ?

Espere

momento.

,;Cual

la anchura Tiene

(el ancho)
y

veinte

seis
mas

pulgadas.
cortar

Entonces
muy

valdra las

diez estilan

ocho

varas.

Este

aiio

hacen

anchas

mangas.

(Se

las mangas

anchas.)

LESSON

XUH

153

Necesita

Vd.

algo

en

panos

de

lana

6
y

lienzos ultima
unas

Tenemos novedad. sabanas.

tarn-

bien

algunos
Deseo
unos

algodones pafiuelos
. . .

muy

hermosos de hilo
para

de

sefiora

Casi

las

olvidaba. Mire

Vd.,
parece
es una

Luisa.
que
me

Que

alhajas

mas

bonitas

en

este

escaparate
de

No
'

le

sentiria
las

divdnamente
mas

aquel
famosas de

collar

perlas?
Venden

Esta
clases

de

tiendas de
oro

Madrid.
y

todas

de

objetos

plata,

encajes

lejitimos

abanicos

espanoles.
b.

^Que
color
que

busca de
no va

esta

sefiora?

;Que
;

seda
a

desea?
comprar

Por

la

seda

que

el

dependiente

le

muestra

primero?

";Que
,;Por
genero

significa
que
no

regatear?
le
es

posible

al

dependiente

rabajar

el

precio

del

;Cuanto
;
"

hay
varas

que

pagar

por
se

una

buena
para

seda hacer 6

negra?
un

Cuantas
ano

de estilan hacen
de

pano

necesita

vestido

;Este ,;De En
;De

se

sombreros
los

grandes
de caballero?
se

pequefios?

que

se

vestidos
ique

vestidos
que
se

caballero,
los la

colores

estilan

siempre?

hacen hace

mejores
ropa

pafiuelos?
^las
";en
una

iDt
;

que

se

interior?
en un

sabanas? vara? de u-nST-seda


que

Cuantas

pulgadas
deseamos

hay
comprar

pie?
hilo del

Cuando
tenemos en

color

casa,

ique

hacemos? 6

;Esta
Como i

subiendo
se

bajando aquella
para

el

precio
del
la

del vestido

lienzo?
que

llama necesita la altura

parte
hacer edificio

cubre

el

brazo?

,;Que
I

se

cama?
en

dial

es

del

que

estamos

154

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

LESSON 236.
up
to
20

XLIV.

The

Ordinal

Numerals.
are so

The

ordinals above number.

are

only, as
with

they
the
noun

They

agree

in
1st.

rarely used gender and


undecimo

that

given point.

primer 0 segundo
tercero
cuarto

1
. . . .

ith.

2d.

quinto
sexto
or or

3d. 4th. 5th.


sesto

duodecimo decimo tercio


decimo
cuarto

12th.
;
. .

6th.

decimo decimo
decimo decimo decimo

quinto
sexto

T3th. 14th. 15th.


16th.

septimo
octavo
noveno

setimo

7th.
8th.

septimo
octavo
nono

17th.
18th.

or

nono

9th.
10th.

19th.
20th. ordinals
are

decimo
a.

vigesimo
a

In

giving
After

numeral the

after

the title, The

used

up

to

decimo.

that

cardinals.

definite

article

is omitted.

Felipe segundo
Alfonso
237.
trece

(II), Philip the Second. (XIII), Alphonso the Thirteenth.


A
noun

singly placed English.


Los

what is possessed expresses of a group of similar individuals, is by each one in in the singular, though the plural would be used

Noun.

that

ninos

con

car

alegre. The

children

with

happy

faces

(one

each).
238. used Definite
names

Article of

used. and

The

definite that

article
are

is

before

countries

persons

fied modi-

by
La El

an

adjective.
moderna. Modern

Lspana
caritativo

Spain.
Charitable Mr.

Sr.

Sanchez.

Sanchez.

239. of

Suffixes is
-ano.

indicating Nationality.
Others
are use

The

est commones.

these

-eno,

-ino, and
a

As

in be

suffix to English, the proper learned Note by observation.

in

the
,

given case following:

is. to

chileno, meccano, cordobes, peruano, sevillano, granadino, madrileno argentino, panameno, cubano, puertoriqueno, filipino. 240.

Caber,

"to

be

contained."

See

527.

LESSON

XUV

155

VOCABULARY.

aldea, village. aldeano, villager, peasant f., love. amor, of caja. cajita, dim. f cathedral. catedral,
.,

Isidro, Isidore. juguete, m., toy,


ladrillo, brick. limosna, alms.

plaything.

lugar,

m.,

place,

town.

centro,

center.

cerilla,wax

match.

to construir, (See 523). corte, f., court,

build,

construct

madera, wood. mendigo, beggar. modern. mcderno,


museo,
museum.

capital. chaqueta, coat, jacket.


date.

to nombrar, name. palacio, palace.

da tar, to

plaza,
found,
establish

square.

establecer, to (See 513). estrecho, narrow,

publico, public. real, royal.

tight.

Felipe, Philip.
fin, m.,
end.

reina, Queen. ruido, noise. siglo, age, century.


terciopelo, velvet, plush.
torero,

fosforo, match. grito, cry, shout.


habitant
e,

inhabitant.

vecino,
vestido church.

bull-fighter. neighboring, neighbor.


de, dressed in, wearing

iglesia,church. la iglesia, to church. a la iglesia,at (in) en

EXERCISE

XLIV.

de ciudad moderna Espana, es una Su (almas). importancia data del quinientos mil II cuando dieciseis el establecio alii su Felipe (XVI) rey edificios publicos y casas tiene muchos hermosos La corte teatros ticulares, muchas e plazas, y muchos iglesias,pero no
a.

Madrid,

capital de

unos

habitantes

siglo
corte.

par-

tiene

catedral. 6 de
oteca

La

mayor

parte
los

de

los edificios

estan

construidos

de

piedra

ladrillo.

Entre
el

Nacional,
el
museo

tambien de toda

Toledo, y Europa.
El
verdadero del del
como

el

la Biblipublicos se puede nombrar de Banco Espana, el Museo Pinturas, llamado la calle Isidro del Prado, la Iglesia de San en tiene Real, que no magnifico Palacio igual en edificios de

centro

de

la vida

madrilefia tiene
y

es su

la

plaza
a

llamada
la

la

Puerta

Sol.
se

Todo
encuentra

Puerta
manana

Sol

empieza, y todo siempre gente


Alii
se

fin

alii. En
la
una

ruido,

de vende-

la

al

mediodia.

oyen

los

gritos

de

los

dores Alii lana


se

de

periodicos, de juguetes y de cajitas de cerillas y aldeanos de los lugares vecinos, con la puede ver vestidos el ancho de terciopelo, y toreros sombrero

fosforos.
manta

de
pan-

de

156

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

talon tativos

estrecho

chaqueta "por
de occurio
estamos

corta.

Alii de

los

mendigos

piden

los

cari-

una

limosna

el

amor

Dios."

b.

,;Cual
que
que

rey

Espana
esto?

establecio

su

corte

en

Madrid?

";En
";En

siglo siglo

ahora? tiene Vd. Madrid? nacio?

iCuantos
dad?
i

habitantes

^Nueva

York?

,;esta

ciu-

el

lugar
le hace

en

que

iQue
":De
Nombreme
que

falta

Madrid?
las casas? edificios ahora los

se

construyen
Vd.

algunos

publicos
libros del

de

Madrid.

,:D6nde ";Cuando
I

se

guardan
se

rey

Felipe

II?

fue el

Vd.

la

iglesia?
de

Quien

es

rey
se

actual caso?

Espana

iCon ,:D6nde iQue iQue


";De

quien
se

pueden
esta
en

ver

las
centro

pinturas
de del

de Madrid?

Velazquez?

plaza
se ve

el Puerta los

en

la visten

Sol?

ique

se

oye

alii?

que
se

se

toreros? los ninos?

iQue
I

compra

para
se

Sabe

Vd.

como

contesta

un

mendigo
deseamos

que

nos

pide
6 hermano." "Dios si

una

limosna?
tenemos

Se
nada

lo

dire

Vd.
le

Si
decimos

no

darle

nada, Dios,

no

que

darle,
nos

"Vaya
en

Vd.
estas

con

Si

le

damos

algo,

da

las

gracias

palabras,

se

lo

pagara."
I

Se

alegra

Vd.

de

que

hayamos

llegado

al

fin

de

este

libro?

THE

VERB

500.

The
for

purpose

of

the

following
facts about

sections the

is

to

group

together Spanish
verb the added
the and it is

reference both

the

forms

of

the

verbs,

regular merely
those of
or

and
to

irregular.
repeat
future that and

For
all

the

regular
with
are

necessary

endings, by

exception
to

of
stem

of the

the

conditional,

the
-ar,

infinitive the

(found
the

cutting
the

off

final

-er,

-ir of
are

infinitive),while
to

future

conditional

endings
of the

added

whole

infinitive.

501.

Endings

Three

Conjugations.

i58
II
FUTURE
-e

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

III

II
FUTURE

III

-emos

-eis
-an

CONDITIONAL
-la

-ias -ia -iamos -iais -ian -ad -ed -id

Tenses. the Compound By way of illustrating of compound formation and tenses forms, the following of each examples will suffice,though only the first person of the verb to be conjuis given. The tense past participle gated is unchanged in form.
Perfect Present
Infinitive, haber

502.

comido,

to

have

eaten. eaten.

Perfect

Participle,

habiendo

comido, having

indicative.

Present
Pluperfect, Past

Perfect,
habia

he

comido,
hube

I have

eaten.

comido,
habre

I had

eaten.

Definite Perfect,

Perfect,

comido,
comido,

I had

eaten.
eaten.

Future

comido, I shall have


habria I should

Conditional

Perfect,

have

eaten.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present First Second

Perfect,

haya

comido.

Pluperfect, Pluperfect, Perfect,

hubiese
hubiera

comido.
comido.

Future

hubiere

comido.

503. in

Passive

Voice.

In connection forms

with

what

is stated

207,

the

following
suffice to

of how

the

love/' will

show

the

"to passive of amar, passive conjugation is

l6o

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Sacar,
Past PrKS.

to

take

out.

Def.,

ist

Sing.,
saque,

saque. saque, saquemos,

Subj.,

saques,

saqueis,
the g and

saquen.
e

(b)
forms

Verbs

where

in -gar insert u between the ending begins with

in those

e.

PagaRj
Past

to

pay.

Def.,

ist

Sing., paguc
pagues,
etc.

PrES.

Subj., pague,
Verbs that in

(c) endings

-guar begin with

place
e.

diaeresis
are

over

the of

before verbs.

There
to

few

these

AvERiGUAR,
Past

verify.

Def.,

ist

Sing., averigue avcrigues,


-zar e.

PrES.

Subj.,

averigue,

etc.

in (d) Verbs which begin with

change
Cruzar,
to

to

before

those

endings

cross.

Past

Def.,

ist

Sing.,

cruce

PrES.

Subj.,

cruce,

cruccs,

etc.

508.

Second

and in
-cer

Third and

Conjugations.
-cir
a

(a) change

Verbs
c

to

when

the

preceded by ending begins with a or


to

consonant
o.

Vencer,
PrES. PrES.

conquer.

Indic, Subj.,

ist

Sing.,

venzo

vensa,

venzas,

venza,

venzamos,

venzdis,
a

venzan.

in (b) Verbs and truly irregular, class of them.

-cer

and

-cir

preceded by

vowel is
a

are

discussed

apart in 513.

There

large

of

(c) Verbs the ending.


Indic,
ist

in -ger

and

-gir change
to

to

before

or

Coger.,
PrES.

catch.

Sing., cojo
etc.

PrES.

Subj., coja,

the

verb

161

the

(d) Verbs ending.


Indic,
ist

in

-quir change
Delinquir,
to

qu

to

before

or

of

be

delinquent.

Pres. PrES.

Sing., dclinco

Subj., dclinca, etc. Verbs


in

(e) ending.
Pres. Pres.

-guir drop
Distinguir,

of

gu

before

or

of

the

to

distinguish.

Indic,

ist

Sing., distingo

Subj., disiinga, etc. 509. Verbs whose


in all does

stem

ends whose affect

in

11

or

fi, drop the

i of

the
or

diphthong,
io.

forms
not

This
because

loss

ending begins with the pronunciation of


fi.

ie the

word,

of the

i sound

in 11 and
to

Buueir,
Pres. Past Imp. Imp.

boil.

Part., bullendo Def.,


3d
ist
2d

Sing., build Form, Form,


bullese, bullera,

3D
etc.

Ptu., bulleron

Subj., Subj.,

etc.

Fut.

Subj., butter

e, etc.

TAnER,
Pres.

to

ring.'
in
same

Part., tanendo.

Other

changes

places

as

bullir.

510.
accent
on

Certain the i
or

verbs the
u

ending
in the

in

-iar and

-uar,

require an
and

present

indicative

junctive, sub-

singular and the third person plural, in the and imperative singular. This is not strictlyan of the orthographical change, since it affects the sound rule by which the student There -is no mine word. nfa^ deterall of the what verbs
are

treated

in this
and

book, enviar
do
not.

in this way. Of the verbs included these changes and limpiar makes

ensuciar

Enviar,
Pres. Pres.

to

send.

Indic,

envio, envias, envia, enviamos, enviais, envian

Subj., envie, envies, envie, enviemos, envieis, envien


Sing., envia

Imperative

62

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Continuar,

to

continue.

"

PrES. Indic, continuo, contimias, continua, continuan. PrES.

continuamos, continuais,
continueis,

Subj., continue, continues, continue, continuemos, Sing., continua

continuen

Imperative

511.

Since

unaccented

i may second
are

not

stand third with

between

two

vowels, those
whose i
as

verbs end in

of
a

the

and

conjugations
y

stems

vowel,
the

written
which

instead

of

begin with ie or forms affected io. The the present participle, the past are third singular and definite, plural, the imperfect subjunctives and the future subjunctive.

the

first vowel

of

endings

CrEer,
PrES.
Past Imp.

to

believe.

Part., creyendo Def., Subj., Subj.,


creyo creyese, creyere, creyeron

etc.,
etc.

creyera,

etc.

Fut.

In general it may be said that Irregular Verbs. which does the same not an irregularverb is one preserve does have the regular endings. not stem throughout, or which Many irregularverbs are irregularin both stem and is apparent to both eye and endings, and all the irregularity Many irregularverbs have orthographicalirregularities ear. of irregular well. Fortunately the greater number as

512.

verbs have

whose in five great groups, be included may The in common. their peculiarities rest

members
must

be

learned

singly,since
a

by

system
of

of

simplify their acquisition have tory. proved unsatisfacprincipal parts


all attempts
to

Review the formation

the

statements

made

in

127

and

141,

as

to

imperfectand irregular
with

future

subjunctives.
the
ond sec-

513.

Verbs

largest class of
over 200.

Inceptive Endings. This is irregularverbs, containing as


whose
In these

it does in
-cer

It consists of verbs

infinitives end
verbs
a z

and

-cir

preceded by

vowel.

is inserted

THE

VERB

163
and
or a

before forms person

in

the

present

indicative with
o

subjunctive, in
; that

all

whose of the

ending begins
present

is,in the first


forms of the

indicative, and
other
to

all six
are

present

subjunctive. AH

forms
know.

regular.

Conocer,
PrES.

Indic,

conozco

Pres.

Subj.,

conozca,

conozcas,

conozca,

conozcamos,

conozcdis,

conozcan

514.

Radical-changing
verbs, changes
of forms

Verbs.
are

Review

106. the

In

ical-chan rad-

possible in

following

groups

only.
which receive indicative
person

(a)
vowel;
the of

The

forms

the and

stress

on

the

stem

i.e., the

present

singular and the the imperative.


The

third

subjunctive, all of plural, and the singular

(b) plural. (c)


the

present

subjunctive, first

and

second

persons

The

forms

whose

endings begin

with

ie

or

io; i. e.y

the past definite, the third persons participle, of the two junctives imperfect subsingular and plural, the whole and the future subjunctive.

present

515.

First

Class.

The

largest class

Verbs containing over 300. second or conjugation, have


e

irregular verbs, of this class belong to the first vowel stem e or change o, and
whose
stress

of

to

ie and

to

ue

in those

forms

falls

on

the

stem.

See

107. Pensar,
to

think.

Pres.
Pres.

Indic, pienso, piensas, piensa, pensamos, Subj., piense, pienses, piense, Sing., piensa
Contar,
to

pensais, piensan penseis, piensen

pensemos,

Imperative

tell,relate.
contamos,
contemos,

Pres. Pres.

Indic, Subj.,

cuento,
cuent e,

cuentas, cuentes,

cuenta,
cnente,

contais, cuentan
conteis,
cuenten
..

Imperative

Sing.,

cuenta

164
516.
stem

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

has

like pagar
PrEs.
PrHS. Past

the Jugar, "to play/' changes u to ue wherever It is also orthographicallyirregular, the stress. (see 507 b).

Indic,

juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, Sing., juguc

jugais, juegan jugueis, jueguen

Subj., juegue, juegues, juegue,


Def.,
ist

juguemos,

Imperative

Sing., juega

517.

Errar,

"to err," and


of
ue,

oler,
its

"to

smell/'
since
no

are

radicalmay

changing verbs begin with ie or


with
hue.
true

the
errar

first

class, but

word

writes

radical-changingforms

oler its radical-changing forms and writes with ye affect the sound, they are As these spellings do not

orthographicalchanges.
Errar.

PrEs. PrEs.

Ind., yerro, Subj.,


verve,

yerras, yerres, yerra

yerra, ycrre,

erramos, erremos,

errais,

yerran

erreis,yerren

Imperative

Sing.,

Oler. PrEs. Pres.

Ind., huelo, hueles, huele, olemos,

oleis, huelen olais, huelan

vSubj.,huela-,huelas, huela, olamos, Sing., huele

Imperative

518.

Volver,
of
a

"to

turn," has,

in addition the

to

the

vowel

changes

of verb radical-changing vuelto. Other past participle, in -uelto. past participles 519.

first

class, an

regular irhave

verbs

in -olver

Many
as

changing
set

radical-changing verbs are orthographicalwell. These change according to the principles


Such
a

forth

in 507-509.

verb
eat

is
lunch."

Almorzar,
PrEs. PrES.

"to

Indic,
almuercen

almuerzo,

etc.

Subj., almuerce,
Dee.,
ist

almuerce

s,

almuerce,

almorcemos,

almorceis,

Past

Sing., almorce

Imperative

Sing., almuerza

TH"

V3RB

165

CocER,
This verb
is
not
.

uto

boil," "bake."
radical and graphical ortho-

inceptive (see 513), but

changing.
520. third Second

Class. and have


o o

Verbs
stemto
u ue

of
vowel

this class
e or o.

conjugation
e e

belong to the They change


falls
on

stem-vowel
stem, and

to. ie and
to

where

the

stress

the

i and

to

first and
whose verbs

second

persons

ending begins
see

with

(1) in the present subjunctive, (2) in those forms plural, and ie or io (see 514 c). For model
in

sentir
"to

and

dormir,

108.
has the

a.

Morir.

die," of this class,

irregular past participle

muertp.

521.
the

Third

Class.

Verbs
and all

of
have

this

class

all

third
e

conjugation,
to

stem-vowel
accent

belong to e. They
on

change
stem.

in

those

forms
e

whose
i

falls

the

They
first and

also

change

to

second

persons

(1) in the present subjunctive, plural,and (2) in those forms


or

whose

endings begin
dress/'
see*

with 109.

ie

io.

For

the

model

verb

vestir, "to
a.

Brguir, "to
of i in

erect," which
any

belongs
which

to

this have

class, may
the
stress
on

have the
11

ye

instead

of

the

forms

stem-vowel.
o

It is also
a

or

of

the

orthographical-changing, dropping ending.


or

its

fore be-

PrES.

I n Die,

irg0, irgnes, irgue, erguimos, erguis, irguen


yergo, yergues, yergue,

erguimos,
of this

erguis,

yerguen

522.

Several

of

the

verbs

class

have

graphical ortho-

changes.
of peculiarities. A written Reir, "to laugh," has a number forms all stressed the on stem required on vowel, and ie or the i of all endings beginning with also io, disappears. Note first and the in accents indicative, on imperative plural, present plural.
a.

accent

is

PrESPrES. Pres.

Part.,

riendo

Past

Part., reido

Ind., Ho, ries, He, reimos, reis, Hen.


Sub jr., Ha,

Has, Ha, riamos,

rials,Han

l66

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Past

Def.,

3d

Sing.,

rid

3d

Puj., Heron
Here

Impere.

Subj., etc., Hesex Hera,

Imperative
b.

Sing., He
verbs in

Puj., reid
this
a

Other

class is

have

the

changes

already

cussed dis-

in 507-509.

Such

verb

Seguir, "to follow."


PrES. PrES.

Indic, sigo Subj., siga,sigas,siga, sigamos, sigais, sigan -Uir


those in verbs.

523.
but
stem not

This

class

includes

verbs add

in

-giiir,

-guir and

-quir. These

verbs

on (1) in all forms which have the accent first and second and (2) in the present subjunctive, plural. In addition, the i of all endings beginning with becomes (See similar change in verbs like y. 511.)

y to the the stem, persons

ie

or

io in

creer,

Huir,
PrES. PrES. Pres.
Past

"to

flee."

Part., huyendo. Indic, huyo, huyes, huye, huimos, huis, huyen

Subj., huya, huyas, huya, huyamos,


Def.,
3d

huydis, huyan

Sing., huyo huye, in-guir


arguyes,

30

Plu., huyeron

ImperE.

Subj., etc., huyese, huyera, huyere


huid lose

Imperatives,
a.

Verbs
arguyo,

the

diaeresis

before

y.

"to Thus, argiiir,

argue,"

etc.

524. follow in

Unclassabie

Irregular
do
to

Verbs. lend than


to

The

verbs
to

that any

order, alphabetical
that is easier may omitted

not

themselves
the be

classification

learn assumed

verbs

selves. them-

regular,with future and the exception of the imperfect and subjunctives, The and indicative. the future conditional imperfect and future subjunctivesare to be derived from the third person
be

Forms

plural of
conditional of

the past has

as definite, same

explained
as

in 127

and

141. the

The ings end-

the

stem

the
are

future, and

the

future

and

conditional

always regular.

68

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Past

Dee., dije, dijiste,dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron Indic,


dire

Future

Imperatives, di, decid


a.

Of

the

decir, "to

curse,"

of decir, bendecir, "to bless," and compounds are Tegular in the future and conditional.

mat-

532.
Pres.
Pres. Past

Estar,
estoy,

estando,

estado.

To

be.

Indic,

estds, estd, estamos,

estais, cstdn

Subj., este, estcs, este, estemos, Dee., estuve, estuviste, estuvo,


eron.

esteis,'esten
estuviestuvimos, estuvisteis,

533.
Pres.

Haber,

habiendo,

habido.

To

have.

PrEs.
Past

Indic, he, has, ha, hemos, habeis, han Subj..,hay a, hay as, hay a, hayamos, haydis, hay an
Dee., hube, hubiste,hubo, hubimos,

hubisteis, hubieron

Future

Indic, habre he, habed hay for


the

Imperatives,
a.

present

Used impersonally, haber has the special form indicative, third person singular.

534.
Pres.
Pres. Past

Hacer,

haciendo,

hecho.

To

make,

do.

Indic,

hago, haces, hace, hacemos,

haceis, hacen hagdis, liagan

Subj., haga, hagas, haga, hagamos,


Ind., hare

hicierbn hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, Dee., hice, hiciste,

Future

Imperatives,
a.

has, haced
are a

There of

number

of words

ending in -facer, that


like it.

are

pounds com-

hacer,

imperative form

conjugated satisface.

and

Satisfacer

has

also

the

535.
Pres. Pres. Imperf.

Ir, yendo,
voy, vaya, vas,

ido.

To

go.
van,
van

Indic,

va,

vamos, vaya,

Subj.,

vayas,

vayamos,

vay"is, vayan

Ind., iba, ibas, iba, ibamos,

ibais,iban

THE

VERB

169

Past

Def., fui, fuiste, fne, fuimos, fuisteis,fueron


ve,

Imperatives,

id, and,

for

the

first person

plural, vamos.

536.
PrES. PrES. Past

Oir, oyendo,
oigo,
oyes,

oido. oimos,

To

hear.

Indic,

oye,

ois, oyen

Subj., diga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, oigdis, oigan


Def., qi, oiste,
oye, oyo,

oimos,

oisteis,oyer

on

Imperatives,

oid

537.
Pres. PrES. Past

Poder,

pudiendo, podido.

To

be

able.

Ind., puedo, puedes, puede, podemos, Dee., pude, pudiste, pudo, Ind., podre

podeis, pueden podais, puedan

Subj., pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos,

pudieron pudimos, pidisteis,

Future

Imperative's, lacking.

538.
Pres.
Pres. Past

Poner,
pongo,

poniendo, puesto.
pones, pone, ponemos,

To

put.
ponen

Indic,

poneis,

Subj., ponga,
Def., puse,

pongas,

ponga,

pusiste,puso,
poned

pongdis, pongan pusimos, pusisteis,pusieron


pongamos,

Future

Ind., pondre
pon,

Imperatives,

539.
Pres. PrES. Past

Querer, queriendo, querido.


quiero, quieres, quiere,
queremos,

To

wish.

Indic,

quereis, quieren querais, quieran

Subj., quiera, quieras, quiera, queramos,


Ind.,

qiiisieron Def., quise, quisiste,quiso, quisimos, quisisteis,


qaevre

Future

Imperatives,

quiere, quered

540.
Pres.

Saber,

sabiendo,

sabido.

To

know.

Indic, si, sabes, sabe, sabemos,

sabeis, saben

Pres.
Past

Subj., sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepdis, sepan Def., supe, supiste, supo} supimos, supisteis,supieron
Ind., sabre
"

Future

I70
541.
PrES.
Pres.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

Salir, saliendo, salido.

To

go

out.

Indic., salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salis,salen Subj., saiga, saigas, saiga, salgamos, salgdis,salgan Ind.,
saldre

Future

I imperatives,

sal, salid

542.
Pres. PrES.
ImpEre. Past

Ser, siendo, sido.


eres, seas, eras,
es, somos,

To

be.

Indic., soy, Subj.,


sea,

sois, son
seals,
sean

sea, era,

seamos, eramos,

Ind.,

era,

erais, eran

fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron Dee., fui, fuiste,


se,

Imperatives,
543.
Pres. Pres.
Past

sed

Tener,

teniendo,

tenido.

To

have.

Ind., tengo,

tienes, tiene, tenemos,


ten gas,

teneis, tienen
tengdis, tengan

Subj., tenga, Ind.,


tendre

tenga,

tengamos,

Dee., Hive, tuviste, tuvo,

tuvieron tuvimos, tuvisteis,

Future

Imperatives,
544.
Pres.
Pres. Past

ten, tened

Traer, trayendo, traido.


trae, traemos,

To

bring.
traen

Ind., traigo, traes,

traeis,

Subj., traiga, traigas, traiga, traigamos, traigdis, traigan Dee., traje, trajiste,trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron

545.
Pres. Pres.

Valer,

valiendo, valido.

To

be

worth.

Indic, valgo, vales, vale, valemos, Ind.,


valdre
or

valeis,valen

Subj., valga, valgas, valga, valganios, valgdis, valgan


vol

Future

Imperatives,
546.
Pres.

vale,

valed

Ver,
veo, vea,

viendo, visto.
ves, veas, ve, vemos,

To
veis,

see.

Indic.,

ven vean

Pres. Imperf.
Past

Subj.,

vea,

veamos,

vedis,

Ind., veia, veias, veia, veiamos, veiais,veian

Dee., vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron


ve,

Imperatives,

ved

THE

VERB

171 To

547.
PrES. PrES. Past

Venir,
vengo,

viniendo,

venido.

come.

Indic, Subj.,

venimos, vienes, v'xene,


vengas, venga, vengamos,

venis, viencn
vengais,
vengan

venga,

Dee., vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron Ind., vend


ven,
re

Future

Imperatives,

venid

548.
in
some

Defective of of their

Verbs.

A and

number

of

verbs

are

ing lackuse

forms,
which

still others possess.

currently
To
the

only
class

few

the

forms

they

this latter

belong
of
etc.

the

impersonal
Such
are,

verbs
nevar,

that
"to

describe

ena phenom"to

nature.

snow,"

Hover,

rain,"

Nacer,

"to

be

born," cannot,
person

from

its nature,

be

used in the

conveniently in the first singular imperative.


Roer,
may
ro-,

present

indicative, or

"to have

gnaw,"
as

in

the

present
a

indicative

and

stem

before
not

strong vowel
is

in

subjunctive the ending,


in

roig-, or
The

roy.

It is

used

often, however,
common.

these

forms.

roido past participle, "to

Aplacer,
cernir. "to

please/' atarler,
are

"to the

appertain,"
third in the
the

and

con-

concern,"
"to

found

in

person.

Yacer,

lie," is used
of
may yazc-,

though rare and subjunctive, it in the ending, vowel are regular.

outside

mostly epitaphs. In
have
yazg-,
as or

third

person,

present
before

indicative
a

stem,
yag.

strong
forms

The

other

Soler, "to be wont," is used

in the present indicative it

indicative

and
stem

imperfect only.
vowel
o

In

the

present

changes

to

ue

where

stressed.

in any used but the third please," is seldom singular. Note: placio; past definite, plugo or person present subjunctive, plega, plegue, and plazca; imperfect subjunctives and future subjunctive,pluguiese, and placiese,

Placer,

"to

172

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

pluguiera
forms
are

and

placiera,pluguiere

and

placiere. The

other

regular.
Irregular Participles. The four irregularonly in the past participle.
Past

549. verbs
are

following

ahrir, "to open," past participle abierto. cubrir, cover/' past participle cubierto. escribir,"to write," past participle escrito.
"to "to

imprimir,
a.

print," past participle impreso.


have
two

The

following

past

participles.
0

oprimir, "to
siiprimir, "to prender,
romper,
"to "to

oppress," past participles oprimido and suprimido suppress," past participles arrest," past participles prendido break," past participles rompido
and and

pre

so,

and

supreso.

preso.
roio.

550.

List

of

Irregular
found
to

Verbs.

This

list,while
that the in -uir
are

not

complete,
is

will be

contain

all verbs Verbs

student
are

"

in to encounter likely included, excepting those verbs included.

his in

reading. -guir and


verbs
to
one see

not

-quir,nor
523, and
the like

For
Numbers the

-uir

for

inceptive tive incepin the

verbs, 513.
verb section where

refer

paragraph

verb,

or

it, is conjugated.

abrir, 549. absolver, 518.


abstenerse, 543. abstraer, 544.
acertar, 515. 515.

amolar, 515. andar, 525.

antedecir,
anteponer, antever,

531.

538. 546.
515. 515. 515. 515. 515. 515. 515.

acordar,
acostar,

apacentar, apostar,
apretar,

515. acrecentar, 515.

aplacer, 548.

adestrar, 515. adherir, 520.

aprobar,
arrendar, ascender,
asentar,

adormir, 520. adquirir, 515.


aducir, 529.

arrepentirse, 520.

advertir, 520.
alentar, 515.

almorzar, 519. alongar, 519.


amoblar,
515.

asentir, 520. asir, 526.

asoldar,
asonar.

515.

515.

THE

VERB

173
519.

atender,
atenerse, atentar, aterrar, atestar, atraer, atronar, aventar,
avergonzar,

515.

contorcerse,
contraer,

543.
515. 515. 515.

contradecir, 531.
544.
534.

contrahacer,
contraponer,

538.

544.
515. 515.

atravesar,

avenir, 547.
515. 519.

contravenir, 547. controvertir, 520. convenir, 547. convertir, 520. corregir, 522 b.
corroer,

548.
515. 511.

costar,

bendecir, 531. brunir, 509. bullir, 509.

creer,
"

cubrir, 549. dar,


530.

caber, 527. 528. caer,


calentary
cegar,

decaer, 528.
decir, 531. deducir, 529. defender, 515. deferir, 520.

515.

519.

cefiir, 522 b.
cerner, cerrar,

515. 515.

degollar, demoler,
demostrar,

519. 515. 515.

cimentar,
cocer,

515.

519. 515. b.

denegar,
denostar,

519.
515.

colai%

colegir, 522 colgar, 519.


comenzar,

deponer, 538. derretir, 521.


derrocar, 519. desalentar, 515.

519. 521.

competir,
complacer,
c.omponer,

548. 538.
515. 521.

comprobar,
concebir, concernir,
concertar,

515.
515.

concordar, 515. condescender, 515. condolerse, 515. conducir, 529. conferir, 520. confesar, 515.
conmover,

desandar, 525. desapretar, 515. desaprobar, 515. desasir, 526. desavenir, 547. descender, 515. descenir, 522 b. descolgar, 519. descollar, 515. descomponer, 538.
desconcertar, 515. descontar, 515.

515.
522 520. 515. 515. 515. 515.

conseguir,
consentir, consolar,
consonar,

b.

desconvenir, 547. descubrir, 549. desdecir, 531. desempedrar, 515.


desenterrar, deservir,
521. 515.

contar, contener,

desenvolver, 518. desgobernar,


515.

contender,

543.

174 deshacer, 534. deshelar, 515. desleir, 522 a. desmedirse, 521.


desmentir,
520.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

erguir,
errar,

521

a.

517. escarmentar,

515.

escribir,549. esforzar, 519.


estar, 532. 521.

desoir, 536. desolar, 515. despedir, 521. despertar, 515. desplacer, 548. desplegar, 519. despoblar, 515. desterrar, 515. detener, 543.
detraer, 544. devolver, 518.

expedir,
exponer,

538.
515. 544.

extender,
extraer,

forzar, 519. fregar, 519. freir,521. gemir, 521. gobernar, 515. grufiir,509. haber, 533. hacer, 534. helar, 515. henchir, 521. hender, 515.
herir, 520. hervir, 520. herrar, 515.

diferir, 520. digerir, 520. discernir, 515. disconvenir, 547.


discordar, 515. disentir, 520.

disolver, 518.
disonar, 515.

displacer, 548. ciisponer,538. distender, 515.


distraer, 544.

holgar,

519.

divertir, 520.
doler, 515. dormir, 520.

hollar, 515.

elegir, 522 embestir,


empezar,

b. 521. 519. 515. 515. 515. 515.

impedir, 521. imponer, 538. imprimir, 549. improbar, 515. incensar, 515.
inducir, 529.

encender,
encerrar,

encomendar,
encontrar,

engreir,
engrosar,

521. 515. 515. 515. 515.

enmendar, entender,
enterrar,

inferir,520. irjquirir, 515. interponer, 538. intervenir, 547. introducir, 529. invernar, 515.
invertir, 520.

investir,521.
ir, 535.

entreoir, 536. 538. entreponer,


entretener, entrever, 543.

jugar, 516.
leer, 511. Hover, 515.

546. envolver, 518. equivaler, 245.

\yb

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

retraer, reventar,
rever,

544. 515.

superponer,

538.
547.

supervenir,
suponer,

546.
515. 521. 519.

538.
549. 544. 509. 515. 515.

reverter,

suprimir,
sustraer, taner,

revestir, revolcarse, revolver,

518.

rodar,
roer,

515.

548.
519.

temblar, tender,
tener, tentar,

rogar,

543. 515. 522 b. 519.

saber,

540.

tenir,
torcer, 534.

salir, 541. satisfacer,


segar,

tostar,5i5.

519. 522 b.

traducir,
traer, 544.

529.

seguir,
sembrar,
sementar, sentar,

515. 515. 515. 520.

transcender,

515.
520.

transferir,
transponer,

538.
515. 515.

sentir,
ser, serrar,

trascender,

542. 515.

trascordarse,
trasegar,
519. 515.

servir, 521. sobre(e)ntender, 538. sobreponer, sobresalir, 541. sobrevenir, 547. sobrevestir, 521. solar, 515. soldar, 515. soler, 548. soltar, 515. solver, 518.
sonar,

trasofiar,
515.

trasponer, trastrocar, travesar, trocar, tronar, tropezar,

538.
519. 515.

519. 515. 519.

valer,
venir,
ventar,
ver,

545. 547. 515.

546.
515. 521. 515. 519.

515. 522 515. 519. 543. 515. 515.


a.

sonreir,
sonar,

verter,

vestir,
volar,

sosegar,

volcar,
volver,
yacer,

sostener,

subarrendar, subtender,
subvenir, subvertir,

518. 548.
509.

547. 520. 520.

za(m)bullirse,
zaherir,
520.

sugerir,

VOCABULARY
stratives, demoninclude the the does personal not vocabulary pronouns, is cardinal numerals. the Gender not given possessives, or few A is whose termination for meaning. regular new gender by or nouns of words used in for the words most included, already are part synonyms and marks used. Inverted exclamation lessons. the points question not are of the word avoid whose The dash repetition English ( ) is used to Spanish is being equivalent given. This the
"

ability,
about,
pesetas,

habilidad,
de
;
cosa

f. de de
5

all, (nearly)
pesetas.
todo.
;
"

todo

at

"

del
,
"

todo

"

right,
todo

cerca

Esta
lo
que;

bien
"

that,
todo

cuanto,
el

day,

dia.

above, absent,

sobre

"

all, sobre

allow, almost, alms, alone,

dejar,
casi. limosna.
solo.
ya.

permitir.

ausente.

absolutely,
abundance,
accompany,

absolutamente. abundaricia.
acompanar. as, cuenta

already,
to,
segun.
"

according
account,
esto

according
;
"

also,
,

tambien.

on

this
por
eso.

por

amount,

importe,
Alfonso.
aunque.

m.

cantidad,

f.

on

that
m.

Alphonso, although,

ache,

dolor,

doler.
;

acquaintance, of,
conocer.

conocido

make

the

"

always,

siempre.
americano.

American,
be
"

acquainted,
act, acute,
addition:

with, (a

conocer.

and, Anna,

(e)
Ana.

"

not,

ni.

representar

play),

agudo.
in
"

another,
to,
a.

otro. contestar

ademas

de.

answer,

(a),

responder

(a).

address,
advance:

dirigirse
in
"

anterior,

anterior. Antonio.

adelantado.
,

Anthony,
antique, anxiety,
any,

advantage: advise, affair, affirm,


afraid
:

be

of

"

aprovechar.
,

antiguo.
cuidado.
;
"

aconsejar.
caso, asunto.

alguno

at

all,

cualquier(a),

afirmar.
be
"

cualesquier(a).
tener
,

miedo.

apartment,

habitacion,
parecer.

f.

after,
que

despues

de

(prep.),

despues

appear,

(conj.).
tarde,
f. ; in the
"

appetite,
,

apetito.
manzana.

afternoon,
la
tarde.

por

apple, April,

abril,
brazo.

m.

afterwards, again,
comer.

despues.
vez

arm, eat
"

otra

volver
,

arrival,
arrive

llegada. (at),

llegar (a).

age, ago
:

edad,
a

f.
"

siglo.
hace
,

artery,
un

arteria.
como

year

afio.

as,

tan,

;
"

"

for,
tener

en

cuanto

a.

agreeable, air, aire,

amable,
m.

agradable.
the open
"

ashamed:

be
"

vergtienza.
de.

in

al
,

aside; ask,

from, (a),

fuera preguntar

fresco. Alas!

pedir

(a).

Ayl Alejandro.

assortment,
assure,

surtido.
asegurar.

Alexander,

i78
at,
a,
en

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

;
"

"

last, al fin
once,

"

all, del

beg,

suplicar (a), mendigo.


empezar

pedir

limosna.

todo

luego.
f. ;
pay
"

beggar,
to,

attention,
hacer
caso

atencion,
a.

begin,

(a).

beginning, principios behind,


(adv.).

principio
de

"

of

June,
atras,

August,
aunt,

agosto.

junio.
de

tia.

detras

(prep.),

automobile,
Autumn,
avail oneself

automovil,

m.

otofio.

believe,
de.

creer.

of, aprovecharse

belly, vientre, below,


best,

m.

awake,
back, bacon, bad,

despertarse. espalda
toeino. malo. mal.

bajo mejor.

(prep.), abajo,
it is

(adv.).

(n.), posterior

(adj.).

better,
be
"

mejor;
estar
,

"

vale
,

mas;

mejor

de

salud.

bicycle, bicicleta. big, grande,


m.

badly,
baggage, bald,

grueso.
"

equipaje,

bill, cuenta;

of

fare, lista

de

los

calvo.

platos. birthday,
;
"

ball, pelota.
bank,
banco. banco

cumpleaiios,
"

m.

note,

billete

de

bit;

little
negro

un

poquito. blackboard, pizarron,

black,
regatear.
;
"

bargain, bath,
bano.

m.

bano

room,

cuarto

de

blessed, blood,
blue,

santo.

blind, ciego.
banar

bathe, bazaar, be,

(se).
m.

sangre,

f.

bazar,

azul. comida.
casa

ser,

estar,
encontrarse ;
"

haber
;
"

Cimpers. )
contained
; ;
acom"

board,

hallarse,

boarding-house,
boat:

de

huespedes.

in,
of

caber

glad,
to,
;
"

alegrarse
with,
apurarse.

by

"

por

vapor.

advantage
querer
"

aprovechar

"

body,

cuerpo.
cocer.

willing,
pafiar bean,
;

boil,
bene,

worried,
m.

hueso.

frijol,
sufrir. barba. novio.
porque

(Mexico),

judia

book,
born:

libro ;

bookseller, librero
;

store, book-

(Spain).
bear, beard, beau,
be
"

libreria
nacer.
,

bookcase,

armario.

both, bottle,
;
"

los

(las)

dos.

botella.

because,
con

of,

causa

de,

ccy,

muchacho,
cerebro. el
pan,

nino,

chico.

motivo

de.
ponerse
;
"

brain,

become,
anochecer.

hacerse,

night,
ir

Brazil, bread,

Brasil.
m.

becoming:
caer

be

"

sentar
,

bien,

bien,

breadth, break,

anchura,
romper.

ancho.

bien.
cama.

bed,

breakfast,
ropa

desayuno,

desayunarse. respiracion,
f.

bed-clothes, bedroom, beef, before,


carne,
antes ;

de

cama.

breast, breath,

pecho.

alcoba. f. ; de delante
;
a

breathing, respirar. pantalon,

beefsteak,

biste,
antes
"

m.

breathe, breeches, brick, bride,

(prep.),
de ;
year

que terday, yesun

m.

(conj.)

day
"

ladrillo. novia claro


; ;

antier
ano.

hacia
,

bridegroom,
listo

novio.

bright,

(of

people).

VOCABULARY

179
suelto
de
;

bring, broad, broth, brother, build,

traer

"

up,

subir.

cambiar
;
"

"

cars,

cambiar
de

ancho. caldo.
hermano.

tren

clothes,

cambiar

traje. chapter, capitulo.


caracteristico.

construir. edificio.

characteristic,
Charles,
los toros; Carlos,
barato.

building, bull,
toro;

bull-fighting,
torero,

cheap, check,

bull-fighter, business,
casa

talon,

m.

facturar.

asunto,
de

comercio

"

house,

cheerful, cheese,

alegre.
queso.

comercio.
"

busy, but,

ocupado;
pero,

oneself,

ocuparse.

chest,

pecho. polio, garbanzo.


;

sino. carnicero.

chicken, chickpea,
child, chin,

butcher, butter, buy, by,

mantequilla.

nifio

little

"

chiquillo.

comprar. por,

barba.

de,

fuerza

de.

chocolate,
choice,
cochero.

chocolate,

m.

selecto.
escoger.

cab, cafe,

coche, cafe,

cabman,

choose, church, iglesia

in.

iglesia;
; to
"

in
a

(at)
la

"

en
,

la

calendar,

calendario.
be

iglesia.

call, llamar;
Canada, candy,
cape, el

called,

llamarse.

circumstance, city, ciudad,


class, clean, clase, limpio,
claro.

caso.

Canada.

f. f. ; first
"

[clase.
de
,

dulces
capa.

(m.

pi.).
f.

primera

limpiar.

capital,
car,

capital, f., corte,


m.

clear,

coche,

[visita.
visiting
;
" "

clerk, clever, climate,

dependiente.
listo.

card,
care,
"

tarjeta;
cuidado No
,

tarjeta de
;

for,

curar

don't
me

clima,

m.

me

importa,

Lo

mismo

clock,
cloth, clothes,

reloj,
pano ropa

m.

da.

(woolen),
;

careful:

be

"

tener
,

cuidado.
;
"

soiled

"

ropa

sucia

carriage,
coche coche.
carry, case, ;

coche,
ride
in

m. a

in
,

"

en en

clothes-press,
cloud, nube,
f.

armario.

pasearse

coachman, llevar,
transportar.
coat:

cochero.
"

sack

chaqueta.

caso.

cobbler,
Castilla.

zapatero. bacalao.

Castile, catalogue, catch,


coger

codfish, coffee, cold,

catalogo.
;
"

cafe,
moneda.
frio

m.

coger
un

constiparse,

coin, cold,

resfriado.

(n.

or

adj.)

constipado,

cathedral,,
cause,

catedral,
motivo.

f.

resfriado.

causa, sotano. centavo. centro.

collar, college, color,


come, entrar

cuello.

cellar,
cent, center,

colegio.
m.

color,
venir
en

; ;

"

in,
"

entrar

"

into,
;
"

centime,
century,

centime

down, rebajar
;
"

bajar
;
"

siglo. cierto,
silla.
seguro,

down tal.

in

price,
hallar salir ;
!
"

upon,

certain,
chair,

encontrar,
"

up,

subir
;
"

out,

back,

volver

change,

vuelta,

vueltas

loose

""

in !

Adelante

i8o

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

comedy,
common,

comedia.

cure,
comun.

curar.

ordinario,
convidados

current,
"

corriente
mes

be

"

correr

companion,
company,

compafiero.

month,

actual. f. ;
house, custom-

(plu.).

custom,

costumbre,
aduana.

complete, completely,
compose

complete
por

complete
componer

cutler, (de).

cuchillero. store, cuchilleria.

(of),

cutlery
danger, dare,

comfort,
command,

comodidad,

f. comodo.

comfortable,

comfortable,
mandar.
acerca

peligro.
atreverse
a.

concerning,
de.

de,

con

motivo

date,

datar.

daughter,
condimento.

hija.
before to-morrow,
"

condiment,

dawn,

amanecer.

congratulate consequently, considerably,


consist construct,

(on),
por

felicitar

(por).

day,

dia,
;
"

m.

"

yesterday, pasado
los dias ; this

consiguiente.
(en),

antier
manana

after
every
"

bastante. consistir

todos
,

(of),

during
very
"

the
,

por

el

dia;

construir. consultar.
contener.
:

hoy

mismo.

consult,
contain,
contained

dead,

muerto.

deaf, in, caber,


al
,

sordo.
a

be

"

deal:

great

"

mucho.
,

continue,
contrary:

seguir.
on

dear,
"

caro,

querido.

the

contrario. f. cocina.

December, defer, degree,

diciembre, grado.

m.

convenience,
cook,

comodidad,
;

diferir.

guisar
fresco.

cooking,

cool,
copper,

delay,
m.

tardar.

cobre,

delicate, fino. dentist, dentista.


;

Cordova,
corner,

Cordoba.

esquina

(outside)

rincon,

m.

departure, depth,

salida. f.

(inside),
corridor,

profundidad,
modelo. de postres

corredor,

m.

design,
desk, dessert,

correspond,
cost,
costar.

corresponder. traje.
m.

mesa

escribir. (m.

plu.).
dedicarse
a.

costume, cotton,

vestido, algodon,
tos,
contar.

devote

(oneself
morir

to),

die,

(se).
diferencia
;

cough,
count, country,

f.,

toser.

difference,

make

"

importar.
m.

pais,
par,
"

tierra,

campo.
;

digest, digerir. digestion,


diligent,

couple,
married court,
course,

m. un
,

pareja patio.
"

(of persons)

digestion, aplicado. rebajar.

f.

matrimonio.

corte,
curso
"

f. ;
;
,

diminish,
por

of

supuesto

dine,

almorzar

(at noon),

comer

(at

principal
cousin,
cover

principio.
(de).
vaquero.

night),
dining-room, dinner, (at
dint:

primo, -a. (by), cubrir


;

comedor,

m.

almuerzo

(at noon)
fuerza de.

comida

cow, cross,

vaca

cow-boy,
f. ;
cruzar.

night),
by
"

cruz,

of,

cry, cup,

grito, llorar.
taza.

direct,

dirigir.
sucio
;

dirty,
armario.

make

"

ensuciar.
,

cupboard,

dish,

plato.

VOCABULARY

181

dishevelled, disobey, distance, distressed; divine, do,

despeinado.

enough,
enthusiastic

bastante.

desobedecer.

(over),

aficionado

(a).

distancia.
be
"

entire,
apurarse.

entero.

entreat, entry,

suplicar corredor, sobre,

(a).
m. m.

divino.

hacer.

envelope,
Doctor.

Doctor, doctor, dog,

equal, especial

igual.
especial.
sobre

medico.
-a.

perro,

especially, establish,
"

todo,

especialmente.

dollar, door, doubt,

duro,
puerta
;

peso. outer
,

establecer.

portal,

m.

estate,

hacienda.

duda,

dudar.

Europe,
even,

Europa.
ni,
ami.

downstairs, dozen, drawer, dress, dress,


dressed docena.

abajo.

evening,
m.

noche,
por

f. ;

in

the every

"

ings, even-

cajon, traje,
vestir
m.,

la noche;

"

todas
,

vestido.

las
every,

noches.

(se).
vestido beber. de.

cada,
cual
;

todo
"

"

one,

cada los

uno,

in,

cada

day,
el

todos

dias.

drink, drug

bebida,
store,

everybody, everything, examine, example,

todo
todo.

mundo.

botica.

dull, triste, sordo. dumb, during,


mudo.

registrar.

ejemplo.
excepting,
exceso.

durante,

por.

except,
excess,

fuera

de.

each,
cual
ear,

cada;
;
"

"

one,
uno

cada
a

uno, otro.

cada

excessive, exchange,
excuse,

excesivo.

other,

cambio, perdonar.

cambiar.

oreja.
; five

early, temprano
cinco
earn,

minutes

"

con

exercise,
expect,
expense,

ejercicio.
esperar.

minutos
ganar.

de

anticipacion.

gasto exterior

expensive, (as
noun,

caro.

earth, East,
easy,

tierra.
el

exterior,
extreme,

m.).

Este.

excesivo.
muy, sumamente.

facil.
comer.

extremely,
eye,

eat,

ojo. anteojos (plu.).

eatables, Edward,
egg,

comestibles

(m.

plu.).

eye-glasses,

"duardo.
fail:
"

huevo.
octavo, or,

to* dejar
;
"

de.
caerse.

eighth,
either
...

fall,
6
...

caer

down,

6.

family, famous, empleado. fan,


;

familia. famoso.

Emma, employee,
empty, vacio.

Manuela.

dependiente, desocupado

abanico.
as
"

(unoccupied) concluir,
fines
de

far, lejos; face,


cara.

as,

hasta.

end,

fin,
"

m.

terminar, March,

aca-

farm,

hacienda. moda
;

bar; England, English,

of

marzo.

fashion,

be

the

"

estilarse.
,

Inglaterra. ingles,
-a.

fat, gordo. father,


;

padre.
falta.

Englishman, inglesa.

ingles

Englishwoman,

fault, favor,

favor, miedo,

m.

enjoy:

"

oneself,

divertirse.

fear,

temer.

82

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

leather, pluma. February, feel, sentir


I
gana

found,

establecer.
cuarto.

febrero.
;
"

fourth,
bueno da
el ;

well, sentirse
like

France,

Francia.

don't
;
"

feel the

it, No
tomar

me

la

free, libre. freeze, helar.


French,

pulse,

pulso.

feeling, fever,
feverish:

tacto.

frances,

-esa.

calentura. be
"

Frenchman,
tener
,

Frenchwoman,
menudo.
m.

frances,

calentura.
,

-esa. unos.

few,

pocos, campo.

-as

"

algunos,

frequently, Friday, fried,


frito.

field,

viernes,

fifth, quinto.

fiance,

-ee,

novio,
fin.

-a.

friend, amigo, from,


hasta.

-a.

fill, llenar. finally, al find, hallar, finger, dedo


middle
" "

de;
in

" ...

to,

desde
.
. .

encontrar.

front:

"

of, delante

de.

fine, magnifico,
;
,

fino.

frontier,
dedo
,

frontera.

ring
dedo

"

anular
;
"

frost, hielo. fruit, fruta tree),


fun: make
"

del

corazon

dex in-

(picked),

fruto

(on
de.

the

dedo
,

indice

; little

dedo
,

mefiique. finish, acabar, first, primer


fish,

of, burlarse

terminar,
antes.

concluir.

(o),
;
"

gain, pescadero.
gay,

ganar.

pescado

dealer,

alegre.
genero.

fish-market,
fist, pufio.

pescaderia.

gender,

gentleman,
"

sefior,

caballero;

young

flee, huir.
floor,

sefiorito.
,

piso. flor, f.
f.

genuine,
German,

lejitimo.
aleman,
Alemania.
-ana.

flour, harina.
flower,

Germany,
get,
"

flushed, encendido.
folks,
gente,

buscar
up,

(fetch)
levantarse
a

"

to,
;
"

llegar
used

to,

follow, seguir. following,


fond

acostumbrarse hacer
a.

"

suit

made,

siguiente. (of), aficionado


comestibles
;
on
"

hacer

un

traje. chica,
nifia.
una

girl, muchacha, plu.). give, dar


comedia.
; pues
;
"

food, for,

(m.
a
,

play, representar

foot, pie

pie.
mediante

por,

para,

glad:

be

"

alegrarse.
gana:
con

(conj.). forbid, prohibir.


fore,
anterior.

gladly,
gusto.

de

buena

mucho

glass,

vaso

vidrio
m.

(material).
marcharse,
volverse
entrar ;
" "

forehead, foreign,
forget,

frente, f. extranjero. extranjero, (a).


-a.

glove, guante,
go,

ir, andar
irse, partir; down,

;
"

"

away,

foreigner,

back,
"

"

olivdar

bajar;
en
"

in,
"

to, inup,
a

forgive, perdonar. fork,


former, tenedor,
m.

entrar

out,

salir ;

subir the dias.


"

towards,
ir
a

dirigirse
dar
en un

"

antiguo;

aquel.

to
"

walk,
to

paseo,

paseo
;
"

fortnight, quince
fortunate,
adelante.

ride,
repasar;

pasearse
"

coche

afortunado.

over,

to

bed,

acostarse.

forward,

God,

Dios.

184
if, si
;
"

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

not,

sino.

kindness, king,
f.
rey.

amabilidad,
besar.

f.

ill, malo,
illness,

enfermo.

enfermedad, figurarse
inmenso.
;

kiss, beso,
"

imagine,
Vd.
immense,

just

figurese

kitchen,
knock, know,

cocina. llamar.

saber,

conocer

"

how,

saber.

importance,
in, en,
dentro

importancia.
de ;
en

knowledge,
;

conocimiento.

casa

de

(after
lace, encaje, m. lack, falta, faltar.

superl.).
inch,

pulgada.
gana.

inclination,
indeed !

lady,
!

sefiora

young

"

setiorita.
,

Si !

Vaya

jamb, lame,

cordero.

indicate,

indicar.

inferior, inferior, infinitely, infinito.


inflamed, information, inhabitant,
encendido. informes habitante.
#

cojo. land, tierra language,


(m.

native

"

patria.
m.

lengua,

idioma,

large, grande. pi.), larger, largest,


last,
mayor.

ultimo,
; at
"

postrer(o)
al
,

;
"

pasado night, iate,

ink, tinta.
inkstand,
inside tintero.

(past)
anoche.

fin ;

(of),
as

dentro

(de)

interior,

late,
cinco
latter:

tarde

five

minutes
de
retraso.

con

(m.
insist

noun),

minutos
the
"

(on),
for

insistir, (en),
"

este.
,

instance;

por

eiemplo.
f.

laugh,
lawful,

reir(se)

"

at,

reirse

de.

instruction,
insure, intend,

instruccion,

lejitimo.
abogado.

asegurar. pensar.

lawyer, lazy, (m.


as

perezoso.

interesting, interesante. interior, interior


intestines, introduce,
invite

leap-frog, saltacarnero.
noun),

learn, aprender learned, sabio.


least
:

"

about,

saber,

intestinos presentar*

(m.

pi.),

at

"

lo
,

menos,

lo

menos,

(to), invitar
Isidro. Italia. italiano.

(a).

por

lo

menos.

Isidore,

leave,
irse ;

dejar, salir, partir, marcharse,


"

Italy,

off, dejar de.


;
on

Italian,

left, izquierdo
a

the

"

to
,

the

"

la

izquierda. lejitimo.
m.

jacket, chaqueta.. James, January, jewel,


John,

leg, pierna. legitimate,


-a.

Diego,

janitor, portero,
enero.

lemon, length, less,

limon,

longitud,
f.

alhaja. Juan. Jose. viaje, julio. junio. guardar


amable
;
"

f. ;

largo.

menos.

lesson, leccion,
m.

Joseph,
journey,

let, dejar, permitir. letter,


carta ;
"

box,

buzon,

m.

July, June, keep, kind,

"

carrier,

cartero.

library, biblioteca.
on,

seguir.
kilo,
;

lie, mentira,
tarse
;
"

mentir
on, estar

"

down,
en.

acos-

kilogram,

kilogramo,

(adj.)
genero.

clase,

f.,

life, vida.
lift, levantar.

especie, f.,

VOCABULARY

185
mature, maduro.
mayo.

light,
der

claro; (vb.).

luz,

f.

(noun);

encen-

May,
meal,
mean,

lighten, likeable, limb,


tree,

relampaguear.

comida

meals,
querer

la

comida. decir.

simpatico.
(of

significar,
:

miembro

body)

rama

(of

means

by
carne,

"

of, mediante.
f. ;
"

etc.) hilo, lienzo,


ropa

meat, blanca. ceria.

market,

carni-

linen,

lip, labio. list, lista. listen, escuchar. little,


poco

medicine,
meet,

medicina.

encontrar.

melon,
;

melon,
miembro

m.

(adv.)

pequefio,

(adj.).

member, (of

(of

body)

socio

live, vivir. liver, loin, long,


cuanto

club,

etc.).
nombrar.

higado.
lomo.

mention,
message,

mencionar,
recado.

largo,

mucho

tiempo

how

"

metal,
metre,

metal,
metro.

m.

tiempo?
mirar;
;
" "

look,

at,

mirar

;
a

"

for,
"

Mexico, middle,
medio de

Mejico.
centro ;
"

buscar
on, out

like,
;
"

parecer repasar

out

in of

the

"

of,
mediados

en

dar

over,

Look

de

July,
f.

! Cuidado

julio.
medianoche, estio,
f.
;
m.

lose, Louis, love,

perder. Louise,
amor,
m.

midnight,
Luis,
; amar,

Luisa.
querer.

midsummer, milk, minute,


mismo.

leche,
minuto

lovely,
low, lower, lunch, lung,

divino,

precioso.

this

very

"

ahora
,

bajo.
inferior,

Miss,
almorzar
m.

Sefiorita.
error,
m.

almuerzo, pulmon,

mistake,
mistaken:

be

"

equivocarse.

lying, mentira.
Madam,
Madrid: Sefiora. of
correo
"

modern,
moment,

moderno.
momento.

Monday,
madrileno.
money,
una

lunes, dinero,
mes,
mas m.

m.

moneda.
;
or

mail,
carta

"

letter, echar

month,
more,

per

"

al
,

mes. mas

al

correo.

"

less,

poco

majority, make,
mamma, man, manner, many,

mayor ;
"

parte, fun

menos.

hacer
mama.

of, burlarse

de.

morning,
por

mafiana la

in

the
;

"

ings, morn"

mafiana

become

hombre
manera,

"

alive! modo.

Hombre

amanecer.

most,
"

mas,

mayor

parte

de.

muehos,
marzo.

-as

so

tantos,

-as.

mother, motive,

madre. motive
montafia
;
"

March, mark, market,


marry,

nota

(in

school),

mountain, moustache,

range,

sierra,

mercado.
casar,
casarse con.

bigote,

m.

mouth,
move,

boca.

Mary,
master,

Maria, dueno. fosforo


;
wax
"

andar,
mucho
"

mover

(se).
"

much,
cerilla.
,

very ;
as

muchisimo
,
"

match,

so

tanto
,

as,

cuanto,

mathematics,
matter, tar; asunto,

matematica.
cosa
"

tanto to
"

como

too

"

demasiado.
,

;
,

imporpeligro.

muscle,
museum,

musculo.
museo.

dangerous

cosa

de

i86

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

must, mute,

tener

que.

nothing, notice,
noun,

nada,
notar.

no

nada.
. . .

mudo.

sustantivo,
novedad,

nombre.

name,

nombre,
your
es
"

m.

nombrar
sc

What Vd.?

novelty,
November,
now,

f.
m.

is

?
su

Como

llama

noviembre,
;

Cual

gracia?

ahora

just

"

ahora
,

mismo.

napkin,
narrow,

servilleta. estrecho.

number,

numero.

national, nacional. native, natural natural,


near,
cerca

obey,
"

obedecer

(a).

(n.) ;

land, patria.

object, objeto.
occupy, ocupar.

natural.
de
;
"

by,

cerca.

occur,

ocurrir.

necessary,

necesario, collar,

preciso.

October,

octubre,

m.

neck,

cuello.
m.

of, de.
office, despacho,
falta. oficina. hacer

necklace,
need,

necesitar, aguja.
negro.

often,
Oh!

menudo.

needle,
negro,

Ay!
;

old, viejo vecino,


"

am

ten

years

"

Ten,

neighbor, neither,
ni.
...

neighboring,
tampoco
;

-a.

go

diez

afios. mayor,
;
"

...

nor,

ni

older,

oldest,
aceituna

olive,
sobrino.

oil, aceite,

m.

nephew,
never,
en

omelet,
;
"

tortilla,

nunca,

jamas
sin

in

my

life,

omnibus,
on,
en.

omnibus,
con

m.

mi

vida.

motivo

de

have

"

nevertheless,
new,
news,
nuevo.

embargo. (plu.) piece


of

tener

puesto.
una vez

once,
;
"

at

"

en
,

seguida,
cada

noticias

luego.
one,
uno,
-a

noticia.
newspaper,

;
"

each

"

uno, ;
"

periodico. siguiente.

cada

cual

armed,

manco

next,

proximo, simpatico.
sobrina.

eyed,
sino.

tuerto.
no mas

nice,

only, solamente,
la
"

que,

no

niece,
last las

night, noche,
"

f. ; at
;

"

por

noche todas
,

open,

abrir
a. u.

abierto

(adj.);

"

on,

anoche
,

every
"

dar
or,

noches
nono,

become
noveno.

anochecer.
,

6,

ninth,
no, no,

orange,

naranja.
orden, (with
;

ningun(o), nadie, ningun(o). mediodia,


el Norte.
m.

tampoco;

"

one,

order,
para

f. ;

mandar
para para

in que que.

"

to,

nadie.

inf.),
"

(with

nobody,

ninguno.

subj.)

In

that,
lo

noise, ruido.
none, noon,

ordinarily, ordinary,
organ,

por

comun.

ordinario.

organo.

North,
North
nose,

other,
America del Norte.

otro,
de

demas.
otra
manera.

America, nariz, f.
no

otherwise,
Ouch!

Ay!
deber. resultado. exterior,
fuera

not,

"

ever,
no
. .

no
. .

nunca

"

ought,
outcome,

anything,
no
.

nada
.

;
"

"

body, any-

nadie
. .

either,

ni

outer,

ni,
nota,

no

tampoco.

outside,
de ;

(adv.)
n.,
m.

"

of,

fuera

note,

notar.

exterior

VOCABULARY

i87
play, play, comedia, jugar;
n.

over,

sobre;

be

all
m.

"

concluirse.
,

overcoat,
owe, own, owner,

gaban.

jugar
;

(game);

tocar

deber. mismo.

(instrument) plaything, please,


tener

representar
m.

(show).

juguete,
la

dueno.

gustar,

placer,

hacer

el

favor,

bondad,

servirse.
m.

package,
page,

paquete,

m.

pleasure, plenty:
a

gusto,
"

placer,
bastante.

pagina. dolor,
m.,

pain,

doler.

point, polite,

punto.
cortes ;
"

painting, pair,
par,

pintura.
m.

ly,

cortesmente.

pomegranate,
poor,

granada.

palace, palm,
pantry,
paper,

palacio.
palma. despensa. papel, perdon,
Paris.
sala.
m.

pobre.
carne mozo.

pork,

de

cerdo.

[secante.
;
m.

porter,

blotting

"

papel

postal,

postal.
portugues,
-esa.

pardon, Paris, parlor,


part,
pass,

Portuguese, possible,

posible.
correo.

post-office,
f.

parte,
pasar.

postpone, potato,

diferir. patata.
libra.

pattern,
pay,
caso

modelo.
.

pound,
"

pagar;
a.

attention

to

hacer

pour,

echar.

prefer, preferir.
m.

peach, pearl,
peasant,
pen,

melocoton,

prepare,

preparar.

perla.
aldeano.

present,

actual

at

the

"

time,

actualmente.

pluma.
m.

prescription,
president,
gente,
m.

receta.

pencil, lapiz,
people,
pepper,

presidente.

pueblo, pimenton,

f.

pretty,
;

bonito.

(spice)
day,
per

pitres

price,

precio.
cura.

miento,
per,
veces

(fruit),
three

priest,
times
"

por;

principal,

principal.
particular. probable.
f.

al
pesos

dia ;
por

five

pesos

day,

print, imprimir.
private, probable,

cinco

dia.

perfectly,
perhaps,

perfectamente.
quizas,
tal
vez

(often

with

profession, profesion, professor,


catedratico.

subj.). permitir,
person,

dejar,
persona,

permitir.
f.

profit, aproyechar. prohibit, proprietor, proverb,

prohibir.
amo,
-a. m.

Peter, Philip, phrase,

Pedro.

Felipe,
frase,
f. medico,

refran,
prometer.

promise, public, pulse,

physician, pick, piece,


zo

publico.
pulso. castigar. discipulo (of
a

escoger.

bulto

pedazo

(broken)

tro-

punish,
pupil,
no

(slice, etc.).
cerdo.

teacher)

alum-

pig,

(of

school).
compra.

place,

punto,

lugar

(n.

m.)

poner

purchase,
pure,
puro. poner

(vb.).

plate, plato.

put.

"

on,

ponerse.

i88

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

quantity,
quarter,
queen,

cantidad,
cuarto.

f.

ripe,
road,
ir

maduro.

camino: bien
asar;
m.

be

on

the

right

"

to,

reina. preguntar
;

para,
"

question,
una

ask

hacer

roast,

meat,

asado

"

beef,

pregunta.

rosbif,
roof,
room,

quite, bastante. railroad, ferrocarril, rain, lluvia, Hover. rainy,


ranch,
rare,

tejado. habitacion, podrido.


cuarto.

m.

rotten,

royal, real,
rowdy, pillo. ruin, arruinar.

lluvioso.

raise, levantar.
hacienda.
raro.

rule, regla.
run, correr;
"

away,

huir.

reach, read,

llegar
leer.

a.

sad, safe,

triste.
seguro.
m.,

reading, ready,

lectura.

listo.

Saint, San,
salad,

Santa,

f.

real, lejitimo.
rear,

ensalada.
f. ;
me

posterior. de, recordar.


; receta

salt, sal,
same,

recall, acordarse receipt, receive, recibir.

mismo mismo

it's all da.

the

"

to

me,

recibo

(for payment).

lo

sample, Saturday,

muestra. contento.

recitation, clase, f.
red,
encarnado. recomendar.

satisfied,

sabado,

m.

recommend,
remove

save,
sacar

salvar;
sierra.

guardar
good
;

(keep), bye,
"

(from),
sentir.
contar.

quitar (a),

saw,

(de).
regret,

say,

decir;
adios
!

"

despedirse,
so

decir lo
-ta.
creo

should

Ya

relate, remain, remedy,

relative, pariente, quedar.


remedio.

scamp,

pillo.
escuela ciencia.
m.

school, science,

boarding

"

colegio.

remember,

acordarse recordar.

de,

recordar.

sea,
season,

mar,

remind,
resemble,
resort:

estacion, f.
asiento. sentado.

republic, republica.
parecer
a.

seat,

seated,
bafios.

bathing
descansar. demas.

"

second-,
f.
see,
ver

segundo
;

(adj. and
,

n.).

responsibility, responsibihdad,
rest, rest,

let's

"

ver.

seek, buscar.
seem, parecer. escoger.

restaurant,

restauran,

m.

select, selecto,
self, mismo.

result,
return,

resultado.
regreso, repasar.

vuelta;

volver(se).

sell, vender, .seller, vendedor. send, enviar,


sentido.
mandar.

review,

rich, rico.
ride, paseo
;
a

take

"

pasearse

(en
en

sense,

coche,

caballo,

en

automovil,
the
razon.

sentence,

frase,

f.
m.

bicicleta). right, derecho


a

September,
;
;
on

setiembre,
-a

the
"

"

to
,

"

servant,
serve,

criado,
servir.

servidor,

-a.

la

derecha

be

tener
,

VOCABULARY

189
smell, (odor),
olfato
.

seventh, Seville, shade,


bra.

septimo,
Sevilla.
sombra
;

setimo.

(sense)

olor,

m.

in

the

"

a
,

la

som-

small, smaller,

chico,

pequefio.
menor.

smallest,
listo.

shame, sharp, shawl, sheet,

vergiienza. agudo.
manta.

smart,

smoke, pipa.
sneeze,
m.

fumar

"

pipe,

fumar

en

sabana.

estornudar.

shelf, estante, shirt, camisa. shoe,


zapato
;
"

snow, so, tan

nieve,

nevar.

(adv.)
;

;
"

asi,
,

por

consiguiente

dealer,

zapatero

"

(conj.) society,
some,

and

conque.

store,

zapateria.

sociedad, algun(o), alguno algo, algo.

f.
-a, que -os, otro.
cosa.

shop, short,
en

tienda.
corto ;

-as;

"

or

bajo

(of people)

in

"

',

other, something,

fin.

alguna

shortly, should,

luego.
deber

somewhat, (ought), (f. plu.).


son, scon,

hijo.
luego,
;
as

shoulders, shout, show,


.

espaldas

pronto,
"

en

seguida,
que ;

al
as

grito. indicar,
mostrar,
m.

instante
ensefiar
;
" "

as, cuanto

luego
antes,

as

possible,
be
"

window, shower, shut, sick, side,

escaparate,
aguacero.

sorry:

sentir.
,

soul,
cerrado
malo. the other
"

alma.
sopa.

cerrar;

(adj.).
al
,

soup, sour, otro

enfermo,
lado
;
on

agrio.
el

South,
South

Sur.
America del

lado.

America,
America.

Sur.

sideboard, sidewalk, sight,

aparador,
acera.

m.

Sud

Spain, Spaniard, Spanish, speak,


seda.

Espafia. espaiiol, espafiol,


hablar.
-a. -a.

vista,

signify,

significar.
silencioso.

silent, mudo, silk, seda


;

silken,

de

species,

especie,

m.

silver, plata. sin, pecado since,


desde
; pecar

spectacles, (vb.).
;

anteojos,

pi.

speech,
desde
que

habla.

(prep.)

speed, spell, spend, spice,

velocidad,
rato.

f.

(conj.).
sing,
contar.

gastar,

pasar.

sister, hermana.
sit:
"

especia. espinal
;
"

down,

sentarse.

spinal, sitting-roorn, sixth,


sexto,

column, espinal.

despacho.
"

espinazo

cord,

medula

sesto.

skill, habilidad, skin, skull, sky, cutis,


craneo. m.

f.

splendid, spoil,
spoon,

magninco.

arruinar. cuchara.

cielo.

Spring,
square,

primavera. plaza;
cuadrado

sleep, sleeve,

suefio, dormir.
manga,

(adj.).

stairs, escalera.
stamp,
sello. of

slender, slice, slowly,

delgado.

trozo.

standing:
de

long

"

antiguo

"

up,

despacio.

pie.

190
estado. f.

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

state,

take,

tomar,

quedarse
"

con,

llevar;
;
"

"

station, estacion,
stay, estancia
;

off, quitar; (se)


;
"

up,

subir

out,

quedar
cama.

in

sacar.

bed,
steam, steamer, de stew,

guardar
vapor, vapor,
m.

talk, hablar. tall, alto, grande.

m.

"

rug",

manta

taste, tea,

gusto. te,
m.

viaje.
cocido.
pegar. aun,
aun.

leach,

ensefiar.

stick, stock,

teacher,
tear,

maestro,

-a.

still, todavia.
surtidb.

romper,

teaspoon,

cucharilla. cucharadita.
m.

stomach,
stone, stop, store,
m.

estomago,

vientre,
de.
"

m.

teaspoonful, telegram, telegraph,

piedra.
parar,

telegrama,

dejar

telegrafiar. telefono, telefonar.


contar

tienda;
;
"

department
tendero.
a

bazar,

telephone,
tell, decir,

keeper, piso gordo. paja.


fresa.

"

lies, mentir.

story,

(of

house)

cuento

temperature,

temperatura.

(that is told),
stout,

tenth,

decimo.

terrible, horrible.
than,
que,

straight, directo.
straw,

de, del gracias. (conj.


or

que,

de las

lo

que.
;

thank,
thanks,
State

agradecer,

dar

gracias which,

strawberry,
street,

calle, f. ;

St., calle
in

del

that,
lo

que
que.

rel.) ;

"

Estado.
street-car, tranvia.

tranvia,

m.

"

en

the
. . .

the,
teatro.

cuanto

tanto.
. . .

theatre,
pegar.

strike, dar,
strong,

there,
to

alii

(place where)
;
"

alia

(place

fuerte. estudiante.

which)

is, hay.
termometro.

student,

thermometer,'

study,

estudio,

estudiar.

thick,
be
"

grueso.

stuff, (woven), style, modelo,


"

tejido, tela,
moda
in

thickness,
; in
a
,

espesura. pues.

(fashion)
the

then,

entonces,

estilarse;

Spanish

thin, delgado. thing,


cosa

la

espafiola.
such
a,

"

to

worry

about,

cosa

such,

tal, (plu. tales),

de

cuidado.
creer, pensar.

suffer, sufrir.
sugar,
azucar,
m.

think,

third, tercer(o).
m.

suit,
summer, sun,

vestido,
verano.

traje,
in

thirst, sed, thread,


hilo.
"

f.

sol,

m.

the

al
,

sol.

throat, through,

Sunday,

domingo.
be

garganta.
por.

superior, superior.
sure,

cierto,

seguro

to

"

claro.
,

throw, thumb,

echar.

surprise, sorprender.
sweet,

dedo

pulgar.
tronar ;
"

dulce

sweets,
-a

dulces,
;
corazon,

m.

plu.
alma,

thunder,

trueno, f.

storm,

sweetheart,
vida

novio,

tempestad,
Thursday, thus,

(in address).

jueves,
esta
m.

m. manera.

asi, de

table, tailor,

mesa

table-cloth, mantel,

m.

ticket,

billete,
estrecho.

sastre.

tight,

192

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

water,
way,
este

agua.

why,
manera

si.

modo,

;
este-

in

this
manera,
manera

"

de
,

wicked, wide,
widower,

feo, malo.
ancho.

modo,
another
" "

de
,

asi ;
;

in what

de
que

otra

in
on

widow, anchura,

viudo,
ancho.

-a.

?
"

de

manera?
ir
"

to

be

width, wife, will, wind,


,

the
"

right
,

for,
what

bien
?
;

para; por
a

this donde?

mujer,
querer.

esposa,

sefiora.

por

aqui;
"

long

off,

lejos

long

"

viento.
ventana.

mucha

distancia. debil.

window, win, in),


vestido de.
ganar.

weak,

wearing
weather,

(dressed tiempo.

wine, winter,

vino. invierno.

Wednesday, week,
semana.

miercoles,
;"
a
"

m.

wish,
hace
una

desear,
con.

querer.

semana

ago,

with,

within,pesar. peso.

dentro

(adv.)

dentro

de

weigh, weight, well, West,


what?

(prep.). without,
;

sin

(prep.)

sin

que

(conj.).

bien
el

(adv.)
Oeste. como?

pues

(conj.).

woman,

mujer.
madera lana
; ;

wood,
cual?

wooden,
de

de lana.

madera.

que?
lo
que

wool, word,

woolen,

what,

(rel.).
lo
que,

palabra. trabajo
mundo.
apurarse ;

whatever,
que. when?

cualquiera

cosa

work,

(n.)

trabajar.

world,
cuando? cuando.
worry,

don't

"

pierda

when, whenever,
where?

Vd.
que. worse, worth que.
:

cuidado. worst, be
" "

cuandoquiera
donde?

peor.

valer
,

How vale

much esto?

is

wherever, whether,
which?

dondequiera
si. cual?
que, el que, el

this
wrapper,

iCuanto
m.

sobre,
escribir.
mesa

write,
cual.

which,

writing-table,

de

escribir.

whichever,
while, (n.).

cualquiera
que

que.

mientras

(conj.)

rato

yard,
yam,

vara

(measure).

hilo.
afio
;

white,
who?

bianco,

year,
veces

three

times

"

tres
,

quien?
que.

al

afio.

who,

yellow, quienquiera
que. yes,

amarillo.

whoever,
whole,

si.
ayer.
aun,
no.

todo,

entero.
sano.

yesterday,
yet,
no,

wholesome,
whom?
whose?
a

todavia,
todavia

aun

not

"

aun
,

quien? quien? cuyo?

de cuyo. por

young,

ioven;
;
"

"

man

or

woman,

whose,

joven
que ;
a

chap,

mozuelo.
menor.

why?

(cause)
que

para

que vb.

younger,

youngest,

(purpose) motion).

(with

of
zero,
cero.

INDEX
before

personal

obj.,
form

56,
of

180;

with

auxiliaries estar,
be

ir,
;

62 ser,

haber,
503

43, ; 44 not
a.

503
to

prepositional
pron., expresses

personal

504

207,

66;

with "and"

indirect

obj.,
a

24;

separated

from

verb,

after "to
of

ir, 62 ask," places, Sr.,

with

verbs
150;

meaning
with
names

"buy,"
63.
95

"by,"

after

passive,

207

a.

abbreviations:
note ;

D., VV.,
120.

Da.,
27
c.

Sra.,

caber:

conj.,
cada
uno,

527.

V.,
use,

cada,
caer:

cada
use,

cual,
234.

194

a.

acabar,
accent,
155a;

conj.,

528;
9.

7-8
on

on

adverbs forms

in

capital
-mente,

letters, points,

cardinal

verb
as

taking 65,
213 113

ject obcausative
note.

145.

pron.

suffix, recordar,
a, to

construction,
loses
-to, of
of

161.
a.

ciento
acordarse acostumbrarse and

156

comparison:
express

adjectives,
173,

habitual
175;

94, 174;

174,
see

adverbs,
175.

action,
acute

72

a.

"than," 7-8.
agreement,
33,

accent,

compound 58;
ber, num-

tenses,

44,

502.
use,

adjectives:
34; in, 192;

concluir:

conj.,
forms
b.

523;

218. use,
90, 91,

gender,
used
in,
as

35;
nouns, 193;

position,
37;

36,
lose

conditional:

and

128,
conditional

178

final
94,

letter,
174,

comparison,
37
ing mean-

perfect:
in

93,

172c, 128

178b.
pressed extrary con-

175;

of

nationality,
a

a;

conditions:

general,
pres.

note;
97;

of

quantity,
used with
b. in 174;

36

vary
or

in estar,

by
B,
to

part.,
172
c.

ser

47

fact,

128,
232;

d,

note

conjunctions:
-mente,
si 155;
no,

ni,
101,

sino,
6

195;
232a;

adverbs:
173,

comparison,
182;
232, nunca, aun,

(e),
that
conocer:

p.

note;
133.

(u),

and

take

subj.,
513;

jamas,
197. age,

181,

ni,

tampoco,

conj.,
144
a.

contrasted

with

saber,
with tener,
219. use, 40 ;

with

mayor

and

consonants, correlatives:

4, the the

5,

12

f. the
. . .

menor,

former
more
. . .

ter, latmore,

agradecer,
agreement,
of ai

14".
pronoun noun,

153;

the

of with

with
33,

verb, 58.

27

221

ni
. . .

ni,

232.

adj.

continued
22

action:
;

expressed
70

by
b
;
see

ent, pres-

with

infinitive,
1

85
of

a,

b.
p.

imperfect,

also

alphabet,
andar:

names

letters,
contrasted

8.

504.

conj.,
205.

cual,
525;

80. 147.

with

ir,

cualquiera,
cuyo,
220.

176.

antiguo,
article: definite asir:
aun,

see

indefinite

article,

and

dar:

conj.,
of the
use,

530;

in

idioms,
131.

article.

196.

days

week,
30

conj.,
197.

526.

deber:

b;

takes
105.

directly

pendent de-

infin.s

194
decir: defective definite

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

conj.,

531.

future

indicative,
expresses

90,

91

irregular,
178 b. 178 b.
c.

verbs,
article
:

548.
forms and
ment, agree-

92;

conjecture,
93, 172 139,

future future future

perfect indicative, perfect subj.,


172,

with with
names

contractions, 15 b; 15; adj., used substantively,


names

used
37;

subjunctive,
141.

138,

140;

regular, ir-

of

countries,
37

82 a;

with with

of
;

languages,
with
names

titles, 95
131;

of

seasons,

gender:
in
35-

or

nouns,

13;

of

adjectives.

with

cardinal
poss.

points,
of the
to

145; 50,

substitute for
poss. ;

expressions,
parts

53

greetings,
gustar: haber:

Ex.
68.

XXI.

with

body,
express in

use,

89

with

indir. with

obj.
nouns

conj.,
;

533;

as

auxiliary,
a

poss.,

169;
sense,

used

43,

502 152; a;
noun

impersonal,
163;

general
nouns,

with

abstract

43

expresses

distance, 146; infinitives,


app.

152

with in

expresses

impersonal
de

obligation,
163
hacer:
in
a.

with

and

152b; personal

with

with
sions expres-

inf.,
161;

pron.,

183

with

conj.,
time

534;

causative

of
214;

physical
demonst.
names

characteristic,
132;

use,

expressions,
137. use, 168.

187;

in

time
or

expressions,
pronoun,

for

expresses

weather,
154;

personal
with
or

hacer

falta:

modified

of

countries and
228
119;
a

people,
63
;

238 ; in

with

escuela
price, app.,

imperative:
;

142, 122,
222

222;

subjunctive

casa,

expressing
noun

used

for,

b.
70.

omitted omitted

before before omitted

in

imperfect imperfect impersonal


use

indicative, 69, subj.,


128; verbs,
125;

numeral with
52
a

after
poss. ;

title,
in lo,
c.

use,

126;
127.

in

236 a;
the
117a;

pron.

conditions,
of

irregular,
202

predicate,
lo
212.

neuter

impersonal
81
;

used

with

todo,

189

3d

pers. 190; 513.

plural,
with

with
102.

dejar,

indirect

obj.,
verbs,
article:
a;

subj.,
j6;

demonstrative
use, 59.

adjectives

forms

and

inceptive
indefinite
16
noun, 204 ;

forms,
with certain

ed, repeat-

demonstrative
use,

pronouns

forms
as

and

omitted
;

predicate general
194;

60;
153-

neuter,

117c;

tives, correla-

96
in

in

exclamations,
of
a

expressions
216;
follow
147.

desear: desde

with

infin., 105.
in time

character,

with

otro,
; used

(que)
e.

expressions

may

not

tal,

171

with

187

cualquiera,
235.

dimensions,
diminutive

indefinite
231.

pronouns 135;

and

adjectives
147;

suffixes,
3.

negative,
uno, 151;

cualquiera,
171;

diphthongs,
distance,

tal,

todo,

189;

otro,
use

with

haber,
22f

146.
25c,
note:

194; 182.

cada,
uno
a

194

A;
200.

reciprocal
with

"do,"
Don,
-ducir:

auxiliary:
Dona,
95. 529.

of

otro,

indicative:

contrasted

subj.,

99.
to

conj.,
of

infinitive,

18,

19,

20;

equivalent dependent expressions


136;
after hacer

I"ng. endings
table
estar:

the

verb,

19 ;

complete
85
with
;

pres.

part,
para,

after
31
;

prepositions,
on

with
105

of, 501.

verbs,

after que, 152

of

conj.,
47
:

532;

contrasted
504.

quantity by
mandar,

and

preceded
and

ser,

as

auxiliary, gender.

article,
161.

b;

feminine

see

INDEX

195
number:
34-

interrogative
80;
cuyo,

pronoun:

que

and

cual,
in

of

nouns,

14;

of

adjectives,
156;

176.
words:
32.
come

interrogative
sentence,
ir:

first

numerals

cardinal,
236.

39,

87,

dinals, or-

conj.,
contrasted

535;

use,

62

a,

234,

504;

nunca,

181.

with past

andar,

205. 549.

irregular

participles,
512-550. 47

6,

u,

6
...

6, 232. expressed 163;


use,

irregular
"it," 38

verbs,
note ;

obligation:
30 a;

by by
188.

tener

que,
30

B,

d.

haber,

deber,

b.

oir:

conj., 536;

jamas, joven,

181.
220.

orthographical
505-511.
use,

changing

verbs,

73,

jugar:

conj., 516;

226.

otro,

194.

language,

names

of,
Ex.
XXI.

37

a.

para:

with

indirect with
c.

obj.,
form

24;

with
pers.

leave-taking,
list of

rnfin., 32;
540.
pron., parecer:

prep,

of

irregular
used
menor,

verbs,

116

use
see

168.

mandar: mayor,

causatively,
219.

161

a.

participle :
past

present

participles and
passive
absolute

participles,
503, 207
;

mil, mismo,
money,

millon,
112.

156 b.

passive,
const.,
210,
211.

208;

reflexive

subst.

for,

227.
see name

moods:

of

mood.

past

definite

indie,

69,

70 ;

irregular
in

months,
"must:"
30
a.

131.

84. by
tener

expressed

que,

past

participle:
tenss, with

see

42, ;

44;

pound com-

502

in
209 ;

passive,
in

207,

503

estar, with

absolute and

nada,

nadie,

135.

const.,

208;
179

que

past

nationality:
negative
guno,

adjectives
239.

of,

37a;

fixes suf-

def.,

b;

irregular,
44. 172,

549.

indicating,
words
135;
:

perfect
nadie,
.

indicative,

nada,

nin-

perfect
perfect

subjunctive,
of the

172 179.

a.

nunca, 232; no,

jamas,
182.
pron.,

181;

ni,

past

def., 56,
:

tampoco, neuter,
117;
pron.

personal
160;
sonal per-

objective,
pronouns

68,

180.

relative
117

personal subject
28
;

b.

forms intimate
c,

26, forms,

27

omission,
a

ni,

22,2.

27
199

; a;

usted,
ter neu-

ninguno,
no,
nouns:

135;

loses
182.
13;

o,

in.

27

b,

d;
117

nos,

vos,

25

note;

ello, number,
; 14,
use

b.
:

gender,
vocab.

note

prepositional regular
used ter,

forms

61

used

with
115;
neu'

to
masc.

XXIX

special
use

of

object
as

forms,

66, it6;

plu., 54;
;

special
vary

of
form
poss.,

sing.,
for
17;

alone

object,
used

237 case,
as

does
231;

not

in

ello, 117b;

reilexively,

formation

of
24;
as

76

a.

indirect 56,

object,
68,

personal
of
not

object

forms

64

; 113,

use,
121

64 b, 66,
;

note 122,

object, material,
be 57 ;

180;
55,
,

expression
191 ; may

position,
222

65,
double

etc.,
in

a,

b;

const.,

115; personally, im-

omitted collective

possessive
203 ;

const.,
see

used

reflexively, 162;

76, 77

used

nouns,

fixes. sufused
to express

indirect
possession,

obj.
169;

196
indirect

SPANISH

GRAMMAR

obj.
190;
neuter

with dative

impersonal
of
117

que, querer:

80.

verbs,
199c;

interest,
b.

conjugated, dependent
129.

539;

use, 105.

67 b;

forms,
74.

takes

infin.,

pluperfect pluperfect plural


poder:
:

indicative, subjunctives,
number.
537;

quisiera,
172

172,

b.

see

radical-changing
takes

verbs,

106-109;

505-

conj.,
105.

dependent

$22.

infin.,
poner:

reciprocal conjugation,
use, pronouns,
a,

200.

conj., 538;
of
122,

170a.

reflexive 65,
113,

pronouns yy.

forms,
78;
the

76

tion, posi-

position:
121

obj.
222

b,

b;

of

reflexive

reflexive

verbs,
or

75,

used

sonally, imper79,

pronoun,

yy.

for

passive,

possession
indirect

expressed obj., 169.

by

def.

art.

and

210.

regular

verbs,

500-511.
a.

possessive
use, 49 ;

adjectives:
substitutes

forms,
for
su,

48;
50
;

reir: relative

conj.,
el

522

pronouns:

que,

157;

quien,
160;
157

the
in

long place

forms, of, 89.


pronoun:

167;

article

used

158;
cuyo,

que
a;

and
never

el

cual,

176

omitted,

possessive
52
;

forms,
for el

51; suyo,

use,

note. ;

substitutes
1 1

53

neuter,

7 d.

saber:

conj.,
144.

540;

contrasted

with

predicate
sentence,

adj. :
41.
:

position general
introduced before

in

interrog.
statement,

conocer, salir:
se se

conj.,

541.

prepositions
235 105;
never

reflexive: substitute
131. use,

position,
pronoun,

113.
114.

A;

before clauses omitted

dependent by,
noun

infin., 165;
as

seasons,
sentar:

direct in-

234.

obj.,
present future present

24,

note. 21,
a.

Seiior, Seiiora:
22;

in

address,
with

184.
estar,
235
a

indicative,
or

used

for

ser:

conj.,
47
;

542;

compared

past,

178

in

giving
b.

dimensions,
207, 503.

participles :
to

45

with
97 ;

clause used
47

as

auxiliary,
30

equal
and

condition,

in
c,

should, si,
182.

progressive
y2 504.

conjugation,

A,

sino,
100; 122,

195. any
unos,
:

present used

subjunctive,
for

use,
222

103;

some,

not

expressed, obj.
7 ;
on

note,

p.

imperative,
loses

b.

21; 228.
stress

151;

pronoun,
stress

162.

price,

idiomatic
o,

expression
in. :

of,

and
21

accent, note;

in

pres.

primero; progressive
72; 504.

indie,
see

imperfect
note
1

and ture fu-

conjugation

47

a,

past

definite, 69, subj.,


note to

in

138;
in note;

in future in

ative, imperand
pres.

prometer:
pronoun
:

use,
see

224.

142 pronoun, sessive pos-

note;
90

personal
pronoun,

cond.

indie,
100

demonstrative
pronoun,

subj.,
ative rel-

note.

pronoun,

interrogative
pronoun,

subjunctive:
99.

general

statement,

98,

indefinite
1-12;

pronoun.

pronunciation,
1 1

irregularities of,
page 7.

in

dependent object,
101, 133,

clauses:
149, 201;

subject,
161, 166;

102;

exercises
10.

in,

verb, ad134.

punctuation,
purpose:

adjective,
121;
222

with
para que

para

and

inf.,
133.

31;

in

main

clauses:
122,

used b.

for

with

and

subj.,

imperatives,

INDEX

197

after

certain

verbs,
161
;

101,

102,

uno,

151

loses

o,

39

note,

149,

166,

after

certain after

junctions, con-

usted,

2^,

b,

c,

d;

64,

note

3.

133,

201

tives, relavaler: venir:

134;

in

alternative introduced
in

sions, expres-

conj., conj.,
conj.,
500-550.

545. 547;
as

201

by

que
trary con-

auxiliary,
188.

504.

only,
to

121

conditions

\er:

546;

use,

fact,
229

128,
;

172

c.

verbs:

suffixes

-ero,

-eria,
-ano,

230

-ito, -ino,

the

regular

verb, verbs,

500-511. 512-550.

-illo,
-es,

-uelo,
239.

231;

-eiio,

irregular

orthographical-changing
without
6.

verbs,

33,

superlative syllabification,

comparison,

174.

505-511.

radical-changing, class,
107,

106,
515-519;

514;

first

second

class,
522.

tal,
tampoco,
tener:

171.
22,2.

108,
-uir

520;

third

class,

109,

verbs,

523.

conj.,
que,

543;

use,

29;

auxiliary
age,

inceptive
40
;

verbs, unclassable, 548.


past

513. 524-547.

tener

30

expresses

irregular, defective, irregular

physical
in

or

mental

condition,
235.

86;

giving
:

dimensions,
names

participles,
79,
210,

549.
211.

tenses

see

of

tenses

ularities irreg-

reflexive, reciprocal,

75-78,
200.

in of

use

of,
the

178;

sequence
103,

tenses

of

subjunctive,

impersonal,
list of
most

202.

126,
tercero:

140,

172.

irregular

verbs,

440.

loses

o,

in.

verdad,
volver:

164.
use,

"than,"
time time

175.

225.
12

expressions

with

hacer,

187.

vowels,

2,

b,

3.

telling,
189.

88,

196. weather,
with

todo,
traer:

hacer,

137.

conj.,
3

544.

willingness 67
b.

expressed

by

querer,

tripthongs,

d.

word-order,
-uir

affirmative,
25

25
41 ;

a;

rogative, inter-

verbs,

523.

b,

32,

negative,

unclassable

irregular

verbs,

524-547.

25

see

position.