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Chemical Process Industries (CHEM 2003) Tutorial Sheet No.3 Solution Octo er 200!

1. a. Terminology Weve got to understand one another! "hat is the meanin# o$ P%&' PFD means process flow diagram. t contains sym!ols for units connected with lines representing pipes. The sym!ols represent the type of e"uipment# and each piece of e"uipment has a uni"ue num!er and name. $sually# the drawing shows important compositions and all utility flows to process units are shown. n some cases# the drawing in com!ined with the results of the flowsheet calculations that give the rate# composition# pressure and enthalpy of each stream. . "hat is the meanin# o$ P(I &' (Note that this is not the PI& al#orithm in )rocess control.) P% D means &piping and instrumentation'. This drawing includes details on each piece of e"uipment (including spares)# all entering and e*it connections# limited details on internals (e.g.# trays)# drains# instrument connections# all sensors (including location of display and calculation)# valves# utility streams# safety e"uipment# isolation valves# and machinery (motors). c. "h* do en#ineers #i+e num ers to all e,ui)ment' (It-s not ecause .e are /ealous o$ accountants.) We must !e a!le to connect pipes and instrumentation many times to provide the comple* structures. This re"uires detailed# une"uivocal identification of all e"uipment. +. a. ,verview of the process Whats going in and coming outIdenti$* all $eeds to and )roducts $rom units on the dra.in#. ,ne feed from the left to a drum. The material then proceeds to the feed of the Depropani.er. Products (these are not a single# pure component) (1) from the depropani.er overhead to fuel gas (+) from the depropani.er overhead to li"uid propane# (+) from the de!utani.er overhead to li"uid !utane product (/) from the !ottoms of the de!utani.er . "h* are the distillation to.ers called 0de)ro)ani1er2 and 0de utani1er2' 0ach separates the feed into De12 (all components lighter than and including 2) overhead. 3ll heavier components e*it at the !ottoms. 4aturally# the separation is not perfect.

c. d.

Hi#hli#ht the main )rocess $lo.(s) in the )rocess. "hat utilit* streams are used in the )rocess (e.#.4 .ater4 steam4 h*dro#en4 nitro#en4 etc.)' 5ooling water is used in the condensers. 6team is used as heating in the re!oilers and to power a tur!ine that drives a pump F1+7. 5ompressed air is used for all control valves. 0lectricity to power pump motors. 4o fuel gas is consumed8 however# the vapor product for the depropani.er goes to fuel gas.

/. a.

Piping and valves 9eeping the materials in the plant and away from us! "ith .hat s*m ols are the )i)es re)resented in the dra.in#' 6olid :ines.

"hat s*m ols are used $or )um)s' "hat #eneral class o$ )um)s is used in this )rocess' 6ee the sym!ol for F1+7. These are centrifugal pumps.


"h* does the )i)e si1e chan#e $rom the inlet and outlet o$ E526' The inlet to the condenser is a gas. 3fter the condenser# the fluid is li"uid# which re"uires a smaller pipe.


%ind +al+e %753. 5 Is this an automated control +al+e or a 0hand2 +al+e' This is an automated control valve. ;aria!le air pressure is used to change the stem position as it acts against the force of a spring. 5 "h* are all o$ the other +al+es located around %753' The hand valves can !e used to isolate F;11 and open a !ypass. This procedure ena!les the maintenance or replacement of F;11 without stopping plant operation. 4ote the drain valve used to clear material after isolation.


"hat is the si1e o$ the )i)e et.een %528 and %753' The drawing shows it to !e 1+ cm. 5 Ho. is the 0 est2 )i)e si1e determined' The pipe diameter is determined !y an economic evaluation that reduces the com!ined cost of pumping (favoring large diameters) and pipe cost (favoring small diameter.

5 "hat is a rule o$ thum $or the +elocit* in the li,uid5$illed )i)e' 3 value of 1 m<s is reported . $. 5 "hat is PS753' (Comin# attractions 9 "e .ill discuss this in the classes on sa$et*:) This is a safety relief valve that will open when the pressure e*ceeds a specified ma*imum value. #. 5 "hat t*)e o$ +al+e od* is used in %75;' (<lo e4 all4 needle4 etc.) This level of detail is not typically provided in a P % D. =. a. Pumps >etting to the heart of the matter. %ind )um) %528. 5 "hat is the e,ui)ment in the $eed )i)e to the )um)' There is a hand valve that can !e used (with the e*it valve) to isolate the pump so that it can !e maintained or replaced when the plant is in operation. 3lso# there is a filter to prevent solid material from entering the pump. 5 "hat is the e,ui)ment at the outlet )i)e $rom the )um)' There is a valve that can !e used (with the inlet valve) to isolate the pump so that it can !e maintained or replaced when the plant is in operation. 3lso# there is a one1 way (or &chec?') valve to prevent flow reverse to the e*pected direction. 5 "hat )ro+ides the )o.er to the )um)' Power is provided !y an electric motor. . Pum) %52! is located a$ter 7530. "h* does the dra.in# s)eci$* that 7530 must e ;.6 m a o+e #round le+el' The li"uid to the pump leaves the vessel at its !u!!le point. f it entered the pump at the !u!!le point# it would vapori.e. This is called cavitation# which can cause severe damage to the pump. The head of =.7m of li"uid provides additional pressure to prevent vapori.ation in the pump for this specific pump. The net positive suction head (4P6@) is reported !y the manufacturer. 7. a. 6ensors The eyes of the operators. "here are the dis)la*s located' 5 To read PI534 .here .ould *ou loo=' This is a local instrument (it has no line in the &!u!!le'). 6orry# you have to wal? out to the plant location to read the local display. 3lso# no record of historical data would !e availa!le.

5 To read TI5;4 .here .ould *ou loo=' This is availa!le in the central control room. t is displayed on a control panel for analog instrumentation# or it is displayed on a computer screen for digital instrumentation. f analog# a short history on the paper would !e availa!le. f digital# a history of past data would !e availa!le. 5 To read PT584 .here .ould *ou loo=' This is a transmitter# which converts the measurement to a pneumatic signal for use in calculations. This is used to calculate a differential pressure !etween locations determined !y the position of the switch (P6). 4o display is provided !y a transmitter. 5 Could *ou $ind historical data $or %C5;' %or TI58' For F51=# yes. f analog control e"uipment# a chart recorder would have the last few hours of data. f digital control e"uipment# the data would !e stored for a very long time. The most recent few hours would have fre"uent samples# and as the data proceeds !ac? in history# it is compressed (e.g.# !y ta?ing minute or hourly averages) to save storage space. . "hat is the meanin# o$ the lines .ith cross5hatchin#' These are instrumentation signals !eing transmitter around the plant. $sually# the hatched lines indicate pneumatic signals. n most new plants# these would !e electronic signals# which would !e designated !y dashed lines. c. "hat is the )ur)ose o$ PS!' This is a switch that selects two of the many signals inputted to the switch. 5 "h* are so man* instruments lin=ed to it' We have the a!ility to calculate the pressure differences !etween different locations in the distillation tower. 5 "hat )rocess +aria le does dPI3 dis)la*' This is the pressure difference. t would !e measured to monitor for chnages to the resistance to flow. For e*ample# corrosion of trays could cause a change in pressure drop. 3lso# e*cessive li"uid flow could cause a !uildup of li"uid on the trays (flooding) which has the symptom of a high pressure drop. d. "hat t*)e o$ $lo. sensor is used $or %C5;' 3n orifice meter is used# as designated !y the three same lines perpendicular to the pipe. Aany other flow meters have sym!ols# so that we have to refer to detailed !ac?up documentation.


"hat t*)e o$ tem)erature sensor is used in TC532' This information is not availa!le on the drawing.


"hat t*)e o$ anal*1er is used $or >I53' This detail is not usually provided on the drawing. The varia!le !eing measured is usually indicated (e.g.# 5/ for propane).

B. a.

Process e"uipment the reason for the plant. Ho. man* theoretical tra*s e?ist in the de utani1er' We do not ?now how many theoretical trays were used in designing the tower. The drawing shows that +/ actual trays are in the tower.

E?)lain the )rinci)les o$ the condenser E52@4 s)eci$icall* ho. the )ressure is controlled * chan#in# the heat trans$er dut*. When the heat transfer duty is changed (increased)# the rate of condensation is affected (increased# which reduces the vapor in the fi*ed volume of the distillation tower. 3s a result# the pressure is affected (decreased). The heat duty depends on the area for heat transfer# specifically the area availa!le for condensation. Cemem!er that the heat transfer for condensation is very high per unit area. The condenser duty is changed !y adDusting the valve in the li"uid e*it line from the e*changer to the accumulator drum. This changes the heat transfer in the e*changer. For e*ample# opening the valve slightly will lower the li"uid in the heat e*changer# which will increase the area for condensation# which will increase the condensation rate# which will decrease the pressure.


"h* is TC32 controllin# the tem)erature o$ a tra* in the de utani1er' The temperature is not of importance# !ecause the steel vessel is strong enough to withstand any possi!le temperature. @owever# the temperature of a !u!!le point mi*ture at a constant pressure gives an indication of the composition. Therefore# we (appro*imately) control composition !y controlling the temperature. We call this approach inferential control.


"hat t*)e o$ re oiler is )ro+ided in the de utani1er' (=ettle4 thermos*)hon4 )um)ed circulation4 etc.) This is a thermosyphon. 3ll of the fluid entering the re!oiler returns to the tower. The returning fluid is partially vapori.ed. The flow is not pumped8 it occurs !ecause of the density different a thermosyphon effect.


%ind heat e?chan#er E52;. 5 "h* is steam enterin# and .ater lea+in#'

@eat transfer results in the steam !eing condensed. 3 steam trap at the e*it of the e*changer prevents any steam from e*iting the e*changer. This prevents a waste of steam that had not !een condensed. 5 "hat is the meanin# o$ the o? .ith 0T2 inside' This is a steam trap. 5 &escri e the .or=in# o$ one de+ice used in the ,uestion a o+e. 3 float could rise in condensate and open the e*it for water. f no condensate has accumulated in the trap# the e*it from the trap will !e closed !y the position of the float. E. 3re there different sym!ols for different ?inds of pumps# heat e*changers# etc.Fes# the sym!ols indicate the !asic features of the heat e*changers# e.g.# shell and tu!e# plate# ?ettle re!oiler# thermosyphen# and so forth. G. Why would the depropani.er overhead go to flareThe depropani.ed vapor product stream is predominantly ethane and methane. These components are often used as fuel gas8 therefore# the overhead is normally sent to fuel gas. n case of e*cessive pressure# the pressure relief valves must open and cause a stream of hydrocar!on gas to leave the depropani.er. When this happens# the gas cannot !e released to the atmosphere it could com!ust or e*plode! Therefore# the high pressure safety valve is connected to the flare where the gas can !e safely !urned. 4aturally# this involves a loss of valua!le fuel and is to !e avoided. H. What is the purpose of the drainsWe must supply a drain for spills and for e"uipment maintenance# when we disconnect parts of the process. 1I. What indicates an alarm6ee the course ta! on safety. 11. 0*plain how the !ottoms from the depropani.er enters the de!utani.er as BEJ vapor. The !ottoms from the depropani.er is 1IIJ li"uid. 3fter flowing through the control valve (:;1+)# the stream pressure decreases from a!out 1.1 to close to I.=G Apa. Kecause of the decrease in pressure# the stream partially vapori.es.


What is the purpose of the hand valve near the control valve F;11 and inside the !loc? valves. This is a drain valve for removing fluid and reducing pressure after the !loc? valves have !een closed and !efore the control valve is removed from the line.


What does P6 meanP L pressure 8 6 L switch8 This device determines which connections are used tfor the dP 11 (differential pressure indicator)


@ow do we determine the type of sensor (thermocouple# CTD# etc.) and the specific type of control valve !ody (!all# glo!e# etc.)This information is not provided on the P% drawing. Further details are given on the instrumentation specification sheets and valve specification sheets.


Why is 3011 connected to the fuel gas system3 small sample of gas from the de!utani.er overhead is re"uired for the analy.er. This gas is com!usti!le and must !e processed8 it cannot !e vented to the atmosphere. Thus# the analy.er e*haust gas and the part of the flow not used in the analy.er flows to the fuel gas system.


What is the composition of the overhead stream e*iting the depropani.er reflu* drum# ;1/IThe composition is not given on the drawing !ecause it will change during plant operation. 6ince the purpose of the tower is to remove propane and lighter overhead and to recover most of the propane as li"uid product for sale# we e*pect the vapor product to !e predominantly ethane and lighter.