Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Journal of http://jmd.sagepub.

com/ Marketing Education

A Gap Analysis Approach to Marketing Curriculum Assessment: A Study of Skills and Knowledge
Richard Davis, Shekhar Misra and Stuart van Auken Journal of Marketing Education 2002 24: 218 DOI: 10.1177/0273475302238044 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jmd.sagepub.com/content/24/3/218

Published by:
http://www.sagepublications.com

Additional services and information for Journal of Marketing Education can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jmd.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jmd.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://jmd.sagepub.com/content/24/3/218.refs.html

>> Version of Record - Dec 1, 2002 What is This?

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

DECEMBER JOURNAL OF 2002 MARKETING EDUCATION

A Gap Analysis Approach to Marketing Curriculum Assessment: A Study of Skills and Knowledge
Richard Davis, Shekhar Misra, and Stuart Van Auken

The need for continuous improvement in a marketing curriculum requires periodic outcomes assessments. Part of the process includes a monitoring of the relevance of a marketing curriculum to a graduates work environment. This article describes a process for conducting an outcomes assessment and the results of an actual alumni assessment encompassing skill and knowledge areas. Specifically, a gap analysis approach was employed in which the importance of key skill and knowledge areas to ones current employment were contrasted with perceptions of their own academic preparation in these areas. Our results indicate that marketing alumni perceive that they are underprepared in skills and overprepared in designated knowledge areas. The implications of the findings are discussed as well as the utility of the gap analysis in outcomes assessment.

service to their careers. The variables that we employ encompass skill and marketing knowledge areas. GAP STUDIES Gap analyses may take several forms. To illustrate, Nordstrom and Sherwood (1997) compared undergraduate and graduate perceptions of the adequacy of skills and characteristics required by the work environment. Winer (1998) described a gap analysis approach to assessing the administration of a business school, including the design of curricula to meet employers expectations. Giacobbe and Segal (1994) also used a gap model to explore the performance interrelationships that existed between marketing students, marketing research educators, and marketing research practitioners. Their study examined perceptions of performance skills and abilities desired by practitioners relative to the extent of their delivery. Lundstrom and White (1997) also used a gap analysis to measure perceptual differences between practitioners and academicians on curriculum content and research areas in international marketing. GAP ANALYSES VERSUS OTHER ASSESSMENTS A gap analysis is an outcomes assessment tool in that it lends itself particularly well to the measurement of alumni attitudes and perceptions. It can provide an indirect indicator of student satisfaction and/or program quality. It is indirect in the sense that one can surmise that underpreparation in some areas versus overpreparation in others signifies that the
Richard Davis is a professor in the College of Business, Department of Finance and Marketing, California State University, Chico. Shekhar Misra is a professor in the College of Business, Department of Finance and Marketing, California State University, Chico. Stuart Van Auken is a professor and the Alico Chair in the College of Business, Department of Marketing, Florida Gulf Coast University. Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 24 No. 3, December 2002 218-224 DOI: 10.1177/0273475302238044 2002 Sage Publications

The continuous improvement process for a marketing

major calls for an examination of marketing curricula in several respectscoverage of theory, application, currency of information, and relevance to the careers of marketing alumni. The relevance aspect of curriculum improvement can be assessed in part by asking marketing graduates about the extent to which their marketing education prepared them for their marketing careers. This article examines the relevancy of marketing curriculum through a gap analysis applied to marketing alumni. Gap analysis is a concept that has received much attention since it was presented in the services marketing literature by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985). These authors described a gap as a divergence between either an expected service and a perceived (delivered) service from a customers point of view or the difference between a service providers specified level of service and the service actually delivered. Overall, measurement can be made objectively in terms of what the consumer receives as a result of his interactions with a service firm (Lewis and Klein 1986, p. 33). In the context of our study, we measure the difference between the service that was deliveredmarketing curriculumand the students or consumers perceptions of the relevance of that

218

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

JOURNAL OF MARKETING EDUCATION

219

appropriate educational product may not have been delivered. Of course, there are many outcomes assessment approaches including the following: recruiter and employer perceptions of graduates; exit examinations; the nature and number of job placements; student retention rates; student perceptions of curriculum, instructional techniques, and faculty; and alumni perceptions of value. Studies have also been made of the attributes of an institution or department important to student satisfaction (Gwinner and Beltramini 1995; Juillerat and Schreiner 1996), and pedagogical techniques have been related to an overall attitude toward the marketing major (Davis, Misra, and Van Auken 2000). All of these approaches have utility. According to Halpern (1988), there is no best single indicator of program quality. Still, the degree to which alumni believe that their marketing education prepared them for marketing careers is certainly a significant indicator of curriculum quality, hence satisfaction or attitude. Basically, a gap-based measurement of alumni perceptions should reveal much about the skills and knowledge components of the marketing option. As Headley and Choi (1992) pointed out, To improve service quality, one must listen to the customer since quality is ultimately defined by customer perceptions (p. 8). In the case of the academy, this would include alumni, students, recruiters, and employers. While all of the assessment approaches have utility, a gap analysis has many benefits in assessing outcomes. These are as follows:
It has the potential to produce more actionable results than student retention surveys, job placements, student perceptions of faculty, and exit examinations. It has the potential to provide deeper insights than mere student satisfaction surveys. A basis for comparison or improvement is created. It prompts a systematic process of evaluation versus ad hoc analysis. Longitudinal trends can be plotted. It provides a quantitative basis for analysis, thus it is scientific in approach. The variables for analysis can be arrived at through a faculty consensus, thus creating more of a faculty buy-in or acceptance of the results. It is applied to one of the more prime stakeholder groups: a marketing departments alumni.

Some variables under scrutiny may become obsolete and new variables may appear, thus disrupting longitudinal analysis. The structure of the sample such as sex, ethnicity, and other demographic variables may change over the years.

Overall, the gap analysis approach is a useful tool for outcomes assessment, and it can be used as a supplement or prime assessment approach that is supported by other outcomes measures. Table 1 shows how our alumni assessment fits into our American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation review. Basically, it served as one of three outcomes measurements. KNOWLEDGE VERSUS SKILLS Because of the growing complexity and intellectual demands of business and growing importance of technology and globalization, the right balance between knowledge and skills becomes increasingly important. In our assessment of alumni via a gap analysis, we concentrated on the relationship between skills and knowledge as it presented a dilemma to us as marketing educators. To illustrate, students could have significant marketing knowledge when they graduate, but without certain skills they would not be very effective in terms of performing their jobs. Similarly, a marketing graduate with many skills but limited marketing knowledge may not be very effective either. Yet, to compete well in the job market, graduates must be equipped with the skills and knowledge required by employers (Floyd and Gordon 1998, p. 103). Assessment, therefore, needs to address skills and knowledge. In fact, assessment is most effective when it views learning as being multidimensional, integrated, and based in performance over time (Gardiner, Anderson, and Cambridge 1997). This is because learning is a complex process.
It entails not only what students know but what they can do with what they know; it involves not only knowledge and abilities but values, attitudes, and habits of mind that affect both academic success and performance beyond the classroom. (Gardiner, Anderson, and Cambridge 1997, p. 11)

Some of the liabilities of a gap analysis, however, cannot be ignored. Therefore, the following is presented:
Surveys may be subject to sampling issues, such as nonresponse bias and inadequate sample size. The results may be time dependent. That is, recent graduates may have different perspectives than nonrecent graduates, and what is important in the short run may not be important in the long run. The results may not be generalizable to other institutions due to faculty, student, and employer differences.

Of course, defining many of these concepts is difficult, not to mention the issues of measurement. The study of skills and knowledge also creates definitional problems. To help us operationalize the meanings of each, we defined knowledge as the conceptual and theory-based aspects of marketing. That is, learning that helps arrive at creative solutions to new problems and is achieved vicariously (Kaplan 1964). Alternatively, skills are abilities that can be refined through practice (Shipp, Lamb, and Mokwa 1993). Definitions facilitate understanding and the creation of variables for study. Interestingly, most of the prior studies that address the preparation of students for marketing careers have focused on the skill aspect of entry-level jobs (Deckinger, Brink,

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

220

DECEMBER 2002 TABLE 1 PROGRAM ASSESSMENT MATRIX

Objective
Stakeholder satisfaction

Measure
Stakeholder satisfaction data

Data Source
Alumni
a

Data Collection Timing


Fall-spring

Start
November

Finish
June

Type of Data and Configuration


Ratio scale, nominal, descriptive Ratio scale Descriptive Nominal, descriptive Descriptive

Students exit b surveys c Benchmark Recruiters


d

Fall Spring Spring Spring

December May February February

December May March April

a. The alumni curriculum process includes gathering input from employers and recruiters, designing and modifying the data collection form, collecting the data, and analyzing the data. b. Student exit surveys are given to graduating seniors each fall and spring. c. Benchmarking is done against a set of comparable schools. d. Recruiters are surveyed each spring semester.

Katzenstein, and Primavera 1990; Gaedeke and Tootelian 1989; Gaedeke, Tootelian, and Schaffer 1983; John and Needle 1989; Kelley and Gaedeke 1990; Scott and Frontczak 1996). This perspective on education indicates that marketing programs are being encouraged to develop learning with a clear entry-level job market utility. Moreover, it is common to survey graduates 3 to 5 years out. This is done because of their easier accessibility and their ability to recall their marketing educational experience. Such surveys naturally tend to focus on the requirements of entry-level employment. The findings of these studies may inadvertently lead to curriculum development with a bias in favor of skill development at the expense of knowledge development. Our outcomes study therefore sought to examine this problem and to further assess its implications for marketing educators. In addition, our study represented our first longitudinal coordinate for curriculum analysis and it was fostered by the skill-versusknowledge debate. To illustrate, Rotfeld (1996) stated,
The fact remains that journals dedicated to marketing education do not discuss how to inspire students with the wonders of our discipline but how to train and prepare marketing students for their first jobs. As part of marketing education, the goal devolved to providing better training and job placement. (p. 1)

Our work builds on a gap analysis platform to provide additional insights into the controversial issue of skills versus knowledge. As such, it adds to the marketing literature base. METHOD Our study was conducted with marketing alumni from a teaching-oriented, 6-year university in the Western United States. The survey instrument focused on perceptions of key knowledge and skill areas relevant to the marketing major. It measured both the perceptual importance of the degree of knowledge and skill relative to ones current employment and the effectiveness of the delivery of skills and knowledge via the marketing curriculum. Semantic differential scales were used to measure both item importance and the preparation provided by the program. Demographic and classification data were also collected.
The Sample

One of the problems with this first-job bias is that certain skills, especially technical, can easily become outdated in a few years as new skills replace old ones. However, marketing knowledge is likely to have greater long-term value in terms of effectiveness of job performance. Despite this, supervisors of entry-level jobs, and the graduates themselves, are likely to want the requisite skills to fulfill initial job requirements. Thus, skills are likely to be valued more highly in the first few years of ones employment; marketing knowledge is likely to be more useful to graduates as they advance in their careers.

The survey was mailed to all 298 alumni who had graduated within a 3- to 5-year time frame. Sixty-six complete questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 22.1%. The authors were interested in this time frame because of its comparability to other studies (Deckinger et al. 1990; Gaedeke and Tootelian 1989; Gaedeke, Tootelian, and Schaffer 1983; John and Needle 1989; Kelley and Gaedeke 1990; Scott and Frontczak 1996). The average respondent age was 27.2 years, and male alumni made up 69.7% of the sample. The approximate undergraduate grade point average (GPA) was 2.80, and the marketing major GPA was 2.94.
Variables

The primary variables of interest ranged from the acquisition of written communication skill to the much more general ability to understand how marketing relates to other functional areas in business. These primary variables are listed in

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

JOURNAL OF MARKETING EDUCATION

221

Table 2. The 7-point semantic differential scale (1 = low, 7 = high) measured the perceived importance to ones current employment of each of the 11 knowledge and skill areas. Separately, the same items were also measured in the context of how well the universitys marketing curriculum prepared them in each of the areas. The 11 variables came from several sources: secondary data, a general recruiter survey, and a survey of firms that heavily recruited marketing graduates. These sources produced a listing of desirable outcome characteristics. This listing was circulated to marketing faculty for review and comment. A final listing of 11 variables resulted, and they were approved by the faculty, thus leading to a greater acceptance of the study results. DATA ANALYSIS The mean ratings of each of the 11 items, relating to the areas of knowledge and skills, were computed. Some interesting results emerged. For example, oral communication skills were rated as the most important area with respect to ones current employment (Item 6) but were rated third in terms of how well respondents felt they had been educated in that area. Furthermore, the ability to analyze the relationship between marketing variables (e.g., 4Ps) (Item 3) was rated the lowest in terms of importance but came in fourth in terms of their preparedness. Given the anticipated differences, a gap analysis was conducted for each item. This approach examined the distance between the rated importance of a given knowledge or skill area to ones current employment and the perception of the alumni as to whether the marketing program had prepared them for that area.

higher than the importance of these areas (p < .05). These items are the following:
Ability to identify a marketing problem Ability to analyze the relationship between marketing variables (e.g., 4 Ps) Ability to communicate effectively using the language of marketing Understanding marketing concepts Understanding how marketing relates to other functional areas in business

It is noteworthy that all three areas of underpreparation involve skills, while all five areas of overpreparation involve knowledge. The findings support our expectation that recent graduates would value skills more than knowledge areas. The classificatory data also showed that 15 (22.7%) of the respondents were working in fields that were unrelated to marketing. It is reasonable to assume that these respondents would value their marketing knowledge at a level lower than those who had marketing-related jobs would. Therefore, the data were reanalyzed to include only those whose jobs related to marketing. As can be noted in Table 3, the results were revealing. The areas of perceived underpreparation were identical to those revealed in the first analysis (Items 1, 5, 6). Yet, two items (Items 2 and 9) of perceived overpreparation were not significant (p > .05):
Ability to identify a marketing problem Ability to communicate effectively using the language of marketing

RESULTS As can be seen in Table 2, the gap analysis indicates that out of the 11 variables relating to knowledge and skills that many marketing curricula try to impart, 8 showed a divergence between perceived importance to ones current employment and level of preparedness. Of these eight items, the alumni felt that they were underprepared in three areas in the sense that they rated their importance as being significantly higher than their level of preparation (p < .05). These areas are the following:
Technical preparation (ability to use software such as spreadsheets, statistical packages, database packages in a marketing context) Oral communication skills Written communication skills

This subgroup concurred with the earlier finding regarding perceived overpreparation on Items 3, 10, and 11 (p < .05). As evidenced by Items 2 and 9, it appears that one tends to value knowledge areas somewhat more when ones job is related to that field, as should be expected. FINDINGS The relative importance of knowledge compared to skills, over time, has not been clearly established. This is because most of the past research, including our own study, has focused on marketing graduates who have been employed 5 or fewer years. It is therefore understandable that general skills are valued more highly, as we found, rather than marketing knowledge. Basically, skills are valued more highly by managers of entry-level jobs, and that is transmitted to the inductees. These skills (communication, interpersonal, quantitative, and so forth) are developed throughout a students college career. The utility of these skills cuts across functional areas and is useful for most jobs. These skills are also very important from the perspective of students as well as employers. Yet, knowledge of marketing is likely to be more useful

Similarly, in the five other areas, they were being overprepared. That is to say, they rated their preparedness

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

222

DECEMBER 2002 TABLE 2 A GAP ANALYSIS OF ALUMNIS PERCEPTION OF SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE IMPORTANCE CONTRASTED WITH PREPARATION PROVIDED BY THE MARKETING PROGRAM (N = 66)
Knowledge and Skill Means

Variable
Technical preparation (ability to use software such as spreadsheets, statistical packages, database packages in a marketing context) Ability to identify a marketing problem Ability to analyze the relationship between marketing variables (e.g., 4 Ps) Ability to develop workable solutions to marketing problems Ability to work effectively in teams Oral communication skills Written communication skills Quantitative skills (ability to work with numerical data) Ability to communicate effectively using the language of marketing Understanding marketing concepts Understanding how marketing relates to other functional areas in business NOTE: 1 = low, 7 = high on the semantic differential scale. *p .05.

Importance

Preparation

t-Value

Probability

5.16 4.86 4.19 4.92 5.84 6.50 5.78 5.15 4.59 4.69 4.92

3.88 5.32 5.55 5.13 6.07 5.72 5.31 4.80 5.31 5.39 5.73

4.60 2.43 7.03 0.91 1.21 5.81 3.14 1.76 3.30 3.61 3.81

.000* .018* .006* .360 .231 .000* .003* .084 .002* .001* .000*

TABLE 3 A GAP ANALYSIS OF ALUMNIS PERCEPTION OF SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE IMPORTANCE CONTRASTED WITH PREPARATION PROVIDED BY THE MARKETING PROGRAM (RESPONDENTS EMPLOYED IN MARKETING = 51)
Knowledge and Skill Means Variable
Technical preparation (ability to use software such as spreadsheets, statistical packages, database packages in a marketing context). Ability to identify a marketing problem Ability to analyze the relationship between marketing variables (e.g., 4 Ps) Ability to develop workable solutions to marketing problems Ability to work effectively in teams Oral communication skills Written communication skills Quantitative skills (ability to work with numerical data) Ability to communicate effectively using the language of marketing Understanding marketing concepts Understanding how marketing relates to other functional areas in business NOTE: 1 = low, 7 = high on the semantic differential scale. *p .05.

Importance

Preparation

t-Value

Probability

5.08 5.22 4.51 5.35 5.78 6.47 5.76 5.16 5.00 5.14 5.24

3.82 5.49 5.75 5.24 6.12 5.73 5.25 4.71 5.41 5.55 5.84

3.90 1.44 5.97 0.056 1.46 4.87 3.15 1.86 1.86 2.35 2.58

.000* .155 .000* .579 .151 .000* .003* .069 .068 .023* .013*

after graduates have been promoted beyond entry-level jobs. Therefore, we hypothesize that marketing knowledge will have a greater impact on job effectiveness than skills 5 years or more after graduation. In other words, both skills and knowledge are important for initial job performance. However, marketing knowledge has increasing utility as one advances in ones career. Therefore, it is proposed that future research should also focus on marketing graduates who have been working for more than 5 years to assess what they find to be more important in terms of marketing curriculum. With our sample, we found that the alumni felt underprepared in terms of technical preparation as well as written and oral communication skills. Interestingly, the need for

good communication skills has been emphasized in the literature (Deckinger et al. 1990; Gaedeke and Tootelian 1989; Gaedeke, Tootelian, and Schaffer 1983; John and Needle 1989; Kelley and Gaedeke 1990; Scott and Frontczak 1996) as well as by recruiters. On the other hand, alumni felt they had been overprepared in terms of the ability to identify market problems, to analyze the relationship between marketing variables, and to communicate effectively using the language of marketing. Other areas of overpreparation related to an understanding of the marketing process and how marketing relates to other functional areas of business. In the second analysis of the data, which included only those alumni whose jobs related to marketing, with two

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

JOURNAL OF MARKETING EDUCATION

223

exceptions, findings were identical to the first analysis. Most skillswritten or oral communication, for exampleare valuable in jobs in any area of business. Knowledge areas of marketing, in contrast, are likely to be of greater importance to people who are actually working in jobs related to marketing. We found graduates working in marketing did not feel they were overprepared in two of the knowledge areas (Items 2 and 9), contrary to what we found in the first analysis. Future research should look at this phenomenon in other majors, too, for example, accounting, finance, and management. We would hypothesize that skills are valued more highly by recent graduates in all majors than are knowledge areas. The results must be viewed with some caution. Our findings contribute to the discussion of the ongoing knowledgeversus-skills debate (Cunningham 1995; Ronchetto and Buckles 1994; Rotfeld 1996; Sanoff and Daniel 1996; Thomas 1997, 1998). This includes a discussion of whether educators should aim to prepare students for their entry-level job or for their longer-term careers. Entry-level positions may emphasize skills more than knowledge, while managementlevel positions would emphasize knowledge relatively more. Thus, alumni who have been employed for 5 or fewer years would be more likely to see preparation in skills areas more important than preparation in knowledge areas. Corporations spend substantial sums of money every year in training employees, and some believe they are trying to pass on some of their training cost to educational institutions. Yet, knowledge has a more long-term value to the individual. Which one is more important from the perspective of an institution of higher learning, especially ones that are subsidized by tax dollars? We hope that this research and other outcomes assessments will provide a catalyst for a discussion on this topic.

CONCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS Gap analysis has been used by marketers to identify preference gaps in the marketplace (Brown and Swartz 1989; Davis and ONeill 1999; Headley and Choi 1992). This article applies such an analysis to curriculum development and relevancy assessment. This has been done for both knowledge and skills relevant to the marketing curriculum. It essentially reveals areas of underpreparedness and overpreparedness. These kinds of identified gaps could be the starting point for a discussion among faculty members regarding possible modifications of the curriculum and how class formats are configured. It would be interesting to determine whether marketing knowledge is evidencing a decline in importance as marketing educators respond to the market need to create additional skill enhancements. In the case of our program, some faculty began to adjust individual pedagogies, especially incorporating more skill building through in-class exer-

cises that revolved around key knowledge components. Ultimately, a portfolio approach was adopted where some faculty concentrated more on skills and others focused more on knowledge, depending on the course being taught. As Eastman and Allen (1999) pointed out, As assessment program needs to develop slowly and to be revised as the department experiments (p. 8). The marketing faculty members will continue to assess the curriculum and make changes appropriate to the findings. Other areas in need of future research include a gap analysis of knowledge and skills based on the perceptions of the entry-level employee and their immediate supervisor. A second area of inquiry would include an identical gap analysis of the perceptions of the same supervisors contrasted with higher levels of management. These studies may contribute to a thoughtful discussion and potential resolution of a festering area in need of inquiry. Of course, these areas where the gaps are found may require a reassessment as to curriculum emphasis, and effort may be needed to address the areas of underpreparation. We do recognize that the current findings may be idiosyncratic to our faculty mix, program, as well as students. Others may find gaps in quite different areas. We also caution curriculum developers to validate their findings with multiple (longitudinal) surveys before undertaking major curriculum change. It would be interesting to compare findings from institutions with similar characteristics to see if some systematic patterns emerge. We recognize that the mix of employers where our students are placed is one of the key drivers of the perception regarding over- and underpreparation. If the mix of employers is significantly different at another school, different results could be expected. Overall, the limitations of conducting this type of gap analysis research cannot be overlooked. We hope that our article will stimulate the addressing of these issues as well as a discussion of the utility of skills relative to knowledge at various points of career development among marketing graduates. REFERENCES
Brown, Stephen, and Teresa A. Swartz. 1989. A gap analysis of professional service quality. Journal of Marketing 53 (April): 92-98. Cunningham, Anthony C. 1995. Developing marketing professionals: What can business schools learn? Journal of Marketing Education 17 (2): 3-9. Davis, Richard, and Michael ONeill. 1999. Predicting customer perceptions A gap analysis. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences 6 (1): 58-71. Davis, Richard, Shekhar Misra, and Stuart Van Auken. 2000. Relating pedagogical preference of marketing seniors and alumni to attitude toward the major. Journal of Marketing Education 22 (2): 147-54. Deckinger, E. L., James M. Brink, Herbert Katzenstein, and Louis H. Primavera. 1990. How can advertising teachers better-prepare students for entry-level advertising agency jobs? Journal of Advertising Research 29 (6): 37-46. Eastman, Jacqueline K., and Ralph C. Allen. 1999. Assessing a marketing program: One departments journey. Marketing Education Review 9 (2): 7-13.

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014

224

DECEMBER 2002
advantage, edited by J. A. Czepiel, C. A. Congram, and J. Shanahan, 3338. Chicago: American Marketing Association. Lundstrom, William J., and Steven D. White. 1997. A gap analysis of professional and academic perceptions of the importance of international marketing curriculum content and research areas. Journal of Marketing Education 19 (2): 16-25. Nordstrom, Richard D., and Charles S. Sherwood. 1997. How well are we meeting the needs of marketing students? A tool for assessment. Proceedings, Western Marketing EducatorsAssociation Conference, 36-39. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1985. A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing 49 (fall): 41-50. Ronchetto, John R., and Tom A. Buckles. 1994. Developing critical thinking and interpersonal skills in a services marketing course employing total quality management concepts and techniques. Journal of Marketing Education 16 (3): 20-31. Rotfeld, Herbert. 1996. Excuse me, I thought you had a Ph.D. Marketing Educator 15 (summer): 7. Sanoff, Alvin, and Missy Daniel. 1996. The core of the matter. U.S. News and World Report, 25 March, 57-58. Scott, Judith D., and Nancy T. Frontczak. 1996. Ad executives grade new grads: The final exam that counts. Journal of Advertising Research 36 (2): 40-47. Shipp, Shannon, Charles W. Lamb Jr., and Michael P. Mokwa. 1993. Developing and enhancing marketing students skills: Written and oral communication, intuition, creativity, and computer usage. Marketing Education Review 3 (fall): 2-8. Thomas, Susan Gregory. 1997. Wanted: Liberal arts grads. Fortune, 12 May, 151. . 1998. Scoring the best tech jobs: Top-paying employers want more than just computer skills. U.S. News and World Report, 26 October, 7374. Winer, Leon. 1998. Applying gap theory and other good stuff from services marketing literature to the administration of a business school. Proceedings, Western Marketing Educators Association, 1-4.

Floyd, Callum J., and Mary Ellen Gordon. 1998. What skills are most important? A comparison of employer, student and staff perceptions. Journal of Marketing Education 20 (2): 103-9. Gaedeke, Ralph M., and Dennis H. Tootelian. 1989. Employers rate enthusiasm and communicating as top job skills. Marketing News, 27 March, 14. Gaedeke, Ralph M., Dennis H. Tootelian, and Burton F. Schaffer. 1983. Employers want motivated communicators of entry-level marketing positions: Survey. Marketing News, 5 August, 1. Gardiner, Lion F., Caitlin Anderson, and Barbara L. Cambridge, eds. 1997. Learning through assessment: A resource guide for higher education. AAHE Assessment Forum. Giacobbe, Ralph W., and Madhav N. Segal. 1994. Rethinking marketing research education: A conceptual, analytical, and empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing Education 16 (1):43-57. Gwinner, Kevin P., and Richard F. Beltramini. 1995. Alumni satisfaction and behavioral intentions: University versus department measures. Journal of Marketing Education 34 (1): 34-40. Halpern, Dian F. 1988. Assessing student outcomes for psychology majors. Teaching of Psychology 15 (4): 181-88. Headley, Dean E., and Bob Choi. 1992. Achieving service quality through gap analysis and a basic statistical approach. Journal of Services Marketing 6 (1): 5-10. John, Joby, and Mark Needle. 1989. Entry-level marketing research recruits: What do recruiters need? Journal of Marketing Education 11 (1): 68-73. Juillerat, Stephanie, and Laurie A. Schreiner. 1996. The role of student satisfaction in the assessment of institutional effectiveness. Assessment Update 8 (1): 8-9. Kaplan, Abraham. 1964. The conduct of inquiry: Methodology for behavioral science. San Francisco: Chandler. Kelley, Craig A., and Ralph M. Gaedeke. 1990. Student and employer evaluation of hiring criteria for entry-level marketing positions. Journal of Marketing Education 12 (3): 64-71. Lewis, Robert C., and David M. Klein. 1986. The measurement of gaps in service quality. In The service challenge: Integrating for competitive

Downloaded from jmd.sagepub.com at UNIV PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS on March 30, 2014