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E-BALL TECHNOLOGY

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
The word computer comes from the word compute, which mea s, to ca!cu!ate" He ce, peop!e usua!!# co sider a computer to $e a ca!cu!ati % de&ice that ca perform arithmetic operatio s at hi%h speed" ' fact, the ori%i a! o$(ecti&e for i &e ti % a computer was to create a fast ca!cu!ati % machi e" Howe&er, more tha )*+ of wor, do e $# computers toda# is o -mathematica! or o - umerica! ature" He ce, to defi e a computer mere!# as a ca!cu!ati % de&ice is to i% ore o&er )*+ of its fu ctio s" -ore accurate!#, we ca defi e a computer as a de&ice that operates upo data" .ata ca $e a #thi % !i,e $io-data of app!ica ts whe computer is used for short !isti % ca didates for recruiti %/ mar,s o$tai ed $# stude ts i &arious su$(ects whe used for prepari % resu!t/ detai!s 0 ame, a%e, se1, etc"2 of passe %ers whe used for ma,i % air!i es or rai!wa#s reser&atio s/ or um$er of differe t parameters whe used for so!&i % scie tific research pro$!ems, etc" He ce, data comes i &arious shapes a d si3es depe di % upo the t#pe of computer

app!icatio " A computer ca store, process, a d retrie&e data as a d whe desired" The fact that computers process data is so fu dame ta! that ma # peop!e ha&e started ca!!i % it as data processor" The ame data processor is more i c!usi&e $ecause moder computers ot o !# compute i a usua! se se $ut a!so perform other fu ctio s with data that f!ows to a d from them" The acti&it# of processi % data usi % computer is ca!!ed data processi %" .ata processi % co sists of three su$-acti&ities4 capturi % i put data, ma ipu!ati % the data, a d ma a%i % output resu!ts" .ata is $asica!!# a raw materia! used as i put to data processi % a d i formatio is processed data o$tai ed as output of data processi %"

1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS


' creasi % popu!arit# of computers has pro&ed that it is &er# powerfu! a d usefu! too!" The power a d usefu! ess of this popu!ar too! are mai !# due to its fo!!owi % characteristics

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A) AUTOMATIC A automatic machi e wor,s $# itse!f without huma i ter&e tio " Computers are automatic machi es $ecause o ce started o a (o$, the# carr# out the (o$ u ti! it is fi ished" Howe&er, computers $ei % machi es ca ot start themse!&es a d ca ot %o out a d fi d pro$!ems a d so!utio s" :e eed to i struct a computer usi % coded i structio s that specif# how it wi!! do a particu!ar (o$" B) SPEED A computer is a &er# fast de&ice" 't ca perform i a few seco ds, the amou t of wor, that a huma $ei % ca do i a e tire #ear" :hi!e ta!,i % a$out speed of a computer we do ot ta!, i terms of seco ds or mi!!iseco ds $ut i terms of microseco ds, a oseco ds a d e&e picoseco ds" A powerfu! computer is capa$!e of performi % se&era! $i!!io simp!e arithmetic operatio s per seco d" C) ACCURACY ' additio to $ei % &er# fast, computers are &er# accurate" Accurac# of a computer is co siste t!# hi%h a d the de%ree of its accurac# depe ds upo performs e&er# ca!cu!atio with the same accurac#" D) VERSATILITY ;ersati!it# is o e of the most wo derfu! thi %s a$out computer" O e mome t it is prepari % resu!t of a e1ami atio , e1t mome t it is $us# prepari % e!ectricit# $i!!s etc" ' $rief, a computer is capa$!e of performi % a!most a # tas,, if the tas, ca $e reduced to a fi ite series of !o%ica! steps" E) DILIGENCE < !i,e huma $ei %s, a computer is free from mo oto #, tired ess, a d !ac, of co ti uous!# wor, for hours without creati % a # error" He ce, its desi% " A computer

co ce tratio " 't ca

computer score o&er huma $ei %s i doi % routi % t#pe (o$s that re=uire %reat accurac#"

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1.2 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS


A2 7>6?4 -echa ica! ca!cu!ator :i!he!m 5chic,ard i &e ted first , ow $# B!aise Aasca!" B2 7>B?4 -ore ad&a ced mecha ica! ca!cu!ator"7>B?$#Germa mathematicia Gottfried mecha ica! ca!cu!ator, capa$!e of simp!e arithmetic" 5imi!ar mecha ica! addi % machi e made i 7>8*@s

Lei$ i3 Capa$!e of mu!tip!icatio a d di&isio pure!# mecha ica! with o source of power" C2 7)6?4 Char!es Ba$$a%e $e%i s wor, o .iffere ce E %i e" He desi% ed, $ut it was comp!eted $# a 5wedish i &e tor i 7)98" 'ma%e of the .iffere ce E %i e from Nia%ara Co!!e%e .2 7)??4 Char!es Ba$$a%e $e%i s A a!#tica! E %i e Ne&er comp!eted" 'mporta t co cept4

a %e era!-purpose machi e capa$!e of performi % differe ce fu ctio s $ased o pro%rammi %" E2 7)?84 Ada B#ro , Lad# Lo&e!ace impressed with the co cept of the A a!#tica! E %i e at a di er pArt#" .au%hter of poet Lord B#ra Created p!a s for how the machi e cou!d ca!cu!ate Ber ou!!i um$ers" This is re%arded as the first computer pro%ram,C a d she is the first Cpro%rammerC" The .epartme t of .efe se amed a !a %ua%e Ada i her ho or i 7DBD" E2 7)D*4 Au ched cards used $# Herma Ho!!erith to automate Ce sus Co cept of

pro%rammi % the machi e to perform differe t tas,s with pu ched cards was from Ba$$a%e" Au ch cards $ased o Fosph -arie Fac=uard@s de&ice to automate wea&i % !ooms" Ho!!erith fou ded a compa # that $ecame ' ter atio a! Busi ess -achi es 0'B-2 to mar,et the tech o!o%#" G) 7D8>4 EN'AC comp!eted E!ectro ic Numerica! ' te%rator a d Computer" B# Aresper Ec,ert a d Foh -auch!# 7),*** &acuum tu$es, occupied a ?* $# 9* foot room Aro%rammi % $# p!u%%i % wires i to a patch pa e!" ;er# difficu!t to do, $ecause this st#!e pro%rammi % re=uires i timate , ow!ed%e of the computer

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1. COMPUTER GENERATIONS
The histor# of computer de&e!opme t is ofte referred to i refere ce to the differe t

%e eratio s of computi % de&ices" Each %e eratio of computer is characteri3ed $# a ma(or tech o!o%ica! de&e!opme t that fu dame ta!!# cha %ed the wa# computers operate, resu!ti % i i creasi %!# sma!!er, cheaper, more powerfu!, more efficie t a d re!ia$!e de&ices" 1. .1 F!r"t Ge#erat!$# %1&'()1&*+) Va,--. T-/e" The first computers used &acuum tu$es for circuitr# a d ma% etic drums for memor#, a d were ofte e ormous, ta,i % up e tire rooms" The# were &er# e1pe si&e to operate a d i additio to usi % a %reat dea! of e!ectricit#, %e erated a !ot of heat, which was ofte the cause of ma!fu ctio s" Eirst %e eratio computers re!ied o machi e !a %ua%e, the !owest-!e&e! pro%rammi %

!a %ua%e u derstood $# computers, to perform operatio s, a d the# cou!d o !# so!&e o e pro$!em at a time" ' put was $ased o pu ched cards a d paper tape, a d output was disp!a#ed o pri touts" The <N';AC a d EN'AC computers are e1amp!es of first-%e eratio computi % de&ices" The <N';AC was the first commercia! computer de!i&ered to a $usi ess c!ie t, the <"5" Ce sus Bureau i 7D97"

Ei%7"7 0Eirst %e eratio computer2

Ei%7"6 05eco d %e eratio computer2

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1. .2 Se,$#0 Ge#erat!$# %1&*+)1&+ ) Tra#"!"t$r"


Tra sistors rep!aced &acuum tu$es a d ushered i the seco d %e eratio of computers" The tra sistor was i &e ted i 7D8B $ut did ot see widespread use i computers u ti! the !ate 7D9*s" The tra sistor was far superior to the &acuum tu$e, a!!owi % computers to $ecome sma!!er, faster, cheaper, more e er%#-efficie t a d more re!ia$!e tha their first-%e eratio predecessors" Thou%h the tra sistor sti!! %e erated a %reat dea! of heat that su$(ected the computer to dama%e, it was a &ast impro&eme t o&er the &acuum tu$e" 5eco d-%e eratio computers sti!! re!ied o pu ched cards for i put a d pri touts for output" 5eco d-%e eratio computers mo&ed from cr#ptic $i ar# machi e !a %ua%e to s#m$o!ic, or assem$!#, !a %ua%es, which a!!owed pro%rammers to specif# i structio s i words" Hi%h-!e&e! pro%rammi % !a %ua%es were a!so $ei % de&e!oped at this time, such as ear!# &ersio s of COBOL a d EOGTGAN" These were a!so the first computers that stored their i structio s i their memor#, which mo&ed from a ma% etic drum to ma% etic core tech o!o%#" The first computers of this %e eratio i dustr#" were de&e!oped for the atomic e er%#

1. . Th!r0 Ge#erat!$# %1&+')1&11) I#te2rate0 C!r,-!t" The de&e!opme t of the i te%rated circuit was the ha!!mar, of the third %e eratio of

computers" Tra sistors were mi iaturi3ed a d p!aced o si!ico chips, ca!!ed semico ductors, which drastica!!# i creased the speed a d efficie c# of computers" ' stead of pu ched cards a d pri touts, users i teracted with third %e eratio computers throu%h ,e#$oards a d mo itors a d i terfaced with a operati % s#stem, which a!!owed the de&ice to ru ma # differe t app!icatio s at o e time with a ce tra! pro%ram that mo itored the memor#" Computers for the first time $ecame accessi$!e to a mass audie ce $ecause the# were sma!!er a d cheaper tha their predecessors" 1. .' F$-rth Ge#erat!$# %1&11)Pre"e#t) M!,r$pr$,e""$r" The microprocessor $rou%ht the fourth %e eratio of computers, as thousa ds of i te%rated circuits were $ui!t o to a si %!e si!ico chip" :hat i the first %e eratio fi!!ed a e tire room cou!d ow fit i the pa!m of the ha d" The ' te! 8**8 chip, de&e!oped i 7DB7, !ocated a!! the compo e ts of the computerHfrom the ce tra! processi % u it a d memor# to i putIoutput co tro!sHo a si %!e chip" ' 7D)7 'B- i troduced its first computer for the home user, a d i 7D)8 App!e i troduced the -aci tosh"
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-icroprocessors a!so mo&ed out of the rea!m of des,top computers a d i to ma # areas of !ife as more a d more e&er#da# products $e%a to use microprocessors" As these sma!! computers $ecame more powerfu!, the# cou!d $e !i ,ed to%ether to form etwor,s, which e&e tua!!# !ed to the de&e!opme t of the ' ter et Eourth %e eratio computers a!so saw the de&e!opme t of G<'s, the mouse a d ha dhe!d de&ices"

Ei%7"? 0Third %e eratio computer2

Ei%7"8 0Eourth %e eratio computer2

1. .* F!3th Ge#erat!$# %Pre"e#t a#0 Be4$#0) Art!3!,!a5 I#te55!2e#,e Eifth %e eratio computi % de&ices, $ased o artificia! i te!!i%e ce, are sti!! i de&e!opme t, thou%h there are some app!icatio s, such as &oice reco% itio , that are $ei % used toda#" The use of para!!e! processi % a d superco ductors is he!pi % to ma,e artificia! i te!!i%e ce a rea!it#" Jua tum computatio a d mo!ecu!ar a d a otech o!o%# wi!! radica!!# cha %e the face of computers i #ears to come" The %oa! of fifth-%e eratio computi % is to de&e!op de&ices that respo d to or%a i3atio " atura! !a %ua%e i put a d are capa$!e of !ear i % a d se!f-

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Ei%7"9 0Eifth %e eratio computer2

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CHAPTER 2 THE MEANING OF E)BALL TECHNOLOGY

2.1 DEFINING E)BALL TECHNOLOGY


Are @t #ou tired of #our ACK B# his u%!# shape a d the wa# that it !oo,sK :e!!, this is e1act!# what desi% er Aposto! T o,o&s,i was fee!i % whe he decided to create the sma!!est AC e&er made" Aposto! T o,o&s,i i troduced a ew pc that is E)Ba55 Co cept pc" The E-Ba!! co cept pc is a sphere shaped pc which is the sma!!est desi% amo % a!! the !aptops a d des,tops" This computer has a!! the feature !i,e a traditio a! computer, e!eme ts !i,e ,e#$oard, mouse, d&d, !ar%e scree disp!a# etc E)Ba55 is desi% ed to $e p!aced o two sta ds, ope s $# simu!ta eous!# pressi % a d ho!di % the two $utto s !ocated o each side" E Ba55 co cept pc do Lt ha&e a # e1ter a! disp!a# u it" 't has a $utto whe #ou press this $utto a pro(ector wi!! pop a d it focus the computer scree o the wa!! which ca $e ad(usted with a&i%atio ,e#s" This co cept AC wi!! measure 7>*mm i diameter a d it was desi% ed for -icrosoft :i dows O5" Eor the mome t there is o word o prici % or whe it@s %oi % to $e a&ai!a$!e, howe&er, ' am sure that e&er#$od# wou!d !i,e to see a sma!! spherica! AC !i,e this E)BALL shape is spherica! $ecause i e&er#$od#@s atte tio " E)Ba55 wi!! feature a dua! core processor, 69*-9**GB H.., 6GB of GA-, i te%rated %raphic card a d sou d card, 6 1 9*: spea,ers, H.-.;. recorder, wire!ess optica! mouse a d !aser ,e#$oard, LAN a d :LAN card, modem, :e$ cam a d i te%rated LC. pro(ector" T o,o&s,i@s opi io this is the $est shape i ature a d it draws

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Ei% 6"7 0E-Ba!!2

2.2FEATURES OF E)BALL
'-TECH ;'GT<AL MEYBOAG. .<AL COGE AGOCE55OG 6GB N GA?9*-9** GB HAG..G';E 'NTEGGATE. GGAAH'C5 AN. 5O<N. CAG. 5AEAMEG5 :'GELE55 OAT'CAL -O<5E LAN AN. :LAN CAG.

LC. AGOFECTOG AAAEG HOL.EG


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-O.E-

Ei% 6"6

Ei% 6"?
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0.iffere t &iews of E-Ba!!2 2.2.1 PROCESSOR ' te! Core is a $ra d ame used for &arious mid-ra %e to hi%h-e d co sumer a d $usi ess microprocessor made $# ' te!" The curre t !i eup of Core processors i c!udes the !atest fo!!owi % processors4 ' te! Core iB ' te! Core i? ' te! Core ' te! Core 6 5o!o ' te! Core i9 ' te! Core ' te! Core 6 .uo ' te! Core 6 Juad

The e-$a!! pc $asica!!# uses ' te! core 6 .uo processor" Ei%ure show $e!ow shows the ' te! core 6 duo process

Ei% 6"8 0' te! core 6 duo processor2 2.2.2 RAM GA- sta ds for Ga dom Access memor#" 't %ets the word ra dom $ecause i formatio ca $e accessed i o -se=ue tia! order" Thou%h the data itse!f is stored ti%hter, it cou!d $e a #where i the co tai er or amou t of GA- a&ai!a$!e" GA- is measure i $its, a d ) $its e=ua! to 7 $#te" A ,i!o$#te is e=ua! to 7*68 $its, a d me%a$#te is e=ua! to 7*68 ,i!o$#te" The E-BALL pc uses 6GB of GA-"
72 5GA- do @t re=uire e1ter a! refresh circuitr#

62 5GA- is faster tha .GA-" ?2 5GA- is more power-efficie t whe id!e"


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82 5GA- is se&era! times more e1pe si&e tha .GA-

GA-

5GA-

.GA-

2.2. HARD DRIVE Hard dri&e is $asica!!# a seco dar# stora%e de&ice" 't is o -&o!ati!e i ature" 't co sists of

meta! p!atter coated with o1ide that ca $e ma% eti3ed to represe ts data" :e ca direct!# access the data from hard dri&e" The e-$a!! pc $asica!!# co sists ?9*-9** GB of hard dri&e" 2.2.' GRAPHIC 6 SOUND CARD
A &ideo card, disp!a# card, %raphics card, or %raphics adapter is a expansion card which

%e erates output ima%es to a disp!a#" -ost &ideo cards offer &arious fu ctio s such as acce!erated re deri % of 3D sce es a d 2D %raphics , MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decodi %, T; output, or the a$i!it# to co ect mu!tip!e mo itors 0 mu!ti-monitor2" Other moder hi%h performa ce &ideo cards are used for more %raphica!!# dema di % purposes, such as AC %ames" ;ideo
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hardware is ofte i te%rated i to the mother$oard, howe&er a!! moder mother$oards pro&ide e1pa sio ports to which a &ideo card ca $e attached" ' this co fi%uratio it is sometimes referred to as a video controller or graphics "A &ideo card, disp!a# card, %raphics card, or

%raphics adapter is a e1pa sio card co tro!!er"

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Ei% 6"9 0Graphic a d sou d card2

CHAPTER VIRTUAL 7EYBOARD


.1 VIRTUAL 7EYBOARD
;irtua! Me#$oard is (ust a other e1amp!e of toda#@s computer tre d of Osma!!er a d faster@" 't uses se sor tech o!o%# a d artificia! i te!!i%e ce to !et users wor, o a # surface as if it were a ,e#$oard" ;irtua! Me#$oard is a sma!! Fa&a app!icatio that !ets #ou easi!# create mu!ti!i %ua! te1t co te t o a!most a # e1isti % p!atform a d output it direct!# to we$ pa%es" ;irtua! Me#$oard, $ei % a sma!!, ha d#, we!!-desi% ed a d eas# to use app!icatio , tur s i to a perfect so!utio for cross p!atform mu!ti!i %ua! te1t i put" The mai features are4 p!atform-i depe de t mu!ti!i %ua! support for ,e#$oard te1t i put, $ui!t-i !a %ua%e !a#outs a d setti %s, cop#Ipaste etc" operatio s support (ust as i a re%u!ar te1t editor, a!read# e1isti % s#stem !a %ua%e setti %s remai i tact, eas# a d user-frie d!# i terface a d desi% , a d sma!! fi!e si3e"

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Ei% ?"7 0;irtua! ,e#$oard2

The ;irtua! Me#$oard uses !i%ht to pro(ect a fu!!-si3ed computer ,e#$oard o to a!most a # surface, a d disappears whe ot i use" <sed with 5mart Aho es a d A.As, the ;Me# 0T-2 pro&ides a practica! wa# to do emai!, word processi % a d spreadsheet tas,s, a!!owi % the user to !ea&e the !aptop computer at home" ;Me# tech o!o%# has ma # app!icatio s i &arious hi%h-tech a d i dustria! 5ectors" These i c!ude data e tr# a d co tro! pa e! app!icatio s i ha3ardous a d harsh e &iro me ts a d medica! mar,ets" Aro(ectio ,e# $oards or &irtua! ,e# $oards c!aim to pro&ide the co &e ie ce of compact ess with the ad&a ta%es of a fu!!-$!ow J:EGTY ,e#$oard" A i teresti % use of such ,e#$oards wou!d $e i steri!e e &iro me ts where si!e ce or !ow oise is esse tia! !i,e operatio theaters" The ad&a ta%e of such a s#stem is that #ou do ot eed a surface for t#pi %, #ou ca e&e t#pe i p!ai air" The compa #Ls ;irtua! Me#$oard is desi% ed for a #o e whoLs $ecome frustrated with tr#i % to put i formatio i to a ha dhe!d $ut does Lt wa t to carr# a ote$oo, computer arou d" There is a!so the pro&isio for a pause fu ctio to a&oid tra s!ati % e1tra eous ha d mo&eme ts fu ctio , so that users ca stop to eat, dri , etc P

3.2 COMPONENTS
This system comprises of three modules 1. The sensor module 2. IR-light source

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3. The pattern projector

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.2.1 SENSOR MODULE


The 5e sor -odu!e ser&es as the e#es of the Me#$oard Aerceptio tech o!o%#" The 5e sor -odu!e operates $# !ocati % the userLs fi %ers i ?-. space a d trac,i % the i te ded ,e#stro,es, or mouse mo&eme ts" -ouse trac,i % a d ,e#stro,e i formatio is processed a d ca the $e output to the host de&ice &ia a <5B or other i terface" E!ectro ic Aerceptio Tech o!o%#4 E!ectro ic perceptio tech o!o%# e a$!es ordi ar# e!ectro ic de&ices to see the wor!d arou d them so the# ca percei&e a d i teract with it" Now e&er#da# e!ectro ic de&ices i a &ariet# of mar,ets ca percei&e users actio s, %ai i % fu ctio a!it# a d ease of use"

The ti # e!ectro ic perceptio chip processor ru

chips a d em$edded software wor, $# de&e!opi % a ?.

dista ce map to ear$# o$(ects i rea!-time" This i formatio is factored throu%h a o i % ima%i % software that tra s!ates the ima%e i to defi ed e&e ts $efore actio that is co ti ua!!# se di % it off-chip for app!icatio -specific processi %" 't@s a repeated, %e erati % o&er ?* frames of ?. i formatio per seco d"

Ei% ?"6 05e sor modu!e2 E!ectro ic perceptio tech o!o%# has a fu dame ta! ad&a ta%e o&er c!assica! ima%e

processi % that stru%%!es to co struct three-dime sio a! represe tatio s usi % comp!e1 mathematics a d ima%es from mu!tip!e cameras or poi ts of &iew" This si %!e chip co tour mappi % approach resu!ts i a hi%h reductio of comp!e1it#, ma,i % it possi$!e to em$ed the app!icatio i depe de t processi % software direct!# i to the chips themse!&es N so the# ma# $e used i the most modest!#-priced, a d e&e poc,et-si3ed e!ectro ic de&ices"
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.2.2 IR)LIGHT SOURCE


The ' frared Li%ht 5ource emits a $eam of i frared !i%ht" This !i%ht $eam ' desi% ed to o&er!ap the area o which the ,e#$oard patter pro(ector or pri ted ima%e resides" This is do e so as to i!!umi ate the users fi %ers $# the i fra-red !i%ht $eam" This he!ps i reco% i3i % the ha d mo&eme ts a d the pressi % of ,e#s" The !i%ht $eam faci!itates i sca i % the ima%e" Accordi %!# the i formatio is passed o to the se sor modu!e which decodes the i formatio " A i &isi$!e i fra-red $eam is pro(ected a$o&e the &irtua! ,e#$oard" Ei %er ma,es ,e#stro,e o &irtua! ,e#$oard" This $rea,s i frared $eam a d i frared !i%ht is ref!ected $ac, to the se sor modu!e pro(ector" Gef!ected i frared $eam passes throu%h i frared fi!ter to camera" The camera photo%raphs a %!e of i comi % i frared !i%ht" The 5e sor chip i characters to $e %e erated" determi es where the i frared $eam was $ro,e , detected co-ordi ates determi e actio s or

Ei% ?"? 0'G Li%ht source2

.2. THE PATTERN PRO8ECTOR


The Aatter Aro(ector or optio a! pri ted ima%e prese ts the ima%e of the ,e#$oard or mouse 3o e of the s#stem" This ima%e ca $e pro(ected o a # f!at surface"
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The pro(ected ima%e is that of a sta dard =wert#-,e#$oard, with a!! the ,e#s a d co tro! fu ctio s as i the ,e#$oard" The Aro(ector features a wide-a %!e !e s so that a !ar%e patter ca $e pro(ected from re!ati&e!# !ow e!e&atio s" A pri ted ima%e, with rep!acea$!e temp!ates a!!ows s#stem f!e1i$i!it#, permitti % most a # ,i d of ,e#$oard co fi%uratio for %reater fu ctio a!it#" ' some t#pes of &irtua! ,e#$oards, a seco d i fra-red $eam is ot ecessar#" Here the pro(ector itse!f ta,es the i puts, pro&idi % dua! fu ctio a!it#" A se sor or camera i the pro(ector pic,s up the fi %er mo&eme ts, a d passes the i formatio modu!es" o to the se sor

Ei% ?"8 0Aatter Aro(ector2

. ADVANTAGES
7" Aorta$i!it# 6" Accurac# ?" 5peed of te1t e tr# 8" Lac, of eed for f!at or !ar%e t#pi % surface 9" A$i!it# to mi imi3e the ris, for repetiti&e strai i (uries >" E!e1i$i!it# B" Me#$oard !a#outs ca $e cha %ed $# software a!!owi % for forei% or A!ter ati&e ,e#$oard !a#outs"
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.' DISADVANTAGES
7" ;irtua! ,e#$oard is hard to %et used to" 5i ce it i &o!&es t#pi % i thi air, it re=uires a !itt!e practice" O !# peop!e who are %ood at t#pi % ca use a &irtua! ,e#$oard efficie t!#" 6" 't is &er# cost!# ra %i % from 79* to 6** do!!ars" ?" The room i which the pro(ected ,e#$oard is used shou!d ot $e &er# $ri%ht so that the ,e#$oard is proper!# &isi$!e"

.* APPLICATIONS
7" Hi%h-tech a d i dustria! 5ectors 6" <sed with 5mart pho es, A.As, emai!, word processi % a d spreadsheet tas,s ?" Operatio Theatres 8" As computerIA.A i put 9" Gami % co tro! >" T; remote co tro!

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CHAPTER ' PRO8ECTOR USED IN E)BALL


'.1 LCD PRO8ECTORS
LC. pro(ectors are s#stems that disp!a# or project i formatio or &ideo o to a surface" LCD sta ds for !i=uid cr#sta! disp!a#, the tech o!o%# used to pro(ect ima%es" The# are the tech o!o%ica! desce da ts of o&erhead a d s!ide pro(ectors, o!der s#stems which ser&e the same purpose" The# are most commo !# used for disp!a#i % ima%es i prese tatio s or !ectures, $ut are a!so used i home theaters" ;ideo si% a!s are comprised of three co!ors4 red, %ree , a d $!ue" LC. pro(ectors co tai a separate %!ass pa e! for each" Each pa e! co sists of two p!ates of %!ass with a !a#er of !i=uid cr#sta! $etwee them" :he a char%e is app!ied, the cr#sta!s ope to a!!ow !i%ht throu%h or c!ose to $!oc, it" This ope i % a d c!osi % of pi1e!s is what forms the ima%e" These de&ices use dichroic mirrors to sp!it the !i%ht from the i put source i to red, %ree , a d $!ue compo e ts" Each the passes throu%h the correspo di % pa e!, where pi1e!s form a ima%e" The three co!ors are the recom$i ed i a prism $efore $ei % pro(ected throu%h a !e s" LC. pro(ectors use separate pa e!s for each co!or $ecause it resu!ts i $etter co!or saturati % tha usi % a si %!e pa e! for a!! three"

Ei% 8"7 0LC. Aro(ector2

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LCD pr$9e,t$r" emp!o# a three-pa e! LC. 0Li=uid Cr#sta! .isp!a#2 s#stem, referred to as ?LC." LC. pro(ectors crisp!# reproduce $ri%ht, atura!!# co!ored ima%es that are eas# o the e#es" LC. pro(ectors are a!so capa$!e of detai!ed shadow reproductio that is idea! for dema di % $usi ess a d home theater app!icatio s"

Ei% 8"6 The white !i%ht from the pro(ector !amp is sp!it i to red, %ree , a d $!ue compo e ts usi % two dichroic mirrors, specia! mirrors that o !# tra smit !i%ht of a specified wa&e!e %th" Each red, %ree a d $!ue $eam the passes throu%h a dedicated LC. pa e! made up of thousa ds of mi iscu!e pi1e!s" A e!ectrica! curre t tur s the pa e!Ls pi1e!s o or off to create the %ra#sca!e e=ui&a!e t of that co!or cha e!" The three co!ors are the recom$i ed i a prism a d pro(ected throu%h the pro(ector !e s a d o to the scree " B# usi % a com$i atio of three LC.s to produce a fi a! ima%e, LC. pro(ectors are capa$!e of $i!!io s of co!ors a d smooth %ra#sca!e %radatio s" The reso!utio of the ima%e is determi ed $# the um$er of pi1e!s i the LC. pa e!s used" Curre t!# LC. pa e!s offer reso!utio s as hi%h as true H. 07D6* 1 7*)*2 for home theater app!icatio s" New pa e!s promise reso!utio s as hi%h as 8M 0?)8* 1 67>*2"

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LC.s are ot (ust fou d i pro(ectors" The# are fou d i ma # of the e!ectro ics #ou use e&er# da#, from a ce!! pho e to a -A? p!a#er to #our di%ita! a!arm c!oc," LC.s are &er# commo $ecause the# offer disti ct ad&a ta%es4 the# are thi er, !i%hter, a d draw !ess power tha ma # competi % disp!a# tech o!o%ies" A re!ia$!e, sophisticated tech o!o%# with u i&ersa! appea!, ?LC. is the wor!dLs most popu!ar pro(ectio tech o!o%#, de!i&eri % hi%h =ua!it# ima%es for the most dema di % $usi ess a d co sumer audie ces" '.1.1 ADVANTAGES

72LC. is %e era!!# more !i%ht efficie t tha .LA" 62LC. pro(ectors ca pro(ect $ri%ht, &i&id ima%es with a !ow output !amp" ?27*** !ume LC. is more preffered tha 76** !ume .LA" 82 LC. tre ds to produce a sharper ima%e 92 -ore accurate co!or" >2 5harper ima%e" B2 LC. a!so de!i&ers a somewhat sharper ima%e tha .LA at a # %i&e reso!utio " )2 A other $e efit of LC. is that it is more !i%ht-efficie t" D2 O e $e efit of LC. is that it co tro!s red, %ree , a d $!ue i depe de t!# throu%h

'.1.2 DISADVANTAGED 72 -ore $u!,# as there are more i ter a! compo e ts" 62 .ead pi1e!s" ?2 .LC pa e! ca fai!"
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82 5cree door effect" 92 Co trast" >2 'ma%e de%radatio " B2 LC. Aorta$i!it#" )2 comp!ete e1treme!# we!! whe hi%h !i%ht output is re=uired"

'.2 DLP PRO8ECTORS


.LA sta ds for .i%ita! Li%ht Arocessi %" A &ideo pro(ectio tech o!o%#, de&e!oped $# Te1as ' strume ts, that uti!i3es a chip, referred to as a .-. 0.i%ita! -icro mirror .e&ice2" ' esse ce, e&er# pi1e! o a .-. chip is a ref!ecti&e mirror" The &ideo ima%e is disp!a#ed o the .-. chip" The micro mirrors o the chip 0remem$er4 each micro mirror represe ts o e pi1e!2 the ti!t &er# rapid!# as the ima%e cha %es" This process produces the %ra#sca!e fou datio for the ima%e" The , co!or is added as !i%ht passes throu%h a hi%h-speed co!or whee! a d is ref!ected off of the micro mirrors o the .LA chip as the# rapid!# ti!t towards or awa# from the !i%ht source" The de%ree of ti!t of each micro mirror coup!ed with the rapid!# spi i % co!or whee! determi es the co!or structure of the pro(ected ima%e" As the amp!ified !i%ht $ou ces off the micro mirrors, it is se t throu%h the !e s a d ca $e pro(ected o a !ar%e scree " A other wa# that .LA is imp!eme ted is to uti!i3e a separate .LA chip for each primar# co!or" Li%ht from a si %!e source is passed throu%h a prism, which creates separate red, %ree , a d $!ue !i%ht sources, the ref!ected o each of the chips desi% ated for each primar# co!or, a d from there, pro(ected o to a scree " This app!icatio compariso to the co!or whee! method, a d is used o !# i commercia! .LA pro(ectors" &er# e1pe si&e, i hi%her-e d co sumer a d

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This tech o!o%# is used i $oth rear-pro(ectio te!e&isio s a d i separate &ideo pro(ector, scree app!icatio s"

Ei% 8"? 0.LA Aro(ector2

'.2.1 ADVANTAGES
72 62 Hi%her co trast" ?2 Geduced pi1i!atio " 82 Ge!ia$i!it#" 92 5ea!ed optics this ma,es it $etter for use i dust# e &iro me t" >2 Less scree door effects" B2 5i ce the .LA !i%ht e %i e co sists of a si %!e chip rather tha three LC. pa e!s, .LA pro(ectors te d to $e more compact" Aorta$i!it#"

)2 A other .LA ad&a ta%e is that it ca produce smooth, hi%h co trast &ideo"

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'.2.2 DISADVANTAGES
72 Gai $ow effect 62 Li%ht !ea,a%e" 3) High cost. '. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION

74 Ai1e!i3atio 0fi!! factor2 .LA Q 5eam-!ess, Ei!m-!i,e" LC. Q Grai #, Ai1e!!ated" 64 Co trast Gatio .LA Q 5imp!e optics, easier !i%ht ma a%eme t LC. Q Comp!e1 optics, more difficu!t !i%ht ma a%eme t ?4 ;ideo Jua!it# .LA Q East switchi %, mi ima! !a% LC. Q 5!ow switchi %, si% ifica t !a% 84 5harp ess .LA QNo misa!i% me t LC. Q-isa!i% me t !i,e!# o&er time 54 Co!or Jua!it# .LA Q Ca match a # LC. co!or %amut LC. Q Ca @t match a # .LA co!or %amut

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>4 5ma!!est R Bri%htest .LA Q 5imp!e optica! s#stem, %ood ref!ecti&it#" LC. Q Comp!e1 optica! s#stem B4 Gepeata$!e performa ce .LA Q .i%ita!, precise co tro!, co sta t performa ce o&er time" LC. Q A a!o%, &aria$!e, affected $# temperature, &i$ratio , heat, humidit#, deterioratio o&er time"

)4 Ge!ia$!e .LA Q Gef!ects heat LC. Q A$sor$s heat, performa ce de%rads :hi!e $oth tech o!o%ies ha&e produced impro&eme ts i co trast i the past #ear, a d 5a #oLs ew AL;-B* is rated at D**47" -ea whi!e, the !atest .LA products %eared Towards home theater are rated has hi%h as 7)**47" Howe&er, o e shou!d ot p!ace too much emphasis o the specs" ' rea!it#, thou%h the differe ce $etwee pro(ectors rated at 8**47 &s" )**47 is =uite oticea$!e, the differe ce is ot so dramatic $etwee products rated at D**47 &s" 7)**47" O ce #ou %et to co trast ra %es of D**47 or hi%her, $!ac,s appear as so!id $!ac, a d shadow detai!s reso!&e =uite ice!#" ' creased co trast ca #ie!d re!ati&e!# su$t!e impro&eme ts, $ut there are other factors which co tri$ute to ima%e =ua!it# that $ecome e=ua!!# if ot more importa t" Geduced pi1e!atio is a other $e efit of .LA" LC.s were a!wa#s , ow for their &isi$!e pi1e! structure, ofte referred to as the scree door effect $ecause it appears as thou%h the picture is $ei % &iewed throu%h a scree door" Historica!!#, LC. tech o!o%# has had a hard time $ei % ta,e serious!# amo % ma # home theater e thusiasts $ecause of this f!aw i the ima%e" .LA tech o!o%# we t a !o % wa# toward e!imi ati % the scree door effect" ' 5;GA 0)**1>**2 reso!utio , .LA pro(ectors ha&e either a muted pi1e! structure or a i &isi$!e pi1e! structure depe di % upo the si3e of the pro(ected ima%e re!ati&e to the &iewi % dista ce 0the !ar%er the ima%e2" Co &erse!#,
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5;GA-reso!utio LC. pro(ectors u iform!# ha&e a c!ear!# &isi$!e pi1e! %rid at (ust a$out a # scree ima%e si3e" Eor this reaso , we do Lt recomme d 5;GA-reso!utio LC. pro(ectors for home theater use e1cept for those o the most !imited of $ud%ets" Three de&e!opme ts ha&e ser&ed to c!ose the %ap $etwee .LA a d LC. i the area of pi1e! &isi$i!it#" Eirst was the step up to SGA reso!utio 07,*681B>)2" This hi%her reso!utio uses >8+ more pi1e!s to pai t the ima%e o the scree , as compared to a 5;GA-reso!utio pro(ector" The i ter-pi1e! %aps are reduced i SGA reso!utio , so pi1e!s are de ser a d !ess &isi$!e" ' SGA reso!utio , .LA pro(ectors ha&e a i &isi$!e pi1e! %rid o a # t#pica! home theater scree o matter how $i%" LC. pro(ectors with sta dard SGA pa e!s sti!! ha&e a &isi$!e, $ut much reduced scree door effect" 5eco d, the i ter-pi1e! %aps o a!! LC. machi es, o matter what reso!utio , are reduced compared to what the# use to $e" 5o e&e the i e1pe si&e 5;GA-reso!utio LC. pro(ectors ha&e !ess scree door effect tha the# used to" The third de&e!opme t i LC.s was the use of -icro-Le s Arra# 0-LA2 to $oost the efficie c# of !i%ht tra smissio throu%h SGA-reso!utio LC. pa e!s" 5ome SGA-c!ass LC. pro(ectors ha&e this feature, $ut most do ot" Eor those that do, -LA has the happ# side effect of reduci % pi1e! &isi$i!it# a !itt!e $it as compared to a SGA LC. pro(ector without -LA" O some pro(ectors with this feature, p!aci % the focus (ust a s!i%ht hair off perfect, a practice The Curre t 5tate of the Art .LA mai tai s its !ead i co trast performa ce, whi!e LC. pro(ector ma,ers ha&e co ti ued to emphasi3e !ate t ad&a ta%es i co!or fide!it# a d ima%e sharp ess for data disp!a#" .LA co!or has impro&ed of !ate, a d co!or accurac# o the !atest mode!s is much $etter tha it used to $e" Both LC. a d .LA are e&o!&i % rapid!# to the $e efit of the co sumer" The race for mi iaturi3atio has produced sma!!er #et more powerfu! pro(ectors tha we mi%ht ha&e e&e ima%i ed possi$!e (ust a coup!e of #ears a%o" Li%ht output per pou d has i creased dramatica!!#" A d &ideo =ua!it# o the $est LC. a d .LA pro(ectors ow surpasses that a&ai!a$!e i a commercia! mo&ie theater" :he it comes to home theater, .LA has co ti ued to ma,e competiti&e ad&a ces i co!or, co trast, a d ima%e sta$i!it# that ha&e ser&ed to esta$!ish .LA as the preferred tech o!o%# for &ideo" But the fact is that $oth .LA a d LC. co ti ue to impro&e, a d $oth are capa$!e of de!i&eri % hi%her =ua!it# &ideo for home theater tha the# e&er were $efore" :hich tech o!o%# is the $estK :he compari % .LA to LC. i a home theater e &iro me t .LA is the wi er" Better $!ac,s a d the remo&a! of the scree door effect ma,i % the .LA a o$&ious choice"

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CHAPTER * :OR7ING OF E)BALL


*.1 :OR7ING
E Ba!! co cept pc do Lt ha&e a # e1ter a! disp!a# u it, 't has a $utto whe #ou press this $utto a pro(ector wi!! pop a d it focus the computer scree o the wa!! which ca $e ad(usted with a&i%atio ,e#s" 'f there is o wa!! the it has a paper sheet ho!der that di&ides i to three pieces !i,e a um$re!!a (ust after poppi % up, a d it wi!! show des,top o the paper sheet" A!so, the E-Ba!! AC supports a paper ho!der a d the paper sheet o the ho!der cou!d act !i,e a scree where #ou ca watch mo&ies or somethi %" This co cept AC wi!! measure 7>*mm i diameter a d it was desi% ed for -icrosoft

:i dows O5, sorr# a$out the others" Eor the mome t there is o word o prici % or whe it@s %oi % to $e a&ai!a$!e, howe&er, ' am sure that e&er#$od# wou!d !i,e to see a sma!! spherica! AC !i,e this o e" E-Ba!! co cept pc has a !aser ,e#$oard that is fu!!# a co cept ,e#$oard that is &isi$!e whe the pc is i wor,i %" The ,e#$oard is ot ph#sica! - it is i terpreted $# !asers that appear after #ou press the respecti&e $utto " 't reco% i3es #our fi %ers with the he!p of a 'G se sor whe #ou are t#pi % at a particu!ar p!ace, whi!e the mouse is a pop out wo der ma,i % this a u i=ue piece of tech o!o%#" The software i terface of E-Ba!! co cept pc is hi%h!# st#!i3ed with ico s that ca $e

remem$ered easi!# that support a!! t#pe of wi dows operati % s#stem" E-Ba!! co cept pc wor, &er# eas# whi!e #ou are ma,i % &ideo prese tatio s, !iste i % music watchi % !ar%e scree mo&ies, a d chatti % o the et" As #ear passes, the computer si3e is $ecomi % sma!!er" This $a!! is , ow as E-Ba!! a d its desi% is %i&e $# Aposto! T o,o&s,i" He was tr#i % to create the sma!!est AC i the wor!d whe he came across this idea"

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't is shaped !i,e a sphere $ecause i T o,o&s,i@s opi io this is the $est shape i

ature a d it

draws e&er#$od#@s atte tio " YouL!! see the pop-out !aser mouse, a pico pro(ector i side that i!!umi ates either the wa!! or a sheet of paper for a scree , a d that !aser ,e#$oard that wou!d a!most certai !# $e a c!ums# i put de&ice" Ei1 that, a d fi d a mother$oard that@!! fit i side this pa!m-si3ed $a$#, a d Aposto! mi%ht $e o to somethi % here" E-Ba!! wi!! feature a dua! core processor, 69*-9**GB H.., 6GB of GA-, i te%rated %raphic card a d sou d card, 6 1 9*: spea,ers, H.-.;. recorder, wire!ess optica! mouse a d !aser ,e#$oard, LAN a d :LAN card, modem, :e$ cam a d i te%rated LC. pro(ector"

Ei% 9"7 0:or,i % o paper sheet2

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Ei% 9"6

*.2

IF THERE IS NO :ALL

72 :he we are wor,i % i a ope p!ace we ca ma,e use of a paper sheet as a scree " 62 Aaper sheet ho!der is p!aced at the $ac, pa e! of this computer" ?2 The ho!der ca $e ope ed $# pressi % it i the !ower part

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Ei% 9"? 0E-Ba!! with paper sheet ho!der2

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*. SCENARIO IN USE

Ei% 9"8

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*.' ADVANTAGES
72 E-BALL is porta$!e" 62 E-BALL has !ar%e memor#" ?2 E-BALL is usefu! for ma,i % &ideo prese tatio " 82 E-BALL support user defi ed ,e#$oard !a#outs" 92 E-BALL is efficie t" >2 E-BALL is &er# eas# to use B2 E-BALL is more secure tha other computer"

*.* DISADVANTAGES
72 Norma! operati % s#stems ca ot wor, i these computers" 62 Cost of E-BALL is &er# hi%h"
?2 't is difficu!t to u dersta d if a # pro$!ems occur i hardware part"

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CHAPTER + CONCLUSION AND REFERENCE

+.1 CONCLUSION
72 As the #ear passes, the computer si3e is $ecomi % sma!!er" 62 Toda#@s tech o!o%# is at its pea, poi t $e#o d what we cou!d e&er ima%i e" ?2 New i &e tio s a d i o&atio s are emer%i % o dai!# $asis" 82 Our ima%i atio s ha&e dressed i to rea!it# a d toda# it has $ecome possi$!e to ha&e a who!e computer i our poc,et a!! the time" 92 At !ast this $a!! tech o!o%# has ta,e the computer tech o!o%# to ew hori3o s"

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+.2 REFERENCES
72 http4IIwww"%oo%!e"co"i IEBALL
2)

http4IIwww"e!ectro ics"howstuffwor,s"com ht7" http4IIwww" ewscom"comIc%i-$i Ipr h www"ca esta"com" www"procams"or% www"$i!!$u1to "comI?state"htm

?2
4)

92

>2 www"smarttech"com B2 www"?m"comIusIofficeImeeti %IproductTcata!o%Iwd"(htm!tp4IIwww"%oo%!e"com

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