Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 86

GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS

Sentence Diagraming

To the Teacher
Sentence Diagraming is a blackline master workbook that offers samples, exercises, and step-by-step instructions to expand students knowledge of grammar and sentence structure. Each lesson teaches a part of a sentence and then illustrates a way to diagram it. Designed for students at all levels, Sentence Diagraming provides students with a tool for understanding written and spoken English.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Glencoe Language Arts products. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-824702-0 Printed in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 04 03 02 01 00

PART I
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

Simple Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Simple subject and simple predicate Understood subject

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


Simple subject or simple predicate having more than one word Simple subject and simple predicate in inverted order

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


Compound subject

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Compound predicate

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Compound subject and compound predicate

Lesson
Lesson Lesson Lesson

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


Direct object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Compound direct object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Indirect object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


Compound verb with direct and indirect objects

Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16

Adjectives and Adverbs I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


Adjectives

Adjectives and Adverbs II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


Adverbs Adverbs modifying verbs

Adjectives and Adverbs III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


Adverbs that modify other modifiers

Adjectives and Adverbs IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


Modifiers with compound subjects, verbs, and objects

Subject Complements I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Predicate noun

Subject Complements II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Predicate adjective

Subject Complements III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


Compound subject complements

PART II

Simple Sentences with Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appositives and appositive phrases

Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22

Prepositional Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Used as adjectives

Prepositional Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Used as adverbs

Prepositional Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


Used to modify other prepositional phrases

Participles and Participial Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


Participles

Participles and Participial Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


Participial phrases

iii

Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Lesson 27 Lesson 28 Lesson 29 Lesson 30 Lesson 31

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


Used as subjects

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


Used as direct objects

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Used as predicate nouns

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


Used as objects of prepositions

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


Used as adjectives

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


Used as adverbs

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


Used as subjects

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


Used as direct objects

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


Used as predicate nouns

PART III

Compound and Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


Compound Sentences I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Clauses connected by a semicolon

Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Lesson 34 Lesson 35 Lesson 36 Lesson 37 Lesson 38 Lesson 39 Lesson 40

Compound Sentences II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Clauses connected by a conjunction

Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


Adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns

Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


Adverb clauses that modify verbs

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


Used as subjects

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


Used as direct objects

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


Introduced by that

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


Used as objects of prepositions

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


Used as predicate nouns

ANSWER KEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

iv

Simple Sentences
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Simple subject and simple predicate Understood subject

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


Simple subject or simple predicate having more than one word Simple subject and simple predicate in inverted order

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


Compound subject

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Compound predicate

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Compound subject and compound predicate

Lesson
Lesson Lesson Lesson

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


Direct object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Compound direct object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Indirect object

Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


Compound verb with direct and indirect objects

Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16

Adjectives and Adverbs I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


Adjectives

Adjectives and Adverbs II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


Adverbs Adverbs modifying verbs

Adjectives and Adverbs III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


Adverbs that modify other modifiers

Adjectives and Adverbs IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


Modifiers with compound subjects, verbs, and objects

Subject Complements I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Predicate noun

Subject Complements II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Predicate adjective

Subject Complements III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


Compound subject complements

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

1
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I
A sentence diagram is a chart of a sentence. It shows how the words and parts of a sentence relate to each other and to the sentence as a whole. To diagram any sentence, begin with a diagram frame, like the one shown here. Make the vertical line that cuts through the baseline baseline equally long above and below the baseline.
vertical line

Simple Subject and Simple Predicate


Every sentence has two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject tells what a sentence is about. The predicate says something about the subject. The subject of the sentence appears on the left side of the diagram frame. The predicate appears on the right. The simple subject of a sentence is the key noun or pronoun in the subject. The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that expresses the essential thought about the subject. To diagram a sentence with a simple subject and simple predicate, write the simple subject on the baseline to the left of the vertical line. Write the simple predicate on the baseline to the right of the vertical line.

Example Robins fly.


Robins fly simple subject simple predicate

In a diagram, keep capitalization as it is in the sentence. However, leave out any punctuation.

Understood Subject
In some sentences, the subject you is not stated, but it is understood. Place the understood subject in parentheses to the left of the vertical line.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Example Sit.
(you) Sit (understood simple subject) simple predicate

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Dolphins swim. 3. Turn.

2. Wait!

4. Tiffany jogs.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

2
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II
Simple Subject or Simple Predicate Having More than One Word
A simple subject may have more than one word. For example, it may be a compound noun, such as White House, or a persons full name, such as President William Henry Harrison. A simple predicate, or verb, may also have more than one word. A main verb with its helping, or auxiliary, verbs is called a verb phrase. An example is have been voting, in which the main verb is voting and the helping verbs are have and been. In a diagram, place all the words of a simple subject or simple predicate on the baseline on the correct side of the vertical rule.

Example Sojourner Truth was speaking.


Sojourner Truth was speaking simple subject simple predicate

Simple Subject and Simple Predicate in Inverted Order


In some questions, the simple subject appears between a helping verb and the main verb. An example is Was she crying? The simple subject, she, comes between the words of the verb phrase, was crying. In a diagram, however, the locations of the simple subject and the simple predicate always stay the samethe subject at the left of the vertical line and the predicate at the right. Study the example below. Remember that capitalization stays the same as in the original sentence but that punctuation is not used.

Example Is anyone listening?


anyone
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Is listening

simple subject

simple predicate

EXERCISE 1 Diagram each sentence.


1. Hector has been exercising. 4. Hurry!

2. Did you forget?

5. Dr. Lee has been calling.

3. Ms. Alice Cummins interrupted.

6. Have guests been invited?

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

7. Work!

9. Who called?

8. Senator Adams will have retired.

10. Did Aunt Emily go?

EXERCISE 2 In each of these sentences, the simple subject and the verb are shown in
boldface type. Diagram only the boldfaced simple subject and verb of each sentence. 1. Sleet is falling on the sidewalks and roads. 4. At the end of the race, drink some water.

2. Were you planning to fix the broken window?

5. Plants of many kinds are sold at the garden center.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. All year long, the Doans have been remodeling their old house near the seashore.

6. One of these statements is false.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

3
Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I
A simple sentence has only one main clause. That is, it has a single subject and a single predicate. Its diagram uses only one baseline. However, the subject or the predicate may have more than one part. If a simple sentence has a compound subject or predicate, its diagram still uses only one baseline. However, the baseline is forked at the appropriate side to make space for more than one part.

Compound Subject
A compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunctionsuch as and, but, or orand have the same verb. The diagram for a sentence with a compound subject has a fork in the baseline at the left (subject) side of the vertical line. Draw parallel horizontal lines, one for each part of the subject. Connect the lines with a dotted vertical line at their right, and write the conjunction along that dotted line. Draw angled lines from both the top and bottom subject lines to join the stack to the baseline, as this example shows:

Example Trucks and tractors raced.


Trucks raced part 2 of compound subject
and

part 1 of compound subject verb


conj.

tractors

If a correlative conjunction such as both . . . and or either . . . or is used, write one word of the conjunction on each side of the dotted line. Study this example:

Example Both trucks and tractors raced.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

trucks raced
Both and

part 1 of compound subject verb


conj. conj.

tractors

part 2 of compound subject

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Both Emma and Becky laughed. 3. Boaters and swimmers were rescued.

2. Was Phillip or Annette returning?

4. Either Jeremy or Mark was whispering.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

4
Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II
Compound Predicate
A compound predicate (or compound verb) is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject. The diagram for a sentence with a compound verb has a fork in the baseline at the right (verb) side of the vertical line. To diagram a sentence with a compound verb, draw a mirror image of the diagram for a compound subject. Look at the example below.

Example Icicles gleamed but dripped.


gleamed
conj. but

part 1 of compound verb simple subject

Icicles

dripped

part 2 of compound verb

If a helping verb is not repeated, write it on the baseline between the vertical line and the fork, as in the next example.

Example Icicles were gleaming but dripping.


gleaming
conj. but

part 1 of compound verb simple subject helping verb

Icicles

were

dripping

part 2 of compound verb

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Rex was growling and biting. 4. She either complains or criticizes.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Waves rose and fell.

5. Elaine paused but continued.

3. Stop and listen!

6. Skiers were slipping and falling.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

5
Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III
Compound Subject and Compound Predicate
Some sentences have both compound subjects and compound verbs. The diagram for any of those sentences has a baseline that is forked on both ends, as in this example.

Example Tracey and Donna strolled and shopped.


Tracey
and
and

strolled

part 1 of compound subject


conj.
conj.

part 1 of compound verb

Donna

shopped

part 2 of compound subject

part 2 of compound verb

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Nick and Lawanna swept and dusted. 5. Letters and packages were delivered and opened.

2. Tina and Mr. Lopez fished and talked.

6. Was Diane or Joan singing?

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Did Ernie and you stop and look?

7. Mayor Axon visited and spoke.

4. Neither Midnight nor Belle the Cat scratches or bites.

8. Both Angela and Rudy have been traveling but will return.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

6
Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I
Verbs that express physical or mental action are called action verbs. Some action verbs are complete in themselves, but others pass their action on to other elements in the sentence. These elements are called the objects of the action verbs.

Direct Object
A transitive verb is an action verb that is followed by a word or words that answer the question what? or whom? Such words are called direct objects. Nouns, pronouns, and other words acting as nouns may be direct objects. To diagram a sentence with a direct object, place the direct object on the baseline to the right of its verb. Separate the object from the verb with a vertical line above the baseline only.

Example I like picnics.


I like picnics subject action verb direct object

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Everyone brought food. 5. Ants were bothering us.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Fran packed cookies.

6. Boys and girls played baseball.

3. Tony cooked hamburgers.

7. Both Max and I hit homers.

4. Did anyone bring napkins?

8. Has everyone had fun?

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

7
Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II
Compound Direct Object
If a verb has a compound direct object, the right end of the baseline, where the direct object belongs, is forked. To the right of the vertical line after the verb, draw parallel horizontal lines, one for each part of the compound object. Connect the lines with a dotted vertical line at their left. Write the conjunction along that line. Draw angled lines from both the top and bottom lines to join the stack to the baseline. Study this example.

Example Herbert roasted both corn and potatoes.


corn
both and conj. conj.

part 1 of direct object subject action verb

Herbert

roasted

potatoes

part 2 of direct object

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Parks have tables and benches. 5. We saw neither rain nor clouds.

2. You use either grills or campfires.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Danelle and Gina had prepared salads and rolls.

3. Did you drink juice or cola?

7. Mike ate both food and bugs.

4. Chang was swatting houseflies and mosquitoes.

8. Campers should bring bedrolls and tents.

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

8
Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III
Indirect Object
An indirect object answers the question to whom or what? or for whom or what? after an action verb. Almost always, a sentence with an indirect object also has a direct object. In the sentence, the indirect object appears between the verb and the direct object. To diagram a sentence with an indirect object, begin by diagraming the subject, verb, and direct object. Then draw a line that slants down from the baseline under the verb, bends, and extends horizontally to the right. Place the indirect object on the horizontal segment of the line, as in this example.

Example Ranger OBrien gives campers directions.


Ranger O'Brien gives directions
campers

subject

action verb

direct object

indirect object

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Mr. Norris assigned us jobs. 4. Ms. Varsey told us stories.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. He taught me birdcalls.

5. She handed everyone marshmallows.

3. We made ourselves dinner.

6. Roger lent Manny sunglasses.

10

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

9
Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV
Compound Verb with Direct and Indirect Objects
In some sentences with a compound verb, all parts of the verb share a single direct object. To diagram such a sentence, connect the horizontal lines holding the verb parts to the baseline at both left and right, as shown below. Then extend the baseline at the right to hold the shared direct object.

Example Campers examined and compared maps.


examined
conj. and

part 1 of compound verb maps subject direct object part 2 of compound verb

Campers

compared

The diagram shows that the campers both examined maps and compared maps. In other sentences with a compound verb, a direct or an indirect object completes only one part of the verb. To diagram that type of sentence, connect the object(s) with only one verb part, as in this example.

Example Steve drew maps and made us copies.


drew
and

maps
conj.

part 1 of compound verb subject

direct object

Steve

made
us

copies

part 2 of compound verb


indirect object

direct object

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Make sure that each direct or indirect object is related
to the correct verb or verb part. 1. Rangers led hikes and gave hikers advice.

2. Campers collected and buried leftovers.

Sentence Diagraming

11

Name Date
Continued

3. Food can attract bears and bring campers problems.

4. Weather can help or hurt vacationers.

5. Rain gives plants nourishment but can dampen spirits.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Have you camped or visited parks?

12

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

10
Adjectives and Adverbs I
In addition to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, many sentences use modifiers. The two types of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs.

Adjectives
An adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. An adjective can tell what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Examples include strong, this, three, and less. The articles a, an, and the are also adjectives. In addition, possessive nouns and pronouns can be considered adjectives because they describe nouns. Examples of possessive nouns are childrens, adults, and Mrs. Deans. Possessive pronouns include our, your, his, and her. In the example below, every adjective is underlined. Any noun or pronoun in a sentence may be modified by one or more adjectives. To diagram a sentence with adjectives, place each adjective on a slant line below the word it modifies. If more than one adjective modifies the same word, place the modifiers from left to right in the order in which they appear in the sentence.

Example Lucys older brother oiled her squeaky bicycle wheel.


brother
ol de r Lu cy s

oiled

wheel
sq ue he r bi cy cl e y ak

subject
ad je ct ad je ct iv e 1

verb

direct object
ad je ad ad je ct je ct iv ct iv

iv e 2

iv e 1

e 2

e 3

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Those happy fans watched a great race.

2. Did the famous cyclist win first prize?

Sentence Diagraming

13

Name Date
Continued

10

3. Many enthusiastic people attended that recent event.

4. My cousin enjoys extreme sports.

5. That adventurous teenager climbs steep mountains.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Tough triathlons attract him.

7. Dangerous activities give him memorable thrills.

14

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

11
Adjectives and Adverbs II
Adverbs
An adverb is a word that modifies, or describes, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs answer the questions when?, where?, how?, and to what extent? In the examples below, the adverbs are underlined. To diagram a sentence with one or more adverbs, place each adverb on a slant line below the word it modifies.

Adverbs Modifying Verbs


In a sentence, an adverb that modifies a verb may appear either before or after the verb. It may be separated from the verb by other words or phrases. In these examples, the adverb often takes two different positions. However, because often modifies hosts in both sentences, the diagrams of the sentences are the same. When diagraming a sentence in which two or more adverbs modify the verb, place the adverbs under the verb in the order they appear in the sentence.

Example My family often hosts parties. My family hosts parties often.


family
M y

hosts
of te n

parties

subject
ad je ct

verb
ad ve

direct object
rb

iv e

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Cold winds howled noisily.

4. Soon, everyone was seated comfortably.

2. The Dawsons greeted their guests warmly.

5. Had the Lopezes been there before?

3. Immediately, they hurried the guests inside.

6. The visit ended early.

Sentence Diagraming

15

Name Date

12
Adjectives and Adverbs III
Adverbs That Modify Other Modifiers
A single sentence may have both kinds of modifiers, with adjectives modifying nouns and pronouns, and adverbs modifying verbs.

Example Watchful explorers choose their paths carefully.


explorers
at W ch

choose
ca re fu

paths
th ei r lly

subject
ad je ct iv

verb
ad ve

direct object
ad je ct rb iv

Also, the sentence may have other adverbs modifying these modifiers. To diagram an adverb that modifies an adjective or another adverb shown on a slant line, write the additional adverb on a slant line parallel to but slightly lower than the slant line of the word modified. Connect the two lines with a short horizontal line at the top of the lower slant line. In this example, the adverbs very and extremely modify the adjective watchful and the adverb carefully.

Example Very watchful explorers choose their paths extremely carefully.


explorers
w at ch fu l r Ve y

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Alarmingly thick bushes blocked the path almost everywhere.

2. The travelers looked about rather wearily.

fu l

choose
ca ex tre m

paths
th ei r lly re fu y el

subject
ad je ct iv e rb ad ve

verb
ad ve

direct object
ad je ct rb iv e
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ad ve rb

16

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

12

3. Extremely sharp hatchets cleared a path remarkably fast.

4. The usually energetic leader walked exceedingly slowly.

5. The group was entering a particularly dangerous area.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Suddenly, the least courageous member yelled shockingly loudly.

Sentence Diagraming

17

Name Date

13
Adjectives and Adverbs IV
Modifiers with Compound Subjects, Verbs, and Objects
In a sentence with a compound subject, verb, or object, a modifier may describe one part of the compound element or all parts. What the modifier describes affects where it is placed in the diagram. In the first example below, immediately modifies blew. In the second example, immediately modifies both verb parts. See how the diagrams differ.

Examples The leader turned and immediately blew a whistle. The leader immediately turned and blew a whistle.
turned
conj. and

part 1 of compound verb subject


ad

leader
Th e

blew
im m

whistle
a ed

part 2 of compound verb


ad ve rb

direct object
ad je ct

je ct iv e

iv

turned
conj. and

ia te ly

part 1 of compound verb subject


ad ad

leader
Th e im m

blew

whistle
a

part 2 of compound verb

direct object
ad je ct

ve

je ct

rb

If a modifier modifies only one part of the compound element, place it under that part of the fork. If the modifier modifies all parts, place it under the shared baseline.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. The cowardly explorer shivered suddenly and fainted. 3. Both the book and its sequel sold well.

2. Scary stories always frighten and delight me.

ed ia te ly

4. The story fascinated adventurous teens and adults.

iv e

iv e
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

18

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

14
Subject Complements I
A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of the sentence with a word or phrase describing or identifying the subject. The most common linking verb is to be. Other linking verbs are appear, sound, and feel. The word or phrase linked to the subject is called a subject complement. There are two kinds of subject complements: predicate nouns and predicate adjectives. They are diagramed the same way.

Predicate Noun
A predicate noun is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or further identifies the subject. It may be modified by adjectives. To diagram a sentence with a predicate noun, place the noun or pronoun on the baseline to the right of the linking verb. Draw a slant line between the verb and the predicate noun that ends at the baseline.

Example A parrot can be a good pet.


parrot
A

can be

pet a

subject
go od ad je ct iv

linking verb

predicate noun
ad je ad je ct iv e e ct iv

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Kiwi is a yellow cockatiel.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Parrots are popular pets.

2. Cockatiels are parrots.

4. How long has Kiwi been Franks pet?

Sentence Diagraming

19

Name Date

15
Subject Complements II
Predicate Adjective
A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and further describes the subject. It may be modified by adverbs. To diagram a sentence with a predicate adjective, place the adjective on the baseline to the right of the linking verb. Draw a slant line between the verb and the predicate adjective that ends at the baseline.

Example Many parrots are quite clever.


parrots
M an y

are

clever
qu ite

subject
ad je ct iv

linking verb

predicate adjective
ad ve rb

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Franks cockatiel is very friendly. 4. Kiwi seems smart.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Kiwi appears happy.

5. Are her tricks difficult?

3. Her birdcage is rather large.

6. Kiwis owner feels extremely fortunate.

20

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

16
Subject Complements III
Compound Subject Complements
Both predicate nouns and predicate adjectives may have compound parts. The diagram of a sentence with a compound subject complement has a baseline that is forked at the right of the slant line. Study these examples.

Examples Today, our major parties are Republicans and Democrats. The parties history is quite long and colorful.
Republicans
and
part 1 of comp. predicate noun
conj.

parties
ou r Th e m aj or

are
d To ay

subject
ad ad

linking verb
ad ve je ct rb

Democrats

part 2 of comp. predicate noun

je

ct iv

iv e

long
and

part 1 of comp. predicate adj.


conj.

history
pa r ti es

is
qu ite

subject
ad

linking verb
ad ve

e iv ct je ad tive c je

colorful

part 2 of comp. predicate adj.

rb

In the second example, note how the adverb quite, which modifies both parts of the compound predicate adjective, is connected to the baseline before the fork.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Decide first whether the sentence has a subject
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

complement or a direct object, and use a slant or straight line, as appropriate, to separate that word from the verb. 1. Political cartoons can be both funny and meaningful.

2. Their messages may be timely but durable.

Sentence Diagraming

21

Name Date
Continued

16

3. Teddy Roosevelt was both a strong president and a memorable public figure.

4. One cartoon showed Teddy and a cute bear.

5. The teddy bear is still popular and lovable.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Wartime political cartoons are often critical or inspirational.

22

Sentence Diagraming

Simple Sentences with Phrases


Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Lesson 27 Lesson 28 Lesson 29 Lesson 30 Lesson 31

Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


Appositives and appositive phrases

Prepositional Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Used as adjectives

Prepositional Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Used as adverbs

Prepositional Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


Used to modify other prepositional phrases

Participles and Participial Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


Participles

Participles and Participial Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


Participial phrases

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


Used as subjects

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


Used as direct objects

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Used as predicate nouns

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


Used as objects of prepositions

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


Used as adjectives

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


Used as adverbs

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


Used as subjects

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


Used as direct objects

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


Used as predicate nouns

Sentence Diagraming

23

Name Date

17
Appositives and Appositive Phrases
An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies another noun or pronoun in the sentence. Any noun or pronoun may have an appositive. To diagram a sentence with an appositive, place the appositive immediately after the word it identifies, and set it off in parentheses.

Example A California stagecoach driver, Charley Parkhurst, had a secret.


driver
sta A C al ifo

(Charley Parkhurst)
ge co ac h

had

secret
a

subject
ad ad je ct iv ad je ct iv je

(appos.)
ct iv

verb

dir. object
ad je ct iv

Example Legends describe that colorful character, Charley Parkhurst.


Legends describe character (Charley Parkhurst)
co th at lo r fu

An appositive phrase is composed of an appositive and all the words that modify it. To diagram a sentence with an appositive phrase, write the appositive within parentheses immediately after the word identified, and place the modifiers on slant lines under the appositive rather than under the word identified.

Example Parkhurst, a fearless driver, could handle almost any horse.


Parkhurst (driver)
a fe ar le

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Charley Parkhurst was really Charlotte Parkhurst, an orphan.

2. Fifteen-year-old Charlotte, a tall, strong girl, left an unfriendly orphanage.

rn ia

subj.

verb

dir. object (appos.)


ad je ct iv iv ad je ct

could handle

horse
an y al m

subj. (appositive)
ad je ct iv ad je ct

verb

dir. obj.
ad je ct iv ad ve

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

iv

ss

os t

rb

24

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

17

3. She took a mans job, stable hand.

4. She also took a mans name, Charley.

5. Charley, the pretend man, became the first woman voter.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Her one vice, tobacco, gave Charley cancer.

7. Death finally revealed her secret, her womanhood.

Sentence Diagraming

25

Name Date

18
Prepositional Phrases I
A preposition is a word that indicates how a noun or pronoun relates to some other word in its sentence. Examples include before, throughout, and with. Some prepositions are made up of more than one word, such as in front of and except for. A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object. Examples of prepositional phrases are before the storm, during heavy rain, and in front of an old barn. Prepositional phrases may act as adjectives or as adverbs.

Used as Adjectives
To diagram a prepositional phrase used as an adjective, place the preposition on a slant line below the noun or pronoun modified. Place the object of the preposition on a horizontal line connected to the slant line and lying at its right. The slant line should extend slightly beyond the horizontal line. If the object of the preposition has modifiers, write them on slant lines below the object.

Example Most people in Emmas class like rock music.


people
M os t in
class

like

music
ro ck

subject
ad je ct iv e pr ep

verb

direct object
ad je ct iv

os iti on

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Posters throughout the city announced the rock concert.

2. Holders of particular tickets would also receive passes to backstage areas.

Em m s a

object of preposition
ad je ct iv e
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

26

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

18

3. Will you get tickets for the show?

4. Spotlights in many different colors lit the stage.

5. The loudspeakers behind my ears blared announcements about souvenirs.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Could you see the drummer with long blond hair?

Sentence Diagraming

27

Name Date

19
Prepositional Phrases II
Used as Adverbs
A prepositional phrase used as an adverb is diagramed the same way as one used as an adjective. Study this model of a prepositional phrase used to modify a verb. The preposition is placed on the slant line and its object is placed on the adjoining horizontal line. Note that the phrase is placed beneath the verb modified.

Example The science lab was displayed on Parents Night.


lab
sc ie nc e
and

was displayed
on
Parents Night

subject
ad ad je je ct ct

verb
pr ep os

If the prepositional phrase modifies only one part of a compound element, place it under that part only. Otherwise, the slant line begins beneath the shared baseline.

Example On that night, my mother came and saw the school.


came mother
m y O n
conj.

As shown above, a prepositional phrase used as an adverb does not always immediately follow the verb. You can identify a phrase used as an adverb if it answers this question: When, where, or how does or did the action occur?

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Before Parents Night, we practiced our experiments.

2. Mrs. Sanchez wrote precise instructions on the chalkboard.

Th e

subject
ad pr

iv e

iv e

iti

part 1 of compound verb

saw
night
th at

school
th e

part 2 of compound verb


obj. of prep.
ad j.

on

object of preposition

direct object
ad j.

j.

ep .

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

28

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

19

3. Turtles and frogs crawled over the aquarium rocks.

4. A gray mouse slept quietly inside a cardboard tube.

5. The teams performed the experiments with great care.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. We recorded data and observations in our lab notebooks.

Sentence Diagraming

29

Name Date

20
Prepositional Phrases III
Used to Modify Other Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase that modifies another prepositional phrase is diagramed like any other prepositional phrase. Simply place the phrase beneath the object of the prepositional phrase that is modified. Study this example.

Example Boaters in canoes raced down the river through the Scout camp.
Boaters
in
canoes

raced
do w n
river
th e

subject
pr ep .

verb
obj. of prep.
pr ep .

obj. of prep.
ad

pr

In this example, the prepositional phrase down the river tells where the boaters raced, so it is placed under the verb raced. The prepositional phrase through the Scout camp tells which river, so it is placed under the object of the first phrase, river. Any sentence may contain a series of prepositional phrases. Be sure to determine which word is modified by each phrase, and place each phrase under the word it modifies.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. The race was held on a day with threats of rain.

2. Danny rowed with a winner of the previous race.

th ro ug h
camp
th e Sc ou t

ep .

j.

obj. of prep.
ad j. ad j.

30

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

20

3. Near the end of the race, dark clouds filled the sky.

4. Danny and his partner sped to the goal at the fork in the river.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Immediately, the rowers in all of the other boats stopped.

Sentence Diagraming

31

Name Date

21
Participles and Participial Phrases I
Not all verb forms function in sentences as verbs. A participle is a verb form that functions in a sentence as an adjective. Participles may be either present or past. Present participles end in ing. Most past participles end in ed, but some have irregular forms.

Participles
To diagram a sentence that includes a participle, first identify the word that the participle modifies. Draw a line that slants down from that word, bends, and extends horizontally to the right. Write the participle on the line, curving it in the angle of the line, as shown in this example.

Example Growling, the monster charged the wounded hero.


G
monster charged
th e

hero
o u n ded

subject
a r ti

verb
ad j.

direct object
a r ti

r o w li n g

ad

Irregular participles such as risen or caught may not be recognized easily. Remember that any verb form used as an adjective is a participle.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. The hero swung a broken branch at the creature.

2. Defeated, the monster fled from the relieved fighter.

3. The satisfied crowd soon left the crowded theater.

th e

c i ple

c i ple

j.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

32

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

22
Participles and Participial Phrases II
Participial Phrases
As a form of verbs, participles may take direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nouns, and predicate adjectives. They may also be modified by adverbs and prepositional phrases. A participial phrase is made up of a participle, any complements it may have, and all words and phrases that modify the participle and its complements. To diagram a participial phrase, first diagram the participle on its bent line. Then diagram any objects, complements, and modifiers in the phrase, adding them to the bent line of the participle. Be sure to place every modifier under the correct element of the participial phrase.

Example Cheerfully whistling a tune, Jacob walked to the store.


Jacob
h is

walked
to
store

subject
a r ti

verb
pr ep

Participial phrases can occur almost anywhere in a sentence. Be sure to identify which word is modified by each participial phrase, and diagram the phrase so that the participle extends below that word.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Looking over his shoulder, Jacob spotted a large dog.

2. The dog, barking furiously, chased the frightened boy.

Sentence Diagraming

tli n g
C

tune
a er fu lly he

ci ple
ad v.

dir. obj. of participle


ad j.

obj. of preposition
ad j.

th e

33

Name Date
Continued

22

3. Thinking quickly, Jacob jumped over a fence.

4. The confused dog stopped, giving the exhausted boy a rest.

5. Surprised, he noticed the dogs wagging tail.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Jacob, holding his breath, opened the gate.

34

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

23
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I
A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing and is used in a sentence as a noun. A gerund phrase is made up of a gerund, its complements, and all modifiers of the gerund and its complements. Gerunds and gerund phrases may be used in sentences wherever nouns may be used. In a diagram, a gerund is written in a curved shape over a line with a step. The stepped line lies at the top of a stilt, and the stilt is placed where you would put a noun or pronoun used as the gerund is used.

Used as Subjects
To diagram a gerund or a gerund phrase used as a subject, place a stilt on the baseline where the subject usually lies. Draw a stepped line above the stilt and curve the gerund itself over the step. Then diagram any objects, complements, and modifiers of the gerund phrase, adding these elements to the stepped line.

Example Giving speeches frightens some people.


Givin g
speeches frightens people
so m e

geru nd

direct object of gerund verb direct object


ad j.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Jogging tires me quickly.

2. Hearing that joke reminds me of a funny story.

Sentence Diagraming

35

Name Date

24
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II
Used as Direct Objects
To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as a direct object, draw a stilt on the baseline where the direct object is usually placed. Draw a stepped line, as shown here, above the stilt. Curve the gerund over the step. Add any complements or modifiers in the gerund phrase to the stepped line.

Example Armando enjoys solving difficult riddles.


solvin g
Armando enjoys riddles
di ffi cu lt

geru nd
subject verb

direct object of gerund


ad j.

Both gerunds and present participles end in ing. However, gerunds act as nouns, while participles act as adjectives. Test for gerunds by asking this question: Can the verb form be replaced with the pronoun it? If so, that verb form is a gerund.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. My whole family enjoyed watching the fireworks display.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. I remember being lifted by my father for a better view.

36

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

25
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III
Used as Predicate Nouns
To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as a predicate noun, place a stilt on the baseline where the predicate noun belongs, following a slant line. Draw a stepped line above the stilt. Curve the gerund over the step, and add any other words of the gerund phrase to the stepped line. Study this example.

Example My least favorite chore has always been washing windows.


washi ng

windows subject
ad ad

geru nd
linking verb
ad v. j.

dir. obj. of gerund

chore
M y le fa vo rit e as t

has been
al w ay s

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Use the correct line before each gerundstraight or
slantedto indicate whether it is used as a direct object or as a predicate noun. 1. The first step of any job is finding the right tools.

j.

ad v.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. The tired workers stopped doing their best.

3. Elenas hobby was repairing dolls.

Sentence Diagraming

37

Name Date

26
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV
Used as Objects of Prepositions
To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as the object of a preposition, prepare space for the gerund by drawing a long slant line for that preposition. Then place a stilt on the horizontal line where the object of the preposition belongs, and draw a stepped line above the stilt. Curve the gerund over the step itself. Add any complements and modifiers of the gerund phrase to the stepped line. Study this example.

Example The people cheered us for entertaining them.


people
Th e
fo r

cheered

us

subject
ad

verb
pr

dir. obj.

entert a in

ing

them

gerun d

dir. obj. of gerund

Whenever you find a gerund in a sentence to be diagramed, mentally replace it with the pronoun it and decide where you would place that pronoun in a diagram. Then place the gerund or gerund phrase on a stilt in that position.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Decide first how each gerund is used, and place
the stilt for the gerund in the correct place. 1. You win this game by popping five balloons.

j.

ep .

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. The library has a policy against talking loudly.

3. Marsha dreams of competing in the Olympics.

38

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

26

4. I found the instructions for assembling the unit.

5. Skiing in Colorado has been extremely enjoyable.

6. Maynards habit of finding lost coins is uncanny.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Tutoring younger children prepares you for becoming a teacher.

Sentence Diagraming

39

Name Date

27
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I
An infinitive is a verb form that matches the base form of a verb and is usually preceded by the word to. An example is to tell. An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive, its complements, and any modifiers of the infinitive and its complements. An example is to tell a friend the news. Infinitives and infinitive phrases can be used in sentences as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

Used as Adjectives
Infinitives or infinitive phrases used as adjectives are diagramed in the same way as prepositional phrases are. Write the word to on a slant line below the noun or pronoun modified by the infinitive. Write the base form of the verb on a horizontal line drawn to the right of the slant line, near its lower end. Study this example.

Examples Band members announced their decision to tour again.


members
Ba nd

announced

decision
to th ei r

subject
ad

verb

dir. obj.
ad t o j.

tour
ag ai n

The infinitive phrase to tour again tells what kind of decision. It acts as an adjective modifying decision.

j.

infinitive (base form)


ad v.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. The audience shouted demands to play favorite songs.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. On tour, musicians need the ability to sleep at odd hours.

3. An overnight bag to hold essential items is a necessity.

40

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

28
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II
Used as Adverbs
Infinitives or infinitive phrases used as adjectives and those used as adverbs are diagramed in the same way. Write the word to on a slant line below the word modified by the infinitive. Write the base form of the verb on a horizontal line drawn to the right of the slant line, near its lower end. Here is an example.

Examples Eager fans competed to buy tickets to the show.


fans
Ea ge r

competed
buy tickets

subject
ad j.

verb
t o

In the example, the infinitive phrase to buy tickets tells how or why the fans competed. It acts as an adverb, modifying competed.

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. To get closer to the stage, some audience members pushed others.

to

infinitive

dir. obj. of infinitive


pr ep

to

show
th e

obj. of prep.
ad j.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Guards at the auditorium worked to prevent injuries.

3. The band played two encores to show their appreciation.

Sentence Diagraming

41

Name Date

29
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III
Used as Subjects
To diagram a sentence with an infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a noun, first identify its role in the sentence. If the phrase is used as a subject, draw a stilt on the baseline where the subject belongs. Next, draw a horizontal line above the stilt, and a short slant line at the left of that horizontal line, as in the example below. Write the word to on the slant line, and the base form of the verb on the horizontal line. (Make sure the verb form is directly above the stilt.) Add complements and modifiers in the infinitive phrase to the horizontal line. Study this example.

Examples To build the largest ship was the engineers goal.


o" "T

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. In good weather, to ride a bike to school saves time.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. To buy a secondhand bike was a wise decision.

3. To change this tire will take twenty minutes.

To

build

ship
th e la rg es t

infinitive

dir. obj. of infinitive


ad j. ad j.

was

goal
en gi ne er s th e

verb

pred. noun

42

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

30
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV
Used as Direct Objects
To diagram a sentence with an infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a direct object, draw a stilt on the baseline where the direct object belongs. Next, draw a horizontal line above the stilt, and a short slant line at the left of that horizontal line. See the example below. Write the word to on the slant line, and the base form of the verb on the horizontal line. (Place the verb form directly above the stilt.) Add complements and modifiers in the infinitive phrase to the horizontal line. In this example, the infinitive phrase is the direct object of the sentence.

Examples Jean asked me to go with her.


t o

to

go
w ith
her

infinitive
pr ep

Jean

asked
me

subject

verb

object of prep.

indirect object

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. Callers to the station asked to hear your song.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. The child refused to eat broccoli.

3. None of my friends can afford to buy every new video game.

Sentence Diagraming

43

Name Date

31
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V
Used as Predicate Nouns
An infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a predicate noun is diagramed the same way as one used as a direct object, except that it follows a slant line after the verb rather than a vertical line. Study this example. Note where the word to and the base form of the verb are placed.

Examples Deans long-range plan is to run his own business.


to

run

business
n ow s hi

t o

infinitive

dir. obj. of inf.

plan
De lo ng -ra s an

is

subject
ad j.
ad j.

verb

EXERCISE Identify the role of the infinitive or infinitive phrase in each sentence, and then
diagram the sentence. 1. Alicias hobby is to ride trail horses.

2. The purpose of this booklet is to explain pet licenses.

3. To stick to the exact truth took courage.

ng e
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

44

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

31

4. Everybody wanted to see the parade.

5. One aim of the campaign is to raise awareness of this disease.

6. To increase sales at the store will not be easy.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Your first step is to notify the police of the theft.

Sentence Diagraming

45

Compound and Complex Sentences


Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Lesson 34 Lesson 35 Lesson 36 Lesson 37 Lesson 38 Lesson 39 Lesson 40

Compound Sentences I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Clauses connected by a semicolon

Compound Sentences II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Clauses connected by a conjunction

Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


Adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns

Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


Adverb clauses that modify verbs

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


Used as subjects

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


Used as direct objects

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


Introduced by that

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


Used as objects of prepositions

Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


Used as predicate nouns

Sentence Diagraming

47

Name Date

32
Compound Sentences I
A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a part of a sentence. A main, or independent, clause can also stand alone in a simple sentence. A subordinate, or dependent, clause cannot stand alone. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses and no subordinate clauses. The clauses are joined by a semicolon or by a comma and a conjunction. In a diagram of a compound sentence, each independent clause is diagramed separately; then the clauses are connected. The type of connection used depends on whether the clauses are joined by a semicolon or a conjunction.

Clauses Connected by a Semicolon


When two main clauses in a compound sentence are joined by a semicolon, first diagram the clauses separately in the order in which they appear in the sentence. Then draw a vertical dotted line between the verbs of the clauses, as shown here.

Example Folktales are always popular; you have probably heard many of them.
Folktales are
al w ay s

popular

MAIN CLAUSE #1

verb

you

have heard
pr ob ab ly

many
of

MAIN CLAUSE #2 them

verb

EXERCISE Diagram each compound sentence.


1. Some folktales have been told for generations; many different versions exist.

2. In many tales, animals talk; they stand for humans.

48

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

32

3. In some tales, the animals are wise; in others, they are foolish or selfish.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Writers in various countries have made collections of folktales; the Grimm brothers are among these writers.

Sentence Diagraming

49

Name Date

33
Compound Sentences II
Clauses Connected by a Conjunction
When the main clauses in a compound sentence are connected by a conjunction such as and, but, or or, first diagram each clause separately. Next, write the conjunction on a solid horizontal line between the two main clauses. Last, draw vertical dotted lines to connect that solid line to the verb of each clause, as shown in this example.

Example Do you like scary stories, or do they give you nightmares?


you Do like or they do give you stories
sc ar y

MAIN CLAUSE #1

verb conj.

nightmares

MAIN CLAUSE #2

verb

EXERCISE Diagram each compound sentence.


1. In very old English tales, Grendel was a terrible monster, and his mother was equally horrible.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Grendel terrorized the countryside, but finally the hero Beowulf stopped him.

50

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

33

3. In the Odyssey, Scylla and Charybdis were monstrous neighbors, and sailors feared them.

4. Scylla tore ships apart, or Charybdis pulled them and their crews underwater.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sentence Diagraming

51

Name Date

34
Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I
A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence. A main, or independent, clause can stand alone in a simple sentence. A subordinate, or dependent, clause cannot stand alone. There are three types of subordinate clauses: adjective, adverb, and noun clauses. A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The diagram of a complex sentence depends on the type of subordinate clause it includes.

Adjective Clauses Introduced by Relative Pronouns


An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun in the main clause. Most adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, that, and which). Always begin the diagram of a complex sentence by diagraming the independent clause, even if it comes second in the sentence. Then diagram the subordinate clause separately, placing it below the main clause. Finally, connect the two clauses. To connect a main clause and an adjective clause that begins with a relative pronoun, draw a dotted line between the introductory pronoun and the word in the main clause that the adjective clause modifies. Study this example.

Example Geologists are scientists who study rocks.


Geologists are scientists MAIN CLAUSE modified noun
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

who

study

rocks

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

relative pronoun

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. Evidence that is found in rocks shows changes in the earth.

2. Information about the center of the earth is found in lava, which is rock from volcanoes.

52

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

34

3. Valerie, who is the daughter of a geologist, shares his love of rocks.

4. She also learns about the field from other geologists who work with her father.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sentence Diagraming

53

Name Date

35
Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II
Adverb Clauses That Modify Verbs
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb in the main clause. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as these: after, before, because, as, as if, as soon as, in order that, until, although, when, where, and whenever. An adverb clause that modifies a main clause verb usually tells when, where, how, or why. To diagram a complex sentence with an adverb clause modifying a verb, first diagram the main clause, even if it comes second in the sentence. Next, diagram the adverb clause, placing it below the main clause. Connect the clauses with a dotted line that begins under the modified verb in the main clause and slants down to the verb in the adverb clause. Last, write the conjunction on the dotted line. Study this example.

Example Although land on Earth looks solid, the continents are actually moving.
continents
th e

are moving
ac tu al ly gh Al th ou

MAIN CLAUSE

modified verb
co nj .

land
on

looks

solid

ADVERB CLAUSE

verb

Earth
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Notice that the sentence begins with the adverb clause, but the diagram begins with the main clause. The adverb clause Although land on Earth looks solid modifies are moving.

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. Continents move because massive plates under them shift.

2. Where two plates collide, land on one plate may push over the other.

54

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

35

3. If you could watch the collision for millions of years, you would see the growth of a mountain.

4. When two plates pull away from each other suddenly, an earthquake results.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sentence Diagraming

55

Name Date

36
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I
A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Noun clauses may be used wherever nouns are used. Some noun clauses are introduced by pronouns such as who, whom, and whatever. Others are introduced by adverbs such as how, where, and why. Unlike adjective and adverb clauses, a noun clause is a part of the main clause. It is diagramed within the main clause. How this is done depends on how the noun clause is used in the sentence.

Used as Subjects
To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as the subject, first draw a diagram frame for the main clause. Draw a stilt on the baseline where the subject belongs. On top of the stilt, draw a second baseline. Diagram the noun clause on that baseline, placing the verb of the noun clause immediately above the stilt. Study these examples.

Example Whatever you decide is fine.


you decide is Whatever fine MAIN CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE

Example How we get there is your problem.


we get
th er H ow

NOUN CLAUSE
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

MAIN CLAUSE

is

problem
yo ur

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. Whoever made this pottery did a good job.

2. When the plane will actually depart has not yet been announced.

56

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date
Continued

36

3. How a room is furnished affects its noise level.

4. What the detective discovered about her client raised new questions.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Why rust forms on metal is easily explained.

Sentence Diagraming

57

Name Date

37
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II
Used as Direct Objects
To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as direct object, begin with a diagram frame for the main clause. Fill in the subject, the verb, and a vertical line to separate the verb from the object. Then draw a stilt on the main clause baseline where the object belongs. On top of the stilt, draw a second baseline. Use that baseline to diagram the noun clause, placing the verb of the noun clause immediately above the stilt, as shown in the following example.

Example Mr. Denton taught us how plants make sugar.


plants Mr. Denton taught us make sugar MAIN CLAUSE
ho w

NOUN CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. The engineers finally discovered who caused the oil spill.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. At the buffet, take whatever you want.

3. That dog licks whomever it meets.

58

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

38
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III
Introduced by That
The word that is a special introductory word. It often appears before a noun clause, but it doesnt always have to. In this example, the noun clause has no introductory word.

Example Everyone says time travel is impossible.


travel
tim e

is

impossible MAIN CLAUSE

NOUN CLAUSE

Everyone

says

A noun clause may begin with the word that. Usually, however, that introduces a noun clause without being part of itas in the example below. To diagram a complex sentence in which that only introduces a noun clause, write that on its own solid line above the verb of the noun clause. Draw a vertical dotted line from that to the verb of the noun clause.

Example Everyone says that time travel is impossible.


that travel
tim e

that impossible MAIN CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE

is

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Everyone

says

EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.


1. The police officer claimed the car had been speeding.

2. That I could even surf was incredible.

Sentence Diagraming

59

Name Date
Continued

38

3. The reporter noted that Rocky fouled fourteen pitches in a row.

4. We regret that we arrived late.

5. That the club has powerful members gives it influence.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. We hope you will get well soon.

60

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

39
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV
Used as Objects of Prepositions
To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as the object of a preposition, first diagram the other elements of the main clause. Under the word modified by the prepositional phrase involving the noun clause, draw a long slant line for the preposition. Place a stilt on the horizontal line where the object of the preposition belongs, and draw a second baseline on top of the stilt. Finally, diagram the noun phrase on the second baseline. Study this example.

Example Terry made a list of whatever supplies we needed.


Terry made list we
of

needed

supplies
w ha te

ve r

MAIN CLAUSE

NOUN CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. Give this fruit to whoever wants it.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Researchers were puzzled by how cave dwellers had made paintings on the cave wall.

Sentence Diagraming

61

Name Date
Continued

39

3. I read a book about how organic food is grown.

4. Your school work is affected by how late you stay up at night.

5. The kitten ran to whoever rang the bell.


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Despite what her stepmother told her, Cinderella had hope.

62

Sentence Diagraming

Name Date

40
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V
Used as Predicate Nouns
To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as a predicate noun, first diagram the subject and verb of the main clause. Then draw a slant line after the verb to separate it from the predicate noun. Place a stilt on the main clause baseline where the predicate noun belongs. On top of the stilt, draw a second baseline. Diagram the noun clause on that baseline. Study this example.

Example A long vacation is what you need.


you
vacation
A lo ng

need

what

NOUN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

is

EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.


1. Tomorrow is when we leave.

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. This hammer is what I need for my construction project.

3. My wish is that I can visit a kelp forest someday.

Sentence Diagraming

63

PART I
Lesson 1 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I
1. Dolphins swim

9. Who

called

10. Aunt Emily

Did go

Exercise 2

2.

(you)

Wait

1.

Sleet

is falling

3.

(you)

Turn

2.

you

Were planning

4.

Tiffany

jogs

3.

Doans

have been remodeling

Lesson 2 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II


Exercise 1

4.

(you)

drink

5. has been exercising 6.

Plants

are sold

1.

Hector

One

is

2.

you

Did forget

3.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ms. Alice Cummins

interrupted

Lesson 3 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I


Emma 1. Becky laughed
Both and

4.

(you)

Hurry

5.

Dr. Lee

has been calling 2.

Phillip Was returning


or

6.

guests

Have been invited

Annette Boaters

7.

(you)

Work

3. swimmers will have retired Jeremy 4. Mark

were rescued

and

8.

Senator Adams

was whispering

Either or

Sentence Diagraming

65

3. you

and

Lesson 4 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II


growling
and

Ernie Did
and

stop

look scratches

1.

Rex

was

Midnight biting 4.
Neither nor

rose 2.
and

Belle the Cat Letters

or

bites delivered
and

Waves

fell
and

5. Stop 3.
and

were

packages Diane

opened

(you)

listen 6. complains 4.
either or or

Was singing

Joan visited

She

criticizes 7. paused

and

Mayor Axon

spoke Angela have been traveling


Both and

but

5.

Elaine

continued 8. slipping 6.
and

but

Rudy

will return
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Skiers

were

falling

Lesson 6 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I


1. Everyone brought food

Lesson 5 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III


Nick 1. Lawanna Tina 2. Mr. Lopez
and
and

swept
and
and

2.

Fran

packed

cookies

dusted fished

3.

Tony

cooked

hamburgers

4.

anyone

Did bring

napkins

talked

5.

Ants

were bothering

us

66

Sentence Diagraming

Boys 6. girls Max 7. I 8. 8. 7.


both and

food played baseball Mike ate


and

bugs bedrolls
and

hit

homers

Campers

should bring

everyone

Lesson 7 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II


tables 1.
and

Both and

tents

Has had

fun

Lesson 8 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III


1. Mr. Norris assigned
us

jobs

Parks

have

2. benches grills 3.

He

taught
me

birdcalls

We

made

dinner
ourselves

2.

either or

You

use

campfires juice
or

4.

Ms. Varsey

told

stories
us

3.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

you

Did drink

5. cola houseflies
and

She

handed

marshmallows

everyone

6.

Roger

lent

sunglasses
Manny

4.

Chang

was swatting

mosquitoes

rain 5. We saw
neither nor

clouds salads
and

Danelle 6. Gina had prepared


and

rolls

Sentence Diagraming

67

Lesson 9 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV


led 1.
and

3.

people
en th M an us y

attended

event
re ce th at nt

hikes

ia sti

Rangers

gave

advice
hikers

4.

cousin
M y

enjoys

sports
ex tre m e

collected
and

2.

Campers

leftovers buried attract bears

5.

teenager
ad ve nt Th at

climbs

mountains
ste ep

ur ou s

3.

and

Food

can

bring

problems
campers

6.

triathlons
u To gh

attract

him

help
or

4.

Weather

can

vacationers hurt

7.

activities
Da ng er

give

thrills
m em or ab
him

ou s

le

gives
but

nourishment
plants

5.

Rain

Lesson 11 Adjectives and Adverbs II


spirits 1. winds
C ol d

can dampen camped


or

howled
no isi ly

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6.

you

Have

visited

parks

2.

Dawsons
Th e

greeted
w ar m

guests
th ei r

ly

Lesson 10 Adjectives and Adverbs I


1. fans
Th os ha pp y e

watched

race
gr ea t a

3.

they

hurried
in Im m ed

guests
th e e ly sid

ia te

2.

cyclist
th e fa m

Did win
ou s

prize
fir st

4.

everyone

was seated
co m fo r ta bl y So on

68

Sentence Diagraming

5.

Lopezes
th e

Had been
th er e be fo re

Lesson 13 Adjectives and Adverbs IV


shivered
su dd en

6.

1.

and

visit
Th e

ended
ea rly

explorer
co w ar dl y Th e

ly

fainted

Lesson 12 Adjectives and Adverbs III


1. 2.
e
and

frighten stories
al Sc w ar ay y

bushes
th ic k in gl y Al ar

blocked
ev al m os

path
th he yw

me delight

er

2.

travelers
Th e

3.

hatchets
sh ar p m el y Ex

4.

and

m ab re tre

looked
w ea ou ra th er y ril t

cleared
fa st ka bl m ar

path
a

re

book
th e

3.

sold
w el l

Both and

sequel
its

teens story
Th e

fascinated
ad ve

adults
ou s

nt ur

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.

leader
en Th er e us ge ua

walked
slo w ly ex ce ed

tic

lly

in

5.

group
Th e

was entering

area
a da ng pa er r ti cu la ou s rly

gl y

6.

member
co th e ur ag eo us le

yelled
Su dd en sh oc lo ud ly

Sentence Diagraming

as t

ki ng ly

ly

69

Lesson 14 Subject Complements I


1. Kiwi is cockatiel a
ye llo w

Lesson 16 Subject Complements III


funny 1.
both and but

cartoons
Po lit ic al

can be

meaningful

2.

Cockatiels

are

parrots

timely 3. Parrots are pets


po pu la r
president
a str on

2.

messages
Th ei r

may be

durable

4.

Kiwi

has been
lo ng H ow

pet
both and

Lesson 15 Subject Complements II


1. cockatiel
Fr an s k

Fr an s k

3.

Teddy Roosevelt

was

figure
a pu bl ic ab le m em or

is

friendly
ve

Teddy 4.
and

ry

cartoon
O ne

showed

2.

Kiwi

appears

happy

bear
a cu te
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.

birdcage
H er

is

large 5.
and or

popular bear
te Th dd e y

ra th er

is
sti ll

4.

Kiwi

seems

smart

lovable

5.

tricks
he r

Are

difficult 6.

critical cartoons
po lit ic al

are
of te n

inspirational

ar W

tim e

6.

owner
Ki w is

feels

fortunate
ex tre m el y

70

Sentence Diagraming

PART II
Lesson 17 Appositives and Appositive Phrases
1.
Charley Parkhurst was
re al ly

Lesson 18 Prepositional Phrases I


1. Posters
th ro ug ho

announced

concert
ro ck th e

Charlotte Parkhurst (orphan)


an

ut

city

th e

2.

Charlotte ( g i r l )
a -y ea r-o ld str ta Fi fte en on ll g

left

orphanage
an un fri en dl y

2.

Holders
of

would receive
al so
tickets

passes
to
areas

ba ck

pa r ti cu la

sta ge

3.

She

took

job
a

(hand)
sta bl e m an

3.

you

Will get

tickets
fo
show
th e

4.

She

took
al so

name (Charley)
m an s a

4. 5.
Charley (m a n)
pr et en d th e

Spotlights
in
colors

lit

stage
th e

became

voter
w th e fir st om an

re ffe di y nt

an

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6.

vice
H er

(tobacco)
on e

gave

cancer
Charley

5.

loudspeakers
Th e be hi nd

blared

announcements
ab ou t
souvenirs

7.

Death

revealed
fin al ly

secret (womanhood)
he r he r

ears

m y

6.

you

Could see

drummer
w ith
hair
bl lo ng on d th e

Sentence Diagraming

71

Lesson 19 Prepositional Phrases II


1. we practiced
Be fo

Lesson 20 Prepositional Phrases III


1. race
Th e

experiments
ou r

was held
on
day
a

2.

Mrs. Sanchez

re
Parents' Night

ith

threats

of

rain

wrote

instructions
pr ec ise

2.

Danny

rowed
w ith

on

chalkboard
th e

winner
a

of

race
pr ev io us th e

Turtles 3. frogs crawled 3.


rocks
aq th e ua riu
and

clouds
da rk

filled
N ea

sky
th e

ov er
m

end

of

th e

race
th e

4.

mouse
gr ay A

slept
Danny

qu

in
tube
a ca rd bo

e sid tly

ie

4.
partner
hi

sped
to
goal
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

and

at

th

fork
th

ar d

in

river
th e

5.

teams
Th e

performed
w ith
care

experiments
th e

5.

rowers
th

stopped
in
all
Im m ed

gr ea t

of

ia

data
and

boats
ot

te ly

th

6.

We

recorded
in

he r

observations

notebooks
ou r la b

72

Sentence Diagraming

Lesson 21 Participles and Participal Phrases I


1.
hero
Th e

5.
S

he
ur

noticed
ed

tail
ag
do

th

swung
at

branch
r o ken
a

p ris

ging

g' s

creature
th e

6.
h

Jacob

opened breath
hi s

gate
th e

old

ing

2.

monster
D

fled
th e

e f e ate d

fro m
fighter

e li

e ved

Lesson 23 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I


Joggi n g

th e

3.
Th

crowd a ti s fie d
s

left
so

theater
ro
c

w ded

th e

1.

tires
qu ic

me
kl y

on

Lesson 22 Participles and Participal Phrases II


1. Jacob oo kin g
L
ov

spotted

dog
a
la rg e

Heari ng

joke
th at

2.
Th
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dog b ar

er

shoulder 2.
hi s

reminds
of

me

story

fu

chased

boy
rig
th

nn y

kin g
fu rio us

htene

3.

Jacob
hin
T
king
qu

Lesson 24 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II


watch in

jumped 1.
fence
a

ly
family
w M ho y le

display
th e fir ew

enjoyed

ov er
kl y

or ks

4.
Th e

dog on fuse d

ic

stopped

being lifte d
fo by

gi

vin

2.

remember

father

view

Sentence Diagraming

rest
a

m y

be tte r

boy
xh
th e

a u ste

73

Lesson 25 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III


findin g

4.

found

instructions

assem b

th e
fo r

ling

unit
th e

tools
rig th e ht

1.
Th e

step
of

is
job

Skiing
in

2.

workers t ir e
e

fir

st

stopped

an y

Colorado enjoyable
ex tre m

doing

5. best
th ei r

has been

el y

d
repai r in

Th

6.
g

habit
M ay na

is
of

uncanny
findin g

dolls

coins
lo st

rd 's

3.

hobby
El en s a

was

Tutori ng

children
yo un ge

Lesson 26 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV


1. You win game

becom ing

teacher
a

poppi ng

7. balloons
fiv e

prepares
fo r

you

th is

2.

library
Th e

has

by

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Lesson 27 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases I


policy

talkin g
lo ud

1.

audience
Th e

shouted

demands
to
play
songs
fa vo rit

ag ai ns t

ly

3.

Marsha

dreams

comp e

2.
ting
in

musicians

need
O n

ability
to th

tour

sleep
at

of

Olympics

hours
od d

th e

3.
An

bag
ov er ni gh t

is
hold
items
es se

necessity
a

to
nt ia l

74

Sentence Diagraming

Lesson 28 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases II


1. members
au di en ce so m e

Lesson 30 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases IV


hear song
yo ur to

pushed
To

others
get stage
th e

1.

Callers
to
station

asked

2.

Guards
at
auditorium

worked
to
prevent injuries

cl os
to

to

er

th e

eat

broccoli

th e

2. encores
tw o

child
Th e

refused

3.

band
Th e

played

to

buy

game
ev o de vi w ne y er

Lesson 29 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases III


to

ride
to

bike
a
school

to
show appreciation

3.

None
of

can afford

friends

th ei r

m y

1.
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

saves
In

time
weather
go od

To

buy

bike
a
se co nd ha nd

2.

was

decision
a
w

ise

To

change

tire
th is

3.

will take

minutes
tw en ty

Sentence Diagraming

75

to

Lesson 31 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V


ride horses
tra il

raise

awareness
of

5.

aim
O ne
of

is
campaign

disease

to

th is

1.

hobby
Al ic ia s

is

th e

To

explain

licenses
pe t

increase

sales

to

at

2.
Th

purpose
of

is

store

th e

booklet

6.

will be
no t

easy

th is

To

stick
to
truth

to

notify

police
of

th e

7.

step
fir u Yo st r

is

theft

ex ac t

th e

th e

3.

took

courage

to

see

parade
th e

4.

Everybody

wanted

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

76

Sentence Diagraming

PART III
Lesson 32 Compound Sentences I
1. folktales
So m e

Lesson 33 Compound Sentences II


1. Grendel was
In

monster
a

have been told and generations mother


hi s fo r

tales
ol d ry ve

te rri bl e

versions
m di ffe re an y

exist

was

horrible
eq ua lly

En gl ish

nt

2.

animals

talk
In

2. tales
m an y

Grendel

terrorized but

countryside
th e

they

stand
fo r

humans wise tales


so

hero (Beowulf)
th e

stopped
fin al ly

him

3.

animals
th e

are

Scylla 3. Charybdis foolish were


In

In

neighbors
m

and

m e

Odyssey
th e

on str

and sailors feared

ou s

or

they
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

are
in

others

selfish collections folktales 4.


of

them

4.

Writers
in

have made

Scylla

tore or

ships
ap ar t

countries
va rio us

them and Charybdis are


am on m

pulled
un de rw

brothers
G rim th e

crews
th ei r

at er

writers
th es e

Sentence Diagraming

77

Lesson 34 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I


1. Evidence that shows changes
in

earth
th e

is found
in

rocks is found
in

2.

Information
ab ou

lava which is rock


fro m

center
of th

3.

Valerie

earth
th e

shares

volcanoes

love
of

rocks

hi s

who

is

daughter
of

geologist
a

th e

4.

She
al

learns
ab ou t fro so m

field
th e

geologists
ot he r
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

who

work
w ith

father
he r

78

Sentence Diagraming

Lesson 35 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II


1. Continents move
be ca us e

Lesson 36 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I


Whoever made pottery
th is

plates
un de r m as siv e

shift them

1.

did

job
a go od

plane 2. land
on

will depart
ac W tu he al

may push
ov er W

th e

ly

plate
on e

other
th e

he re

plates
tw o

collide

2.

has been announced


no t ye t

room 3. you would see growth


of th e a

is furnished
H ow

mountain
a

you

could watch
fo r

If

3. collision
th e

affects

level
no ise its

millions
of

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

years

detective
th e

discovered

What
ab ou t

client
he r

4.

earthquake
an

results
W he n

plates
aw tw o

pull
su fro m dd

4. other
ea ch

raised

questions
ne w

ay

en ly

rust

forms
on

metal

5.

is explained
ea sil y

hy

Sentence Diagraming

79

Lesson 37 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II


who caused spill 3. reporter
Th e oi l

that Rocky noted fouled


in

pitches
fo ur te en

row
a

th e

1.

engineers
Th e

discovered
fin al ly

that we arrived
la te

you (you) take

want

whatever

2.

buffet
th e

4.

We

regret

At

That it meets whomever club


th e

has

members
po w er fu

3.

dog
Th at

licks 5. gives it

influence

Lesson 38 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III


car
th e

you

will get
so on

well
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

had been speeding 6. We hope

1.

officer
po lic e Th e

claimed

That I could surf


ev en

2.

was

incredible

80

Sentence Diagraming

Lesson 39 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV


1. (you) Give fruit
th is

whoever

wants

it

2.

Researchers

were puzzled dwellers


ca by ve

to

had made
ho w

paintings

on

wall
ca ve th e

3.

read

book food
ab or ou ga t ni

is grown
ho w

4.

work
sc ho ol u Yo r

is affected you
by

stay
at
up la te

night

ho

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5.

kitten
Th e

ran whoever
to

rang

bell
th e

6.

Cinderella

had

hope stepmother
he r

told

what her

De sp ite

Sentence Diagraming

81

Lesson 40 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V


we
Tomorrow is

leave
w he n

1.

I
hammer
Th is

need
fo

what project
n co y m str r

2.

is

uc tio n

that I wish
M y
Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

can visit
so m ed

forest
a ke lp

3.

is

ay

82

Sentence Diagraming