Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

32

Worksheet (A2)

Data needed to answer questions can be found in the Data, formulae and relationships sheet.

1 State the nature of X-ray radiation.

 

[2]

2 The energy of an X-ray photon is 50 keV.

 

a Calculate the energy of the photon in joules.

 

[2]

b Calculate the wavelength of the X-rays.

 

[2]

3 One of the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and matter is the photoelectric effect. Name the two other interaction mechanisms.

[2]

4 State one main difference between the images produced by a normal X-ray machine and by a CAT scan.

[1]

5 Briefly explain what is meant by a non-invasive technique.

 

[1]

6 State what is meant by ultrasound.

 

[2]

7 The speed of ultrasound in soft tissue is 1.5 km s 1 .

 

a Calculate the wavelength of ultrasound of frequency 1.8 MHz.

 

[2]

b Use your answer to part a to explain why high-frequency ultrasound is suitable for medical scans.

[1]

8 Define acoustic impedance.

 

[1]

9 The table below shows useful data for biological materials.

 
 

Material

Density / kg m 3

Speed of ultrasound / m s 1

Acoustic impedance Z / 10 6 kg m 2 s 1

 

soft tissue

1060

1540

1.63

muscle

1075

1590

1.71

bone

?

4000

6.40

blood

1060

1570

1.66

a Calculate the density of bone.

 

[2]

b Calculate the percentage of intensity of ultrasound reflected at the blood–soft tissue boundary. (Assume the waves are incident at right angles to the boundary.)

[3]

c Explain why it would be difficult to distinguish between blood and soft tissue in an ultrasound scan.

[2]

10 Name the five main components of an MRI scanner.

 

[5]

11 Protons have a precession frequency of 40 MHz in a strong uniform magnetic field.

a Describe what is meant by precession.

 

[1]

b State the frequency of the radio frequency (RF) radiation that will cause the protons to resonate.

[1]

c Use your answer to b to determine the wavelength of the RF radiation.

[2]

32

Worksheet (A2)

12 Briefly describe the production of X-rays and explain why an X-ray spectrum may consist of a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum.

[7]

13 The intensity of a collimated X-ray beam is 250 W m 2 .

a Define intensity.

[1]

b The diameter of the X-ray beam is 4.0 mm. Calculate the power transmitted by the beam.

[2]

14 Describe what is meant by a contrast medium and state why it is used in X-ray scans.

[2]

15 The potential difference between the cathode and the anode of an X-ray tube is 80 kV. Calculate the minimum wavelength of the X-rays emitted from this tube.

[3]

16 The photoelectric effect is one of the attenuation mechanisms by which X-ray photons interact with the atoms in the body. Describe some of the characteristics of this mechanism.

[3]

17 A collimated X-ray beam is incident on a metal block. The incident intensity of the beam is I 0 .

a

Draw a sketch graph to show the variation with thickness x of the intensity I of the beam.

[3]

b

Write down an expression for the intensity I in terms of I 0 and x. Explain any other symbol you use.

[2]

c

The linear absorption coefficient of a beam of 80 keV X-rays is 0.693 mm 1 in copper. Calculate the thickness of copper necessary to reduce the intensity of the beam to 0.10 I 0 .

[3]

18 Describe the use of a CAT scanner.

a

[5]

b

Compare the image formed in X-ray diagnosis with that produced by a CAT scanner.

[3]

19 Outline how ultrasound may be used in medical diagnosis.

[5]

20 Explain why, in medical diagnosis using ultrasound, a coupling medium is necessary between the ultrasound probe and the skin.

[6]

21 When an ultrasound pulse reflects from the front and back edges of a bone, it produces two peaks on an A-scan. The time interval between these two peaks is 13 µs. The speed of the ultrasound in bone is 4000 m s 1 . Calculate the thickness of the bone.

a

[3]

b

Describe how a B-scan differs from an A-scan.

[2]

22 Outline the principles of magnetic resonance.

a

[6]

b

Outline, with the aid of a sketch diagram, the use of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain diagnostic information about internal body structures.

[10]

23 X-Rays, ultrasound and MRI are all used in medical diagnosis. State one situation in which each of these techniques is preferred and give reasons, one in each case, for the choice.

[6]

Total:

Score:

%

104