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Л .А .Б ори с ова

П еревод вс ф ере

ю ри сп руд енци и

У ч ебное п особие

п о сп ец и ал ь н ост и 031202 – п еревод и п ереводоведен и е(С Д .05.3)

2

У т верж дено на учно-м ет оди чес ки м с овет ом ф а кул ьт ет а РГ Ф

прот окол № 7от 25 окт ября2005 года

Н а уч. ред. д оц. Е .А . Кн яж ева

П ос оби е подгот овл ено на ка ф едре т еори и перевода и м еж кул ьт урной

ф а кул ьт ет а РГ Ф Ворон еж с кого гос уда рс т венного уни вер-

ком м уни ка ци и

си т ет а . Реком ендует сядл яс т удент ов 5 курса д/о.

У чебное пос оби е с одерж и т м а т ери а л ы к с пецкурс у «П еревод в с ф ере

ю ри с пруд ен ци и » ( СД.0 5. 3). В за д а чи с пецкурса вход и т зн а ком с т во с т уден т ов л и нгви с т и чес ки х с пеци а л ьн ос т ей с ос обен нос т ям и

ю ри ди чес кой

т ерм и н ол оги ей, ос н овн ыми пон ят и ям и и явл ен и ями с и с т ем ы пра ва

Вел и кобри т а ни и , Соеди н енныхШ

ю ри ди чес кого перевода , в ча с т нос т и

с

ба зовой

т а т ов А м ери ки и Рос с и и .

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П Р Е Д И С Л О В И Е

Курс зна ком и т с т удент ов с ос обеннос т ям и ю ри ди чес кого перевода , в

ча с т нос т и с ба зовой ю ри ди чес кой т ерм и нол оги ей, ос новн ым и понят и ями и

явл ен и ям и с и с т ем ы пра ва А м ери ки и Росс и и .

О с новное вни м а ни е удел яет ся переводу ю ри ди чес кой т ерм и нол оги и

и т екс т ов ра зл и чныхж а нров.

Н еобходим ос ть ра зра бот ки курса по ю ри ди чес ком у переводу

обра зова т ел ьных

с т а н да рт ов дл я с пеци а л ьн ос т и 031202 «П еревод и переводоведени е». Курс

«П еревод в с ф ере ю ри с пруд ен ции» явл яет ся ч а с т ью бл о ка с пеци а л ьн ых ди сци пл и н госуда рст венного ст а нда рт а и учебного пл а на специ а л ьност и , ф орм и рую щ и хпереводчи ка ка к с пеци а л и с т а .

определ яет ся

Вел и кобри т а н и и , Соед и н ен н ых Ш т а т ов

за да ча м и

новых

гос уда рс т венных

В ра м ка х курса ра сс м а т ри ва ю т ся ос новные п роблем ы, с вяза нные с

переводом ю ри ди чес ки хт екс т ов.

О

с новна я ди да кт и чес ка я цель курса

– с ф орм и рова т ь у

с т удент ов

ум ени яперевода ю ри ди чес ки хт екс т ов.

 

В

резул ьт а т е

и зучени я

ди с ци пл и ны

«П еревод

в с ф ере

ю ри с пруденци и » с т удент дол ж ен пол учи т ь зна ние ос н овныхю ри ди чес ки х

т ерм и н ов, о с обен н о с т ей с и с т ем ы пра ва Вел и кобри т а н и и , Со ед и н енн ых

Ш т а т ов А м ери ки и Росс и и .

Курс предпол а га ет ф орм и рова ни е и с оверш енс т вова ни е с л едую щ и х ум енийу с т удент ов:

- ум ени е ос ущ ес т вл ят ь перевод ю ри ди чес ки х т екс т ов ра зл и чных ж а нров с учет ом и хос обеннос т ей;

- ум ени е ра с позна ва т ь реа л и и пра вовой кул ьт уры Вел и кобри т а ни и ,

Соеди ненныхШ

т а т ов А м ери ки и Рос с и и и переводи т ь и х;

- ум ени е переводи т ь ю ри ди чес кую т ерм и нол оги ю .

В ходе са м ос тоятельнойра боты с т удент а предпол а га ет ся ра зви т и е

с оци окул ьт урной ком пет енци и с т удент а , а т а кж е за крепл ени е м а т ери а л а , пройденного на за нят и и . С труктура курса вкл ю ча ет пят ь гл а в, пос вящ ен ных определ енн ой

общ и й с пи с ок

т ем е, т екс т ы дл я с а м ос т оят ел ьной ра бот ы с т удент ов и и с пол ьзова ннойл и т ера т уры.

Текущ ий контроль ос ущ ес т вл яет ся пос редс т вом выпол нени я

с т удент а м и пи с ьм енного перевода т екс т ов дл яс а м ос т оят ел ьнойра бот ы. И тоговыйконтроль предпол а га ет т ес т овую ра бот у, проверяю щ ую

реа л и й пра вовой кул ьт уры

Вел и кобри т а ни и , Соеди н енныхШ

зна ни е с т удент а м и

ю ри ди чес ки х т ерм и нов и

т а т ов А м ери ки и Рос с и и .

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CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LAW

Task 1. Give the definition of the word « law» in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.

1. It is against the law to demonstrate here. She was caught breaking the

law. Every company must by law submit accounts annually.

2. She is the Senate's expert on constitutional law.

3. Many of the laws passed by Parliament are never enforced.

4. Children soon accept social laws.

5. I was planning a career in law. There are curious parallels between

medicine and law.

6. A degree in law would be an advantage in the job market.

7. He found himself in trouble with the law again.

Task 2. Match the word combinations on the left with their Russian equivalents on the right.

1. Law in force

2. Martial law

3 . T o be in tro u bl e with th e la w

a) безза кони е b) в ра м ка хза кона c) препо д а ва т ь пра во

4. carry law into effect

To

d)

с оверш еннол ет и е

 

5. clarify the law e) ввес т и за кон в дейс т ви е

To

6. To

consult the law

f) дейс т вую щ ее пра во/ за кон

7. To create new laws

g) за конода т ел ьный орга н

8. go to law

To

h) обра т и т ьсяк пра вос уди ю

9. teach law

To

i)

обра т и т ься за

ра зъ яс нени ем

к

за кону;

 

обра т и т ься ю ри ст у

за

конс ул ьт а ци ей

к

10. Within the law

j)

ра зъяс ни т ь

с м ысл

пра вовой

11. Law-abiding citizen

норм ы k) с озда ва т ь новые за коны

от м енят ь за кон

12. Lawlessness

l) за конное опра вда ни е

13. To obey the law

m) с удебный процесс

14. To

break the law

n)

15. To

repeal the law

o) с а м ом у верш и т ь пра вос уди е

16. As the law stands

p)

с обл ю да т ь за кон

17.

To stick to the letter of the law

q) на руш а т ь за кон

18.

To take the law into

your own

r) ка к гл а с и т за кон

hands

19. Law enforcement agency

20. Lawsuit

s) вс т упа т ь в конф л и кт с за коном t) военное пол ож ени е

21. Law-making body

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u)

орга н ю с т и ци и ; орга н пол и ци и

22. Lawful

age

v) с л едова т ь букве за кона

23. Lawful

excuse

w) за конопос л уш ный гра ж да ни н

Task 3. Translate the names of some areas of law.

Administrative law Business law Civil law Constitutional law Contract law Copyright law Criminal law Customs law

Environmental law Family law International law Labour law Land law Marriage law Procedural criminal law Tax law

Task 4. Read the text. Explain the meaning of the words in bold. Translate them into Russian.

Each country in the world has its own system of law. However, it is generally true to say that there are two main traditions of the law in the world. One is based on English Common law, and has been adopted by many Commonwealth countries and most of the United States. The other tradition, sometimes known as Continental, or Roman law, has developed in most of continental Europe, Latin America and many countries in Asia and Africa which have been strongly influenced by Europe. Common law, or case law systems, particularly that of England, differ from Continental law in having developed regularly throughout history, not as the result of government attempts to define or codify every legal relation. Customs and court rulings have been as important as statutes (government legislation). Judges do not merely apply the law, in some cases they make law, since their interpretations may become precedents for other courts to follow. Common law is based on the doctrine of precedent. If the essential elements of a case are the same as those of the previous recorded cases, then the judge is bound to reach the same decision regarding guilt or innocence. If no precedent can be found, then the judge makes a decision based upon the existing legal principles, and his decision becomes a precedent for other courts to follow when a similar case arises. Sometimes governments make new laws- statutes- to modify or clarify the common law, or to make rules where none existed before. But even statutes often need to be interpreted by the courts in order to fit particular cases, and these interpretations become new precedents. In common law systems the law is, thus, found not only in government statutes, but also in the historical records of cases. Another important feature of the common law tradition is equity. It recognizes rights that are not enforced by common law but are considered

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"equitable", or just. If an equitable principle brings a different result from a common law ruling on that case, then the general rule is that equity should prevail. Continental systems are sometimes known as codified legal systems. They have resulted from attempts by governments to produce a set of codes to govern every legal aspect of a citizen's life. The lawmakers sometimes want to show that the legal rights of their citizens originated in the state, not in local customs, and thus it is the state that is to make law, not the courts. In order to separate the roles of the legislature and judiciary, it was necessary to make laws that were clear and comprehensive.

Task 5. Translate the following word combinations into Russian. Pay special attention to the word legal.

Legal activities Legal advice Legal costs Legal document Legal ethics Legal history Legal owner Legal protection Legal status To enjoy ones legal rights

Legal address Legal age Legal decision Legal entity Legal expert Legal language Legal procedure Of legal force To enter the legal profession

Task 6. What do you know about the following legal documents of the UK and the USA? Translate their names into Russian. What legal documents in the Russian Federation do you know?

1. Magna Carta (Great Charter)

2. Habeas Corpus Act

3. The Petition of Rights

4. The Bill of Rights

5. Miranda Warning

6. The US Declaration of Independence

7. The American Constitution

8. The US Bill of Rights

Task 7. The following is a minimal Miranda warning, as outlined in the Miranda v Arizona case. Translate it into Russian.

You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney,

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and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense.The following is a much more verbose Miranda warning, designed to cover all bases that a detainee might encounter while in police custody. A detainee may be asked to sign a statement acknowledging the following. You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Do you understand? Anything you do say may be used against you in a court of law. Do you understand? You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. Do you understand? If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning if you wish. Do you understand? If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Do you understand? Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present?

Task 8. Characterize the style of official documents.

Task

9. Read an extract from the Declaration on Human Rights. Fill in

the gaps in the Russian translation.

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

д ос т ои н с т ва ,

при с ущ его вс ем чл ена м

ч ел о веч ес кой с ем ьи , и и х явл яет ся

спра ведл и вост и и всеобщ его

с вободы,

_, чт о

; и

и к пра ва м чел овека при вел и к ва рва рски м а кт а м, кот орые возм ущ ают

ел о веч ес т ва , и чт о с о зд а н и е т а кого м и ра , в кот ором л ю ди будут и м ет ь и буд ут с вободны от с т ра ха и нуж ды, ка к выс окое

ч

,

чт о

с л ова и

л ю дей; и

необходи м о

ра зви т и ю друж ес т венных от нош ени йм еж ду на рода м и ; и

,

чт о

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

8

, чт о на роды

О бъ еди ненных Н а ци й подт верди л и

пра ва

чел овека , в д ос т ои н с т во и чел овечес кой л и чнос т и и в и

и

в У с т а ве с вою веру в

м уж чи н

ж енщ и н

реш или с одейс т вова т ь с оци а л ьном у

ус л ови й

прогрес с у

ж и зни при бол ьш ей с вободе; и

и

Whereas Member States have pledged

,

чт о

themselves to achieve, in cooperation

обяза л и сь с одейс т вова т ь, в

with the United Nations, the

с

от руд н и чес т ве с О рга н и за ци ей

promotion of universal respect for and

О

бъ еди ненных Н а ци й, вс еобщ ем у

observance of human rights and

ува ж ени ю и

 

пра в чел овека

fundamental freedoms,

и

;

и

Whereas a common understanding of

, чт о

пони м а ни е

these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full

ха ра кт ера э т и хпра в и с вобод огром ное зна чени е дл я пол ного

realization of this pledge,

_

э т ого обяза т ел ьс т ва ,

 

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL

Г енера л ьна яА сс а м бл ея

 

ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF

Вс еобщ ую декл а ра ци ю пра в чел овека в

HUMAN RIGHTS as a common

ка чес т ве за д а чи , к выпол н ен и ю

standard of achievement for all

кот оройдол ж ны

 

все

peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of

и

все

с т ем , чт обы ка ж дый и ка ж д ый орга н общ ес т ва ,

society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote

пос т оянно и м ея в ви ду на с т оящ ую Декл а ра ци ю , ст реми л и сь просвещ ени я и обра зова ни я

respect for these rights and freedoms

с

одейс т вова т ь ува ж ени ю эт и х пра в

and by progressive measures, national

и с вобод и

 

,

пут ем

and international, tо secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the

на ци она л ьных и м еж дуна родных прогресс и вных м еропри ят и й, всеобщ его и эф ф ект и вного

peoples of Member States themselves

при зна ни я и

 

и х ка к с реди

and among the peoples of territories

на родов

 

,

т а к и

under their jurisdiction.

с

реди

на родов

,

под и хю ри с ди кци ей.

9

Task 10. Translate the following articles of the Declaration on Human Rights. Compare your translation with the official variant. Analyze your mistakes.

Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 3 Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 5 No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 7 All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.

Article 9 No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 11 Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

Article 13

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within

the borders of each State.

2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to

return to his country.

Article 15

1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the

right to change his nationality.

Article 17

1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association

with others.

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Article 18 Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 19 Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.

Article 21

1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country,

directly or through freely chosen representatives

2. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government.

Article 23 Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

Article 24 Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 26

1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free at least in

the elementary and fundamental stages.

2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human

personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Article 29 Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

Task 11. Translate the following extracts from the Constitution of the United States.

Article I

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second year by the people of the several statesSection 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each stateand each Senator shall have one vote.

Article II

11

Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as followsNo person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United StatesSection 2. The Presidentshall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law

Article III

Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establishSection 2The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Amendment XV

Section 1. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

12

CHAPTER 2. JUDICIAL BRANCH OF POWER

Task 1. Using English-English Dictionary, state the differences in the meaning of the following words. Translate them into Russian. Compare the lexico-semantic group of nouns with the common meaning legal professionin English and Russian.

Lawyer

Legal expert

Counsellor

Law agent

Man of law

Attorney

Jurist

Advocate

Prosecutor

Jurisprudent

Solicitor

Judge

Legist

Barrister

Notary

Legalist

Counsel

Task 2. Translate the following word-combinations according to the example given below.

Administrative lawyer – с пеци а л и ст по а дм и н и с т ра т и вн ом у пра ву Business lawyer – с пеци а л и ст по пра вовым а с пект а м би знеса

Accident lawyer Civil lawyer Constitutional lawyer Copyright lawyer Criminal lawyer Family lawyer

International lawyer Juvenile lawyer Labour lawyer Succession lawyer Tax lawyer

Task 3. Compare the judicial branch of power in England, the USA and the Russian Federation. Translate the names of judicial bodies.

USA

FEDERAL SUPREME COURT

the names of judicial bodies. USA FEDERAL SUPREME COURT STATE SUPREME COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL
the names of judicial bodies. USA FEDERAL SUPREME COURT STATE SUPREME COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL

STATE SUPREME COURT

bodies. USA FEDERAL SUPREME COURT STATE SUPREME COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL COUNTY AND CITY COURTS

STATE COURT OF APPEAL

SUPREME COURT STATE SUPREME COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL COUNTY AND CITY COURTS LOCAL JUSTICES ’

COUNTY AND CITY COURTS

SUPREME COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL COUNTY AND CITY COURTS LOCAL JUSTICES ’ COURTS COURT OF

LOCAL JUSTICESCOURTS

COURT OF APPEALS

COURT STATE COURT OF APPEAL COUNTY AND CITY COURTS LOCAL JUSTICES ’ COURTS COURT OF APPEALS

FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT

13

England

HOUSE OF LORDS

13 England HOUSE OF LORDS COURT OF APPEAL CRIMINAL DIVISION CIVIL DIVISION HIGH COURT Queen’s Bench

COURT OF APPEAL

13 England HOUSE OF LORDS COURT OF APPEAL CRIMINAL DIVISION CIVIL DIVISION HIGH COURT Queen’s Bench
13 England HOUSE OF LORDS COURT OF APPEAL CRIMINAL DIVISION CIVIL DIVISION HIGH COURT Queen’s Bench

CRIMINAL DIVISION

CIVIL DIVISION

HIGH COURT Queen’s Bench Division Chancery Division Family Division
HIGH COURT
Queen’s Bench Division
Chancery Division
Family Division

CROWN COURT

Division Chancery Division Family Division CROWN COURT MAGISTRATES COURT COUNTY COURT (MAGISTRATES COURT) Р ос

MAGISTRATES COURT

COUNTY COURT

Family Division CROWN COURT MAGISTRATES COURT COUNTY COURT (MAGISTRATES COURT) Р ос с ийс каяФ едера

(MAGISTRATES COURT)

Р ос с ийс каяФ едера ция

ВЕ РХ О ВН Ы Й СУ Д РФ

ФЕ ДЕ РА Л Ь Н Ы Й СУ Д РЕ ГИ О Н А

ФЕ ДЕ РА Л Ь Н Ы Й СУ Д РЕ ГИ О Н А РА

РА Й О Н Н Ы Й (ГО РО ДСКО Й ) Н А РО ДН Ы Й СУ Д

( ГО РО ДСКО Й ) Н А РО ДН Ы Й СУ Д ( М

(М И РО ВО Й СУ Д)

ВЫ СШ

И Й

А РБИ Т РА Ж Н Ы Й СУ ДРФ

СШ И Й А РБИ Т РА Ж Н Ы Й СУ ДРФ ФЕ ДЕ РА

ФЕ ДЕ РА Л Ь Н Ы Й О КРУ ЖН О Й СУ Д

ФЕ ДЕ РА Л Ь Н Ы Й О КРУ ЖН О Й СУ Д А

А РБИ ТРА ЖН Ы Й СУ Д

СУ БЪ Е КТА

ФЕ ДЕ РА Ц И И

14

КО Н СТ И Т У Ц И О Н Н Ы Й СУ ДРФ

КО Н СТ И Т У Ц И О Н Н Ы Й СУ ДРЕ СП У Б Л И КИ

Task 4. Match the definition given on the left with the word on the right. Translate the words.

1.

A group of people in a court of law who listen to the

a)

courtroom

facts about a crime and decide whether the person accused is guilty or not

 

2. The place in a court where the jury sits b)

court reporter

3. A room in which a legal court meets c) bailiff

4. The person who puts down every word that is spoken

during the trial and also may record the proceedings on

the tape

5. The person in a court of law who decides how the law

should be applied

6. The person who has been accused of a crime f) judge

7. The lawyer who tries to prove that the person accused

of a crime is not guilty

8. Somebody who appears in a court of law to tell what

they know about a crime or other events

9. The place in a court of law where people stand or sit

when they are giving evidence

d) defendant

e) defense attorney

g) judges bench

h) jury

i) jury box

10. The lawyer who tries to prove that the person

j)

prosecuting

accused of a crime is guilty

attorney

11. A law officer who makes sure that the decisions of a

court are obeyed

12. The place in a court where the judge sits

13. The place in a court where the defendant sits

k) prisoners box

l) witness m) witness stand

Task 5. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words and expressions given below.

The first step in the selection of the trial jury is the selection of a jury panel. When you are selected for a jury panel you will take an oath, by which you promise to answer all questions truthfully. After that the judge and the lawyers will question you and the other members of the panel to find out if you

15

have any personal interest in the case, or any feelings that might make it hard for you to be impartial. This process of questioning is called Voir Dire, a phrase meaning to speak the truth. During Voir Dire the lawyers may ask the judge to excuse you or another member of the panel from sitting on the jury for this particular case. This is called challenging a juror. There are two types of challenges. The first is called a challenge for cause, which means that the lawyer has a specific reason for thinking that the juror would not be able to be impartial. The second type of challenge is called a peremptory challenge, which means that the lawyer does not have to state a reason for asking that the juror be excused. Those jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the case. There may be six or twelve of them. The judge may also allow selection of one or more alternate jurors, who will serve if one of the jurors is unable to do so because of illness or some other reason. Then the lawyers for each side will discuss their view of the case in their opening statements. After that the parties present evidence, which include the testimony of witnesses, physical exhibits, etc. Sometimes the judge orders testimony to be stricken off the record and it is not considered evidence. Many times during the trial the lawyers may make objections to evidence presented by the other side or to questions asked by the other lawyer. If the objection was valid, the judge will sustain the objection. If the objection was not valid, the judge will overrule the objection. In the closing arguments the lawyers summarize the case from their point of view. They may discuss the evidence or comment on the credibility of witnesses. Then the jury retires to the jury room to conduct the deliberations on the verdict in the case they have just heard. The jury first elects a foreman. When a verdict has been reached, the foreman signs it and informs the bailiff. The jury returns to the courtroom, where the foreman presents the verdict.

1. Б ес при с т ра с т ный

2. вс т упи т ел ьна яречь

3. вычеркнут ь и зпрот окол а

4. вынес т и верди кт

5. за кл ю чи т ел ьна яречь

6. м от и ви рова нный от вод

7. нем от и ви рова нный от вод

8. от вод при с яж ного

9. на деж нос т ь с ви дет ел я

10. при нят ь прот ест

11.от кл они т ь прот ест

12. при с яж ные, подобра нные дл ясудебного ра ссмот рени ядел а

13. пока за ни яс ви дет ел ей

14. при нят ь при с ягу

15.при с яж ный за па с ного

с о с т а ва

16. с ос т а в при с яж ных

17.уда л ят ьсяв ком на т у дл я

с овещ а ни й при с яж ных

18.с овещ а ни е при с яж ных 19.с т а рш и на при с яж ных

16

CHAPTER 3. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

Task 1. Explain the difference between the way criminal and civil cases are described.

United States v. Miller The People v. Miller R. (Regina) v. Miller The Queen v. Miller

Re. Baden

Westside Community Schools v. Mergents Plyer v. Doe Batson v. Kentucky

Task 2. Study the examples of cases and translate them.

Text 1

SAMUEL ANTHONY WASHINGTON, PETITIONER V. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

No. 90-7476

In The Supreme Court Of The United States

October Term, 1990

On Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Ninth Circuit

Brief For The United States In Opposition

JURISDICTION

The judgment of the court of appeals was entered on March 26, 1990.

A petition for rehearing was denied on September 27, 1990. The petition for a

writ of certiorari was filed on March 4, 1991, and is therefore substantially out

of

time under Rule 13.1 of the Rules of this Court. The jurisdiction of this Court

is

invoked under 28 U.S.C. 1254(1).

QUESTION PRESENTED

Whether, after remand from the court of appeals, the district court sentenced petitioner to a presumptively vindictive sentence.

17

STATEMENT

1. After a jury trial in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, petitioner was convicted of use of counterfeit access devices, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 1029(a)(1) (Counts 1-3); and possession of 15 or more counterfeit and unauthorized access devices, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 1029(a)(3)(Count 4). He was sentenced to three years' imprisonment on each count; on Count 2, however, the district court sentenced petitioner to six months in jail, suspended the rest of his sentence, and ordered that he be placed on five years' probation, with the sentence on Count 2 to run consecutively to the sentence imposed on the other counts. C.A. E.R. 4. Petitioner appealed his conviction, and the court of appeals reversed and remanded for a new trial.

Text 2

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS

FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT

No. 95-5238, 95-5250

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

Plaintiff- Appellee,

v. 5238

ANTHONY D. BARBER,

Defendant- Appellant.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

Plaintiff- Appellee,

v.

DAVID L. HODGE, JR.,

Defendant- Appellant.

Appeals from the United States District Court

for the Eastern District of North Carolina, at Fayetteville.

Malcolm J. Howard, District Judge.

18

Argued: March 4, 1997

Decided: July 14, 1997

Before WILKINSON, Chief Judge; RUSSELL, WIDENER, HALL, MURNAGHAN, ERVIN, WILKINS, NIEMEYER, HAMILTON, LUTTIG, WILLIAMS, MICHAEL, and MOTZ, Circuit Judges; and PHILLIPS, Senior Circuit Judge, sitting en banc.

Vacated and remanded for resentencing by published opinion. Judge Wilkins wrote the majority opinion, in which Chief Judge Wilkinson and Judges Russell, Widener, Hall, Murnaghan, Ervin, Niemeyer, Hamilton, Luttig, Williams, Michael, Motz, and Phillips join. Judge Murnaghan wrote a separate opinion. Judge Wilkins wrote a separate opinion, in which Chief Judge Wilkinson and Judges Russell, Niemeyer, Luttig, and Williams join.

COUNSEL

ARGUED: George Alan DuBois, Assistant Federal Public Defender, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellants. John Samuel Bowler, Assistant United States Attorney, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellee.

ON BRIEF: William Davis, Lumberton, North Carolina, for Appellant Hodge. Janice McKenzie Cole, United States Attorney, Paul S. Wilson, Special Assistant United States Attorney, OFFICE OF THE STAFF JUDGE ADVOCATE, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, for Appellee.

OPINION

WILKINS, Circuit Judge:

Anthony D. Barber and David L. Hodge, Jr. appeal the sentences imposed upon them by the district court following their pleas of guilty to second- degree murder. See 18 U.S.C.A.§ 1111(a) (West Supp. 1997). They assert that the district court erred in departing upward from their applicable guideline ranges based upon its conclusion that various circumstances- - the fact that the murder was premeditated, that it occurred during a robbery, and that it was committed with a dangerous weapon, a firearm- - removed the case from the heartland of situations encompassed within the second- degree murder guideline. See U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual § 2A1.2 (1994). Because we cannot conclude on the present record that the district court acted within its discretion in departing upward based on the discharge of a firearm, and because we are unable to conclude that the district court would have imposed the same sentence in the absence of this factor, we vacate the sentence imposed and remand for resentencing.

Text 3

19

The European Court of Human Rights has today delivered at a public hearing its Grand Chamber judgment in the case of Ilascu and Others v. Moldova and Russia. The Court held -by sixteen votes to one, that the applicants came within the jurisdiction of Russia within the meaning of Article 1 of the European Convention on Human RightsThe Court further held, unanimously, that Moldova and Russia were to take all the necessary steps to put an end to the arbitrary detention of the applicants still imprisoned and secure their immediate release.

Decision of the Court Article 1 As regards Moldova On the basis of all the material in its possession, the Court considered that the Moldovan Government, the only legitimate government of the Republic of Moldova under international law, did not exercise authority over part of its territory, namely that part which was under the effective control of the Moldovian Republic of Transdniestria(MRT). However, even in the absence of effective control over the Transdniestrian region, Moldova still had a positive obligation under Article 1 of the Convention to take the measures that it was in its power to take and were in accordance with international law to secure to the applicants the rights guaranteed by the Convention.

Task 3. Translate the following word combinations.

Atrocious crime Grave crime Crime instrument Crime rate Criminal career Criminal conspiracy In the course of crime Incentive for crime Pattern of crime To confess to a crime To solve a crime To investigate a crime To commit a crime

To charge somebody with a crime To convict of a crime To acquit of a crime To plead guilty/not guilty to a crime To be wanted for/ on charges of a crime To be tried/ to stand trial for a crime A crime of passion The scene of the crime

20

Task 4. Translate the words and word combinations in bold.

There are two elements of crime. They are known by Latin terms Actus Reus and Mens Rea. Actus reus is the criminal act itself. Mens rea is the criminal state of mind. A defense is a reason the court should excuse criminal act. Mitigation is reasons the punishment should not be harsh.

Task 5. Using English-English Dictionary, study the meanings of the following words denoting different types of crimes. Make a table with three columns: crime(n), criminal(n), criminal act(v).

 

Shoplifting

Murder

Arson

Burglary

Drug dealing

Vandalism

Pickpocketing

Assassination

Kidnapping

Terrorism

Smuggling

Espionage

Theft

Bigamy

Hooliganism

Robbery

Bribery

Forgery

Desertion

Manslaughter

Treason

Blackmail

Piracy

Embezzlement

Rape

Assault

Extortion

Fraud

Mugging

Task 6. Compare the following texts. Describe the similarities and differences between the police bulletin as a genre of text in English and Russian from the point of view of its structure, lexical, grammatical and stylistic characteristics.

WANTED

Crime: Armed Robbery

Location: South & South Park Streets

Date: November 13, 1999

The public's assistance is requested in identifying the person or persons responsible for an armed robbery on the southwest corner of the South St. and South Park St. intersection.

This crime occurred at 9:30 a.m. on November 13, 1999.

21

At about 9:30 a.m. the victim, a young visitor to the city, was walking south along South Park St. At the southwest corner of South Park St. and South St., the suspect jumped in front of the victim, pulled a knife from his jacket and said, "Give me your purse or you're stuck!" The victim handed it over and the suspect fled the scene of the crime.

The suspect is described as a white male, 20-25 years old, medium build, 5'2", moustache, blue eyes, short brown hair, pointed nose. He was wearing a red baseball cap with a Montreal Canadians logo, a dark blue jacket, green jeans and white sneakers.

This man is armed and therefore dangerous. If you can identify the man in the photofit picture, or have any information on this or any crime, contact the local Police Department or Crime Stoppers at 1-800-555-8477, and you may be eligible for a cash reward.

И х ра зы с ки ва етм и ли ция

Ра зыс ки ва ю т ся прес т упн и ки , с оверш и вш и е уби йс т во 21 с ен т ября в дом е н ом ер99 по прос пект у М и ра .

П ервый: Н а ви д 30 л ет , рост 170-175 см , худощ а вого т ел ос л ож ени я, вол осы черные прям ые, л и цо кругл ое, нос прям ой, гл а за с л егка на выка т е.

с вет л ые

кори чн евые бот и н ки . Н ос и т т ем н ые очки в м ет а л л и чес кой опра ве.

Б ыл

одет :

т ем н а я

корот ка я

кож а на я

курт ка ,

брю ки ,

Вт орой: Н а ви д 40 л ет , рост 175-180 см , пл от ного т ел ос л ож ени я, вол осы с вет л ые, вью щ и еся до пл еч, л и цо ова л ьн ое, н ос курн ос ый, брови гус т ые.

Б ыл одет : т ем на я удл и нен на якож а на я курт ка , т ем ные брю ки .

Л

ю бую

и м ею щ ую ся и нф орм а ци ю

222-33-22, и л и 02.

прос ьба

с ообщ и т ь по т ел еф ону

22

Task 7. Translate the following text.

MURDER OF U.S. NATIONALS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES; CONSPIRACY TO MURDER U.S. NATIONALS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES; ATTACK ON A FEDERAL FACILITY RESULTING IN DEATH

USAMA BIN LADEN

ON A FEDERAL FACILITY RESULTING IN DEATH USAMA BIN LADEN A l i a s e

Aliases:

Usama Bin Muhammad Bin Ladin, Shaykh Usama Bin Ladin, The Prince, The Emir, Abu Abdallah, Mujahid Shaykh, Hajj, The Director

DESCRIPTION

Date of Birth Used: 1957

Hair:

Brown

Place of Birth:

Saudi Arabia 6'4" to 6'6" Approximately 160 pounds Thin

Eyes:

Brown

Height:

Sex:

Male

Weight:

Complexion:

Olive

Build:

Citizenship:

Saudi Arabian

Language:

 

Scars and Marks:

Arabic (probably Pashtu) None known Bin Laden is believed to be in Afghanistan. He is left-handed and walks with a cane.

Remarks:

CAUTION

Usama Bin Laden is wanted in connection with the August 7, 1998, bombings of the United States Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya. These attacks killed over 200 people. In addition, Bin Laden is a suspect in other terrorist attacks throughout the world.

REWARD

The Rewards For Justice Program, United States Department of State, is offering a reward of up to $25 million for information leading directly to the apprehension or conviction of Usama Bin Laden. An additional $2 million is being offered through a program developed and funded by the Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association.

SHOULD BE CONSIDERED ARMED AND DANGEROUS

IF YOU HAVE ANY INFORMATION CONCERNING THIS PERSON, PLEASE CONTACT YOUR LOCAL FBI OFFICE OR THE NEAREST AMERICAN EMBASSY OR CONSULATE.

23

Task 8. Study the penitentiary system in the UK and Russia. Find possible equivalents, translate the names of prisons.

United Kingdom

Local

prisons

(which

take

those

who

are

still

awaiting

trial

or

sentencing and other short sentence prisoners).

Young offenders institutions for 15 to 20 years old inclusive.

Womens prisons.

Training prisons (some of which are open and hold long sentence prisoners approaching release).

dangerous

criminals. Many are serving life sentences.

High

Security

Prisons,

housing

the

countrys

most

Р осс ийс каяФ едера ция

Колон и и и сп рави т ель н ы е

1. общ его реж и м а (обл егченные, обычные, с т роги е ус л ови я)

2. с т рогого реж и м а (обл егченные, обычные, с т роги е ус л ови я)

3. ос обого реж и м а (обл егченные, обычные, с т роги е ус л ови я)

4. кол они и -пос ел ени я

Тю рь ма

1. общ его реж и м а

2. с т рогого реж и м а

Восп и т ат ель н ы еколон и и

1. л ьгот ные ус л ови я

2. обл егченные ус л ови я

3. обычные ус л ови я

4. с т роги е ус л ови я

Task

9. What do you know about the following notorious criminals and

famous detectives?

Cain Marcus Junius Brutus Gaius Longinus Cassius Guy Fawkes Alessandro Cagliostro Jack the Ripper Mata Hari Bonnie and Clyde Alphonse Capone Lee Harvey Oswald

Sherlock Holmes Hercules Poirot Jules Maigret Perry Mason

24

CHAPTER 4. CIVIL LAW

Task 1. Read the text and explain the meaning of the word tort. Give a Russian equivalent of this word. Translate tort lawand tortfeaser (committer of tort).

Many wrongs in the society are neither punished as crimes nor remedied as breaches of contract. Suppose a workman accidentally drops a brick on my head when I am walking past the construction site, or suppose a neighbor's bonfire gets out of control and damages my house. In either case, there is no contract between me and the other party and it is unlikely anyone will be prosecuted for a crime unless intention or recklessness can be shown. In order to get compensation for such injury or damage, my best course will probably be an action in the law of torts. The concept of tort a wrongful act among private individuals exists in most modern systems of law. The word itself means "wrongful" in French, but is used in the mostly English-speaking common law traditions.

Task 2. Translate the names of the following torts.

Trespass

Nuisance

Negligence

Defamation

Task 3. Read the text and compare two translations. What mistakes were made by the translators? Correct the mistakes.

There are also important differences between the law of tort and the law of contract. For example, even if a person suffers directly from someone else's breach of contract, he does not have the capacity to sue in contract unless he was a party to the contract (there are a few special exceptions). But he may be able to show that the breach represents a tort committed against him. In general, almost anyone may sue or be sued in tort a child, someone who is mentally sick, even someone who has died. In such cases, the action will be conducted in or against their name by another authorized person. However, in some torts there are specific rules about who may sue or be sued. The occupier of an apartment, for example, may sue in the tort of nuisance if he is injured by broken glass falling from his neighbor's apartment. But if a visitor is also injured he has no right under this tort and would have to seek another action, such as in the tort of negligence (breach of a legal duty care).

Сущ ес т вует

м н о ж ес т во

ва ж н ых ра зл и чи й м еж ду

договорным

пра вом .

Н а при м ер,

даже

ес л и

л и цо

д ел и кт н ым

и

с пос обс т вует

25

договора , он не и м еет

возм ож нос т и прес л едова т ь, ес л и он не при ни м а л уча с т и е в договоре. Н о

ес л и он м ож ет дока за т ь, чт о т а кое н а руш ени е явл яет ся дел и кт ом . В общ ем , ка ж дый м ож ет прес л едова т ься и л и возбуж да т ь процесс – дет и , н екот орые пс и хи чес ки бол ьные или кот орые даже м огут ум ерет ь. В ка ж дом дел е процесс м ож ет вес т и сь с а м и м л и цом непос редс т венно, л и бо от и м ени , но други м упол ном оченным л и цом . О дна ко в некот орыхдел и кт а хс ущ ес т вует

прот и в

кого. Ква рт и ра нт , на при м ер, м ож ет возбуди т ь процесс по дел и кт у о

на руш ени и

был

при чи н ен вред ра зби т ым с т екл ом , упа вш и м и зс ос едн ей ква рт и ры. Н о ес л и

вред был при чи н ен пос ет и т ел ю , у н его н ет пра ва обра т и т ься в с уд по э т ом у

дел и кт у и

небреж ност ь.

ем у с л едует возбуди т ь другой процесс , т а кой ка к прес т упна я

непос редс т венно ком у-л и бо в на руш ени и

с пеци ф и чес кое пра ви л о о т ом , кт о м ож ет возбуж да т ь процесс и

порядка

пол ьзова ни я ж и л ым

пом ещ ени ем ,

ес л и

ем у

и

ущ ерб на руш ени ем

договора другой с т ороной, он не м ож ет обра т и т ься в с уд, пока явл яет ся с т ороной в договоре (здесь ес т ь нес кол ько и с кл ю чени й). Н о он м ож ет дока за т ь, чт о т ем с а м ым н а руш ены его пра ва . В обычн ых с л уча ях и ск пода ю т с а м и л и ца , но и нт ересы дет ей, пс и хи чес ки бол ьных за щ и щ ают за

л и цу был

конт ра кт а м и . Н а при м ер, ес л и

Сущ ес т вую т ра зл и чи я, за крепл енные в за коне м еж ду дел и кт а м и

при чи н ен

его

предс т а ви т ел я дол ж ны быт ь уза конены. О дна ко в некот орыхдел и кт а хес т ь

с пеци а л ьные пра ви л а в от нош ени и т ех л и ц, кот орые м огут пода т ь и ск. В ча с т нос т и , пос т оял ец в гос т и ни це м ож ет пода т ь и ск о н а руш ени и общ ес т венного порядка прот и в с ос еда , ес л и т от ра зби л с т а ка н,

прост о

т а кого и с ка , но

ни х предс т а ви т ел и . В некот орых дел а х дейс т ви я л и ца

и л и

при на дл еж а щ и й гост и ни це. пос ет и т ел ь, т о у вл а дел ьца

пос ет и т ел ь м ож ет нес т и от вет с т веннос т ь за э т от дел и кт ка к с оверш енный по небреж нос т и .

Н о есл и

нет

эт о на руш ени е соверш и л

ос н ова ни й дл я пода чи

Task 4. Match the word with its definition and translation.

Trust

The law imposes a trust and obliges the legal owner of property to consider the beneficial interest of another person

Доверенное л и цо; л и цо, ра с поряж а ю щ еесяи м ущ ес т вом на на ча л а хдовери т ел ьной собст венност и

Beneficiary

A person who creates a trust

Довери т ел ьное упра вл ени е, учреж денное в общ ес т венно- бл а гот вори т ел ьныхцел ях

Settler

An agreement whereby property is held and controlled by someone on

Довери т ел ьное упра вл ени е, учреж денное в с и л у с удебного реш ени я; неопроверж и мо-

26

 

behalf of someone else

подра зумева ема я довери т ел ьна ясобст венност ь

Trustee

A

trust intentionally created

Довери т ел ьна ясобст венност ь; ра с поряж ени е и м ущ ес т вом на

by someone with property

to

transfer

на ча л а хдовери т ел ьной с обс т веннос т и ; довери т ел ьное упра вл ени е

Express trust

Trust created for the benefit of one or several person(s)

У

чреди т ел ь довери т ел ьной

собст венност и , довери т ел ь

Express

A

person in whose interests

Довери т ел ьна ясобст венност ь, учреж денна япол ож и т ел ьно- выра ж енным обра зом ; довери т ел ьное упра вл ени е, с озда ва ем ое с пеци а л ьно дл я переда чи с обс т веннос т и

private trust

a trust is held

Express

The law presumes that the settler intended to create a trust even though he did not expressly say so

Бенеф и ци а ри й; выгодопри обрет а т ел ь; л и цо, в и нт ереса хкот орого ос ущ ес т вл яет сядовери т ел ьное упра вл ени е

public trust

Implied trust

A

trust created with the

Довери т ел ьное упра вл ени е, учреж денное в пол ьзу ча с т ного л и ца

intention to benefit charity

Constructive

Someone who has legal control of money or property that they are keeping or investing for another person

Довери т ел ьна ясобст венност ьв си л у за кона ; подра зум ева ема я довери т ел ьна ясобст венност ь

trust

Task 5. Define the meaning of the following terms of contract law. Translate them into Russian

Contract Offer Acceptance Certain terms Intention to be legally bound Valuable consideration

Task 6. Translate the text paying special attention to the words in bold.

Once a court decides that there has been a breach of contract, it must then judge how the party in breach must compensate the other party. The usual

27

award is damages monetary compensation. Instead of damages, a plaintiff sometimes asks the court to force the other contractor to carry out the contract. In English law this is called specific performance. A plaintiff may also ask the court to award an injunction against the defendant, that is, to order the defendant not to do something which would be in breach of contract. Specific performance and injunctions are remedies which were developed by the courts of equity.

Task

7. Study the example of an English contract and its Russian

translation

Agreement to provide legal services

 

Д оговороб ока за нии юридич ес ких ус луг

 
 

,

represented by

,

,

в

л и це

,

acting on the basis of Client), and

),

represented

(the

(licensed by

by

дейст вую щ его на основа ни и –

и

в

(да л ее (л и цензи я

«Кл и ен т »), ),

, acting on the basis of a power of attorney (the Consultant) hereby agree as follows:

л и це

, дейст вую щ его на

ос нова н и и довереннос т и (да л ее –

«Консул ьт а нт »)

за кл ю чи л и

 

договоро ни ж ес л едую щ ем :

 

1.

Subject Matter

1.

П редм етдоговора

The Consultant shall provide to the Client legal services and the Client shall pay the Consultant for the provision of those services and

Консул ьт а нт обязует ся ока зыва т ь Кл и ент у конс ул ьт а ци онные ю ри ди чески е усл уги , а Кл и ент обязует ся выпл а ти ть Консул ьт а нт у

reimburse all expenses incurred by the Consultant in the course of providing those services.

возна гра ж дени е за ока за нные усл уги и компенси рова т ь все

и

здерж ки и ра с ходы, понес енные

 

Конс ул ьт а нт ом в ходе ока за ни я ус л уг.

2.

Obligations of the Consultant

2.

О бяза нности Консульта нта

 

The Consultant shall advise the Client

Консул ьт а нт

обязует ся

with written advice on

 

предос т а ви т ь Кл и ент у пи с ьм енные консул ьт а ци и по вопроса м

3.

Obligations of the Client

 

3.

О бяза нности Клиента

 

The Client shall provide the Consultant on a regular basis with such information as the Consultant may request, to assist the Consultant

Кл и ент

обязует ся

пери оди чес ки

предост а вл ят ь Консул ьт а нт у

и

нф орма ци ю

по его просьбе дл я

т ого, чт обы с одейс т вова т ь

28

to provide the legal services in accordance with its obligations under Clause 2 of the Agreement

консул ьт а нт у

в

ока за ни и

ю ри ди чес ки х ус л уг в с оот вет с т ви и

с

его обяза т ел ьст ва ми ,

 

предус м от ренным и Ст а т ьей 2 на ст оящ его Договора .

4. Terms of payment

 

4.

С тоим остьи оп лата услуг

4.1

The Client undertakes to pay for

4.1

О пл а т а

прои зводи т ся

ус л уг на

Конс ул ьт а нт а ос н ове

с чет ов,

the Consultants services on the basis of invoices issued by the Consultant after the services under this Agreement are performed.

выс т а вл яем ых Конс ул ьт а нт ом ус л уг

на ст оящ ем у Договору.

оконча ни и

ока за ни я

по

по

 

4.2

В с л уча е неопл а т ы Кл и ент ом

4.2

In the event that the Client fails to

с чет а в т ечени е 7 ка л енда рных

pay an invoice within 7 calendar days from the date of its posting, the Client shall pay a penalty of 1 (one) per cent of the total amount due for each day of default.

дней с м ом ент а его выс т а вл ени я на всю сумм у счет а на чи сл яет ся пеня

в

ра зм ере

1%

за

ка ж дый день

прос рочки пл а т еж а .

5. Dispute Resolution

 

5.

П орядокра зрешенияс п оров

5.1

The Consultant and the Client will

5.1

Конс ул ьт а нт

и

обязую т ся предпри нят ь

Кл и ент все

make all reasonable efforts to settle amicably all disputes arising from and in connection with this Agreement.

ра зум ные ус и л и я, чт обы ра зреш а т ь друж ес ки м пут ем все с поры,

выт ека ю щ и е

и з на ст оящ его

 

Договора и л и возни ка ю щ и е в связи

с ни м.

5.2

Should

parties

fail

to

reach

5.2

П ри невозм ож ност и ра зре-

amicable

settlement

of

a

dispute

ш

ени я с пора друж ес ки м пут ем все

connected with this Agreement, they

споры, выт ека ю щ и е и зна ст оящ его

may

submit

 

the

dispute

for

Договора и л и возни ка ю щ и е в связи

consideration

to

the

International

с

ни м , подл ежат переда че на

Commercial

 

Arbitration

 

Court

ра сс м от рени е

Коммерческого

М еж дуна родного А рби т ра ж ного

(ICAC)

at

the

Chamber

of

Commerce

and

Industry

 

of

the

Суда при Т оргово- пром ыш л ен н ой П а л а т е Росс и йс кой Федера ци и (да л ее – «М КА С») в с оот вет с т ви и с Регл а м ент ом М КА С.

Russian

Federation in accordance

with

the

Procedure

of

such

arbitration.

 

6.

Duration, Alteration and

 

6.

В с туп ление в с илу,

Termination of the Agreement 6.1 This Agreement shall come into effect immediately following its

изм енение и ра с торжение

6.1

Н а с т оящ и й Договорвс т упа ет в

си л у

нем едл енно

по

его

29

execution by the Client and the Consultant and shall continue in force until:

подпи с а ни и

Кл и ент ом

и

Кон с ул ьт а н т ом и дейс т вует до:

6.1.1 notice on termination is given by either party to the other; or

6.1.1

на пра вл ени я одной

т ороной другой уведом л ени я о ра ст орж ени и Договора ; и л и

с

6.1.2 the commencement of the liquidation or bankruptcy procedures in relation to either party.

6.1.2

на ча л а процедуры

л и кви да ци и и л и объявл ени я нес ос т оят ел ьной ка кой-л и бо ст ороны Договора .

6.2 Any amendment, variation or cancellation of this Agreement shall be valid only if expressly agreed in

writing by duly authorized representatives of each party.

6.2

Все и зм енени я, допол нени я и

ра ст орж ени е на ст оящ его Договора и м ею т с и л у т ол ько в т ом с л уча е, ес л и они явным обра зом

огл а с ова ны в пи с ьм еннойф орм е и подпи са ны упол ном оченным и предс т а ви т ел ям и обеи хс т орон.

с

7. Counterparts This Agreement is signed in Russian and English in four counterparts, one English and one Russian counterpart for each of the parties.

7.

Экзем п ляры

Н а с т оящ и й Договор с ос т а вл ен

на

русс ком

и

а нгл и йс ком

языка х в

чет ырех э кзем пл яра х, на

экзем пл яру

по

одном у

и

рус с ком

 

а нгл и йс ком

языке дл я ка ж дой и з

с

т орон.

Duly authorized for and on behalf Duly authorized for and on behalf

О т и мени и по поручени ю

О т и мени и по поручени ю

Task 8. Find the Russian equivalents for the words highlighted in the English version of the contract.

Task 9. Translate the following clichés.

в сл уча е невыпол нени яобяза т ел ьст в по договору

в с оот вет с т ви и с пункт ом 3 на с т оящ его договора

д ейс т вую щ и й на ос н ова н и и У с т а ва

договорвс т упа ет в с и л у

за кл ю чи л и договоро ни ж ес л едую щ ем

ст орона обязует ся

с огл а с ова ны в пи с ьм еннойф орм е

30

Task 10. Translate the names of the following parts of a contract.

Subject of the Contract Rights and Obligations of the Parties Liabilities / Responsibility Arbitration. Settlement of Disputes / Dispute Resolution Term of the Contract Force Majeure Alteration of the Conditions. Termination of the Contract Other Provisions Signatures and Legal/Official Addresses of the Parties

Task 11. Translate into English the following sentences.

и м ен уем ый в

д а л ьн ейш ем У н и верс и т ет , в л и це рект о ра Б ори с о ва И . И ., с од н ой с т о роны,

и Ст удент ю ри ди чес кого ф а кул ьт ет а П ет ров М .С., и м енуем ый в

да л ьнейш ем «Ст удент » с другой с т ороны, ни ж ес л едую щ ем .

2. Ст удент обязует ся пос ещ а т ь все ви ды за нят и й, предус м от ренные

учебным пл а ном .

3. П ри от чи с л ен и и Ст уд ен т а по ува ж и т ел ьн ым при чи н а м с редс т ва

возвра щ а ю т ся Ст удент у за вычет ом с ум м ы, ф а кт и чес ки за т ра ченной на обучени е за и с т екш и йдо от чи с л ени япери од.

4. Н а с т оящ и й договор вс т упа ет в с и л у с м ом ент а внес ени я

Ст удент ом первого взноса и дейс т вует до 2007г.

и м ею щ и х

ра вную ю ри ди чес кую с и л у, по одном у э кзем пл яру дл яка ж дой и зс т орон.

1. Воронеж с ки й

гос уда рс т вен ный

уни верс и т ет ,

за кл ю чили н а с т оящ и й договоро

5. Н а с т оящ и й договор подпи с а н

в двух э кзем пл яра х,

31

CHAPTER 5. DOCUMENTS OF PERSONS

Task 1. Study the following document. Translate it into Russian. What is the difference between such kind of documents in English and Russian?

Certificate of birth

This certificate is issued in recognition of the birth of NAME Here sex here child, X pounds, X ounces born this day here to Parent one and Parent two

Hospital of issue here Location here

Registrar of civil status

Task 2. Study the following documents. Compare their structure and contents. Pay special attention to the terms.

The Pennsylvania State University

College of Engineering Administration by authority of the Board of Trustees and upon the recommendation of the Faculty and of the Senate hereby confers upon

The degree of

Bridget Horace

Master of Science

In recognition of the completion of the major in

Computer Science

In testimony whereof, the undersigned have witnessed their names and afford deal of the University this twenty-second of August in the year 2003.

32

The Trustees Sample University and the Graduage College of Business

On the recommendation of the Faculty and by virtue of the authority vested in them has conferred upon

Christopher J. Greenich

The degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Width all the rights, privileges thereto appertaining, in recognition of successful completion of the prescribed curriculum,

In witness thereof, the signatures of the appropriate University Officers, given on 10 th day of June, 2003 AD

М И Н И СТ Е РСТ ВО

О Б РА ЗО ВА Н И Я И

Н А У КИ

РО ССИ Й СКО Й ФЕ ДЕ РА Ц И И

ВЫ СШ

А Я А ТТ Е СТ А Ц И О Н Н А Я КО М И ССИ Я

Д И П Л О М КА Н Д И Д А ТА

Н А У К

КТ

092670

М О СКВА

5 Н О Я БРЯ

2003 Г .

Р е ш

е м ди ссерт а ци онного совет а Во л го градско го гос. Ун и верси т ет а

е н и

от 12 м а я2003 г. 67

С и д оровой Та т ьяне Ана т ольевне при суж дена учена яст епень КА Н Д И Д А ТА Ф И Л О Л О ГИ Ч Е С КИ Х Н А У К

П редс еда т ел ь

ди с с ерт а ци онного с овет а

(п о дп и сь )

У ченый с екрет а рь ди с с ерт а ци онного с овет а

(п о дп и сь )

33

Task 3. Translate the following document.

Реги с т ра ци онный ном ерА Ф-563 23 и ю ня 2003г.

РО ССИ Й СКА Я ФЕ ДЕ РА Ц И Я

Ворон еж Государст вен н оеобразоват ель н оеучреж ден и е вы сш его п ро фесси о н ал ь н о го о бразо ван и я « Ворон еж ски йгосударст вен н ы йун и верси т ет »

Д И П Л О М

Б ВС

0168192

Реш ен и ем Государст вен н ойат т ест ац и он н ойкоми сси и

от 16 и ю ня2003 года

Бори совойЛ юдми леС ергеевн е

ПРИ СУ ЖДЕ Н А КВА Л И ФИ КА Ц И Я

Л И Н Г ВИ СТ . П Е РЕ ВО ДЧ И К. п о сп ец и аль н ост и «П еревод и переводоведени е»

П редседат ель Государст вен н ой

ат т ест ац и о н н ойко ми сси и

Рект ор

М .П.

(п о дп и сь )

(п о дп и сь )

ПРИ Л О ЖЕ Н И Е

К Д И П Л О М У

Ф а м илия, им я, отч ес тво Б ори с ова Л ю д м ила Сергеевна

Д а та рождения

2 а вгус т а 1981 г.

П редыдущ ийдокум ентоб обра зова нии

34

 

а т т ес т а т о с реднем общ ем обра зова н и и , выда нный в 1998 году

В

с туп ительные ис п ыта ния

прош л а

П

ос туп ил(а ) в

1998

году в Ворон еж с ки й гос уда рс т венн ый уни верс и т ет

За вершил(а ) обуч ение в

 
 

2003

году в Воронеж с ком гос уда рс т венном уни верс и т ет е

Н орм а тивныйп ериод обуч ения п ооч нойф орм е

5 л ет

Н а п ра вление/с п ециа льность

 

П еревод и переводоведени е

С п ециа лиза ция

а нгл и йс ки й язык

Курсовыеработы:

1………… … … … За чет 2………… … …

О

т л и чно

3………… … … …

 

О

т л и чно

П

рактика:

П ереводчес ка япра кт и ка , 5 недел ь, от л и чно

 

И тоговыегосударственныеэкзам ены:

Г ос уда рс т венн ый э кза м ен по ос новном у и нос т ра нн ом у языку, от л и чно Г ос уда рс т венн ый э кза м ен по т еори и и пра кт и ке перевода , от л и чно

В

ып олнение и защ ита вып ус кнойква лиф ика ционнойра боты

на т ем у:

 

8 недел ь, от л и чно

 

Да н н ый д и пл ом да ет пра во проф есс и он а л ьн ой д еят ел ьн ос т и в с оот вет с т ви и с уровнем обра зова н и я и ква л и ф и ка ци ей.

За врем яобучени яс да л (а ) за чет ы, пром еж ут очные и и т оговые э кза м ены по сл едую щ и м ди сци пл и на м:

Введени е в языкозна ни е

 

от л и чно

Т еори яперевода С/к «Соврем енные пробл ем ы л и нгви с т и ки » ………

хорош о за чт ено

35

Task 4. Compare the original and the translation. Correct the mistakes if

any.

Declaration of trust I, Sergei Ivanov of 43, Lesnaya Street, flat 42, Moscow, Russia, hereby acknowledge and declare that I hold the shares hereto registered in my name as Trustees for:

Д оверенность

Я , Сергей И ва нов (д.43, кв.42, ул .

Л ес н а я, г. М ос ква , Росс и я) здесь и

с

ейча с подт верж да ю , чт о ядерж у на

рука ха кци и , за реги с т ри рова нные на м ое и м я, явл яясь Довери т ел ьным

 

с

обс т венни ком

Name

Mr. John Reed 32, Apple Street

И

м яДж он Ри д

Address

А дрес

Huston, USA (hereinafter called the Owner(s)). I undertake and agree not to transfer, deal with or dispose of the said share(s) or any of them. I hereby expressly authorize and empower the Owner(s) at any time to complete such transfer and I declare that the authority is irrevocable by me. And I further undertake and agree to account to the Owner(s) for all dividends and profits which may be paid to me from time to time upon the said share(s) and for all other money of profit which may be payable to me in respect thereof. And I further undertake and agree to exercise my voting power as holder of the said share(s) in such a manner and for such purposes as the Owner may direct or determine.

32, Apple Street Huston, USA

(в да л ьнейш ем на зыва ем ый «Вл а дел ец»). Я с огл а с и л сяи взял на

ебя обяза т ел ьс т ва не перед а ва т ь, не ра с поряж а т ьсяи не и зба вл ят ьсяот выш еука за нныха кци й. Я от да ю пол н о м о чи я Вл а д ел ьцу на пра во в л ю бое врем яс оверш и т ь подобную

с

с

дел ку и за явл яю , чт о не буду

требова т ьэт и хпол номочи й. Я беру обяза т ел ьс т ва н а чи с л ят ь Вл а дел ьцу все ди ви денды и выгоды, кот орые будут выпл а чи ва т ься м не по да нным а кци ям, и все други е деньги ,

кот орые м огут м не выпл а чи ва т ься.

Я

беру о бяза т ел ьс т ва и с пол н ят ь

гол ос ова ни е ка к а кци онерт а ки м

пос обом и дл я т а ки хцел ей, ка к м не ука ж ет Вл а дел ец.

с

Name of company Limited No of shares

Magnet

Н а зва ни е ком па ни и

Magnet Limited

500 (five

Кол и чес т во а кци й 500 ( пят ьс от )

hundred) Nominal value of each share

USD 1

Т екущ а яс т ои м ос т ь однойа кци и $1 Т екущ а я с т ои м ос т ь вс еха кци й $500

Nominal value of total shares USD

500

 

Date

Да т а Подпи сь

 

Signatures

36

COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPANIES ACT 1989

CERTIFICATE OF GOOD STANDING

No. 345

Star Enterprise Inc.

I, JAMES BEVERICK, Registrar General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas DO HEREBY CERTIFY:

1. The above Company was duly incorporated under the provision of the International Business Companies Act 1989 on the 14 TH day of DECEMBER, 1995 of the Register of International Business Companies.

2. The name of the Company is still on the Register of the International Business Companies and the Company has paid all fees, license fees and penalties due and payable under the provisions of Sections 102 and 103 of the said Act.

3. The Company has not submitted to me Articles of Merger or Consolidation that have not yet been effective.

4. The Company has not submitted to me Articles of Arrangement that has not yet become effective.

5. The Company is not in the process of being wound up and dissolved.

6. No proceedings have been instituted to strike the name of the Company off the said Register.

7. In so far as is evidenced by the documents filed with me the Company is in good legal standing.

Given under my hand and seal at Nassau in the Commonwealth of the Bahamas this 11 TH day of APRIL, 1999

……… … … … ……… REGISTRAR GENERAL

37

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION OF STAR ENTERPRISE INC

The undersigned, an individual, does hereby act as incorporator in adopting the following Articles of Incorporation for the purpose of organizing a business corporation, pursuant to the provisions of the Business Corporation Act of the State of Nebraska.

FIRST: The corporate name for the corporation (hereinafter called the Corporation) is Star Enterprise Inc.

SECOND: The number of shares the corporation is authorized to issue is 1,000 (one thousand) shares with a par value of $1,00 (one dollar) per share.

THIRD: The street address of the initial registered office of the corporation in the Sate of Nebraska is… … The name of the initial registered agent of the corporation at the said registered office is

FOURTH: The name and the address of the incorporator are

FIFTH: The purposes for which the corporation is organized are as follows:

To engage in any lawful business.

SIXTH: The personal liability of the directors of the corporation is hereby eliminated to the fullest extent permitted by the provisions of the Business Corporation Act of the State of Nebraska, as the same may be amended and supplemented.

SEVENTH: The duration of the corporation shall be perpetual.

Signed on February 6, 2000.

ТЕ КС ТЫ

Д Л Я

38

С А М О С ТО Я ТЕ Л ЬН О Й

THE COMMON LAW

Р А БО ТЫ

The English legal system possesses one remarkable feature derived from the days of feudalism which distinguished it from the legal systems of nearly all other countries in the world: an important part of the law has never been considered, debated or approved by any Parliament. Many of the laws of England are contained not in Parliamentary statutes, but in all the reports of the cases decided by judges of the High Court, Court of Appeal and House of Lords. The practice of recording the judgements of the royal judges is of ancient origin, having begun as far back as the reign of Edward 1, and from the sixteenth century it became accepted that a decided case constituted an authoritative precedent, meaning that when one judge has decided a point of law, any judge who is subsequently confronted with a similar set of facts must apply the declared in the earlier judgement, even though he may personally think that the earlier case was wrongly decided. In this way the law was gradually built up, case by case, by generations of different judges. This vast tangled mass of reported cases stretching back to the days of Elizabeth 1 and even beyond, each being the authority for a single point of law, and some being inconsistent with others, is the famous English common law. Thus English law has been built through a combination of statute law and judge-made law, the latter being known as the common law.

КО Н СТИ ТУ Ц И Я РО ССИ Й СКО Й ФЕ ДЕ РА Ц И И

С та тья81

1. П рези дент

Росс и йс кой Федера ци и

на

и зби ра ет ся на чет ыре года

ос н о ве вс еобщ его ра вн ого и

гра ж д а н а ми

прям ого и зби ра т ел ьн ого пра ва при т а йн ом гол ос ова н и и .

Ро с с и йс кой Фед ера ци и

2.

П рези дент ом

Росс и йс кой Федера ци и

Федера ци и не

м ож ет

35

гра ж да ни н

прож и ва ю щ и й в Рос с и йс кой Федера ци и не м енее 10 л ет .

Рос с и йс кой

м ол ож е

быт ь л ет ,

и збра н

пос т оянно

3. О дно и т о ж е л и цо не м ож ет за ни м а т ь дол ж нос т ь П рези дент а

Росс и йс кой Федера ци и бол ее двухс роков подряд.

4.

П орядок

выборов

П рези дент а

Рос с и йс кой

определ яет сяф едера л ьным за коном .

Федера ци и

С та тья84

П рези дент Рос с и йс койФедера ци и

а )

на зна ча ет

выборы

Г ос уда рс т венной Дум ы

в

с оот вет с т ви и

с

Кон с т и т уци ей Рос с и йс кой Федера ци и и ф едера л ьн ым за коном ;

б)

ра с пус ка ет

Г ос уда рс т венн ую

Дум у

в

с л уча ях

и

порядке,

предус м от ренныхКонс т и т уци ей Росс и йс кой Федера ци и ;

39

ф едера л ьным

конс т и т уци онным за коном ; г) внос и т за конопроект ы в Г ос уда рс т венную Дум у; д) подпи с ыва ет и обна родует ф едера л ьные за коны; е) обра щ а ет сяк Федера л ьном у Собра ни ю с еж егодным и пос л а ни ям и

о пол ож ени и в с т ра не, об ос н овных на пра вл ени ях вн ут рен ней и внеш ней пол и т и ки гос уд а рс т ва .

в) на зна ча ет

реф ерендум

в порядке, ус т а новл енном

С та тья94

Федера л ьное

Собра ни е

явл яет ся предс т а ви т ел ьным Федера ци и .

-

и

па рл а м ент за конода т ел ьным

Росс и йс кой

Федера ци и

– Росс и йс кой

орга ном

С та тья95

1. Федера л ьное

Собра ни е

с ос т ои т

и з

двух

па л а т

Совет а

Федера ци и и Г ос уда рс т веннойДум ы.

2. В

Совет

Федера ци и

входят

по

по два

одном у

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С татья110

1. И с пол ни т ел ьн ую вл а с т ь Росс и йс кой Федера ци и ос ущ ес т вл яет

П ра ви т ел ьс т во Рос с и йс кой Федера ци и .

с ос т ои т и з П ред с ед а т ел я

П ра ви т ел ьс т ва Росс и йс кой Федера ци и , за м ес т и т ел ей П ред с ед а т ел я

П ра ви т ел ьс т ва Рос с и йс кой Фед ера ци и и ф едера л ьн ых м и н и с т ров.

2. П ра ви т ел ьс т во Рос с и йс кой Федера ци и

С татья112

1. П ред с ед а т ел ь П ра ви т ел ьс т ва Ро с с и йс кой Фед ера ци и не позд н ее

недел ьного с рока пос л е на зн а чени я предс т а вл яет П рези дент у Росс и йс кой

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о

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рези дент у

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Росс и йс кой

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и

ф едера л ьныхм и ни с т ров.

THE CROWN COURT

The system of sending royal judges out into the country on general gaol deliveryand the holding of assizes (sittings of the court) lasted many hundred of years. Until recently there were two different courts where defendants in criminal charges could be tried: the more serious charges were heard at the

40

Assizes while the less grave were tried at Quarter Sessions (so called because the court sat at least once every quarter). After very many years it became clear that the system had become outdated- for example, shifting populations had distorted the patterns of work and poor use was made of judgestime and court buildings. The report of the Beeching Commission led to the Courts Act 1971, which came into force on 1 January 1972. This Act created a new criminal court of first- instance jurisdiction, the Crown Court, which is part of the Supreme Court and sits with a judge and jury. The composition of the Crown Court is also governed by the Supreme Court Act 1981 and by the Crown Court Rules made under the statute. This court tries all serious criminal charges and sits throughout England and Wales. For administrative conveniences, the country is divided into six circuits: Northern, North Eastern, Midland and Oxford, South Eastern, Western, and Wales and Chester. Each circuit is under the supervision of a presiding judge who is responsible for the smooth working of all courts in that circuit. The Crown Court sits at various towns and cities throughout each circuit, for example, on the Western Circuit from Bristol and Exeter to Bournemouth and Winchester, and these are ranked in three tiers. The fist-tier courts, for example, those in Bristol and Winchester, hear the most serious charges, while a third-tier court, such as Bournemouth, hears minor charges. This distinction is further reflected in the judges who sit in those courts.

220 000 pounds for Victim of Police Assault

A hairdresser won 220 000 pounds damages yesterday after a jury found that he was assaulted by police and wrongly arrested. This happened after counsel for Din Zung, 32, urged the jury to send a clear message that the public would no longer stand for "lying, bullying, racism and perjury" by the Metropolitan Police. Central London County Court was told that police went to Mr. Zung's home over a dispute involving a leaking roof. Mr.Zung was arrested after refusing to allow officers in without a warrant. Akmal Khan, his solicitor, said his client's arms were twisted behind his back and he was handcuffed. "They punched and kicked him in the van and he was kicked in the kidneys." Another policeman used his back as a footstool and the driver turned round and insulted him verbally saying he had got no more than he deserved. The charge officer told him, "I've never arrested a Chink before." When he was released at 11 p.m. that night they threw him into the street in just jeans and flip-flops. "He had to walk two miles home," Mr.Khan said. When Mr.Zung arrived home, the front door was open and his stereo and other property had been stolen. Doctors found extensive bruising to his back and kidneys and he was passing blood. Mr.Zung made a formal complaint to the Police Complaints Authority. Despite a police surgeon confirming the injuries, the complaint was rejected and

41

he decided to sue. Ben Emmerson, counsel for Mr.Zung, urged the jury to send a strong

message to Sir Paul Condon by awarding damages that would hit his budget. "In this case a small award would be regarded as a victory by the officers."

A statement issued on behalf of Sir Paul, the Metropolitan Police

Commissioner, said: "We believe the award to be excessive and we are going to appeal against the size of the award but not the verdict." The Metropolitan Police said no action would be taken against the

constables involved: Christopher Smith, Andrew Morris and Bob Davies. In a separate case at the same court Terence Wilkinson, 27, was awarded 64 000 pounds damages. He had accused other officers from the same area of wrongful arrest and assault, false imprisonment and malicious prosecution.

DECISION OF THE COURT

As regards Russia

During the Moldovan conflict in 1991-92 forces of the former Fourteenth Army (which had owed allegiance to the USSR, the CIS and the Russian Federation in turn) stationed in Transdniestria, had fought with and on behalf of the Transdniestrian separatist forces. Large quantities of weapons from the stores of the Fourteenth Army had been voluntarily transferred to the separatists, who had also been able to seize possession of other weapons unopposed by Russian soldiers. In addition, throughout the clashes between the Moldovan authorities and the Transdniestrian separatists the Russian leaders had supported the separatist authorities by their political declarations. The Russian authorities had therefore contributed both military and politically to the creation of a separatist regime in the region of Transdniestria, part of the territory of the Republic of Moldova. Even after the ceasefire agreement of 21 July 1992 Russia had continued to provide military, political and economic support to the separatist regime, thus enabling it to survive by strengthening itself and by acquiring a certain amount of autonomy vis-à-vis Moldova. In the Courts opinion, all of the acts committed by Russian soldiers with regard to the applicants, including their transfer into the charge of the separatist regime, in the context of the Russian authoritiescollaboration with that illegal regime, were capable of engaging responsibility for the consequences of the acts of that regimeThat being so, the Court considered that there was a continuous and uninterrupted link of responsibility on the part of Russia for the applicantsfate, as its policy of support for the regime and collaboration with it had continued beyond 5 May 1998, and after that date Russia had made no attempt to put an

end to the applicantssituation brought about by its agents and had not acted to prevent the violations allegedly committed. The applicants therefore came within the jurisdiction of Russia and its responsibility was engaged with regard of the acts complained of.

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TORT LAW

Of course not every wrong committed in the society is remediable in tort; the plaintiff has to show that he has suffered an action recognized as a tortious one, and he must show that his relation to the tortfeaser (committer of the tort) gives him the legal capacity to sue. Nevertheless, the law of tort covers a wide area of wrongdoings which may help those not in a contractual relationship. The tort of nuisance covers many situations where even though no property is taken or trespassed upon, your enjoyment of land is interfered with, for example, by a neighbor who creates too much noise or whose rubbish causes unpleasant smells. The tort of defamation covers attacks against someone's reputation through the written or spoken word. The tort of negligence has particularly wide application. Some torts are known as statutory torts the kind of breach of duty which must be proved is defined in a statute. For example, injury suffered because of defective factory equipment may lead to a negligence action regulated by the 1969 Employers Liability Act.

TRUSTS

When creating an express private trust, the settlor creates rights and obligations that may survive his death. Certain conditions must therefore be made if the trust is to be valid in law. In English law, for example, there must be certainty that a trust is being created, what the trust property is, and who the beneficiaries are. When a husband left property to his widow to use "in any way she thinks best for the benefit of herself and her family," it was held that there was no certainty he had intended to create a trust, and so she was free to use the property as she wanted (Lambe vs Eames, 1871). On the other hand, when a Mr. Constance opened a bank account in his own name but made arrangements for his lover to draw money from it, this was certain enough evidence of her rights as a beneficiary (Paul vs Constance, 1977). When someone's will declared a trust over "the bulk (greater part) of my estate," it was held there could be no trust since no one could say how much property should be in the trust (Palmer vs Simonds, 1854). A trust for the benefit of a firm's employees, former employees, and their relatives was held to be certain enough even though the number of beneficiaries might be very large (Re. Baden, 1973). One of the judges in this case suggested that a trust for the benefit of "the residents of London," would not be valid, however; although it is certain who the beneficiaries are to be, the number would be so great the trust could not be administered.

43

CONTRACT to Provide Advertising Services

, acting on

the basis of the Charter, hereinafter referred to as Trustee, the company

hereinafter referred to as Executor, on the one hand, and the company

have agreed as follows:

hereinafter called Client, on the other hand,

The international airport Sheremetyevo, represented by

,

,

represented by

represented by

,

,

acting on the basis of a power of attorney,

1.

Subject of the Contract

1.1

The Client entrusts and the Executor undertakes to perform a

complex of jobs on placement of advertising panels in arrivals halls. The design of the advertising panel forms an integral part of the Present Contract.

2.

Rights and Obligations of the Parties

2.1

The Trustee shall provide electric power for lighting equipment of

the Clients advertising panels.

2.2 The Executor shall provide guarantee services for the Clients

lighting equipment and advertising panels for the duration of the present Contract.

2.3 Either party has the right to cancel the Contract by written notice 30

days in advance of the estimated date of termination. In this case the cost of placement from the time of the cancellation of the Contract till the agreed termination date shall be returned to the Client (rental payment for the remaining months).

3.

Settlement Procedure

3.1

The Client shall make payment under the present Contract in the

amount of GBP

banking days from the date of the present Contract.

into the settlement account of the Trustee within 14

4.

Responsibility

4.1

In the event of the Clients delay in payments in accordance with

Article 3.1 of this Contract for more than 3 (three) banking days, the Trustee has the right to terminate the Contract unilaterally.

4.2 The Executor is liable for the proper condition of the panels and shall

eliminate all defects at his own account within reasonable time from the moment they are discovered.

4.3 The Trustee guarantees that in the event of restructuring (liquidation)

of the Executor, termination of the agency agreement between the Trustee and the Executor, the present Contract will not be revoked and the Trustee shall become legal successor to the Executor.

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5.

Dispute Resolution

5.1

All disputes arising in connection with this Contract shall be settled

in an amicable way. Should the Parties fail to reach amicable settlement, the dispute shall be settled by the Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation.

6.

Force Majeure

6.1

Should any circumstances arise which make complete or partial

fulfillment by either party of its obligations under the present Contract impossible, the time stipulated for the fulfillment of these obligations shall be extended for as long as these circumstances prevail.

7.

Other Provisions

7.1

This Contract is executed in two copies, one for each party, both

texts having equal legal validity.

7.2 All amendments and supplements to the present Contract shall be

valid if made in written form by agreement of both parties.

О С Н О В Н А Я

45

Л И ТЕ Р А ТУ Р А

П О КУ Р С У

JUST English. А нгл и йс ки й дл я ю ри с т ов. Б а зовый курс : учеб. пос оби е дл я

ю ри д . вузов / под ред . Т . Н . Ш и ш ки н ой; Ю .Л . Г ум а н о ва [ и др. ] – М . :

Зерца л о, 2000. 256 с .

А Н ДРИ А Н О В С.Н . А нгл о-рус с ки йю ри ди чес ки йс л ова рь / С.Н .А ндри а нов,

А .С.Берс он, А .С.Н и ки ф оров. – М . : Рус со, 2003. 512 с .

М И Н Ь Я Р-Б Е Л О РУ Ч Е ВА А .П . А нгл и йс ки й язык: учебни к ус т н ого

перевода / А .П . М и н ьяр-Б ел оруч ева , К.В. М и н ьяр-Б ел оручев. – М . :

Э кза м ен, 2003. 352 с . У СА Ч Е ВА А .Н . Translation: П и с ьм енн ый перевод (а нгл и йс ки й язык) :

уч еб. пос оби е / А .Н . У с а чева , С. Р. Х а йрова , Т .В. Серопеги на . – Вол гогра д :

И зд-во Вол гогра д. гос . ун -т а , 2005. 214 с .

Д оп олнительнаялитература

Ж ДА Н О В А .А . Дел овые пи с ьм а и конт ра кт ы / А .А . Ж да нов, И .Ф. Ж д а н ова . – М . : Фи л ом а т и с , 2002. 288 с .

У О Л КН Е Р Р. А нгл и йс ка я с удебн а я с и с т ем а / Р.У ол кнер. – М . : Ю ри д. л и т .,

1980.