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About Healthy Milk

Subodh Kumar ( Email-subodh1934@gmail.com)

1. Fat content of Cow's Milk


It is now accepted world wide that only Green Forage/ Pasture fed cows provide
best and healthy milk. The most important natural components of good milk are
considered to be preventive as well as cures for most of these diseases.

Under modern commercial pressures, the fat content of Milk has been accorded the
highest desirable criteria. But the latest community health researches have shown
that the emphasis on Fat in the Milk is not in the best interests of human health.
Vedas are recognized as the oldest book in the library of human civilization. Some
ideas about the prehistoric period when Cows were first being domesticated can be
gleaned from Vedas.
Vedas describe the environments and feeds conducive to good practices for Cows.
Rig Veda Mantra 10-169-1, Verdant atmosphere, where peacocks are dancing in
cool breeze, Cows feed on medicinal natural herbs and vegetation, have clean
natural water to drink, and tread upon clean ground free from any pollutants.
RV10-169-2, describes that these cows may be of one color, or multicolored, but
they carry different names given to them. Great labor/effort has gone in to
developing them. They thrive on rain fed vegetations RV 10-169-3
High Fat content Milk
In Indian traditions cows were segregated in two categories according to fat
content of milk, normal fat producing milk and heavy fat producing milk. Only low
fat content milk was considered good for family consumption. High fat content
milk cows were to be used for helping the priestly class in the performing of
Havans. In fact Vedas go to the extent of saying that those families are ruined who
keep cows that give high fat content Milk. Such cows that produce high Fat content
Milk must to be donated to priests for making more ghee to perform havans.
In terms of weights and measures prevailing from Mahabharata times, and the
standards laid down by Kautilya, on milk fat contents, one drona Buffalo milk had
five prasth fat, one drona cow milk had one prasth of fat, and one drona
goat/sheep milk had 2/5th prasth fat. One drona is equal to 16 prasth . Thus ancient
Indian Standards for fat in Milk provided for only 0.625% fats in Cow's milk and
five times more than cow's milk in Buffalo milk ie. only 3.125% fats. (Reference
Kautilya's Artha Shastra 2-45-29-2and Panini Kalin Bharat by Dr Vasudev Sharan
Agarwal)
Cow Feeds
This is only to indicate how over the past, changes in cattle feeding practices have
affected the composition of Cow's milk. Improper and unnatural feeds affect both
the quality and the quantity of fat content in cow's milk. These changes in the
quality of milk have not always been in the best interests of human health.
Concentrated formulated grains feeds for cattle are now recognized to be not the
best form of cattle feed strategy. By our veterinary interventions over the past
millennia we may have participated in the evolutions of cow breeds that are
producing much higher levels of fat content in their milk.

Milk yield & Fat content correlate

It is a fact that when the milk yield of a cow is high the fat content is low. The
converse is also obvious, when fat content of milk is high; the milk yield of a cow
is low. Observations with Vitur cows of Kerala will support this It is possible that
combined with high milk yields and low fat content in milk was result of almost
total pasture feeding of the Indian cows in ancient times. The very low milk yield
of Indian cows today can also contribute to higher fat in their milk. Average
Sahiwal cows have about 4.5% fat in their milk these days.
In fact there are directions in Atharva Veda that only cows with low fat in their
milk should be kept as family cows. Higher fat content milk yielding cows should
be donated to priestly class who require the milk fats in larger quantities for
offering to fire in performing of Yagnas.
Atharva Veda further goes on to say in chapter 12, 4th hymn, families that consume
food, high fat milk suffer from disease and destruction. We have to day arrived at a
stage when the medical experts advise that Cow's milk is not good for our health.

In Europe a big research project LIPGENE* in 21 laboratories has taken up the


task of addressing the metabolic disorders having adverse affects by introducing
corrective actions on food related products with specific reference to Milk.
In normal milk about 70 of fats are saturated fat, rest is made up of unsaturated
fats , consisting of ALA (Omega3) and CLA (Conjugated linoleic Acids). Efforts
are directed towards reducing the saturated fatty acids in milk and bringing about a
1:1 ratio of Omega3 and CLA. Finally we should not be surprised that scientists
end up with producing Cow's Milk very similar to what was there in the first place
in Indian Traditions.
2. Quality of Fats in Cow's milk

Particular attention is being drawn to CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acids) and high
Omega3 ALA (Alpha linolenic Acids) contents, in Grass Fed Cows' milk. Vitamin
D enabling milk is obtained from grass fed cow, by the exposure of cows to
sunshine. Vitamins A, D, E and K in milk being fat soluble, when accompanied
with CLA, Omega 3 lipids and Omega 6 , provide the nutritive functions for the
human body in natural form. Minerals also depend on the presence of these high
quality lipids for best nutritive assimilation in human body. It is now recognized
that Calcium can not be metabolized in human body in absence of minimum
quantity of lipids. Calcium tablets with synthetic Vitamin D are a very big
business, but of doubtful utility.
CLA9 ( Conjugated Linolenic Acids), Omega 3 ALA (Alpha linolenic Acid) and
Omega 6 , rich milk is now regarded as the only natural food, which is a
preventive as well as a medicine for all the self degenerating diseases in human
body namely Obesity, Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Blood pressure, Alzheimer,
Osteoporosis etc.
This type of good milk has been found in cows which move about in the open
Sunshine and feed on Green Forage, and Algae. New Zealand earns 40% of its
foreign trade revenue by selling such grass fed cow's milk only.
NZ scientists have also made another startling discovery about their Dairy Milk.
This milk in human digestive process fractures to produce a 7 amino acid peptide
designated as BCM7 (Beta Casomorphin 7). BCM7 is an opioid that has found
linked to many human diseases from Autism and Diabetes type 1 in infants to
Heart troubles, Cancer, Diabetes Alzheimer etc in adults. It was found that most of
the milk which fractures in to free BCM7 is from European breeds of Cows. This
milk is designated as A1 milk. Only milk from Bos Indicus cows, Jersey, Guernsey
and Icelandic cows has been found to be benign. This milk is designated as A2
milk. (Ref. 'Devil in the Milk' by Keith Woodford NZ)
For India, which has the world's largest population of Bos Indicus cows, this is a
very significant finding. This only goes to confirm the ancient Indian traditional
views, about importance of milk from Indian breeds of cows.
NZ scientists have by promoting A2 designated milk added one more
dimension to 'good' milk concept.
In coming days the entire Dairy world may undergo a revolutionary change.
All good milk will be milk of 'A2 type' and from Green Forage fed genetically
Bos Indicus linked Cows.
In a way this suggests a very promising future for the cows of Rural India, as more
than 80% of Indian cows are Bos Indicus. Thus it becomes very important for us in
India to find ways to provide Green Forage to cows in our country to increase both
the productivity and the quality of their milk. This is also a very significant modern
science discovery in the interest of community health.

The world dairies are aiming at shifting, all their milk production to high quality
Organic, Probiotic Milk and milk products. We need to remind ourselves here that
the entire original Indian Cow's milk was based on free Pasture feeding and was
the best product. Modern dairy science is gradually only now, waking up to this
fact. Even the importance of consuming Raw Unpasteurized milk which we in
India used to call Dharoshna is now being reestablished. This is also a step in
reducing Food miles.
*Note from internet on LIPGENE project progress so far is reproduced from
internet

* Modifying the fatty acid profile of foods – lessons


from the Lipgene project so far…..
By Rebecca Foster & Joanne Lunn, Nutrition
Scientists, British Nutrition Foundation, London, UK.
e-mail: r.foster@nutrition.org.uk
As the proportion of the European population that is classified as obese
increases, so too does their risk of suffering from the metabolic syndrome
and associated complications. Closely allied with this are the escalating
health care costs to the EU.
Metabolic syndrome
This is characterised by a number of strongly inter-related risk factors for
cardiovascular disease, including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance
and hypertension (see Nugent, 2004). Initiatives to reduce the risk of
adverse health conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome, such
as dyslipidemia (an unhealthy balance of the types of fat in the diet),
could consequently reduce the costs of ill-health. Modifying the fatty acid
profile of commonly consumed foods is one such initiative – the feasibility
and implications of which are currently being investigated as part of the
multi-disciplinary Lipgene project. However, it is difficult to increase the
proportion of these health promoting fatty acids in foods. Furthermore,
conventional methods of modification rely on the use of fish oils, yet
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there is evidence of dwindling fish stocks. Importantly these barriers are
being considered as part of the Lipgene project, along with the financial
implications. Potential solutions to the problem involve the use of various
forms of agro-food technologies, including transferring the relevant traits
of microalgae to oil seed plants using genetic modification technology.
Clearly some consumers may have ethical concerns about such
techniques and, therefore, consumer research is also underway in
association with the Lipgene project.
Consumption of PUFAs
Since the 1960s, doctors and healthcare professionals have recommended
the consumption of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in
place of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to decrease the SFA content of the
average diet, as it is well recognised that even small changes in blood
lipid profiles can have important changes for the risk of dyslipidemia, and
overall heart health. Certain long chain n-3 PUFAs, namely
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are also
well recognised as important in protecting against fatal heart disease,
although not simply by bringing about favourable changes in blood lipid
profile. These long chain n-3 PUFAs have also been associated with (a)
reduced blood pressure, (b) improved inflammatory response and
endothelial function, and (c) protection against fatal arrhythmia along
with many other effects, both known and as yet undefined.
To date, successful initiatives to improve the profile of dietary fatty acid
intake have used animal derived products. For example, EPA and DHA
enriched eggs which are currently on the market in a number of EU
countries. Such eggs can provide 54mg of EPA and DHA per day,
compared to normal eggs which provide only 8mg. Research in
association with the Lipgene project by Givens and Gibbs (2006) indicates
that for the UK, it is possible that with
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consumption of these specialist products, coupled with an increase in long
chain n-3 PUFAs from enriched poultry meat and dairy products
(consumed in line with current intakes), the intakes of long chain n-3
PUFA from non-fish sources could increase to approximately 200mg per
day. However, such increases can only be realised if efficient methods of
increasing the long chain PUFA composition of regularly consumed foods
such as meat are identified.
With the increasing popularity of poultry, it is interesting to note that in
mono-gastric animals, limited transformation of dietary fatty acids occurs
during digestion and absorption. Therefore, supplementation of animal
feed with fish oils is an effective method of increasing the concentration
of these nutritionally important long chain n-3 PUFAs in the meat.
Research as part of the Lipgene project has found that the long chain n-3
PUFA concentration of poultry meat following enrichment of EPA varies
with the breed of bird (Givens & Gibbs 2006). However, a number of
challenges have been identified when considering enriching foods with
fish oil. The first is the susceptibility of n-3 PUFA oils to oxidative
deterioration as it can cause the foods to have a metallic, fishy flavour
and a short shelf life. Secondly, perhaps most importantly, there are
concerns about the declining fish stocks.
Fish oils and other sources of long chain PUFAs
It is now well recognised that fish oil is not a sustainable resource.
Natural fish stocks are in decline, and aquaculture of marine fish requires
a dietary supply of fish oil as they have insufficient exposure to
microalgae (from where the wild fish obtain long chain n-3s). It is
currently estimated that aquaculture consumes 97% of the current
production of fish oil. Therefore, we need an alternative,
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sustainable source of nutritionally significant long chain n-3 PUFAs for
both human nutrition and for aquaculture. Marine algae, notably
microalgae, are the primary dietary source of EPA and DHA for oily fish in
the wild, and are commercially exploited by growing in culture. In the
search for a sustainable and economically viable source of long chain n-3
PUFAs, researchers are looking at the feasibility of genetically engineering
oil seed crops to act as a production system for the synthesis of long
chain n-3 PUFAs, which would accumulate in the storage lipids of their
seeds. In turn, these seeds could be used to produce vegetable oils rich in
long chain PUFA. Most oilseeds accumulate linoleic acid, but not the long
chain PUFAs of carbon chain length of 20 or more. To convert the
endogenous plant fatty acids into very long chain PUFAs requires the
action of multiple enzymes, in particular elongase and desaturase, which
are not present in oilseeds. In recent years there has been significant
progress in identifying and isolating the necessary genes encoding long
chain n-3 PUFA biosynthesis enzymes from fungi and algae. These genes
then need to be inserted into a suitable oilseed crop to generate the long
chain n-3 PUFAs. This action requires transgenic pathway engineering,
through which there are already signs that plants can be stimulated to
accumulate modest levels of long chain n-3 PUFAs (currently around 3%
EPA; Qi et al. 2004). However, understanding how to optimise the
accumulation of long chain n-3 PUFAs in the transgenic plants is a
requirement, and this is being considered as part of the Lipgene project
(see Napier & Sayanova 2005). To date, the research has used flax-
linseed, with little success. Oil seed rape is being used to further the
research, and to-date transgenic plants have been engineered to produce
long chain n-3 PUFAs and arachidonic acid to commercial levels.
Economics module
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If specialist products, such as a long chain n-3 PUFA rich vegetable oil (or
products containing it), are sold at a premium, they are only a feasible
option for individuals who can afford the higher price tag. For the
potential benefits of specialist foods to be recognised, schemes that can
ensure these foods reach individuals who will benefit most need to be
developed. Two possible schemes to tackle this problem have been
considered as part of the economics module of the Lipgene project:
The first scenario assumes there is potential to subsidise the production
on inputs such as plant sterols, linseed and fish oil for all EU soft spreads,
poultry and beef outputs, bringing retail prices of modified foods just
below those of conventional foods. Fry and Finley (2005) estimated that a
subsidy of €10 billion per year would be required to modify all EU soft
spreads, poultry and beef, to cover the costs of special inputs (e.g.
ingredients). This is an extreme example, which assumes that everyone
receives ‘healthier’ animal products, regardless of whether they are of
direct benefit to them or not. It also assumes that big increases in the use
and provision of key inputs are possible without increasing their prices.
However, this scenario has the benefit of avoiding all identity preservation
costs and it ensures the attainment of economies of scale.
The second option is to target subsidies, via vouchers for example, to
ensure that those who would benefit most from specialised products have
the chance to do so. This is particularly important, as those on a lower
income (and perhaps less likely to be able to afford the higher price tag
associated with specialised products) are more likely to be obese and at
risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, this approach may fail to
reach many of the beneficiaries (as some people may be unaware of such
a scheme or the potential health benefits of the products), and does entail
additional
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administrative costs and incurs penalties from lack of scale. In order to
determine the potential financial impact of targeting subsidies, the costs
of targeting 5% and 20% of the EU population were calculated by Fry and
Finley (2005). The overall financial impact of lack of scale plus identity
preservation systems are similar for both the 5% and 20% level of
subsidisation at roughly €4 billion/year each. According to Fry and Finley
(2005), extra costs of special inputs bring the net costs to around €5
billion/year for the 5% level of subsidisation and €6 billion/year for the
20% level. The costs of targeted subsidisation can be compared
favourably with subsidising 100% of the population, which is estimated to
be €10 billion/year (see Figure 1). However, it is also important to
consider the cost-efficiency of such a scheme.
Figure 1. Costs of targeting subsidies on 5%, 20% and 100% of the EU
population.
{ INCLUDEPICTURE "cid:image002.gif@01C5894F.B22666D0" \*
MERGEFORMATINET }
Source: Fry & Finley, 2005
Consumer choice
Clearly there are a number of opportunities for producing foods with
healthier traits, with the potential for health care savings and improved
consumer choice. However, there are currently a number of barriers also,
not least the science and technology challenges, but also the potential
consumer concerns. Research into the views of consumers around the
metabolic syndrome and its perceived health risks, has been undertaken
on behalf of the Lipgene project to provide an important insight into how
people can be encouraged to take responsibility for their health and diet.
Food choice is influenced by a number of issues including the potential
health
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consequences of the diet. Ethical issues about where food has come from
are also important to some consumers and, therefore, investigating
whether foods produced by new technologies will be acceptable to
consumers will be an important outcome of the Lipgene project.
Extensive surveying of opinion in six European countries has established
the level of awareness and acceptance of the metabolic syndrome and the
agro-food technologies that may provide an option for tackling its rising
prevalence. Results suggest that European consumers are aware of diet-
related diseases and associated risks. They want health benefits from
their foods and would accept genetic testing to know their disease risk.
They would like a diets tailored to their needs and would accept GM foods
if they provide health benefits. However, awareness of metabolic
syndrome is very low, which immediately identifies an area where public
health activities need to be focussed. Unsurprisingly, consumers are ill
informed about GM foods and the concept of functional food is not well
recognised.
Conclusions
Clearly there are a number of opportunities for producing foods with
healthier traits and with potential for health care savings and improved
consumer choice. However, the science and technology challenges, but
also the potential consumer concerns are possible barriers. These issues
are being explored by the various aspects of the Lipgene project. The
findings from the project will be available over the next three years ({
HYPERLINK "http://www.nutrition.org.uk/lipgene" }).
A workshop to discuss progress on the plant biotechnology and animal
nutrition work underway as part of the Lipgene project is
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being hosted in Reading (UK) in autumn 2007. Information on the
workshop will be posted soon on { HYPERLINK
"http://www.nutrition.org.uk/conferences" }
References
Fry J & Finley W (2005) The prevalence and costs of obesity in the EU.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64(3): 345-402.
Givens DI & Gibbs R (2006) Very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids in the food chain in the UK and the potential of animal derived foods
to increase intake. Nutrition Bulletin 31: 104-110
Napier JA & Sayanova A (2005) The production of very-long-chain PUFA
biosynthesis in transgenic plants: towards a sustainable source of fish
oils. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64(3): 387-93.
Nugent A (2004) The metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Bulletin 29:36-44.
Qi B, Fraser T, Mugford S et al. (2004) The production of very long chain
omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in transgenic plants. Nature
Biotechnology 22: 739-45.