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Marketing plan Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway Antonio Greco Marcel Koelewijn Sabrina Lütkebohle Camille Qu

Marketing plan

Artisanal raw milk cheese

- Norway

Marketing plan Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway Antonio Greco Marcel Koelewijn Sabrina Lütkebohle Camille Qu
Antonio Greco Marcel Koelewijn Sabrina Lütkebohle Camille Qu ernadelle Sharon Welgraven “Dutch Raw Milk Cheese Project
Antonio Greco
Marcel Koelewijn
Sabrina Lütkebohle
Camille Qu ernadelle
Sharon Welgraven
“Dutch Raw Milk Cheese Project supported by Slow Food ”
IBS1 Project 1
3 Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Table of Contents Management Summary ......................................................................................................... Chapter
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3

Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

Table of Contents

Management Summary

.........................................................................................................

Chapter 1 ‘Introduction’

.........................................................................................................

5

1.1

Context

........................................................................................................................

5

  • 1.2 Structure ......................................................................................................................

5

  • 1.3 Working methods

.........................................................................................................

5

Chapter 2 Macro Analysis

.....................................................................................................

6

  • 2.1 DESTEP analysis

.........................................................................................................

6

  • 2.1.1 Demographic

.........................................................................................................

7

  • 2.1.2 Economic .............................................................................................................10

  • 2.1.3 Social ...................................................................................................................13

  • 2.1.4 Technological .......................................................................................................15

  • 2.1.5 Ecological .............................................................................................................17

  • 2.1.6 Political .................................................................................................................20

  • 2.2 Import regulations .......................................................................................................22

  • 2.3 Current issues .............................................................................................................24

  • 2.4 Attitude towards food in general ..................................................................................25

  • 2.5 The Hofstede Model ....................................................................................................26

.

............................................................................................................................................26

  • 2.6 Norwegian image of Holland .......................................................................................29

Chapter 3 Meso analysis ......................................................................................................30

  • 3.1 Current export barriers ................................................................................................31

  • 3.2 Market segments ........................................................................................................32

    • 3.2.1 Demographic ........................................................................................................32

    • 3.2.2 Geographic ...........................................................................................................33

    • 3.2.3 Psychographic ......................................................................................................33

    • 3.2.4 Behavioral ............................................................................................................33

  • 3.3 Competitors ................................................................................................................34

  • 3.4 Distribution channels ...................................................................................................37

  • 3.5 Norwegian motivations to sell Dutch raw milk cheese .................................................39

  • 3.6 Norwegian consumer attitude

  • towards Dutch raw milk cheese ....................................40

    • 3.7 Relevant publications ..................................................................................................41

    • 3.8 Societal participants in Norway ...................................................................................43

    • 3.9 Places where business people meet ...........................................................................44

    Chapter 4 Potential target group ...........................................................................................45

    • 4.1 Target group and motivation for buying Dutch raw milk cheese ..................................45

    • 4.2 Personas.....................................................................................................................47

    Conclusion and recommendations........................................................................................49

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 1: ‘Project Group Management’ ............................................................................51 Appendix 2:
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 1: ‘Project Group Management’ ............................................................................51 Appendix 2:

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Appendix 1: ‘Project Group Management’ ............................................................................51 Appendix 2: ‘Literature list’ ...................................................................................................57 URL Blog ..............................................................................................................................58

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Management Summary The purpose of this report is
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Management Summary The purpose of this report is

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Management Summary

    The purpose of this report is to find out how Slow Food can support Dutch producers of raw milk cheese successfully in marketing their products internationally. The repo rt is written for the NGO Slow Food Company. Slow Food is a global, grassroots organization with supporters in 150 countries around the world who are linking the pleasure of good food with a commitment to thei r community and the environment. It is taken into account how the Slow Food philosophy of good, clean and fair food and concepts like presidia, Ark of taste and food communities can be used as marketing tools to support the Dutch producers of raw milk cheese.

    The main points in this report are a macro based analysis, a meso based analysis and defining a target group for Dutch artisanal raw milk cheese.

    Most Norwegian people are aged between 30 and 40 years. Norwegians are living in good circumstances and the life expectancy is therefore high (HDI index) . An important fact to know is, that the population destiny in Norway is the lowest in Europe and most Norwegian people are living in the big cities in the South of the country. The Norwegian economy is very stable and very healthy also in comparison to other countries worldwide. Norwegian people have a really high income (based in GDP), compared to Dutch people or people from other European countries. The Netherlands and Norway trade a lot and they are both part of the WTO, which approves trade. Therefore, the exchange rates are very stable. In contrast to the Netherlands, Norway is not a part of the European Union. However, for this state there are no import and export barriers for the Netherlands concerning cheese.

    Norway has a very open economy (join s AFTA), however Norway tries to stimulate the agriculture in the home country. The Norwegian protection tariffs on agriculture are about 40% tax extra on the import price, and there are documental barriers.

    Good and important to know is also that Norweg ian people prefer sustainability and nature. And these facts have also influences on the sight of food. Norwegians like to buy and eat fresh food and products. The romantic sight of sheep/goats and farmers is preferred above mass production. And because of the fact that sustainability is important for Norwegians, there are always new technologies and new innovative advanced technologies to work as sustainable as possible. There are a lot of possibilities to communicate with Norwegians: Television, radio, ma gazines, newspapers and mostly the internet and social media. Also cooking magazines and special cooking television programs are a main part for communicate a product to Norwegian people. The eating habbits of Norwegian people are really `cheese -friendly`: Norwegian people eat cheese as a dessert cheese, table cheese and also for breakfast/lunch. Cheese can be used in slices on bread, but also as desert in small pieces. Dessert cheese is for after dinner, to drink with a glass of wine. However, table cheese can be eaten at mornings, afternoons or evenings as a ‘snack’. As already said before, Norwegian people have a really high income and they prefer products with high quality. High prices are seen as a secure for good quality. Labels and other signs of good quality are therefore recommended. Other important factors are the origin of the product and that it is fair - trade. Healthy components/ingredients are also very important.

    The Norwegian and the Dutch culture does not really differ, as appeared of the co mparison of the Hofstede Model of both countries. It is important to be on time and to say directly if there is a problem, because business is really direct and time costs money. Moreover Norway is the second most feminine country in the world.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Norwegians trend to like Dutch products, because they
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Norwegians trend to like Dutch products, because they

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Norwegians trend to like Dutch products, because they import a lot things from the Netherlands and know that these products have a high quality. The Netherlands are characterized for cheese making, and also being world champion approves this fact. Norwegian people also think that Dutch people are open and friendly.

    Supermarkets, cheese shops, delicatessen, restaurants and web shops are a good choice for distribution Dutch raw milk cheese.

    The competitors for cheese production and selling in Norway are several la rge scale producers. Important to know: TINE is kind of a monopolist in the Norwegian cheese market, but there are also small scale producers of cheese. All of these producers are competitors. However, all kinds of cheese are substitutes. The target group for raw milk cheese in Norway includes men and women from the age of 35 with no age limit. Mostly a higher age is needed, because as said before, the cheese will be positioned as a luxurious product above the ‘mid segment’. Artisanal made raw milk cheese is seen as a delicacy. The fact that this cheese is positioned as a luxurious product provides a social class element. People will eat this cheese, for one of the reasons, to have a certain feeling of status. They will eat the raw milk cheese with friends after dinner, at dinner or in a restaurant. The feeling of being able to buy the cheese and status is then important. People that are going to restaurants and having dinner with friends, with a glass of wine and cheese, are elderly people. The younger g eneration will not care about this cheese in a certain way of status. Level of education does not really matter. A normal worker or a farmer could eat this cheese just as a manager or a professor. There is not really a connection between the reason to buy raw milk cheese and the education level. Family life is not important either. It does not significant if a person is married, has two children or is living in a single household. Social background and working situation are central factors of the target group and they are connected with each other. That means for the work situation that there should be a high income to be able to buy these special cheeses. Part of the target group is also retired people who had a high income. Some characteristics and values of the target group in general are a high level of living. Members of the target group also like strong tastes, exclusive food and they all prefer a healthy life. Important factors for buying raw milk cheese are the special taste of this product and that i t is made by farmers and not by machinery.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Norwegians trend to like Dutch products, because they

    Figure ‘Slow Food’ Source: google pictures ‘Slow Food’

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 1 ‘Introduction’ 1.1 Context Recently Holland became
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 1 ‘Introduction’ 1.1 Context Recently Holland became

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Chapter 1 ‘Introduction’

    • 1.1 Context

    Recently Holland became world champion in cheese making.

    This report has everything to do with this subjec t.

    This research has been written for the Slow Food Company in Holland. Slow Food is a global, grassroots organization with supporters in 150 countries around the world who are linking the pleasure of good food with a commitment to their community and the environment. In general Dutch consumers are not willing to pay a premium for the high quality of Dutch raw milk cheese. In other countries more people seem to appreciate the taste quality of artisanal produced raw milk cheese. Therefore the idea of export came to life. In this case, the report concerns the country Norway. The main question , in this report, is the following: “How can Slow Food successfully support Dutch producers of raw milk cheese in marketing their products internationally, especially in Norway?” and ‘how can the Slow Food philosophy of good, clean and fair food and concepts like presidia, Ark of taste and food communities can be used as marketing tools in an unknown market as Norway’.

    • 1.2 Structure

    Structural research is a key to success . In this report is dealt with following subjects:

    • Macro analysis of the overall country Norway. Subjects like regulations, attitudes towards food, cultural differences concerning promotion are investigated.

    • Meso analysis of the current situation of the ch eese market in Norway. In this part, competitors, distribution channels, export barriers will get clear.

    • Finally a potential target group will be chosen. Furthermore a persona will be developed, based on research.

    • The project contract and literature list can be found in the appendixes.

    • 1.3 Working methods

    This report is written by five group members: Antonio Greco, Marcel Koelewijn, Sabrina Lütkebohle, Camille Quernadelle and Sharon Welgraven. All the group members worked following the logical pattern: writing a project contract and plan of approach, collecting data by different sources and writing the research plan based on these data. Used sources are for example: internet, newspapers, interview, a visit at a farm and books.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 1 ‘Introduction’ 1.1 Context Recently Holland became

    Figure 1.1 ‘Slow Food’ Source: google pictures ‘Slow Food’

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 2 Macro Analysis The macro environment involves
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 2 Macro Analysis The macro environment involves

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Chapter 2 Macro Analysis

    The macro environment involves factors outside of the direct control of the business. The several factors can have a significant effect on a firm’s success. For example, a change in the exchange rate can affect the ability of a firm to sell abroad.

    The macro environment can be analyzed by using a DESTEP-analysis.

    This external analysis shows threats and opportunities for the company. With help of this analysis it is possible to respond better to the market you’re in.

    2.1 DESTEP analysis

    In this paragraph the DESTEP-analysis is discussed. DESTEP stands for the following dimensions:

    demographic, economic, social, technological, ecological and political. Companies cannot influence these dimensions. However, these dimensions determine opportunities for the company. Because of that, the company considers this analysis as important.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.1 Demographic Population It is important to knowhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) 2 www.ssb.no (19-2-12) indexmundi.com (8-2-2012) 7 " id="pdf-obj-7-2" src="pdf-obj-7-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.1 Demographic Population It is important to knowhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) 2 www.ssb.no (19-2-12) indexmundi.com (8-2-2012) 7 " id="pdf-obj-7-4" src="pdf-obj-7-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.1 Demographic 12

    Population

    It is important to know about the population, because this is the potential consume r market. Important information is, for example, where do people live: in the city or at the rural area? How many people are

    living there?

    In 2009, there were 4.691.849 people living in Norway. 3

    T he population is structured as follows:

    Age

    Percentage

    Men

    Women

    0-14 year

    18%

    431.111

    412.864

    15-64 year

    66%

    1.568.729

    1.529.799

    65 year and older

    16%

    326.711

    422.635

    The population pyramid of Norway is structured as follows:

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.1 Demographic Population It is important to knowhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) 2 www.ssb.no (19-2-12) indexmundi.com (8-2-2012) 7 " id="pdf-obj-7-76" src="pdf-obj-7-76.jpg">

    Figure 2.1 ‘Population pyramid’

    Source: cia factbook

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Through good living circumstances is the life expectancyhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) http://www.igbp.net/ (14.02.2012) 6 Unstats.un.org (22-2-2012) www.iselinge.nl (1-3-2012) 8 " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Through good living circumstances is the life expectancyhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) http://www.igbp.net/ (14.02.2012) 6 Unstats.un.org (22-2-2012) www.iselinge.nl (1-3-2012) 8 " id="pdf-obj-8-4" src="pdf-obj-8-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Through good living circumstances is the life expectancy relatively high. 4

    Total population

    80,20 year

    Men

    77,53 year

    Women

    83,02 year

    In addition to this the HDI ( Human Development Index) rank is also important to mention. The HDI is a comparative measure of life expec tancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide and lies between 0.0 and 1.0. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an under-developed country, and also to measure the impact of economic po licies on quality of life. The HDI of Norway was the highest in 2011 and was 0.943. 5

    The population is spread over an area of 323.802 km2, which means a density of 12,1/km2. This is considered to be very low. To compare: The Netherlands have a density 401 ,4/km2. 6 The Norwegian population density is stated as the lowest in Europe. 7

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Through good living circumstances is the life expectancyhttps://www.cia.gov/ (19-2-2012) http://www.igbp.net/ (14.02.2012) 6 Unstats.un.org (22-2-2012) www.iselinge.nl (1-3-2012) 8 " id="pdf-obj-8-41" src="pdf-obj-8-41.jpg">

    Figure 2.2 ‘population density in Europe’

    Source: CBS

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    The population density differs a lot over the country, as seen in the following figure:

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The population density differs a lot over thewww.indexmundi.com (19-2-2012) 9 " id="pdf-obj-9-14" src="pdf-obj-9-14.jpg">

    It can be stated that most people live in the southern part of Norway. Most people live in the coast regions, and in the coast regions in the west.

    In Norway, 79% of total population is urbanized (2010) and the rate of urbanization is 1.2% (2010- 15 est.). 8

    Figure 2.3 ‘Population density in Norway’

    Source: annawaterkristal.mijnwebadres.nl

    Conclusion

    Most people are aged between 30 and 40 years old. People are living in good circumstances, and the life expectancy is therefore high. However, the population density is the lowe st in Europe and most people live in coast regions in the south or east. This information is important, to make decisions about the target/consumer market.

    8 www.indexmundi.com (19-2-2012)

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.2 Economic Economic The economic situation of Norwayhttp://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) 1 0 http://www.chron.com/ (14.02.2012) 10 " id="pdf-obj-10-2" src="pdf-obj-10-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.2 Economic Economic The economic situation of Norwayhttp://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) 1 0 http://www.chron.com/ (14.02.2012) 10 " id="pdf-obj-10-4" src="pdf-obj-10-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.2 Economic

    Economic

    The economic situation of Norway is important, to be able to estimate risk s for exporting products.

    With use of this information, a company can evaluate the stability of the economy.

    Norway is one of the world's richest countries and its economy is wealthy and has shown greatness since the start of the industrial era. Norway provides a combination of free market activity and governmental intervention, because the government controls the key areas of the main industries ofNorway.

    Another important fact about Norway: the country owns a lot of natural resources like petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests and minerals. The profits of agricultural activities are very high, in comparison to the small area of agricultural land.

    The main industries of Norway are petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles and fishing. The most important agricultural products in Norway are barley, wheat, potatoes, pork, beef, veal, milk and fish.

    Exports

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.2 Economic Economic The economic situation of Norwayhttp://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) 1 0 http://www.chron.com/ (14.02.2012) 10 " id="pdf-obj-10-28" src="pdf-obj-10-28.jpg">

    Figure 2.4 ‘export portfolio norway’ Source: Norway embassy

    How does the export pattern of Norway looks like? Do they export to the Netherlands (in order to know or there is a trade relation)?

    Norway’s export commodities are petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment,

    metals, chemicals, ships and fish and t hey so earned in 2011 $ 159.8 billion with their export goods.

    Their most important export partners in 2010 were UK (26.7 %), Netherlands (12.1 %), Germany (11.4 %), Sweden (7 %), France (6.6 %) and USA (5 %).

    In 2009 the total export of oil and gas fro m Norway to the Netherlands had a total value of € 9.2 billion of which almost 7.2 billion was oil exports. This was 74% of the total exports from Norway to the Netherlands. 9

    Another export good of Norway, to other countries is c heese. The Norwegians produce so much cheese that they export 20,000 tons a year. About 7,000 tons of this is shipped to the United States. 10

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Imports Figure 2.5 ‘import portfolio norway’ Source: Norwayhttp://www.indexmundi.com/ (14.02.2012) http://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) Fi g ures : http://www.ssb.no/ (14.02.2012) 13 http://www.x-rates.com/ (08.02.2012) 11 " id="pdf-obj-11-2" src="pdf-obj-11-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Imports Figure 2.5 ‘import portfolio norway’ Source: Norwayhttp://www.indexmundi.com/ (14.02.2012) http://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) Fi g ures : http://www.ssb.no/ (14.02.2012) 13 http://www.x-rates.com/ (08.02.2012) 11 " id="pdf-obj-11-4" src="pdf-obj-11-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Imports

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Imports Figure 2.5 ‘import portfolio norway’ Source: Norwayhttp://www.indexmundi.com/ (14.02.2012) http://norway.nlembassy.org/ (14.02.2012) Fi g ures : http://www.ssb.no/ (14.02.2012) 13 http://www.x-rates.com/ (08.02.2012) 11 " id="pdf-obj-11-14" src="pdf-obj-11-14.jpg">

    Figure 2.5 ‘import portfolio norway’ Source: Norway embassy

    How does the import pattern of Norway looks like? Do they import from the Netherlands (in order to know or there is a trade relation), and do they especially import cheese from the Netherlands?

    Almost three quarters of Norway's land is unproductive; less than 4% is cultivated. In this way Norway has to import more than half of its food needs. With higher living standards, this includes higher food value. In 2005 Norway imported food and live animals amounting to $ 2.8 billion. 11

    Imported cheese from the EU has boosted the Norwegian domestic market, by bringing progressivel y more competition and a wide quality choice for Norwegian consumers. This resulted in an increase of per capita consumption, leading to an increase in Norwegian dairy production and upgrades of Norwegian cheese products to match competition. There is stil l potential for growth on the Norwegian cheese market, when comparing per capita consumption in Norway w ith neighbor countries. To prevent too much dependency from import, farmers are heavily subsidized and the prices of agricultural products are artificially kept high.

    Other import commodities of Norway are machinery and equipment, chemicals and metals. Most of Norway imports come via freight transport from their import partners (in 2010) Sweden (14.1 %), Germany (12.4 %), China (8.5 %), Denmark (6.3 %), UK (5.9 %), USA (5.4 %) and Netherlands (4.1 %). The top 3 Dutch exports to Norway were machinery, fuels, electrical and electronic equipment. 12

    Memberships

    It is important to know about memberships, economic and political. This is accompanied with for

    example import regulations. Also the exchange rate is important for exporting and importing, since

    Norway doesn’t have the euro.

    Norway is a member of WTO (World Trade Organization), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), UN (United Nations), EFTA (Eur opean Free Trade Association) and EWR (European Economic Area), but it is not a member of the European Union (EU), because it chooses to stay out of the EU. (more information to be found under politics). Norway does not have the euro (EUR). Their currency is called Norwegian kroner (NOK) and has an exchange rate of 7.6225 NOK : 0.131191 EUR. 13 But as a member of the European Economic Area it administers important incomes to the EU budget. One reason therefore is that Norway is the world's second -largest gas exporter and sixth largest oil exporter.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Key data

    This part contains some key data, which is useful to get a view about the country.

    An important ratio is the Gini index. The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in som e cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. The distribution of family in come was 25 (in 2008) and Norway was on rank 137 in the world. 14

    Another important thing to know about this country is the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) . The GDP per capita was 53,300 dollars in 2011. The Norwegian GDP per capita is rated 7 in the world. Compared to The Netherlands it is higher, because the Dutch GDP per capita is the 16 th in the world. The GDP refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a year. It amount to € 311.5 billion in 2011. 15 In comparison to the world, Norway was on rank 47. The growth rate of the GDP from 2010 to 2011 adds up to 1.7 %. That is very stable. The GDP composition by sectors shows that agriculture is with 2.7 % the least part; industry earned 38.3 % and services 59 %. So services are the most important sector for Norway and its GDP.

    The Unemployment rate of Norway was 2011 3.4 %, thus Norway was on rank 29 in comparison to other countries in the world. The average household income was in 2008 between 3.9 % (lowest 10 %) and 21 % (highest 10 %). The average monthly earnings of full -time employees were in 2009 38,400 NOK for men and 33,300 NOK for women. 16

    Cheese market

    In Norway agricultural cooperatives hold 96 % of the market for r aw milk and 55 % of the cheese market.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that the Norwegian economy is very stable, and Norwegian people do have a higher income (based on GDP), compared to the Dutch people. This is important information, because Norwegian people are considered to be rich. Norway trades already a lot with the Netherlands. Norway is also a part of the WTO, and approves trade. Therefore, the exchange rate is very stable.

    http://www.ssb.no/ (14.02.2012)

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.3 Social Language What are the main andhttps://www.cia.gov/ (15-2-2012) 18 https://www.cia.gov/ (15-2-2012) http://noorwegen.placement.nl/ (15-2-12) 13 " id="pdf-obj-13-2" src="pdf-obj-13-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.3 Social

    Language

    What are the main and most important languages , in order to communicate with Norwegians?

    The main and official languages 17 are Bokmal Norwegian and Nynorsk Norwegian. Further existing languages are Sami and Finnish. This information is important for the company for communicational reasons.

    Religion

    Are there any religions that have eating conditions, in Norway?

    Overview of religions in Norway 18 :

    • Church of Norway

    85.7%

    • Christian

    2.4%

    • Muslim

    1.8%

    • Pentecostal

    1%

    • Roman Catholic

    1%

    • Other

    8.1%

    • 64,9% of the total population

    Non-religious

    The church of Norway is a church on itself. The church is derived from the former Luther church. The

    Luther church is a Protestant Christian church. Further people aren’t very religious

    One can conclude that religion is not a barrier in Norway, for the c heese industry. For the reason that

    only in Jewish religions people need to separate food, to be ‘kosher’. Since this religion is not popular

    in Norway, this is not an important factor.

    Eating habits What are general eating habits in Norway? 19

    Norwegian people eat 4 times a day: breakfast, lunch, dinner and after dinner. After dinner is mostly a snack, such as knackebröd, waffles or a slice of bread. This is daily eating moment, it is even equally important as dinner, lunch and breakfast.

    Norwegians eat potatoes, vegetables and meat/fish for dinner. Fish is more preferable as meat. Lunch is between 11.30 and 12.30, dinner time is around 4 or 5 o`clock and after dinner is around19.00 till when you like.

    Eating habits do not differ a lot of the ‘European h abits’, concerning spoons/knifes/forks and plates.

    Furthermore the snacks and sweet are comparable to Dutch habits. In Norway even Dutch sweets, like licorice, are available.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Cheeses and habits in Norway

    What kind of cheese is popular in Norway, and when do Norwegian people eat cheese?

    There are different types of Norwegian cheeses 20 :

    • Brunost is a Norwegian specialty. Brunost is available in different types, and is made of goat milk (sometimes added with cow’s milk, depending on types). Brunost is seen as a delicacy, tastes a bit like caramel and has a brown colour. Brunost can be used as a dessert cheese or table cheese, in thin slices on bread.

    • Geitost is the national cheese, made of cow’s and goat’s milk. It is semi -hard, dark brown and tastes a bit like caramel. Geitost is also a dessert cheese that must be sliced paper-thin and placed on Norwegian flat bread. Children eat this cheese also for breakfast.

    • Gammelost is also a goat’s milk cheese. It is a creamery, hard, blue cheese and looks brown. The cheese contains a very low fat content, of only 5%. Norwegian people eat this cheese mostly after dinner.

    • Gjetost is a creamery, semi-hard brown cheese, made of goat’s and cow’s milk. The cheese has a unusual aromatic taste. Gjetost is the most popula r cheese in Norway! People often eat this cheese for dessert.

    • Jarlsberg is a creamery, hard cheese and is comparable to Swiss Emmental cheese. Jarlsberg can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese. The cheese looks yellow, and is exported all over the world.

    • Nokkelost is a creamery, semi-hard cheese. It is a factory-made version of the Dutch cheese Leiden. Nokkelost can be used as Jarlsberg.

    Conclusion

    Norwegian people eat cheese as a dessert cheese, table cheese and also for breakf ast, but only children eat cheese for breakfast. Cheese can be used in slices on bread, but also as desert in small pieces. Dessert cheese is for after dinner, to drink with a glass of wine. However, table cheese can be eaten at mornings, afternoons or evenings as a ‘snack’. Furthermore, Norwegian people prefer goat’s milk instead of cow’s milk.

    Also an important fact to know, Norwegian people prefer sustainability, nature etc. This has also an influence on the sight on food. Food should be fresh, accordi ng to Norwegian people. The romantic sight of sheep/goats and farmers is preferred above mass production. 21

    In Norway a cheese slicer is used, but to cut thicker slices than in Holland.

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    Figure 2.6 Brunost sliced with a cheese slicerSource: www.chees e.com

    • 20 www.cheese.com (8-02-2012)
      21 http://www.foodprocessing-technology.com/ (2-3-2012)

    14

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.4 Technological Communication This part deals with thttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 25 https://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) www.newmediatrendwatch.com (21-2-2012) 15 " id="pdf-obj-15-2" src="pdf-obj-15-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.4 Technological

    Communication

    This part deals with t he communication in Norway. What are ways to communicate with Norwegian

    people?

    Telephone Norway has the highest number of mobile phone subscribers in the world, in comparison to the population number (with neighbor countries Sweden and Finland). 22 A lot of money has been invested in the development of modern telephone communication, through satellites and underground networks. The Norwegian network is even a leading network in the world, c oncerning fiber optic lines and ISDN connections. “ 23 Telephones mobile cellular: 5.525 million (2010) 24

    Radio Nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems and 2 privately- owned radio stations and another 240 loca l stations. (2008). 25

    Internet

    In June 2011, there were 4,431,100 internet users in Norway, according to Internet World Stats. These users represent 94,4% of the population. In total, only 5% of the Norwegian population had no access to the internet. This group mainly consists of people aged over 64 years. Moreover, one in four people in Norway had access to the internet by mobile connections.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.4 Technological Communication This part deals with thttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 25 https://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) www.newmediatrendwatch.com (21-2-2012) 15 " id="pdf-obj-15-42" src="pdf-obj-15-42.jpg">

    Figure 2.7 ‘Internet use Norway’

    Source: Noorwegen placement

    Nowadays, internet is used very often. In 2011, 82% of the internet users used the internet every day.

    Internet is used for reading online newspapers, searching for information, for example goods, services, travelling and accommodations etc.

    Social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, are general ly more popular among the younger generation of the population. 59% of the population was participating or had participated in social networks, in 2011.26

    Nowadays, reaching people through internet (including social networks) is very effective. It can be stated that, in Norway, almost all people use internet almost every day. In addition, almost all people in Norway use a phone (mobile or main line). Internet country code: .no

    • 22 Noorwegen.placement.nl (21-2-2012)
      23

    Noorwegen.placement.nl (21-2-2012)

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Knowledge economy What about the education level inhttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) www.agentschapnl.nl / www.nuffic.nl (21-2-2012) 29 http://www.foodprocessing-technology.com/ (2-3-2012) 16 " id="pdf-obj-16-2" src="pdf-obj-16-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Knowledge economy

    What about the education level in Norway? For corporations w ith other companies, it is useful to know or the education level is comparable, for example cooperating with an advertising company.

    “Literacy: people above 15, who can read and write: 100% School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): male 17 years / female 18 years (2008)” 27

    About 80 percent of the Norwegian p opulation is medium or high-skilled. The government attaches importance to a well-trained and internationally competitively population. Therefore, a lot of investments into adult education and internationalization of the education have been made. The education level is considered to be higher as in Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands. Thus, the business environment is attractive.” 28

    Cheese production 29 The cheese production is to be found in factories, but also through farmers. The cheese production has the same structure as in the Netherlands: mass production in factories and artisanal production through farmers. As readable in the social factor artisanal is preferred above factories. In addition, as readable in the ecological factor, Norwegian people consider environment as important. Therefore, new technologies are developed to reduce water and power consumption. These technologies are the newest innovative advanced technologies of Eu rope.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.5 Ecological Geography 09 Norway is in thehttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 31 https://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) http://www.noorwegen.nl/ (1-3-2012) 17 " id="pdf-obj-17-2" src="pdf-obj-17-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.5 Ecological

    Geography 30 09

    Norway is in the northern part of Europe. Norway is a neighbor country of Sweden and Finland, but also a small part of Russia!

    Land boundaries:

    Total: 2.542 km Border countries:

    Finland 727km

    Sweden 1.619km

    Russia: 196km

    Norway has a lot to do with water. The country is surrounded by the North Sea, the Barents’ Sea , Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.

    Environment and climate 31 32

    The land consists of water and land, which is divided as follows:

    Total: 323.802 km2 Land: 304.282 km2 Water: 19.520 km2 (6 percent of the total surface)

    The country is surrounded with amazing islands and fjords.

    Mainly in the center and the northern part of the country, are a lot of mountains and plateaus. However, one can also find glaciers and rocky parts.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.5 Ecological Geography 09 Norway is in thehttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 31 https://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) http://www.noorwegen.nl/ (1-3-2012) 17 " id="pdf-obj-17-50" src="pdf-obj-17-50.jpg">

    Figure 2.8 ‘Norway’ Source Google pictures

    There are a lot of different climates to be found in the country. The Northern part consists out of a tundra climate, which is very cold and bush y. The coast regions have a more temperate climate. The summers are warmer, but winters are cold. The average temperature is around 7 degrees in these regions. The coast regions know mild periods, because of the warm Gulf Stream.

    The relief influences of course the accessibility.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    The richest vegetation is found in the southeast around Oslo fjord, which is dominated by conifers (spruce, fir, and pine); at lower levels, deciduous trees such as oak, ash, elm, and maple are common. Conifers are seldom found at altitudes above 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Above the conifer zone extends a zone of birch trees; above that, a zone of dwarf willow and dwarf birch, and a zone of lichens and arctic plants. In areas exposed to salt sea winds, there is little tree growth. Of the larger wild animals, elk, roe deer, red deer, and badger survive, as do fox, lynx, and otter. Bird life is abundant and includes game birds such as capercailzies (cock of the woods) and black grouse. In the rivers are found trout, salmon, and char.

    Sustainability

    Sustainability is a very important point in Norway.

    ‘Children are the future’.

    Therefore, a lot of agreements have been made to support sustainability. Companies and its factories have to apply these agreements.

    Recently, for example, agreements have been made about water and power consumption. These agreements have been made in order to reduce water and power consumption.

    ‘The so called company SPX Corporation announced a new technology segment, which already has

    been awarded valuable. The system will utilize the technology of Gerstenberg Schroder, which SPX acquired earlier this year. The new facility is being constructed by Tine, Norway's largest producer, distributor and exporter of dairy products. Founded in 1928, Tine is a dairy pr oduct cooperative consisting of more than 15,000 farmers and produces a wide spectrum of dairy products, including Jarlsberg cheese, Snofrisk goat cheese and Ridder cheese. Gerstenberg Schroder's end-to-end processing system will be designed to enable Tine to minimize the operational water consumption on

    the butter maker.33

    However, forests, lakes, flora, and wildlife have suffered encroachment in recent years from the growing population and consequent development of urban areas, roads, and hydroelectric p ower. The forest floor and waterways have been polluted by Norway's own industry and by airborne industrial pollution from central Europe and the British Isles in the form of acid rain. The acid rain problem has affected the nation's water supply over an a rea of nearly 7,000 sq. mi.

    Annual particulate emissions have been around 22 tons and hydrocarbon emissions have been about 270 tons. In 1992, Norway was among the 50 nations with the world's heaviest emissions of carbon dioxide from industrial sources, w hich totaled 60.2 million metric tons, a per capita level of 14.03 metric tons. In 2000, however, the total of carbon dioxide emissions was at 49.9 million metric tons. Transportation vehicle emissions are also a significant source of air pollution.

    By the early 1980s, the government had enacted stringent regulations to prevent oil spills from wells and tankers operating on the Norwegian continental shelf. Coastal protection devices have since been installed, and new technologies to prevent oil damage have been developed. Industry, mining, and agriculture have polluted 16% of Norway's lake water. The nation has a total of 382 cu km of renewable water resource; 72% of the annual withdrawal is used for industrial activity and 8% is used for farming.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Pollution control laws operate on the premise that
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Pollution control laws operate on the premise that

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Pollution control laws operate on the premise that the polluter must accept legal and economic responsibility for any damage caused and for preventing any recurrence; the state makes loans and grants for the purchase of pollution control equipment. Municipal autho rities supervise waste disposal. Since its creation in 1972, the Ministry of the Environment has been Norway's principal environmental agency. Between 1962 and 1985, 15 national parks, with a total area of more than 5,000 sq km (2,000 sq mi), and more than 150 nature reserves were established. In 2003, about 6.8% of the total land area was protected. The West Norwegian Fjords Geirangerfjord and Naerofjordwere named as a natural UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005. The country has 37 Ramsar wetland sites. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 9 types of mammals, 6 species of birds, 7 species of fish, 1 type of mollusk, 8 species of other invertebrates, and 2 species of plants. Threatened species include the Baltic sturgeon, marsh snail, and freshwater pearl mussel.

    .

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Pollution control laws operate on the premise that

    Figure 2.10 ‘Sustainability’

    Source Google pictures

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.6 Political The Norwegian constitution has been inspiredunitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government . Norway is one of the last countries with a Monarchy system , like the Netherlands as well . Some political aspects of Norway are discussed below. Local government Norway is divided into 19 regions and 430 municipalities. The State is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors’ offices. The municipalities are the most important units of local government administration. They are responsible for primary and lower secondary education, soc ial services, municipal roads etc. Each level of administration receives part of their revenues through local taxation, fees and local business management, and partly from allocations from the cen tral authorities and other public institutions. The regions represent a traditional administrative division. Local county councils still have great power. The regions and municipalities are governed by elected councils, and elections are held every four years. The judiciary Norway is divided into six territorial jurisdictions and 15 judicial districts. The Judiciary comprises a relatively independent branch of government. The 3 powers: executive power, legislative power and controlling power, are separ ated. Political system In formal terms, Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democratic system of governance. Norway is a democracy, because the source of political power and legitimacy according to the Co nstitution lies with the peo ple. Thus, all citizens are able to participate in the Storting (Norwegian national assembly), county and municipal councils. Parliamentary in as much as the Government, as the acting executive power, cannot govern without the confidence of the Storting, the legislative power. Constitutional monarchy because the Government, in accordance with the original articles of the Constitution, derives its authority from the executive power , vested in the King. State power is formally distributed between three insti tutions: the Storting (the legislative power), the Government (the executive power) and the courts (the judicial power). The participation of the people in the political sphere takes place both through direct elections and through their membership of orga nizations. The average Norwegian is a member of four organizations and approximately 70% of the adult population is a member of at least one organization. Election turnout is usually in the vicinity of 80%. General suffrage for men was introduced in 1898, and for women in 1913. The age of majority is currently 18. 34 http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) 35 http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) 20 " id="pdf-obj-20-2" src="pdf-obj-20-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.1.6 Political The Norwegian constitution has been inspiredunitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government . Norway is one of the last countries with a Monarchy system , like the Netherlands as well . Some political aspects of Norway are discussed below. Local government Norway is divided into 19 regions and 430 municipalities. The State is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors’ offices. The municipalities are the most important units of local government administration. They are responsible for primary and lower secondary education, soc ial services, municipal roads etc. Each level of administration receives part of their revenues through local taxation, fees and local business management, and partly from allocations from the cen tral authorities and other public institutions. The regions represent a traditional administrative division. Local county councils still have great power. The regions and municipalities are governed by elected councils, and elections are held every four years. The judiciary Norway is divided into six territorial jurisdictions and 15 judicial districts. The Judiciary comprises a relatively independent branch of government. The 3 powers: executive power, legislative power and controlling power, are separ ated. Political system In formal terms, Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democratic system of governance. Norway is a democracy, because the source of political power and legitimacy according to the Co nstitution lies with the peo ple. Thus, all citizens are able to participate in the Storting (Norwegian national assembly), county and municipal councils. Parliamentary in as much as the Government, as the acting executive power, cannot govern without the confidence of the Storting, the legislative power. Constitutional monarchy because the Government, in accordance with the original articles of the Constitution, derives its authority from the executive power , vested in the King. State power is formally distributed between three insti tutions: the Storting (the legislative power), the Government (the executive power) and the courts (the judicial power). The participation of the people in the political sphere takes place both through direct elections and through their membership of orga nizations. The average Norwegian is a member of four organizations and approximately 70% of the adult population is a member of at least one organization. Election turnout is usually in the vicinity of 80%. General suffrage for men was introduced in 1898, and for women in 1913. The age of majority is currently 18. 34 http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) 35 http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com (12-3-12) 20 " id="pdf-obj-20-4" src="pdf-obj-20-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.1.6 Political

    The Norwegian constitution has been inspired by the French an d American Constitution. Norway is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Norway is one of the last countries with a Monarchy system , like the Netherlands as well. Some political aspects of Norway are discussed below.

    Local government 34 Norway is divided into 19 regions and 430 municipalities.

    The State is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors’ offices.

    The municipalities are the most important units of local government administration. They are responsible for primary and lower secondary education, soc ial services, municipal roads etc. Each level of administration receives part of their revenues through local taxation, fees and local business management, and partly from allocations from the cen tral authorities and other public institutions. The regions represent a traditional administrative division. Local county councils still have great power. The regions and municipalities are governed by elected councils, and elections are held every four years.

    The judiciary 35 Norway is divided into six territorial jurisdictions and 15 judicial districts. The Judiciary comprises a relatively independent branch of government. The 3 powers: executive power, legislative power and controlling power, are separ ated.

    Political system 36 In formal terms, Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democratic system of governance. Norway is a democracy, because the source of political power and legitimacy according to the Co nstitution lies with the peo ple. Thus, all citizens are able to participate in the Storting (Norwegian national assembly), county and municipal councils. Parliamentary in as much as the Government, as the acting executive power, cannot govern without the confidence of the Storting, the legislative power. Constitutional monarchy because the Government, in accordance with the original articles of the Constitution, derives its authority from the executive power , vested in the King. State power is formally distributed between three insti tutions: the Storting (the legislative power), the Government (the executive power) and the courts (the judicial power). The participation of the people in the political sphere takes place both through direct elections and through their membership of orga nizations. The average Norwegian is a member of four organizations and approximately 70% of the adult population is a member of at least one organization. Election turnout is usually in the vicinity of 80%. General suffrage for men was introduced in 1898, and for women in 1913. The age of majority is currently 18.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Not a member state of the European Union 37

    Norway is not a member state of the European Union. However, Norway is closely related with the Union, because Norway is a member of the European Econ omic Area (EEA) in the context of being a European Free Trade Association (EFTA) member. Norway's trade is strongly influenced by the EU and Norway is the EU's 4th most important import partner. The EEA agreements stand for liberalization in the market, by minimizing several barriers. Moreover, Norway is part of the Schengen Area. Within the Schengen Area free travelling of persons is permitted. In the Schengen Area border controls are eliminated with other Schengen members and border controls to non - members are strengthened. The question, whether or not to apply for full membership to the EU, is still present nowadays. There are still political debates going on about application to the EU.

    Reasons for no application 38 have to do historical and geographical reasons. Norway has been influenced for years by foreign powers. Therefore, nowadays the primary importance of independence is a natural reaction. Further the geographic matter strengths the reluctance to join. As known, Norway is in the north of Europe, in Scandinavia. Because of this, Norway has always been in closer contact with the other Scandinavian countries and Great Britain, instead of with continental Europe. These are not the only reasons for no application. Also the issues about North Sea oil and the fishing industry are of great influence to reluctance. Norway wants to stay independent, instead of making rules and share about these oil and fishing.

    Import regulations will be discussed in the next paragraph.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.2 Import regulations There are stil l restrictionswww.inverstopedia.com (12-3-12) www.inverstopedia.com (12-3-12) 41 http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidtrade/gov/norwaygov.html (12-3-12) 22 " id="pdf-obj-22-2" src="pdf-obj-22-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.2 Import regulations

    There are stil l restrictions nowadays; also in this, more and more, globalized world. The current import barriers of a country are important, because this directly influences the export of all companies. Are there any import barriers/regulations in Norway, concerning raw milk cheese?

    Import barriers in general

    There are different types of barriers : 39

    • Tariffs: An extra tax for being allowed to export products to a certain country. An importing country can distinguish their taxes between products!

    • Import or export licens es: all kind of obligated documents to make trade harder.

    • Import quota: a country can set an import quota for a product. For example, only 50 % of the cheese is imported cheese.

    • Subsidies: at some products, a country prefers to import, count subsidies. Or countries give subsidies to their own farmers, to protect the home market.

    • Local content requirements: products have to be from a local content.

    A country uses these kinds of regulation for several reasons: 40

    • Protecting the home market is the main reason:

    • Protecting the small companies of the own market

    • Preventing loss of employment.

    • Stay independent, by having still your own agriculture. In case of war, you still have your own production and thus independency.

    • Protecting consumers against illnesses

    Norwegian restrictions In Norway there are some restrictions/regulations. Also concerning raw milk cheese, b ecause of the fear of outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with raw milk . Therefore industrial food became more popular (because of less ‘illnes ses’) and overtook the traditional cheese making.

    Norway is a member of Members of ZEE, and of the EFTA European Free Trade Association , so Norway applies the principle of free circulation of goods and services. However, there is an exception on the agricultural field. Norway tries to stimulate the agriculture in the home country. The Norwegian protection tariffs on agriculture are about 40% tax extra on the import price. Furthermore there is criticism of the WTO, because of the contrast. Norway is a ver y open market for industrial goods, with tariffs of only 1%, and sometimes even less. In addition, it is important to know that Norwegians are also unlikely to change their agricultural policy, because it’s seen as a stimulation of rural settlement, cultural heritage and public health. 41

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The government promotes and helps the national productionhttp://www.toll.no/ (9-12-12) http://www.toll.no/ (9-12-12) 23 " id="pdf-obj-23-2" src="pdf-obj-23-2.jpg">
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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    The government promotes and helps the national production by main actions: 42

    • Financial aid for the national producer subsidiaries if you start producing in the agricultural industry.

    • High taxes for foreign agricultural products

    There are also documentation regulations. 43

    • All products need a code for importation and exportation. The product code of raw milk cheese is: .4008

    • The rate apply (tariff) on this product is 27,15 per kilogramme

    • Further documents of origin and HACCP (has to do with safe production, tenability and hygiene) are needed

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.3 Current issues

    It is important to know about issues that are going on in the country you wish to export to. These issues could influence your business and your success. Therefor e, are there any issues concerning the cheese industry and especially raw milk cheese industry?

    A current issue going on in Norway is t he present butter shortage. 44 This is due to several reasons.

    Firstly, the popularity of a low-carb, fat-rich fad diet has increased enormously in Norway.

    Also the demand increased enormously, because of Christmas. A lot of people stayed home to bake products themselves. It’s a real Norwegian tradition to bake a lot of cookies, and cakes etc . Therefore, the butter demand soared even more.

    It is estimated that Norwe gian milk production dropped by 20 million litres in comparison to the previous periods. The drop is, thirdly, due to the heavy rainfall during the summer . Because of this, the quality of animal feed was reduced and cut the milk production.

    The shortage resulted in a lower milk production in 2011. As a consequence, the Scandinavian exports increased. Moreover, the prices rose with almost 30% (in December 2011), since the shortage.

    As a consequence people went to other countries to get butter, and import of butter raised. Actually, the import tariffs are very high, as said before, in Norway. A pack of imported butter suddenly coasted 200 dollars. This even caused smuggling!

    The shortage is expected to stay on in 2012. Now, agreements have been made. The government agreed to lower the tax with 80%. Thus, a higher import is expected.

    Also the biggest dairy company (explained in competitors) TINE, suffers from this shortage. The company needs butter to produce pr oducts. As a consequence of the shortage, the production will drop. TINE is looking for other products to use, instead of butter, to prevent loss of production.

    44 www.naturalnews.com (13-8-2012)

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.4 Attitude towards food in general General information
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.4 Attitude towards food in general General information

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.4 Attitude towards food in general

    General information

    A Norwegian household is on average composed on 2, 2 person. The 3 rd item of expenditure is Food (13%) The income system is based on equality and as said before in demographics ( ‘destep’) the living standards are very high.

    Norway is a ‘fish country’; there is an abundance of salmon, herri ng and shrimp. Meat is mainly dried (deer, eland and reindeer). Fruits and vegetables in Norway don’t have the reputation to be tasty and it’s very expansive, because of the inappropriate climate.

    Attitude towards prices and quality

    Norwegian people are ‘used’ to high prices. They don’t hesitate to pay a high price to obtain quality. Norway is known as a very wealthy country. People have a relatively high revenue. Thus, Norwegian

    people can afford expansive high quality products. Paying a high price is seen as a guarantee for a

    ‘good’ product.

    Attitude towards general product and aspect

    Norwegians are aware about the ecology and environment; they prefer to buy a product from an

    ecological/sustainable company. As said before, the romantic sight of sheep is preferred above mass

    production. In addition, Norwegians care a lot about health . Therefore, good food is needed. Good food is seen as fresh high quality food, not as mass production . Norwegian people concern about different components:

    • Quality standards

    • Origin of the products

    • Components/ingredients

    • Fair-trade made

    Labels and other signs of good quality are recommended.

    Eating habits

    First of all, information about eating habits can be found in the social part of the destep. Further eating habits are linked with the climate, and is a way of life/lifestyle. Eating habits are a way to express yourself. The climate is relatively cold and Norwegian people work seriously; business is business. Thus, m eals are hurried and lunches are consumed relatively fast. For the lunch, the “Matpakke » are most often brought. It’s a packed lunch , with cold food (a frozen sandwich with margarine and often cheese/meat)

    Fresh and sustainable food !

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.4 Attitude towards food in general General information

    ! Figure 2.11 ‘fresh sustainable food’ Source Google

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.5 The Hofstede Model

    If we explore the Norwegian culture through the lens of the 5 -D Model, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of the Norwegian culture in comparison to other cultures. Understanding this model, leads to successful understanding of the culture, and understanding cultural differences. Thus, a greater success.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 2.5 The Hofstede Model If we explore thehttp://geert-hofstede.com (14-3-2012) 46 Negotiating International Business – Lothar Kutz 26 " id="pdf-obj-26-19" src="pdf-obj-26-19.jpg">

    Figure 2.12 ‘Hofstede Model Norway vs. the Netherlands’

    Source Geert-Hofstede.com

    NORWAY 45 Norwegian people tend to be proud people. Norwegian people might not be very open to informatio n

    or to adjustments of the ‘outside’. The Norwegian way is the right way. Norway is comparable to the

    Swedish culture, however there are small differences. Norway is not comparable to Denmark or to Finland. Be careful to put them in one box!

    Norwegian people don’t like to negotiate and are very straight to business. Emotions are rarely shown,

    and body language is sparely. Eye contact is frequent, because you can see in someone’s eyes if

    someone is honest. Norwegians may be cautious, appearing reserved and proceeding slowly. So appear reserved instead of loud. 46 .

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Power distance The power distance in Norway is,
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Power distance The power distance in Norway is,

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Power distance

    The power distance in Norway is, as you can see at the scores, a bit in the middle (not high not low). However Norwegian companies tend to be in the inside very open to each other , to the outside very closed. Norwegian people prefer to deal with people they trust, but business and personal relations are usually kept separate. Relationships are though important, to build on a long lasting cooperation. The Norwegian style is mainly being independent and hierarchy in a company is only f or convenience of the outside world. Teamwork is very important in Norway. Therefore, equal rights are approved and superiors are always very accessible. Superiors are expected to be team members and at the same time coaching leaders. Norway is a very egalitarian society. Treating someone preferentially is generally discouraged. So reward or criticize the group, not the individual. Power is not centralized, but decentralized, and managers count on the experience of their team members. Decisions, in business, are a group process. Communication is direct, participative and consensus orientated.

    Individualism

    Norway is considered as an individualistic society. This means that the “Self” is important and individual, personal opinions are valued. Communication is explicit. At the same time the right to privacy is important and respected. There are clear lines between work and private life. Job mobility is higher and one thinks in terms of individual careers. The employer-employee rela tionship is based on a contract and leaders focus on management of individuals. Feedback is direct and nepotism is not encouraged.

    However, the high score for individualism might be considered a quite contradicto ry. As you could read

    before, work is seen as teamwork. In Norway that’s considered to be very important. This is a bit in

    contrast with high individuality. This must be seen as the fact that your own results and development are important, but working is done in a team wh ere you still need to get your own results. In the

    country’s business culture, the respect a person enjoys depends primarily on his or her achievement

    Masculinity / Femininity

    Masculinity: do what needs to be done

    Femininity: do what you like to do

    Masculinity / femininity explain how the country is organized. Masculine countries tend to value control and power. Feminine countries value group work and cooperation.

    Norway is the second most feminine society in the world! This is the most obvious dimensio n. This means that the softer aspects of culture are valued and encouraged such as levelling with others, consensus, “independent” cooperation and sympathy for each other. Also taking care of the environment is important. Trying to be better than others is neither socially nor materially rewarded. Societal solidarity in life is important; work to live and do your best. But, at the end of the day, people like to go to their families. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Interaction thro ugh dialog and “growing insight” is valued and self -development along these terms encouraged. Focus is on well- being, status is not shown.

    Also women and man are very equal, or it can be even said that women are treated better than man. If you enter a negotiation room, it is common to greet first the older women, than the younger women, and then man! Moreover, a high femininity meets high directness . To explain, bargaining is disliked, just be straight to business.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Uncertainty avoidance The uncertainty avoidance in Norway is
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Uncertainty avoidance The uncertainty avoidance in Norway is

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Uncertainty avoidance

    The uncertainty avoidance in Norway is a bit above the middle, thus a bit high. Norway is a fairly pragmatic culture in terms of uncertainty avoidance. There is focus on planning, and they can be altered at short notice and improvisations to be made. Emotions are not shown much in Norway; people are fairly relaxed , however also very direct and not averse to taking risks. Honesty is very important, because vagueness only causes uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance has also to do with the next part, which is long term orientation.

    Long term orientation

    Norway has a short term orientation culture. Absolute truths are needed and there is concern for stability, as said before. Quick results are expected. Quick results are needed, because this prevents uncertainty. Time is also very important, and business is business. Business is also money, so be in time. Norwegians value punctuality. At any meeting, whether business or soci al, it is therefore best to be on time. Arriving late, or being early, make be taken as a sign o f disrespect. Expect meetings to end on or close to the scheduled time

    Conclusion

    As can be seen in the Hofstede model figure, there are no really great differences between Norway and the Netherlands.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    2.6 Norwegian image of Holland

    If you export to a country, it is wisely to investigate what these people are thinking about you and your products. A bad image of a country is not a really good selling point for a product of a country. So the image of the country should be positive, because this brings auto matically a positive attitude towards the products.

    Norwegian people have a good image of the Dutch cheeses, because the Dutch country is traditionally characterized with wooden shoes, windmills and cheeses. The Dutch cheeses are very famous and you can buy them in a lot of countries around the world .

    People in Norway know that Dutch products, for example machinery, transport equipment, chemical products, fuels and clothing have really good quality, because this are the things they already import from the Netherlands to Norway.

    In addition to this the image of Dutch people is really good all over the world, because the Dutch country is known as a traditional one: c haracterized with wooden shoes, windmills and cheeses. Dutch people are also known as a friendly, helpful and open folk. The attitude towards Dutch people, the Dutch society and Dutch products is all over the world really positive.

    Especially Dutch cheeses are very famous and you can buy them in a lot of countries around the world.

    One argum ent evidences it was the World Championship Cheese Content in March this year. The winner was the Dutch Vermeer 47 . This result shows that Dutch cheese is not only good - it is the best cheese in the world!

    So Norwegian people know how high the quality of the imported products from the Netherlands is. They know how the Dutch people are and like this, too. And also some facts like the gotten cheese competition make the attitude towards the Dutch people and their products more positive. Norwegian people trust Dutch products and this is a good base to sell Dutch products in this country.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 3 Meso analysis The meso analysis exists
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 3 Meso analysis The meso analysis exists

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Chapter 3 Meso analysis

    The meso analysis exists of parts that concern the business you’re in. In this case, it is all about the

    artisanal raw milk cheese market.

    This part deals with competitors, current issues, trade barriers, distribution channels, societal participants, consumer attitudes etc.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 3 Meso analysis The meso analysis exists

    Figure 3.1 ‘Analyse’

    Source Google pictures

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.1 Current export barriers

    There are still restrictions nowadays; also i n this, more and more, globalized world. The current barriers are important, because this directly influences the export of all companies. Are there any barriers/regulations concerning raw milk cheese?

    Export barriers

    Of course export barriers are the op posite of import barriers. There are certain illegal things which are not allowed to leave the country, like for example drugs or transporting animals.

    For export count the same types of barriers as for import.

    There are different types of barriers : 48

    • Tariffs: An extra tax for being allowed to export products to a certain country. An importing country can distinguish their taxes between products!

    • Import or export licenses: all kind of obligated documents to make trade harder.

    • Import quota: a country can set an import quota for a product. For example, only 50 % of the total cheese production is exported.

    • Subsidies: at some products, a country prefers to export, count subsidies. This can be done if there is overproduction in a country. There will count sub sidiaries to export the products, to lose them.

    • Local content requirements: products have to be from a local content. If in a certain region there is a lot of overproduction, it can be decided to require that the exported products are produced in this region.

    A country uses these kinds of export regulation for several reasons: 49

    • Protecting the home market is the main reason. Some products are good to stay in the country, because:

    • Stay independent, by having still your own agriculture. In case of war, you s till have your own production and thus independency.

    Dutch restrictions

    The Dutch economy is a very open economy, concerning trade as well. Holland is always been living of the port Rotterdam and Schiphol, as a transit port.

    The Netherlands are part of the European Union. This means that free trade is permitted, concerning persons, capital, products and services. As said as well in the import regulations Norway is part of the EFTA European Free Trade Association. The Netherlands are also part of this a ssociation. The EFTA is established to provide more liberalization and minimalize barriers, concerning trade of persons, capital, products and services.

    Thus, free trade is approved by the Dutch system.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.2 Market segments This part is about the
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.2 Market segments This part is about the

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.2 Market segments

    This part is about the different possible market segments for selling artisanal raw milk cheese. Market segmentation is needed to be able to determine the target group.

    A market segment is a classification of potential private or corporate customers by one or more characteristics. The objective of segmentation is identifying groups of costumers, which have similar needs and wants. A good market segment has within the segment the same needs and wants and responds therefore similarly to a market stimulus.

    Market segmentation is done by s everal categories. In this case: demographic, geographic, psychographic and behavioral.

    3.2.1 Demographic

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.2 Market segments This part is about the

    Figure 3.2 ‘Market segmentation’ Source relevantinsights.com

    Important characteristic within demographic are:

    • Income In this case a higher incom e is preferred. The raw milk cheese is seen as a delicacy and is shown as a luxurious product, above the ‘mid segment’.

    • Social class Social class is important for the same reason. The fact that this cheese is positioned as a luxurious product provides a social class element. People will eat this cheese, for one of the reasons, to have a certain feeling of status. They will eat the raw milk cheese with friends after dinner, at dinner or in a restaurant. The feeling of being able to buy the cheese and stat us is then important.

    • Age An age of mid-old to old people is important. People that are going to restaurants and having dinner with friends, with a glass of wine and cheese, are older people. The younger generation will not care about this cheese in a c ertain way of status.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.2.2 Geographic Important characteristic within geographic are: 
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.2.2 Geographic Important characteristic within geographic are: 

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    • 3.2.2 Geographic

    Important characteristic within geographic are:

    • Culture and traditions Traditions and culture influence people’s behavior. As readable in the social part of the destep, culture and traditions influence people’s ea ting behavior. In this case, people eat 4 times a day, what’s different from the 3 times in the Netherlands.

    • Degree of urbanization

    • City size

    • Population density Moreover the degree of urbanization, city size and population density matter. It is important to know where people are living, in order to reach the people you want to reach. Generally, a larger number of people provides a bigger consumer market. At the demographical part of the destep is shown that Norwegian people are mostly living in the southe rn part of Norway.

    • 3.2.3 Psychographic

    Important characteristic within psychographic are:

    • Lifestyle

    Food can be seen as a way of life. Typical Norwegian are the Matpakke (packed frozen sandwiches). The way of life is ‘fast’ and ‘cold (has to do with the association between being

    used to cold climate and food)’. Also food is a way to express a feeling of status or emotional

    image.

    • Benefits The benefits of a product are what the consumer gets in return for their money. In this case, it is a good taste and quality. However, it is also important that food provides healthiness and is fresh. This appeared out of the sustainability image.

    • 3.2.4 Behavioral

    Important characteristic within behavioral are:

    • Usage rate This part is about the behavior of consum ers. How often do people use the product? The answer about food can be found under the social part of the destep.

    • Brand loyalty How loyal would people be to a certain brand? Are brands important to Norwegian people? The Dutch origin can be seen as a bra nd. As readable before, Dutch cheese is worldwide seen as a sign of quality and an overall good product. (see Norwegian image of Holland).

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.3 Competitors

    Competitors are influencing a companies’ success. Therefore, it is smart to do research about your

    competitors.

    The Norwegian cheese market is characterized by high prices compared to the neighboring countries. The prices are approximately 100 % higher than the prices on similar cheeses e.g. in Denmark.

    In Norway are small and big cheese producers and sellers. Their names are: Arla Foods AS 50 , Heidal Ysteri AS 51 , Hemsedal Ysteri AS 52 , Rørosmeieriet AS 53 , Synnøve Finden AS 54 and Tine SA 55 . But there are also several small suppliers of cheese and farmers, typically producing a few niche products for local or regional markets.

    The following text describes the both biggest and most important companies, thus competitors, for the Norwegian cheese market.

    TINE SA (previously called TINE BA) is Norway's largest producer, distributor and exporter of dairy products. TINE SA holds a market share of 97 % in the market for collecting milk from farmers. In a national market for cheese sold to the grocery chains the company holds a market share of 70 - 90 %. 56 They say, the goal of this company is ´to provide the consumers with food that provides a healthier and positive food experience´ 57 and that a major part of the company’s income should stem from dairy business outside Norway.

    TINE SA is organized as an association which is owned by about 15.000 dairy farmers and each member is a shareholder. TINE´s dairy business processed a total of 20 million liters of goat´s milk and 1.4 billion liters of cow´s milk in 2009. The collected milk is processed into more than 480 different dairy products which are all sold declared with the TINE trademark. The dairy association is the biggest food producer in Norway with totally 5.675 employees thereof 3.860 in dairy companies and an annual turnover of NOK 18.9 billion in 2009. In addition to this the TINE SA group consists of several wh olly- owned subsidiaries and participations. The most important wholly- owned subsidiaries for cheese are OsteCompagniet AS and Wernersson Ost AB. OsteCompagniet AS markets and sells cheese specialties from TINE, Norwegian small -scale producers and imported cheeses. Wernersson Ost AB’s business concept is to purchase, process and market a broad, attractive and internationally profiled assortment of cheese to customers in Scandinavia. Secondary the TINE SA group manufactures products like ice cream, juice or m arine products. TINE produced in 2009 about 60.000 tons of white cheese and about 11.000 tons of brown and soft cheese spread. White, brown and processed cheese made a total income in TINE group of 33 % in 2009. Jarlsberg cheese is currently TINE’s biggest export product and about 11.365 tons of Jarlsberg being sent abroad. 58

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    At the moment TINE SA does not produce raw milk cheese and is not a competitor yet. But TINE SA knows that consumers are constantly looking for new products tailored to their needs. So they have a large focus on product development and continuous product innovation and each year approximately 50 new product lines are added. The sales of TINE AS are still growing, so TINE AS could become a serious competitor in the future. Moreover, T INE is a competitor, because TINE provides cheese, which is a substitute for raw milk cheese.

    At the moment TINE is nearly a single player at the Norwegian cheese market and i f TINE raises the price on cheese over the existing level determined by import tariffs and import prices import of cheese will become more profitable. In short, TINE is a competitor who should be accurately observed.

    Synnøve Finden is a traditional Norwegian dairy company and another Norwegian cheese producer with a significant market share and a total of 228 employees. Synnøve Finden produces only cheese, no liquid dairy products and had enjoyed growth over the past years. It is also one of few private dairy companies in Norway who survived independently of the co - operatives. The main activity of this company is production and sale of cheese and goat cheese, sales of Tropicana juices and Peppes grocery stores, and smaller niche products. The majority of sales are to the major grocery chains in Norway.

    Today, Synnøve Finden sel ls Norwegian dairy products and the Synnøve brand is widely known in Norway. A total of 50 types of cheeses are produced under the Synnøve brand and it holds about 20% of the Norwegian yellow cheese market. The company produces semi-firm yellow cheese, bro wn cheese and the traditional Norwegian cheese spreads. These cheeses are produced at two mail production facilities, in Alvdal and Enebakk.

    The Alvdal facility is one of Norway’s largest cheese production plants, with modern equipment. The

    plant produces and distributes more than 8,700 million tons of yellow cheese and about 1,200 million tons of brown cheese every year. The second facility Enebakk, close to Oslo, produces and distributes about 250 million tones traditional Norwegian cheeses. 59 Although most of the cheeses are based on modern recipes, some of the products are based on traditional recipes developed by Synnøve Finden herself back in 1928.

    Synnøve Finden had a turnover of NOK 957 million in 2010. The company has a strong position in sales to retail and their sales revenues increased by 4.5 % in 2010. There was also a positive development in several cheese categories. 60

    At the moment Synnøve Finden does neither produce raw milk cheese and is not a direct competitor yet. But Synnøve Finden could also be a competitor for in the future.

    Important to know:

    There is a conflict between Synnøve Finden and the dominant co -operative competitor which is based on the regulated access price and the method of measuring the right allocated price level . Because Synnøve Finden is not as large as TINE AS and TINE has nearly a monopole in Norway, Synnøve Finden has to purchase the facility raw milk from the dominant vertical integrated co -

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ operatives. So Synnøve Finden depends on TINE AS
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ operatives. So Synnøve Finden depends on TINE AS

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    operatives. So Synnøve Finden depends on TINE AS and the prices for milk. In short: there is a continuous political struggle between Synnøve Finden and TINE about the fair prices and Synnøve Finden proceeds with the continuous fighting against the co -operatives.

    Conclusion

    There are several large scale producers in Norway, but TINE is kind of a monopolist. The prices for cheese are, compared to neighboring countries, very high. There are also small scale producers of cheese. All of the producers are competitors. However, all kinds of cheese are substitutes. To make things even more complicated, all after dinner snacks are substitutes, because it fulfills in the same needs.

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    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.4 Distribution channels

    Where to sell Dutch artisanal raw milk cheese in Norway? In this chapter an outline is given of all the possibilities.

    There are a lot of different ways to sell cheese in Norway.

    One possibility for distribution is supermarkets like: Coop 61 , Ica 62 , Spar 63 , KIWI 64 , Rimi 65 or Rema 1000 66 . They are the most famous ones in Norway and a lot of people and families do their shopping there. Another reason t o sell in this supermarkets special raw milk cheese from the Netherlands:

    tourists also know these supermarket chains from their home country and are familiar with them. So they prefer to buy in supermarkets they already know. And perha ps this could be a way to reach more people than just the Norwegian target group.

    Especially Coop and Spar afford big and well assorted cheese departments. So the Dutch raw milk cheese would be a really enrichment for the cheese departments.

    Also coopera tion with Rema 1000 could be a good choice, because this is the most prevalent supermarket chain in all big Norwegian cities, e.g. Oslo or Bergen.

    Another possibility to sell the Dutch raw milk cheeses are cheese shops. They are not everywhere in Norway, but a few in big Norwegian cities. They all sell cheese from Norway, but also cheese from other countries. In cheese shops costumer are allowed to try cheeses they do not know and can compare different tastes. So this is a good idea to sell cheese there, b ecause the costumers can buy something they tried before and know that they like this cheese. By letting the costumers try cheeses they do not know, it is easier to reach them and to win them as a costumer. And another positive fact:

    People who are in a cheese shop are there to buy some cheese, nothing different. So the ir willingness to buy some cheese is really high.

    With delicatessen for cheese it is the same like with cheese shops. The costumers can try and decide if they want to buy the Dutch raw milk cheese or not, if they like it or not.

    But there are two differences between delicatessen and cheese shops. First: the prices of the cheeses. People who buy cheese and other things in delicatessen are willing to pay more money for special things like Dutch raw milk cheese. The basic adjustment is another and so there is a higher willingness to pay more for special products.

    But there is also a problem with people in delicatessen: they are not only there to buy some cheese, perhaps they are there to buy so me special salami or wine. So it is a bit more difficult to reach these costumers for an unknown cheese in a delicatessen than in a cheese shop.

    Restaurants are also a good way to sell Dutch raw milk cheese, because when people go out for dinner they want to do themselves something good and they try new and unknown things. Their willingness to pay a bit more than normal is also higher than e.g. in a supermarket. So by selling Dutch

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ raw milk cheese via restaurants it is possible
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ raw milk cheese via restaurants it is possible

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    raw milk cheese via restaurants it is possible to reach the ´average costum er´ and perhaps also some families.

    To sell products via web shops is always a good idea, especially in a large country like Norway. It is possible to reach people who are not living in a big city, who live outside the city in the countryside. By this wa y of selling it is not easy to reach elder people, but it is a way to reach younger people who want to try something new and delicious. Every way of distribution has its pros and cons. The choice belongs to the target group which should be reached. But every way - supermarkets, cheese shops, delicatessen, restaurants or web shops - is a good way to show costumers these special products and intrigue them.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.5 Norwegian motivations to sell Dutch raw milk
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.5 Norwegian motivations to sell Dutch raw milk

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.5 Norwegian motivations to sell Dutch raw milk cheese

    Why should Norwegian shops or restaurants or another distribution channel sell artisanal raw milk cheese?

    The following information is based on the previous part of the Norwegian image of Holland, in the macro part.

    The motivation of the cheese shops in Norway to sell Dutch Raw milk cheese are the g reat taste and the high quality of the Dutch product s. As readable before, Dutch cheese is ‘synonym’ for quality (stated by winning the world champhionship for cheese making). The Netherlands are even characterized for, among others, cheeses. The Dutch are well-known for making cheese and the high quality of their products.

    Further, the artisanal raw milk cheese is of course very fresh made. The products are healthier and more sustainable. It is healthier; because of more natural fat contents and natural bacteria that raises your reluctance. Sustainability is very important for Norwegian people, and naturally made products help achieving that goal.

    Dutch people are also known as a friendly, helpful and open folk. The attitude towards Dutch people, the Dutch society and Dutch products is all over the world really positive.

    Also the good trading relation between Norway and the Netherlands will strengthen motivations.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.6 Norwegian consumer attitude towards Dutch raw milk
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.6 Norwegian consumer attitude towards Dutch raw milk

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.6 Norwegian consumer attitude towards Dutch raw milk cheese

    So what should Norwegian people think about Dutch artisanal raw milk cheese? The question for receiving success!

    This information is based on the attitude to food in general, in the macro part.

    Norwegian people are ‘used’ to high prices. They don’t hesitate to pay a high price to obtain quality. Norway is known as a very wealthy country. People have a relatively high revenue. Thus, Norwegian people can afford expansive high quality products. Paying a high price is seen as a guarantee for a

    ‘good’ product.

    Norwegians are aware about the ecology and environment; they prefer to buy a product from an ecological/sustainable company. As said before, the romantic sight of sheep is preferred above mass production. In addition, Norwegians care a lot about health. Therefore, good food i s needed. Good food is seen as fresh high quality food, not as mass production . Norwegian people concern about different components:

    • Quality standards

    • Origin of the products

    • Components/ingredients

    • Fair-trade made

    Labels and other signs of good quality are recommended.

    Thus, the great taste and quality, and healthy sight on the product will be the motivation to buy raw milk cheese. It gives no problems that the cheese is not very cheap, because Norwegian prices are already very high. Further higher price s are seen as a sight of quality.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.6 Norwegian consumer attitude towards Dutch raw milk

    Figure 3.3 ‘Cheese’

    Source Google Pictures

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.7 Relevant publications The question to investigate ishttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 41 " id="pdf-obj-41-2" src="pdf-obj-41-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.7 Relevant publications The question to investigate ishttps://www.cia.gov/ (21-2-2012) 41 " id="pdf-obj-41-4" src="pdf-obj-41-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.7 Relevant publications

    The question to investigate is ‘what are the best ways to promote raw milk cheese, to the consumer or distribution channels’? This actually is the way how to communicate with the Norwegian market and with especially the potential target group.

    Publication ways As you could see in the technological dimension of the destep, a lot of Norwegian people have a phone or mobile phone. Because, Norway has the highest number of mobile phone subscribers in the world, in comparison to the population number (with neighbor countries Sweden and Finland). 67 And a lot of money has been invested in the development of modern telephone communication, through satellites and underground networks. The Norwegian network is even a leading network in the world, concerning fiber optic lines and ISDN connections. “ 68

    Because of these reason communicating through mobile phones is a way to promote your product. It doesn’t take long time or money to call people. The only thing that is needed is an address file. So this could be a better to maintain your customer group, instead of introduce your products. However, if the raw milk cheese is exported to restaurants, this is an easy wa y to start connecting.

    Nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV, systems and 2 privately- owned radio stations and another 240 local stations. (2008). 69 Therefore radio or TV are also a good opportunity to promote your pr oduct. Through radio commercials, it is easy to reach a lot of people in a short time. However it is quite expensive to do and you don’t know which people you reach. Also competitors are often at the TV or radio, so it is not a very easy way to stand out o f the crowd.

    Nowadays the internet is by far THE connection way. Also 95% of the Norwegian people use internet, and a lot of them use it every day. Therefore, using the internet of a communication way. Moreover, it is also an easy way to reach a lot of people. However, the prices depend on the place of the advertisement. Also here competitors are often at the internet, so it is not a very easy way to stand out of the crowd. Internet is also used for reading online newspapers .

    Newspapers are also a way of publishing. However, newspapers are local, and you do not reach a lot of people. So this is a good way, if you want to reach people living in a certain area.

    Magazines are very useful to promote your product in, because it is already in a certain theme and has already a certain target group. Because of this reasons, the right target group is easily reachable. Also this advertisement is quite local. On the other hand, advertisements are relatively cheap in magazines.

    Finally, Social networks, such as Fa cebook and Twitter are a way of advertising. Nowadays, a lot of people participate in the social media network (as readable in the technological part of the destep). However, it is more the younger part of the population that are participating in this proc ess. This should be an easy way of promotion if the target group is younger people.

    • 67 Noorwegen.placement.nl (21-2-2012)
      68

    Noorwegen.placement.nl (21-2-2012)

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Best promotion for different distribution channels There possible
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Best promotion for different distribution channels There possible

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Best promotion for different distribution channels

    There possible distribution channels:

    • Supermarkets

    • Cheese shops

    • Delicacy shops

    • Restaurants

    • Web shops

    Later on, the final target group will be specified.

    However, the distribution channels are the possible places to sell artisanal raw milk cheese. This shops could be already existing shops or ‘own’ shops. Own shops are more a risk, because it costs more money. However, you will be closer to the consumer in the end. Existing shops already have the awareness of consumers, and the good image. It would be also cheaper to export it into these shops. Finally it is smarter to sell cheese in a shop that offers more cheeses. This increases the chance to reach people. For example, it is possible that people are looking for a certain product at a shop, but see yours and buy it.

    The possible ways to promote the cheese to the several distribution channels are discussed above.

    On the other hand, also personal relations are very important. Creating personal relations in a country is useful, because there are people that have influences and that can help promoting your product. For example, the brand Grolsch is using personal relat ions in Africa. At business meetings these relations will have a Grolsch beer with other people. In this way, promotion is very successful. Through relation more credibility is reached, as in seeing commercials etc.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.8 Societal participants in Norway In this paragraph
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.8 Societal participants in Norway In this paragraph

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.8 Societal participants in Norway

    In this paragraph are the social participants discussed.

    Social participants are media’s concerning the theme cooking. These media’s can be found in magazines, social media etc.

    For example there are cooking programs on television.

    Moreover, there are magazines, like ‘Home for Taste’ and ‘Home Healthy Cooking’. These magazines provide all information about cooking. An advantage is that only interested people are buying these magazines.

    Also on the internet and on social media there is a lot to be found. Ju st ‘google’ recipes and you will find any recipe! At websites of supermarkets, there are also often recipes to be found. There are also several websites concerning healthiness in relation to cooking. Further at social media there are topics for cooking, for example on facebook .

    Figure 3.4 ‘Social participants’ Source Google Pictures
    Figure 3.4 ‘Social participants’
    Source Google Pictures
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.9 Places where business people meet In this
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 3.9 Places where business people meet In this

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    3.9 Places where business people meet

    In this paragraph an outline will be given about the places where Norwegian people usually meet for business.

    In Norway business participants can meet in different special venues dedicated to the meeting.

    Oslo for example has six conference centres and two major exhibition halls. T he conference centres and exhibition halls can be found just outside Oslo. Norway's largest exhibition and congress centre, is also to be found just outside Oslo, and offers a total of 6,000 seats. Centres in the city can host up to 1,400 people.

    Oslo has 26 conference hotels of different sizes ranging from 673 to 50 rooms. Two hotels are adjacent to the city’s major exhibition halls. The maximum capacity in the largest hall is 6,000 people in cinema-style seating. All of the most important cities have their own congress venues.

    The meetings are carried out in a fast and precise manner. Few professional event companies help to plan and organize the event. Their services include product launches, corporate events, meetings, incentive programs, team building, kick -offs and opening ceremonies. Event companies can also help to organize fabulous outdoor activities.

    A typical day of congress in Norway could be:

    Registration Opening Lunch Break 12.00 13.30 Congress Coffee Break 15.00 15.30 Congress Dinner 20.00 23.00

    Regarding the cheese and specifically the food industry, the main conference takes place in august. The Norwegian Food Festival in Ålesund tha is a combination of trade fair for the ultimate in food mastery in Norway, with several NM forum for food manufacturers of all kinds, and celebration for most people. The Norwegian Food Festival is one of the most distinctive food festivals in Norway. With a strong focus on small-scale producers and ecological ingredients The unique festival is a good opportunity for cooperation across professions. Bringing together stakeholders from the fish ing and agriculture, with the processing industry, and chefs and tourism industry. The festival is now organized as a corporation with ownership of all these trades. In this festival we can find different tents in which it is possible to find different kind of food, cheese included.

    It is of course always possible to meet people in their businesses. As said before, be in time! Business is often discussed in conversation rooms, because Norwegian people tend to approve a fast straight to business talk. Howe ver, also relations are very important for Norwegian people. Relations are avoiding uncertainty and provide trust and honesty. Therefore, it is also common to have business dinners.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 4 Potential target group After the analysis
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Chapter 4 Potential target group After the analysis

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Chapter 4 Potential target group

    After the analysis of the country you export to, and the market you will be in, it is important to consider to who do you want to export? This could be consumers, but of course also first businesses that sell it to consumers.

    4.1 Target group and motivation for buying Dutch raw milk cheese

    In this chapter the potential target group will be described. Also the motives, why this group should be willing to buy raw milk cheese, are given.

    The Norwegian target group in general for raw milk cheese includes men and women from the age of 35 with no age limit.

    A higher age is needed, because as said before, the cheese will be positioned as a luxurious product above the ‘mid segment’. Artisanal made raw milk cheese is seen as a delicacy. Social class is important for the same reason. The fact that this cheese is positioned as a luxurious product provides a social class element. People will eat this cheese, for one of the reasons, to have a certain feeling of status. They will eat the raw milk cheese with friends after dinner, at dinner or in a restau rant. The feeling of being able to buy the cheese and status is then important. Therefore a higher age is needed. An age of mid-old to old people is important. People that are going to restaurants and having dinner with friends, with a glass of wine and ch eese, are older people. The younger generation will not care about this cheese in a certain way of status.

    Important to know about the Norwegian target group is the fact that they are living in the middle and the south of Norway. Especially in the south live most people in the north are not many people settled down and is the lowest population density.

    Now some facts about the Norwegian target group. Level of education does not really matter. A normal worker or a farmer could eat this cheese just as a manager or a professor. There is no really connection between the reason to buy raw milk cheese and the education level. However, people with a higher social class often have a higher education level.

    Family life is not important either. It does not signi ficant if a person is married, has two children or is living in a single household.

    Social background and work ing situation are central factors of the target group and they are connected with each other. So the members of the target group should be wealt hy. That means for the work situation that there should be a high income. Part of the target group is also retired people who had a high income.

    Some characteristics and values of the target group in general are a high level of living Members of the target group also like strong tastes, exclusive food and they all prefer a healthy life. Food and tastes are important factors in their lives and their way to eat and cook. They have a strict conception of their way of living, eating, staying healthy and exclus ive food. Sustainability is approved.

    Important factors for buying raw milk cheese are the special taste of this product and th at it is made by farmers and not by machinery. The members of the target group do really like cheese and see raw milk cheese as a kind of status symbol. By buying Dutch raw milk cheese, they can show their surroundings that they have a special and exclusive way of living and eating. Also that taste of a product and the way of production is more important than the price.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The members of the target group know a
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The members of the target group know a

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    The members of the target group know a lot about food in general, cooking and a healthy way of living. They got their knowledge with the help of the Internet, food channels, blogs and magazines. For example they use the Internet to find new healthy recipes, tips and information about products and productions. They are aware of the differences between industrial and handmade productions.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The members of the target group know a

    Figure 4.1 ‘people after dinner’

    Source Google Pictures

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 4.2 Personas Also this chapter is about the
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ 4.2 Personas Also this chapter is about the

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    4.2 Personas

    Also this chapter is about the target group. In this c hapter concrete personas are developed to define a concrete definition of the previous chapter.

    Figure 4.2 ‘Grethe Nestor’ Source Google Pictures
    Figure 4.2 ‘Grethe Nestor’
    Source Google Pictures

    The first persona is Grethe Nestor. She is 68 years old and lives in Sandvika near Oslo. She is a pensioner since six years and had worked before as a secretary at the company Fred Olsen Energy, one of the biggest companies in Norway.

    She is married since 43 years and lives with her husband Harkon in their own house. Grethe and Harkon has 2 children and 5 grandchildren. They are all living in Oslo and visit Gr ethe and Harkon every Sunday.

    Since Grethe is a pensioner she discovered her passionate about cooking. By doing this, she looks carefully for the products she uses. She loves cooking with fresh ingredients and is strictly against machinery food productio n. Sustainability and fair trade are important facts for her by buying things.

    Also important for her are a healthy way of living, cooking and eating and exclusive food. She is really interested in cooking in different ways and she always tries new things and improves her cooking and recipes.

    Grethe loves watching food channels and reading magazines about cooking. She trusts this media and tries to cook like shown there. They are an inspiration for her.

    Grethe really likes cheese and always tries new ones. She likes cheeses with a strong taste and read a few years ago for the first time about raw milk cheese. All Grethe knows about raw milk cheese , she knows from food channels, books and magazines. Grethe thinks that raw milk cheese is the best and healthiest cheese she could eat, but she do es not want eat it every day, cause it should stay an exclusive good for her and her husband.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The second persona is Jens Bjørneboe. He is
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The second persona is Jens Bjørneboe. He is

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    The second persona is Jens Bjørneboe. He is 35 years old and lives in S tavanger. He is a manager of a media company and lives in a single household.

    Because Jens likes doing sports and building -up his muscles, a healthy and well-balanced way to eat and live is really important for him.

    Fresh vegetables and proteins are a m ust have while he is cooking. Cooking is not really a passion for Jens, but how he does it, is necessary and important for him: He wants to look good and healthy and so his way to eat, which also includes some diets, is really important for him.

    All recipes and knowledge about a well-balanced way to eat Jens has, he found in the Internet. He does not really use other media, because he wants to find the right information as soon as possible and as cheap as possible. In the Internet Jens looks on blogs, in f orums or on homepages about food. There he can find tips for a healthy way of living and eating and which food is the best for build -up his muscles.

    A few weeks ago Jens tried a cheese diet he found online on a sports blog. It was only allowed to eat fresh and non-machinery produced cheese. He found out that he could eat raw milk cheese while doing this diet. Jens searched for information in the internet and found for example a definition what raw milk cheese is, some facts about the fat content, where to buy this cheese and the prices. So that was the first time Jens got in contact with raw milk cheese. Raw milk cheese is said to be healthier,

    because of no added ingredients as in machinery cheese. Also the fats are ‘healthy’ fats, and good for

    his body.

    Jens does not really buy this cheese because of its special taste, but he knows that this cheese is good for his body and health and he thinks that something with this high price cannot be bad.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ The second persona is Jens Bjørneboe. He is

    Figure 4.3 ‘Jens Bjørneboe’ Source Google Pictures

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Conclusion and recommendations In Norway m ost people
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Conclusion and recommendations In Norway m ost people

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Conclusion and recommendations

    In Norway m ost people are aged between 30 and 40 years. People are living in good circumstances, and the life expectancy is therefore high (HDI index). Most Norwegian people are living in the cities that are in the southern coast regions. However, the population density is the lowest in Europe .

    Further, it can be concluded that the Norwegian economy is very stable and very wealthy. Norwegian people do have a higher income (based on GDP), compared to the Dutch people. Norway also trades already a lot with the Netherlands and they are both part of the WTO, which approves trade. Therefore, the exchange rate is very stable. The Netherlands are also part of the EU, but Norway is not. However, for this state there are no important export barriers for the Netherlands, concerning cheese. Norway has a very open economy (joins the AFTA), however N orway tries to stimulate the agriculture in the home country. The Norwegian protection tariffs on agriculture are about 40% tax extra on the import price, and there are documental barriers . It is important to know that Norwegians

    are also unlikely to change their agricultural policy, because it’s seen as a stimulation of rural

    settlement, cultural heritage and public health. Moreover, a present butte r shortage is going on in the country, so the prices for butter are very high. This could be an advantage for the Dutch export.

    Another important fact to know is that Norwegian people prefer sustainability and nature . This has a lso an influence on the sight of food. Food should be fresh, according to Norwegian people. The romantic sight of sheep/goats and farmers is p referred above mass production. Because sustainability is important new technologies for cheese production are developed to redu ce water and power consumption. These technologies are the newest innovative advanced technologies of Europe.

    To communicate with Norwegian people, the best ways are through television/radio/magazines/newspapers and mostly through the internet and social media. There are also cooking magazines and television programs.

    Norwegian people eat cheese as a dessert cheese, tabl e cheese and also for breakfast/lunch. Cheese can be used in slices on bread, but also as desert in small pieces. Dessert cheese is for after dinner, to drink with a glass of wine. However, table cheese can be eaten at mornings, afternoons or evenings

    as a ‘snack’.

    Norwegian people concern about different components, if it is about food. Norwegian people care a lot about quality and care less about high prices. High prices are seen as a secure for good quality. Labels and other signs of good quality are therefore recommended. Other important factors are the origin of the product and that it is fair -trade. Healthy components/ingredients are also very important.

    The culture does not really differ from the Dutch culture, as appeared out of the Hofstede model. It is important to be in time and to be direct, because business is business. Moreover Norway is the second most feminine country in the world. People meet at the offices and headquarters, but also going out dinner,

    Norwegian people tend to like the Dutch products, because the products are seen as a sign for quality. Holland is characterized for cheese making, and also being world champion approves th is fact. Norwegian people also think that Dutch people are open and friendly.

    Possible distribution channels are supermarkets, cheese shops, delicacy shops, r estaurants, and web shops. The competitors in Norway are several large scale producers in Norway. TINE is kind of a monopolist. There are also small scale producers of cheese. All of the producers are competitors. However, all kinds of cheese are substitutes.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ To conclude all, the target group includes m
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ To conclude all, the target group includes m

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    To conclude all, the target group includes m en and women from the age of 35 with no age limit. A higher age is needed, because as said before, the cheese will be positioned as a luxurious product above the ‘mid segment’. Artisa nal made raw milk cheese is seen as a delicacy. The fact that this cheese is positioned as a luxurious product provides a social class element. People will eat this cheese, for one of the reasons, to have a certain feeling of status. They will eat the raw milk cheese with friends after dinner, at dinner or in a restaurant. The feeling of being able to buy the cheese and status is then important. People that are going to restaurants and having dinner with friends, with a glass of wine and cheese, are elderly people. The younger generation will not care about this chee se in a certain way of status. Level of education does not really matter. A normal worker or a farmer could eat this cheese just as a manager or a professor. There is not really a connection between the reason to buy raw milk cheese and the education level. Family life is not important either. It does not significant if a person is married, has two children or is living in a single household. Social background and work ing situation are central f actors of the target group and the y are connected with each other . That means for the work situation that there should be a high income to be able to buy these special cheeses. Part of the target group is also retired people who had a high income . Some characteristics and values of the target group in general are a high level of living . Members of the target group also like strong tastes, exclusive food and t hey all prefer a healthy life. Important factors for buying raw milk cheese are the special taste of this product and that it is made by farmers and not by machinery.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 1 : ‘Project Group Management’ 1. Background
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 1 : ‘Project Group Management’ 1. Background

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Appendix 1: ‘Project Group Management’

    1.

    Background

    This report is written for Slow Food, a nongovernmental organization. Slow Food is an international movement concerning fresh and authentically made food. This is important because fresh local products, made on the authentic way, are good for you in any way! Slow Food provides all kind of products, including raw milk cheese made by Dutch farmers in an artisanal way.

    In this case th e report is about artisanal raw milk cheese. There are about 400 small scale artisanal cheese producers in Holland. The artisanal raw milk cheese is segmented above the factory cheese and the branded cheese. This means that Slow Food wants to focus on the upper segment.

    ‘Good, clean and fair food!’ – Slow food

    This report is important for Slow Food. Why? Because Slow Food wants to expand their products to different countries; including Norway. Therefore a research report will be written, about the Norwegi an market. This, in order to advice Slow Food, about how they can successfully support raw milk cheese in marketing their products internationally.

    • 2. Definition of the problem

    The main question is:

    How can Slow Food successfully support Dutch producers of raw milk cheese in marketing their products internationally?

    With taking into account how the Slow Food philosophy of good, clean and fair food and concepts like presidia, Ark of taste and food communities can be used as marketing tools to support the Dutch producers of raw milk cheese.

    Project objectives

    The main objectives are divided into 4 parts:

    Part A: Macro - analysis Part B: Meso analysis Part C: Individual motivation to buy cheese

    Firstly, it is important for Slow Food to know how the en vironment of Norway looks like, in terms of demographic, economic, social, political and technological factors. Further, it is important to know about the business (cheese market) Slow Food is in. This can be found out by using the Porter five forces model: suppliers, buyers, substitutes, competitors and rivalry. Finally, it is important to specify the target group that Slow Food wants to achieve.

    • 3. Project results

    The concrete outcome of this report is a developed international marketing strategy for S low Food in Norway; and the answer to the question: How can Slow Food successfully support Dutch raw milk cheese internationally, especially in Norway?

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ We investigate how Slow Food and its philosophy
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ We investigate how Slow Food and its philosophy

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    We investigate how Slow Food and its philosophy of goods can be used as marketing tools for selling Dutch artisanal raw milk cheese in Norway.

    Our group would deliver a detailed marketing strategy for Norway and its citizens. This research report contains four parts. The first part is about the macro-facts of Norway. Questions will be answered, such as: W hat are important regulations for raw milk cheese? How, where, when and why do the Norwegian people eat cheese? The second part broaches the issue of meso -facts of the cheese branch in Norway. Some important questions of this part are for example: Who are the competitors in Norway for Slow Food and its special raw milk cheese? Furthermore, another question will deal with the available distribution channels for raw milk cheese in Norway. The third part includes a developed personage. So we create a typical Norwegian person of our target group. The final part includes a conclusion and recommendations.

    4. Project activities, planning and deadlines

    The project will take 7 weeks. In this week, week one, we had a short briefing, worked for the first time together in our group and worked out the project contract. In week 2, 8 th February, we will have some feedback for our project contract and create a blog and the appending blog name. Furthermore, we will start with the research for our country. After that we wil l work together on 15 th and 22 th February and on 7 th March. On 14 th March we have our last meeting before Deadline on 16 th March and so the final research will be finished. We will present our market research findings the week after. The first and the seco nd part of the research will be finished on 15 th February. The third and the fourth part will be completed on 7 th March and our group will put the parts together. The coming week will be used for reading and correcting the text and also for preparing the p resentation.

    If it is necessary we will meet in our free time to get the project finished in time.

    5. Project boundaries

    First week:

    -

    Briefing at Windesheim , the division in group, and the assignment of the country

    Second week:

    -

    draw up the project contract / hand in project contract

    The second till the sixth:

     

    Macro

    -

    Relevant macro-economic factors relevant to (raw milk) cheese in this country

    -

    Raw milk cheese import regulations

    -

    Overview of the current main cheese / food production consumption re lated issues in your country

    -

    Attitude towards

    -

    Find out cultural differences which could be relevant for the way to best promote raw milk cheese

    -

    What is the emotional image of Holland with respect to cheese with the target groups

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ - How is the NGO Slow Food perceived
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ - How is the NGO Slow Food perceived

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    • - How is the NGO Slow Food perceived in your country

    Meso

    • - Current export barriers with Dutch raw milk cheese farmers

    • - What are the consumer market segments for raw milk cheese

    • - Who are competitors

    • - What distribution channels for raw milk cheese are available

    • - What are the motivations for cheese shops to sell Dutch Raw Milk cheese

    • - Consumers attitudes towards raw milk cheese, buying, shopping , cooking, eating

    • - What are the main publications relevant to the consumer or distribution channels

    • - Are there any societal participants: m edia, platforms, networks, partnerships relevant to raw milk cheese

    • - Where and how do the participants meet each other: events, online networks, social media Individual motivation for buying raw milk cheese

    • - Choose one promising potential consumer target group for Dutch raw milk cheese , describe motivations for buying

    • - Develop a persona based on research Final part

    • - Conclusion And recommendation

    Seventh week:

    • - Presentation of the report research findings

    The project includes only one country: Norway.

    6.

    Quality

    We as group want to achieve at least an 7,2 so the quality has to be at a high level, we use all the skills and care, cooperation of members and hard work of every group member to achieve this result.

    In order to improve quality: all group mem bers will use the same font and font size, for a corresponding layout. Furthermore different kinds of media will be used, such as internet, books etc. Using different kinds of media will increase quality because of an increased reliability.

    • 7. Project organisation

    The project is organized throughout 7 weeks. Every member of the group has the same responsibility concerning to the final task. The work will be equally shared between the 5 members of the group according to their expertise.

    The central contact person is Sharon Welgraven. She shall manage the research and coordinate.

    Main contact information of the group:

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Name Country Telephone number Specialities Marcel Koelewijn Sharon
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’
    Name
    Country
    Telephone number
    Specialities
    Marcel Koelewijn
    Sharon Welgraven
    Sabrina Lütkebohle
    Antonio Greco
    Camille Quenardelle-Bardout
    Netherlands
    06 50 99 54 00
    Director
    Netherlands
    06 46 30 58 02
    Research and Analyses
    Germany
    06 15 64 87 07
    Italy
    France
    Research and Analyses
    Research and Analyses
    Redaction
    8. Project costs and revenues:
    Wk
    Wk 1
    Wk 2
    Wk 3
    Wk 4
    WK 5
    Wk 6
    Wk 7
    Date
    01/02/12
    08/02/12
    15/02/12
    22/02/12
    29/02/12
    01/08/12
    08/03/12
    Hours
    09H30
    09H30
    09H30
    09H30
    09H30
    09H30
    09H30
    Marketing
    Project
    Macro
    Macro
    MESO
    Potential
    Conclusion and
    DEADLINE
    Research
    Contract
    research
    research
    analyses
    consumer
    recommendations
    16
    + Blog
    final
    +
    MARCH
    +
    name
    Last check
    Realisation
    Redaction
    Redaction
    Redaction
    Redaction
    Redaction of
    of report
    of report
    of report
    of report
    report +
    +
    Power point
    Power
    point
    Hours
    2 hours/
    3 hours/
    3 hours/
    2 hours/ student
    estimated
    student
    2 hours /
    student
    3 hours /
    student
    student
    student
    Coast /
    250
    250
    375
    375
    375 250
    -
    Hours (=
    25 euros)
    Printing
    -
    -
    - -
    - 25
    -
    cost
    The total costs of this market research are 1625 euros.
    9. Risk Analysis:

    There are different risks, in order to make a research plan.

    Those are:

    • Not doing tasks: everyone is expected to do his/her tasks. When a person can’t finish his/her tasks with having good reasons, this will be discussed by the group. The group tries to find an effective solution to pr event this problem in the future.

    • Absence: when one or more people are absent, this will be discussed by the group. It depends on having good reasons or not to be absent. If you are absent three times in a row, without good reasons, you will be no longer part of the group. Furthermore it is important to contact the group, if you are absent, at all times.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’  Deadlines: when you have a deadline, you’ll
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’  Deadlines: when you have a deadline, you’ll

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    • Deadlines: when you have a deadline, you’ll have to hand in your work in time. If you don’t hand in in time twice you’ll get an official warning and the third time you will be no longer a group member.

    • Division of tasks: the tasks will be divided by presence of the entire group. This will happen by means of interests and capacity. When several people are relevant for the same task, are argumentation and m otivation the solution. Once a week, a plan has to be made. In this plan the tasks will be divided and deadlines will be made.

    • Conflicts: when there are conflicts within the group, it would be necessary to find an internal solution. If this is impossible, contact with the tutor will take place. At all times equality is important. That concludes for example that tasks will be divided equally.

    • Criticism: in a kind way is permitted.

    • Difference in quality: to avoid difference of quality, a font and font si ze will be determined for a corresponding layout. Moreover, it is obligatory to use different kinds of media: internet, books etc. In this matter, the quality will increase, because of an increased reliability.

    10. Code of conduct:

    As part of the group, you have to follow and obey the understanding rules in all times.

    • Hand in work in time, before determined deadlines.

    • Be present at meeting moments (only exceptions if you’ll have a good reason).

    • Be in time at meetings, time is time. If you’re delayed, call a group member.

    • Make sure you do your task; division of tasks will be at the beginning of every week.

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Signatures Antonio Greco _________________ Sabrina Lütkebohle Marcel Koelewijn
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Signatures Antonio Greco _________________ Sabrina Lütkebohle Marcel Koelewijn

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Signatures

    Antonio Greco

    _________________

    Sabrina Lütkebohle

    Marcel Koelewijn

    Camille Quenardelle

    Sharon Welgraven

    _________________

    _________________

    _________________

    _________________

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 2: ‘Literature list’ Internet sources  <ahttp://www.cheese.com/countrystep2.asp?Country=Norway  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the - world-factbook/geos/no.htmlhttp://noorwegen.placement.nl/default.asp x?menu=106&id=187http://www.x-rates.com/d/EUR/table.htmlhttp://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tr adoc_113429.pdfhttp://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/00/minifakta_en/ty/http://www.welt-auf-einen-blick.de/handel/importgueter.php http://www.igbp.net/download/18.20d892f132f30b443080002610/HDI HSDI_ranks.pdf http://norway.nlembassy.org/services/trade -information/doing- business-in-norway/sector- report-energyhttp://www.indexmundi.com/trade/im ports/?country=no http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl/1986_233533/jarlsberg -is-norway-s-leading- export-cheese.htmlwww.ssb.nohttp://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/markets -by-country/10-europe/77-norwayhttp://www.allembassies.com/norway.html http://www.nuffic.nl/nederlandse-studenten/landen/landen-l- z/noorwegen/studie/onderwijssysteemhttp://www.agentschapnl.nl/onderwerp/noorwegen -economiehttp://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb /DYB2004/Table03.pdfhttp://www.iselinge.nl/Scholenplein/pabolessen/03042BScandinavie/noorwegen.htmhttp://www.noorwegen.nl/Travel/Seizoenen-en-klimaat-in-Noorwegen/ http://www.foodprocessing- technology.com/contractors/thermal_processing/gerstenberg/press17.htmlhttp://www.indexmundi.com/norway/urbanization.htmlhttp://www.jarlsberg.com/about-tinehttp://www.jarlsberg.com/about-tine/Annual+Reports http://www.konkurransetilsynet.no/PageFil es/76009/2011/regulated%20conduct%20defence.p dfhttp://www.synnove.no/english/12/0/ http://www.newscancook.com/brands/norwegian/synnove -finden-new-time-for-old- traditions/?printhttp://www.arla.no/http://www.heidal- ysteri.no/http://www.himmelspannet.no/http://www.rorosmeieriet.no/http://www.synnove.no/http://www.tine.no/http://coop.no/http://www.ica.no/FrontServlethttp://spar.no/http://www.kiwi.no/http://www.rimi.no/http://www.rema.no/http://diemperdidi.info/nordicnotes/vol06/articles/johnson2.html 57 " id="pdf-obj-57-2" src="pdf-obj-57-2.jpg">
    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’ Appendix 2: ‘Literature list’ Internet sources  <ahttp://www.cheese.com/countrystep2.asp?Country=Norway  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the - world-factbook/geos/no.htmlhttp://noorwegen.placement.nl/default.asp x?menu=106&id=187http://www.x-rates.com/d/EUR/table.htmlhttp://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tr adoc_113429.pdfhttp://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/00/minifakta_en/ty/http://www.welt-auf-einen-blick.de/handel/importgueter.php http://www.igbp.net/download/18.20d892f132f30b443080002610/HDI HSDI_ranks.pdf http://norway.nlembassy.org/services/trade -information/doing- business-in-norway/sector- report-energyhttp://www.indexmundi.com/trade/im ports/?country=no http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl/1986_233533/jarlsberg -is-norway-s-leading- export-cheese.htmlwww.ssb.nohttp://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/markets -by-country/10-europe/77-norwayhttp://www.allembassies.com/norway.html http://www.nuffic.nl/nederlandse-studenten/landen/landen-l- z/noorwegen/studie/onderwijssysteemhttp://www.agentschapnl.nl/onderwerp/noorwegen -economiehttp://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb /DYB2004/Table03.pdfhttp://www.iselinge.nl/Scholenplein/pabolessen/03042BScandinavie/noorwegen.htmhttp://www.noorwegen.nl/Travel/Seizoenen-en-klimaat-in-Noorwegen/ http://www.foodprocessing- technology.com/contractors/thermal_processing/gerstenberg/press17.htmlhttp://www.indexmundi.com/norway/urbanization.htmlhttp://www.jarlsberg.com/about-tinehttp://www.jarlsberg.com/about-tine/Annual+Reports http://www.konkurransetilsynet.no/PageFil es/76009/2011/regulated%20conduct%20defence.p dfhttp://www.synnove.no/english/12/0/ http://www.newscancook.com/brands/norwegian/synnove -finden-new-time-for-old- traditions/?printhttp://www.arla.no/http://www.heidal- ysteri.no/http://www.himmelspannet.no/http://www.rorosmeieriet.no/http://www.synnove.no/http://www.tine.no/http://coop.no/http://www.ica.no/FrontServlethttp://spar.no/http://www.kiwi.no/http://www.rimi.no/http://www.rema.no/http://diemperdidi.info/nordicnotes/vol06/articles/johnson2.html 57 " id="pdf-obj-57-4" src="pdf-obj-57-4.jpg">

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Appendix 2: ‘Literature list’

    Internet sources

    Marketing plan ‘Artisanal raw milk cheese - Norway’

    Books

    “Negotiating International Business - The Negotiator’s Reference Guide to 50 Countries around the World” by Lothar Katz

    URL Blog