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6 Terms

weather
front
warm front
cold front
thunderheads
high pressure
climate
coriolis effect
convection cells
upwelling
ENSO
La Niña
greenhouse gases
greenhouse effect
microclimates
rain shadow effect
heat island effect
sea breezes
land breezes
Biomes
Ecotones
savanna
prairies
pampas
veldt
steppes
permafrost
taiga
boreal
6 Biogeography: Climate, Biomes, and Terrestrial Biodiversity

Pg. 120 - 151

-Wind ->
: transport nutrients
: transport harmful substances ->
- because of this, air pollution spreads

[6-1, Weather and Climate: A Brief Introduction

- physical properties of the troposphere - >


1. temperature 5. sunshine
2. pressure 6. cloud cover weather
3. humidity 7. wind direction and speed
4. precipitation
- weather factors ->
1. warm or cold (cold air is more dense than warm air)
2. wet or dry
3. high or low pressure
- front -> the boundary between two air masses with different temperatures and densities
: warm front -> boundary between a warm air mass and the cooler one it is
replacing
: cold front -> the leading edge of an approaching mass of cold air
-produces thunderheads (clouds)
- atmospheric pressure ->
: high -> high pressure, cool air, descends to earth’s surface
: low -> low pressure, warm air, ascends into the troposphere
- climate - > a region’s general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a long
period of time FIGURE 6-4
: average temperature
: average precipitation
- factors that determine air circulation patterns ->
: uneven heating of the earth’s surface ->
-air is heated more at different places based on location on the globe
1. tropical regions are hot 3. temperate regions are intermediate
2. polar regions are cold
: seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation ->
- due to earth’s tilted axis
: rotation of the earth on its axis ->
- coriolis effect -> winds are reflected to the right of the equator in the
northern hemisphere and to the left of the equator in the southern
hemisphere FIGURE 6-6
: long term variations in solar energy
: properties of air and water ->
- convection cells FIGURE 6-8
- upwelling -> cold, nutrient rich bottom water replaces old water FIGURE 6-9
1. brings plant nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface
2. supports populations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, and fish-catching
seabirds
- El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) -> changes in climate patterns found in the
Pacific Ocean every few years FIGURE 6-10
: western winds slow
: North and South American coastal waters warm
: upwelling stops
: sharp decline in fish species
- La Niña -> El Niño’s cooling counterpart
: more Atlantic Ocean hurricanes
: colder winters in Northeast
: worse than El Niño for U.S. because ->
1. more hurricanes 2. increase in tornadoes
- greenhouse gases -> H20, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, CFC’s
: allow light in
: earth then naturally repels the used heat which escapes
into space greenhouse effect
: some heat is reflected back into the earth as infrared
radiation which warms the air FIGURE 6-13
- microclimates -> local climate conditions
- rain shadow effect -> low precipitation and arid conditions on the leeward (non wind
blown) side of mountains
- heat island effect -> cities tend to have more haze and smog, higher temperatures, and
lower wind speeds
- sea breezes -> ocean to land breezes in the day
- land breezes -> land to ocean breezes at night FIGURE 6-15

[6-2, Biomes: Climate and Life on Land

- Biomes -> terrestrial regions with characteristic types of natural, undisturbed ecological
communities adapted to the climate of a region
: no sharp boundaries ->
- ecotones -> transitional zones from one biome to another

[6-3, Desert Biomes

- Desert -> evaporation exceeds precipitation, low vegetation


: tropical deserts -> high year round temperature, little rain, sandy, no vegetation
: temperate deserts -> daytime = high in summer low in winter temperatures,
slight precipitation, widely separated cacti
: cold deserts -> summers are hot, winters are cold, low precipitation
: semidesert -> long dry spells, heavy rain
: plants and animals ->
- “beat the heat” or “every drop of water counts”
: human impact ->
- large desert cities
- irrigation
- toxicity

[6-4, Grassland, Tundra, and Chaparral Biomes

- Grasslands -> no trees, grass, seasonal drought, fires


: tropical grasslands -> high temperatures, moderate precipitation, dry season
- savanna
: temperate grasslands -> rolling hills, no trees, hot and cold
- prairies
- pampas
- veldt
- steppes
: polar grasslands -> treeless, cold, windy
- permafrost
: human impact ->
- cultivation
- plowing
- Chaparral -> mediterranean climate

[6-5, Forest Biomes

- Forest -> moderate temperature, precipitation, trees, vegetation


: tropical rainforests -> equator, hot
: tropical deciduous -> warm year round, mixture of trees
: temperate deciduous -> warm summers, cold winters, precipitation
: evergreen coniferous -> long winters, extremely cold, low sunlight
- taiga
- boreal
: temperate rain forests -> ample rainfall
: human impact ->
- degradation/clearing

[6-6, Mountain Biomes

- Mountains -> dramatic altitude changes, vegetation, soil changes


: human interactions ->
- population growth
- timber
- degradation
- air pollution