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Morphemes consist of bases and affixes. Each of it has its own meaning.

Morphemes are divided into derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes. Our primary focuses are analysing inflectional and derivational affixes. Inflectional describes changes in the grammatical function of nouns, and verbs as can be seen from the table below. An inflectional morpheme is used to create a variety form of word in order to signal grammatical information. Inflectional affixes are suffixes, have wide range of application for example, verbs can be made into past tense (regular and irregular), past participle (regular and irregular) and present participle. There are eight classes of inflectional affixes in English. However, we choose to analyse four classes only which were present in the text book article:Word Class Morpheme Grammatical function Regular: changes, Examples

days, problems, relationships, youths, drugs, exams,


Nouns Plural Marks as more than one

periods, thoughts, adolescents, activities, statements, parents, signs, patterns


Irregular: children

Possessive

Marks for ownership

Drivers, persons

Regular: Involved,

scolded, discouraged, enjoyed, showed,


Past Tense Marks (roughly) for past action

interested, expressed, treated, marked, spared,

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Verbs

masked, wanted
Irregular: woke,

went, slept Going, getting, seeking,


Present Participle Marks present participle

devastating, expressing, feeling, sleeping, making, engaging, happening

As can be seen from the table above, nouns take two inflectional morphemes which were plural and possessive.

Regular: days,

problems, relationships, youths, drugs, exams,


Plural Nouns Marks as more than one

periods, thoughts, adolescents, activities, statements, parents, signs, patterns


Irregular: children

Drivers, persons
Possessive Marks for ownership

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Plural nouns mark as more than one. In the plural noun, it can be further divided into regular plural and irregular plural. General Plural nouns are formed when plural is added to root, (-s) is actually added to the root. For example the root word for relationship which signifies a single relationship when it is been added to (-s) it changes its form to plural and form a new word relationships. The original statement: Otherwise, it can lead to devastating effects on family relationships,

friendships, and the ability to function properly in school or at work.


Possessive nouns are nouns that are used to mark for ownership or to show someone owns something. The possessive of a plural noun ending in s is pronounced just like the plural form. Its spelled with a simple apostrophe and no additional s. For example: the word driver is a noun, but when it is added to (s) it changes its form into drivers to show the something belongs to the driver. Original statement: Youths get stressed over a number of things-exams, family problems, a

failed relationship or something as trivial as getting a drivers licence.


Regular: Involved,

scolded, discouraged, enjoyed, showed,


Past Tense Marks (roughly) for past action Verbs

interested, expressed, treated, marked, spared, masked, wanted


Irregular: woke,

went, slept Going, getting,


Present Participle Marks present participle

seeking, devastating, expressing, feeling, sleeping, making, engaging, happening

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Past Tense is used to mark an action that take place in the past. It can further be divided into regular and irregular tenses. For example, the word enjoy indicates pleasure and fun in doing something. When (-ed) it attached to the root word enjoy, and form enjoyed, it marks that the action take place in the past and is no longer fun and causes pleasure in the present. Original statement: Other vital observable indicators of depression are marked changes in

mood and behaviour-ranging from sadness, uncontrollable crying, withdrawal, and sudden disinterest in activities previously enjoyed, to feelings of hopelessness and suicidal thoughts.
Present participles always occur with an ing suffix. In a sentence, the present participle always follows a form of the auxillary verb to be, as in what was happening around me. Original statement: Going to school was such an agony for me. I could not concentrate. I

was not interested in what was happening around me in class.

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Derivation is a process whereby complex words are formed by combining a lexical root or stem with one or more than one derivational affixes ( or without any affixes in the case of zero derivation). These affixes can, but do not have to, change the syntactic category of their respective heads. (Hansen 1982, 88) ; Cannon 1987, 164). Derivation is a process of creating separate but morphologically related words.Derivational morphemes are added to forms to create separate words. The following table shows the derivational morphemes that can be found in the article from text book.

Suffix

-ness

Examples:

Helplessness, illness, sadness


-able -al -ism -ly Prefix UnIrExamples:

Observable
Examples:

Withdrawal
Examples:

Gangsterism
Example:

Openly
Examples:

Unhealthy, Uncontrollable
Examples:

Irrespective
Examples: Dis-

Disinterest

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1. The derivational prefix un- and dis- are a good example of something that changes the core meaning of the stem. When the prefix un- attaches to a stem, the meaning of the stem is negates; an opposite meaning is created For example: Healthy-> unhealthy Controllable-> Uncontrollable

In addition, prefix Dis- also brings negative meaning For example: Interest-> Disinterest

However the usage of derivational affix, the use of prefix Un and Dis- is optional; it can be replaced by not, with no change in meaning

For example: Unhealthy to not healthy

Meanwhile for `Disinterest we can choose to mention as `not interest.

2. Derivational affixes do frequently change the category of the stem they attach to as shown below: Observe ( verb) -> observable (adjective) Gangster (noun) -> gangsterism (noun) Sad (verb) -> sadness(adjective)

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References Delahunty & Garvey (2008). Morphology and Word Formation. [e-book] Available through: Google http://wac.colostate.edu/books/sound/chapter5.pdf Packer. (2001). Morphology. [e-book] pp. 4-6. http://www.mathcs.duq.edu/~packer/Courses/Psy598/Ling-Morphology.pdf. Sunderasan, S. (2009). Lecture 4: Root vs Stem, Inflectional vs Derivational. [e-book] pp. 4-6. [Accessed: 11 Dec 2013].

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