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Armero tragedy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 45748N 745420W

The Armero tragedy (Spanish: Tragedia de Armero [taxeja e armeo]) was one of the major consequences of the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz stratovolcano in Tolima, Colombia, on November 13, 1985. After 69 years of dormancy, the volcano's eruption caught nearby towns unaware, even though the government had received warnings from multiple volcanological organizations to evacuate the area when volcanic activity [1] had been detected in September 1985.

As pyroclastic ows erupted from the volcano's crater, they melted the mountain's glaciers, sending four enormous lahars (volcanically induced mudslides, landslides, and debris ows) down its slopes at 50 kilometers per hour (30 miles per hour). The lahars picked up speed in gullies and coursed into the six major rivers at the base of the volcano; they engulfed the town of Armero, killing [2] more than 20,000 of its almost 29,000 inhabitants. Casualties in other towns, particularly Chinchin, brought the overall death toll to 23,000. Footage and photographs of Omayra Snchez, a young victim of the tragedy, were published around the world. Other photographs of the lahars and the impact of the disaster captured attention worldwide and led to controversy over the degree to which the Colombian government was responsible for the disaster. A banner at a mass funeral in Ibagu read, "The volcano didn't kill 22,000 people. The government killed them." The relief eorts were hindered by the composition of the mud, which made it nearly impossible to move through without becoming stuck. By the time relief workers reached Armero twelve hours after the eruption, many of the victims with serious injuries were dead. The relief workers were horried by the landscape of fallen trees, disgured human bodies, and piles of debris from entire houses. This was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster of the 20th century, surpassed only by the 1902 eruption of Mount Pele, and is the fourth-deadliest volcanic event recorded since 1500 AD. The event was a foreseeable catastrophe exacerbated by the populace's unawareness of the volcano's destructive history; geologists and other experts had warned authorities and media outlets about the danger over the weeks and days leading up to the eruption. Hazard maps for the vicinity were prepared, but poorly distributed. On the day of the eruption, several evacuation attempts were made, but a severe storm restricted communications. Many victims stayed in their houses as they had been instructed, believing that the eruption
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Lahars covered the town of Armero. More than 20,000 people died.

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had ended. The noise from the storm may have prevented many from hearing the sounds from Ruiz until it was too late. Nevado del Ruiz has erupted several times since the disaster, and continues to threaten up to 500,000 people living along the Combeima, Chinchina, CoelloToche, and Guali river valleys. A lahar (or group of lahars) similar in size to the 1985 event could potentially travel as far as 100 kilometers (60 mi) from the volcano, and could be triggered by a small eruption. To counter this threat, the Colombian government established a specialized oce which promotes awareness of natural threats. The United States Geological Survey also created the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and the Volcano Crisis Assistance Team, which evacuated roughly 75,000 people from the area around Mount Pinatubo before its 1991 eruption. In 1988, three years after the eruption, Dr. Stanley Williams of Louisiana State University stated that, "With the possible exception of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington, no other volcano in the Western Hemisphere is being watched so elaborately" as Nevado del Ruiz. Additionally, many of Colombia's cities have programs to raise awareness of natural disaster planning programs which have helped save lives in natural disasters. Near Nevado del Ruiz in particular, locals have become wary of volcanic activity: when the volcano erupted in 1989, more than 2,300 people living around it were evacuated.

Contents
1 Background 2 1985 activity 2.1 Precursor 2.2 Preparation and attempted evacuation 2.3 Eruption 2.4 Impact 3 Relief eorts 4 Aftermath 4.1 Controversy 5 Legacy 5.1 Commemorations 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Notes 8.1 Sources 9 External links

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Background
Armero, located 48 kilometers (30 mi) from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano and 169 kilometers (105 mi) from Colombia's capital of Bogot, was the third largest town [3] in Tolima Department, after Ibagu and Espinal. A prominent farming town before the eruption, it was responsible for roughly one-fth of Colombia's rice production, and for a large share of the cotton, sorghum, and coee crops. Much of this success can be attributed to Nevado del Ruiz, as the fertile volcanic soil [4] [5] had stimulated agricultural growth. Built on top of an alluvial fan that had been host to historic lahars, the town was previously destroyed by a volcanic [6] eruption in 1595 and by mudows in 1845. In the 1595 eruption, three distinct [7] [8] Plinian eruptions produced lahars that claimed the lives of 636 people. During the 1845 event, 1,000 people were killed by earthquake-generated [9] mudows near the Magdalena River. Nevado del Ruiz has undergone three distinct eruptive periods, the rst beginning 1.8 million years ago. During the present period (beginning 11,000 years ago), it has erupted at least twelve times, producing ashfalls, pyroclastic ows, and lahars. The historically recorded eruptions have primarily involved a central vent eruption (in the caldera) followed by an explosive eruption, then the formation of lahars. Ruiz's earliest identied Holocene eruption was in about 6660 BC, and further eruptions occurred around 1245, 850, 200 BC and in about 350, 675, in 1350, 1541 (perhaps), 1570, 1595, 1623, 1805, 1826, 1828 (perhaps), 1829, 1831, 1833 (perhaps), 1845, 1916, December 1984 through March 1985, 1987 through July 1991, and possibly in April 1994. Many of these eruptions involved a central vent eruption, a ank vent eruption, and a phreatic [10] Ruiz is the second-most active volcano in Colombia after (steam) explosion. [11] Galeras. One week before the eruption, the Palace of Justice siege took place. The assailants (M-19 a Marxist, Terrorist Insurgency group) planned to hold a trial involving Colombian President Belisario Betancur. He refused to participate and sent the national army into the building. The attackers were holding several hundred hostages, including the 24 Supreme Court justices and 20 other judges. In the ensuing battle between the two forces, more than 75 hostages died (including 11 judges). This disaster, coupled with the Armero tragedy, spurred the [12] Colombian government to predict and prepare for a broad range of threats.

1985 activity
Precursor
In late 1984, geologists noticed that seismic activity in the area had begun to
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increase. Increased fumarole activity, deposition of sulfur on the summit of the volcano, and phreatic eruptions also alerted geologists to the possibility of an eruption. Phreatic events, when rising magma encounters water, continued well into September 1985 (one major event took place on September 11, 1985), shooting steam high into the air. Activity began to decline in October, probably because the new magma had nished ascending into Nevado del Ruiz's volcanic [13] edice. An Italian volcanological mission analyzed gas samples from fumaroles along the Arenas crater oor and found them to be a mixture of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, indicating a direct release of magma into the surface environment. Publishing a report for ocials on October 22, 1985, the scientists determined that the risk of lahars was unusually high. To prepare for the eruption, the report gave several simple [14] preparedness techniques to local authorities. Another team gave the local ocials seismographs, but no instructions on how to [15] operate them.

Nevado del Ruiz seen from space. The summit ice cap and glaciers surround the dark Arenas crater.

Volcanic activity increased again in November 1985 as magma neared the surface. Increasing quantities of gases rich in sulfur dioxide and elemental sulfur began to appear in the volcano. The water content of the fumaroles' gases decreased, and water springs in the vicinity of Nevado del Ruiz became enriched [13] The with magnesium, calcium and potassium, leached from the magma. thermodynamic equilibration temperatures, corresponding to the chemical composition of the discharged gases, ranged from 200 to 600 C (400 to 1,100 F); this is a measure of the temperature at which the gases equilibrated within the volcano. The extensive degassing of the magma caused pressure to build up inside the volcano in the space above the magma, which eventually [16] resulted in the explosive eruption.

Preparation and attempted evacuation


In September 1985, as earthquakes and phreatic eruptions rocked the area, local ocials began planning for an evacuation. In October, a hazard map was nalized [nb 1] This map highlighted the danger from for the area around Nevado del Ruiz. falling materialincluding ash and rocknear Murillo, Santa Isabel, and Libano, [18] as well as the threat of lahars in Mariquita, Guayabal, Chinchin and Armero. Unfortunately, the map was poorly distributed to the people at high risk from Ruiz: many survivors had never heard of it, even though several of the country's [17] Henry Villegas of major newspapers featured versions of the map.

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INGEOMINAS (Colombian Institute of Mining and Geology) stated that the hazard maps clearly demonstrated that Armero would be aected by the lahars, but that the map "met with strong opposition from economic interests." He added that because the map was not prepared long before the eruption, mass production and [19] distribution of it in time was dicult. At least one of the hazard maps published in the prominent El Espectador newspaper in Bogot included glaring errors. Without proper graphic scaling, it was unclear how big the map's hazard zones really were. The lahars on the map did not have a distinct ending point, and the main threat seemed to be from pyroclastic ows, not from mudows. Though the map was colored blue, green, red, and yellow, there was no key to indicate what each color A recent hazard map prepared for Nevado del represented, and Armero was Ruiz and vicinity, showing all of the major located in the green zone (believed disaster zones aected by the eruption to indicate the safest area). Another map published by the El Tiempo newspaper featured illustrations which "gave a perception of topography to the public unfamiliar with maps, allowing them to relate hazard zones to the landscape." In spite of this presentation that was keyed to the audience, the map [19] ended up a more artistic representation of the risk than a purely scientic one. The day of the eruption, black ash columns erupted from the volcano at approximately 3:00 pm local time. The local Civil Defense director was promptly alerted to the situation. He contacted INGEOMINAS, which ruled that the area should be evacuated; he was then told to contact the Civil Defense directors in Bogot and Tolima. Between 5:00 and 7:00 pm, the ash stopped falling, and local ocials instructed people to "stay calm" and go inside. Around 5:00 pm an emergency committee meeting was called, and when it ended at 7:00 pm, several members contacted the regional Red Cross over the intended evacuation eorts at Armero, Mariquita, and Honda. The Ibagu Red Cross contacted Armero's ocials and ordered an evacuation, which was not carried out because of electrical problems caused by a storm. The storm's heavy rain and constant thunder may have overpowered the noise of the volcano, and with no systematic warning eorts, the residents of Armero were completely unaware of the continuing activity at Ruiz. At 9:45 pm, after the volcano had erupted, Civil Defense ocials from Ibagu and Murillo tried to warn Armero's ocials, but could not make contact. Later they overheard conversations between individual

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ocials of Armero and others; famously, a few heard the Mayor of Armero speaking on a ham radio, saying "that he did not think there was much danger", [20] when he was overtaken by the lahar.

Eruption
At 9:09 pm, on November 13, 1985,[21] Nevado del Ruiz ejected dacitic tephra more than 30 [13] The kilometers (20 mi) into the atmosphere. total mass of the erupted material (including [13] only three magma) was 35 million metric tons percent of the amount that erupted from Mount St. [22] The eruption reached 3 on the Helens in 1980. [23] The mass of the Volcanic Explosivity Index. ejected sulfur dioxide was about 700,000 metric tons, or about two percent of the mass of the [13] making the eruption erupted solid material, [24] unusually sulfur rich.

Summit of Nevado del Ruiz in late November 1985

The eruption produced pyroclastic ows that melted summit glaciers and snow, generating four thick lahars that raced down river valleys on the volcano's [25] destroying a small lake that was observed in Arenas' crater several anks, months before the eruption. Water in such volcanic lakes tends to be extremely salty, and may contain dissolved volcanic gases. The lake's hot, acidic water signicantly accelerated the melting of the ice, an eect conrmed by the large [13] amounts of sulfates and chlorides found in the lahar ow. The lahars, formed of water, ice, pumice, and other rocks,[25] incorporated clay [26] They ran down from eroding soil as they traveled down the volcano's anks. the volcano's sides at an average speed of 60 kilometers (40 mi) per hour, dislodging rock and destroying vegetation. After descending thousands of meters down the side of the volcano, the lahars followed the six river valleys leading from the volcano, where they grew to almost four times their original volume. In the [25] Gual River, a lahar reached a maximum width of 50 meters (160 ft). Survivors in Armero described the night as "quiet". Volcanic ash had been falling throughout the day, but residents were informed it was nothing to worry about. Later in the afternoon, ash began falling again after a long period of quiet. Local radio stations reported that residents should remain calm and ignore the material. One survivor reported going to the re department to be informed that [27] the ash was "nothing". During the night, the electrical power suddenly turned o and the radios went

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silent. Just before 11:30 pm, a huge stream of water swept through Armero; it was powerful enough to ip cars and pick up people. A loud roar could be heard from the mountain, but the residents were panicked over what they believed to be [28] a ood. At 11:30 pm, the rst lahar hit, followed shortly by [28] One of the lahars virtually erased the others. Armero; three-quarters of its 28,700 inhabitants [25] Proceeding in three major waves, were killed. this lahar was 30 meters (100 ft) deep, moved at 12 meters per second (39 ft/s), and lasted ten to twenty minutes. Traveling at about 6 meters (20 ft) per second, the second lahar lasted thirty minutes Armero, the aftermath and was followed by smaller pulses. A third major pulse brought the lahar's duration to roughly two hours; by that point, 85 percent of Armero was enveloped in mud. Survivors described people holding on to debris from their homes in attempts to stay above the mud. Buildings collapsed, crushing people and raining down debris. The front of the lahar contained boulders and cobbles which would have crushed anyone in their path, while the slower parts were dotted by ne, sharp stones which caused lacerations. Mud moved into open wounds and other open body parts the eyes, ears, and mouth and placed pressure capable of inducing traumatic asphyxia in one or two minutes upon people buried in it. Mart and Ernst state in their work Volcanoes and the Environment that they believe that many who survived the lahars succumbed to their injuries as they were trapped, or contracted hypothermia though the latter is unlikely, given that survivors described the [29] water as warm. Another lahar, which descended through the valley of the Chinchina River, killed [5] about 1,800 people and destroyed 400 homes in Chinchina. In total, more than [25] 23,000 people were killed, approximately 5,000 were injured, and 5,000 homes throughout thirteen villages[27] were destroyed. Some 230,000 people were 2 aected, 27,000 acres (110 km ) were disrupted, and there were nearly [30] The Armero tragedy, as the event came to be known, 20,000 survivor-refugees. was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster of the 20th century, surpassed only by [31] and is the fourth-deadliest volcanic eruption the 1902 eruption of Mount Pele, [32] It is also the deadliest lahar,[33] and Colombia's worst recorded since 1500 AD. [34] natural disaster.

Impact
The loss of life was exacerbated by the lack of an accurate timeframe for the eruption and the unwillingness of local authorities to take costly preventative

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measures without clear signs of imminent [35] Because its last substantial eruption danger. had occurred 140 years earlier, in 1845, it was dicult for many to accept the danger presented by the volcano; locals even called it the "Sleeping [8] Lion." Hazard maps showing that Armero would be completely ooded after an eruption were distributed more than a month before the eruption, Armero was located in the but the Colombian Congress criticized the center of this photograph, scientic and civil defense agencies for taken in late November 1985. [citation needed] The eruption scaremongering. occurred at the height of guerrilla warfare in Bogot, Colombia's capital, and so the government and army were occupied at the [15] time of the eruption. The day after the eruption, relief workers were appalled at its impact. The lahars had left behind a gray mass which covered the entire town. Armero was dotted with broken trees and horribly [36] Debris from huts and disgured human bodies. homes protruded from beneath the gray mud. A few bags lled with crops were discovered in the mud. Workers described an acrid smell of "rotting bodies, [...] wood smoke and decaying [4] vegetables." To the horror of these workers, who were scrambling to begin relief eorts, survivors let out moans of pain and agony. The damages were assessed at seven billion dollars, an amount approximately one-fth of Colombia's 1985 Gross

Only a few buildings and structures remained standing after the mud and debris ows ravaged the town of Armero.

National Product.

[36]

As news of the catastrophe spread around the world, the ongoing presidential election stopped, and the guerrilla ghters stopped their campaign "in view of the painful tragedy that has befallen our [the Colombian ghters] nation." Tickets for Colombian national championship soccer games added a surcharge of ve cents [37] to go to relief eorts. Scientists who later analyzed the seismograph data noticed that several long-period earthquakes (which begin strongly and then slowly die out) had occurred in the nal hours before the eruption. Volcanologist Bernard Chouet said that, "the volcano was screaming 'I'm about to explode'", but the scientists who were studying the volcano at the time of the eruption were not able to read the [38] signal.

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Relief eorts
The eruption occurred at the same time as the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, [39] limiting the amount of supplies that could be sent to each of the disasters. Eorts were organized in Ibagu and Bogot for Armero and in Cali for Chinchina, where medical teams gathered. Makeshift triage stations were established in Lerida, Guayabal, and Mariquita, and soon were overwhelmed with the sheer number of victims. The remaining victims were directed to Ibagu's hospitals, as local institutions had already been destroyed or were at risk from [18] further lahars. The US government spent over $1 million in aid, and US Ambassador to Colombia Charles S. Gillespie, Jr. donated an initial $25,000 to Colombian disaster assistance institutions. The Oce of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the US Agency for International Development (AID) sent one member of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), along with an AID disaster-relief expert and 12 helicopters with support and The Armero tragedy occurred medical personnel from Panama. The US just after the 1985 Mexico subsequently sent additional aircraft and supplies, City earthquake, responsible including 500 tents, 2,250 blankets, and several for the destruction of tent repair kits. Twenty-four other nations buildings such as this one. contributed to the rescue and assistance of survivors. Ecuador supplied a mobile hospital, and Iceland's Red Cross sent $4,650. The French government sent their own medical supplies with 1,300 tents. Japan sent $1.25 million, along with eight doctors, [39] nurses, and engineers, plus $50,000 to the United Nations for relief eorts. Another $50,000 was donated by the Lions Clubs International Foundation.[40] Rescue eorts were hindered by the soft mud that was up to 4.6 meters (15 ft) [41] making it virtually impossible for anyone to traverse it deep in some places, [42] To make the situation worse, the highway connected to without sinking in. [41] It took Armero and several bridges to it had been demolished by the lahars. twelve hours for the rst survivors to be rescued, so those with serious but treatable injuries probably died before the rescuers arrived. Because Armero's hospital was destroyed in the eruption, helicopters moved survivors to nearby hospitals. Six local towns set up makeshift emergency relief clinics, consisting of treatment areas and shelters for the homeless. To help with the treatment, [42] Of the 1244 physicians and rescue teams came from all over the country. patients spread over the clinics, 150 died from infection or associated complications. Had antibiotics been readily available and all of their lacerations [29] been thoroughly cleaned, many of these people could have been saved.
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On November 20, 1985, one week later, rescue eorts began to cease. Nearly 4,000 relief workers and rescue team members were still searching for survivors, with little hope of nding any. By then, the ocial death toll was registered at 22,540 people; additional counts showed that 3,300 were missing, 20,000 homeless, and 4,000 injured. Looters raided the ruins and survivors faced concerns of typhus and yellow fever. For most of the relief workers, their job was [43] over. The eruption was used as an example for psychiatric recuperation after natural disasters by Robert Desjarlais and Leon Eisenberg in their work World Mental Health: Problems and Priorities in Low-Income Countries. The authors were concerned that only initial treatment for the survivors' trauma was conducted. One study showed that the victims of the eruption suered from anxiety and depression, which can lead to alcohol abuse, marital problems and other social [42] Rafael Ruiz, an Army Major who briey served as Armero's provisional issues. mayor after the disaster, stated that there were survivors who, due to the trauma of the event, were "jittery", experienced "nightmares", and suered from "emotional problems." He added that the progress made by Christmas of 1985 [44] was considerable, but that there was "still a long way to go."

Aftermath
A lack of preparation for the disaster contributed to the high death toll. Armero had been built on an [5] alluvial fan that had been overrun by historic mudows; authorities had ignored a hazard-zone map that showed the potential damage to the town from lahars. Residents stayed inside their dwellings to avoid the falling ash, as local ocials had instructed them to do, not thinking that they [6] might be buried by the mudows.

The disaster gained international notoriety due in part to a photograph taken by photographer Frank Fournier of a young girl named Omayra Snchez, [45] Following the who was trapped beneath rubble for three days before she died. eruption relief workers gathered around the girl, speaking with her and listening to her responses. She attracted the attention of the reporters at the site because of her sense of dignity and courage, and caused controversy when people wondered why the media workers had not saved her (which was impossible without equipment). An appeal to the government for a pump to lower the water around her was left unanswered, and she succumbed to gangrene and hypothermia after 60 hours of being trapped. Her death epitomized the tragic nature of the Armero disaster she could have been saved had the government

Nevado del Ruiz roughly two weeks after the eruption took place

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responded promptly and addressed the concerns over the volcano's potency.[45] The photograph earned the World Press Photo of the Year for "capturing the event [12] of greatest journalistic importance". Two photographers from the Miami Herald won a Pulitzer Prize for photographing [46] Dr. Stanley Williams of Louisiana State University said the eects of the lahar. that following the eruption, "With the possible exception of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington, no other volcano in the Western Hemisphere is being [47] In response to the eruption, the USGS Volcano Crisis watched so elaborately." [48] and the Volcano Disaster Assistance Assistance Team was formed in 1986, [49] The volcano erupted several more times between 1985 and 1994. [10] Program.

Controversy
Concerns over the alleged negligence of local ocials to alert locals of the volcano's threat led to controversy. The mayor of Armero (Ramon Rodriguez) and other local ocials had tried to bring the volcano's potential to the attention of the Colombian government, but to no avail. For months, Rodriguez appealed to various ocials, including congressmen and the Governor of Tolima Department. Rodriguez once referred to the volcano as a "time bomb" and told reporters that he believed an eruption would disrupt the natural dam above Armero, resulting in oods. Despite his persistence, only one congressman managed to inquire about the reality of the situation. Reports from the Colombian Minister of Mines, Minister of Defence, and Minister of Public Works "all asserted that the government was aware of the risk from the volcano and was acting to protect the population". The lack of responsibility for the disaster prompted lawmakers to campaign for Tolima's governor (Eduardo Alzate Garcia) to resign. In the media, similar thoughts and questions were hotly debated. One of the most aggressive campaigns came from a mass funeral in Ibagu for the victims, claiming that "The [30] volcano didn't kill 22,000 people. The government killed them."

Legacy
The volcano continues to pose a serious threat to nearby towns and villages. Of the threats, the one with the most potential for danger is that of small-volume [50] Although much of eruptions, which can destabilize glaciers and trigger lahars. the volcano's glacier mass has retreated, a signicant volume of ice still sits atop Nevado del Ruiz and other volcanoes in the RuizTolima massif. Melting just 10 percent of the ice would produce lahars with a volume of up to 200 million cubic meters similar to the lahar that destroyed Armero in 1985. In just hours, these [33] Estimates show that up to lahars can travel up to 100 km along river valleys. 500,000 people living in the Combeima, Chinchina, Coello-Toche, and Guali valleys are at risk, with 100,000 individuals being considered to be at high

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risk.[50] Lahars pose a threat to the nearby towns of Honda, Mariquita, Ambalema, Chinchina, [51] Herveo, Villa Hermosa, Salgar and La Dorada. Although small eruptions are more likely, the two-million-year eruptive history of the RuizTolima massif includes numerous large eruptions, indicating that the threat of a large [50] A large eruption eruption cannot be ignored. would have more widespread eects, including the potential closure of Bogot's airport due to [52] ashfall.

Nevado del Ruiz seen from Manizales, 2006

As the Armero tragedy was exacerbated by the [35] unwise land use,[53] and the unpreparedness of nearby lack of early warnings, [35] the government of Colombia created a special program, the communities, Ocina Nacional para la Atencin de Desastres (National Oce for Disaster Preparedness), now known as the Direccin de Prevencin y Atencin de [54] to prevent Desastres (Directorate for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness) such incidents in the future. All Colombian cities were directed to promote [53] and prevention planning to mitigate the consequences of natural disasters, evacuations due to volcanic hazards have been carried out. About 2,300 people living along ve nearby rivers were evacuated when Nevado del Ruiz erupted [55] When another Colombian volcano, Nevado del Huila, erupted in again in 1989. April 2008, thousands of people were evacuated because volcanologists worried [56] that the eruption could be another "Nevado del Ruiz". The lessons from the Armero tragedy have inspired a lahar warning system for [57] Mt. Rainier, which has a similar potential for lahars. Armero was never rebuilt after the tragedy. Instead, the survivors were relocated to the towns of Guayabal and Lrida, rendering Armero a ghost town.

Commemorations
A little less than one year later, Pope John Paul II ew over Armero and then [58] visited Lrida's refugee camps with Colombian President Belisario Betancur. He spoke about the disaster and declared the site of Armero "holy land". [12] Although many victims of the disaster were commemorated, Omayra Sanchez in particular was immortalized by poems, novels, and music pieces. One work (Adios, Omayra) by Eduardo Santa illustrated the girl's last days of life and her [12] Survivors were also recognized in Germn symbolism of the catastrophe. Santa Mara Barragn's dramatized television special titled "No Morirs" (You Will Not Die). Much of the cast was composed of victims of the tragedy who

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appeared at the cast calls to be extras.[59]

See also
Herculaneum Pompeii

Footnotes
1. ^ This was the rst hazard map ever prepared for a Colombian volcano. [17]

Notes
1. ^ "Nevado del Ruiz" (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world /volcano.cfm?vnum=1501-02%3D). Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1501-02%3D. Retrieved June 1, 2010. 2. ^ Schuster, Robert L. and Highland, Lynn M. (2001). Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Landslides in the Western Hemisphere (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0276/), U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-0276. Also previously published in the Proceedings of the Third Panamerican Symposium on Landslides, July 29 to August 3, 2001, Cartagena, Colombia. Castaneda Martinez, Jorge E., and Olarte Montero, Juan, eds. Retrieved June 11, 2010. 3. ^ "Wall of Mud Seals Town; 20,000 Could Be Dead" (http://news.google.com /newspapers?id=m-sTAAAAIBAJ&sjid=FgYEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6131,5703326). Ocala Star-Banner. November 15, 1985. Retrieved July 22, 2010. 4. ^ a b Cooke, Robert (November 20, 1985). "Facing tragedy: Not enough tears to wash away sorrow" (http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=q8wmAAAAIBAJ& sjid=EQIGAAAAIBAJ&pg=947,5693562). The Miami News. Retrieved July 22, 2010. 5. ^ a b c Mileti et. al, p. 1. 6. ^ a b Topinka, Lyn (July 26, 2000). "Hazard-Zone Maps and Volcanic Risk" (http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Vhp/C1073/hazard_maps_risk.html). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 7. ^ Mileti et. al, 1991, p. 9. 8. ^ a b BBC contributors (November 13, 1985). "BBC:On this day: November 13: 1985: Volcano kills thousands in Colombia" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories /november/13/newsid_2539000/2539731.stm). British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved September 3, 2009. 9. ^ Mileti et. al, 1991, p. 10. 10. ^ a b "Nevado del Ruiz: Eruptive History" (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world

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11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17. 18.

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48. ^ Russell-Robinson, Susan. "US team moves as Caribbean volcano dusts town with volcanic ash" (http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=1367). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 49. ^ Weiner, Tim (January 2, 2001). "Watchful Eyes On a Violent Giant" (http://query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00EEDD123BF931A35752C0A9679C8B63). New York Times. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 50. ^ a b c Thouret, Jean-Claude, Murcia, A, Salinas, R, et al. (1990). "Stratigraphy and quaternary eruptive history of the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic massif, Colombia. Implications for assessment of volcanic hazards" (http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc /pleins_textes/pleins_textes_4/colloques/31077.pdf) (PDF). Symposium international godynamique andine: rsums des communications. Paris. pp. 391393. Retrieved July 22, 2010. 51. ^ Mileti et. al, p. 80. 52. ^ McDowell, Bart (May 1986). "Eruption in Colombia" (http://www.webcitation.org /5kx7yOtB5). National Geographic: 640653. Archived from the original (http://encarta.msn.com/sidebar_762503944/eruption_in_colombia.html) on 2009-11-01. 53. ^ a b Touret, Jean-Claude, and Laforge, Christophe (1994). "Hazard Appraisal and Hazard-Zone Mapping of Flooding and Debris Flowage in the Rio Combeima Valley and Ibague City, Tolima Department, Colombia" (http://www.springerlink.com/content /j7h51t87x7201375). GeoJournal 34 (4): 407413. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 54. ^ (Spanish) "Direccin de Prevencin y Atencin de Desastres DPAD" (http://www.dnp.gov.co/PortalWeb/Programas /ViviendaAguaDesarrolloUrbanoAmbiente/Gesti%C3%B3ndelRiesgo/Direcci %C3%B3ndePrevenci%C3%B3nyAtenci%C3%B3ndeDesastres.aspx). Departamento Nacional de Planeacin, Repblica de Colombia. June 24, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 55. ^ Associated Press (September 2, 1989). "Colombian Volcano Erupting" (http://query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE4DF143DF931A3575AC0A96F948260). New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 56. ^ Associated Press (April 15, 2008). "Colombian Volcano Erupts, Thousands Evacuated" (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,351333,00.html). Fox News. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 57. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Mount Rainier Debris-Flow Maps available from USGS" (http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Rainier/Publications/debris_ow_maps.html). USGS. November 22, 2002. Retrieved November 9, 2010. 58. ^ "Pope visits site of volcano tragedy" (http://news.google.com /newspapers?id=OJMsAAAAIBAJ&sjid=kfsDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4171,2458183). Lakeland Ledger. July 7, 1986. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 59. ^ Johnson, Tim (September 18, 1997). "Survivors of avalanche relive tragedy through TV movie" (http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ZTkdAAAAIBAJ& sjid=MC4EAAAAIBAJ&pg=6755,3693857). Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved July 31, 2010.

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Sources
Desjarlais, Robert and Eisenberg, Leon (1996). World Mental Health: Problems and Priorities in Low-Income Countries. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-509540-5. Mart, Joan and Ernst, Gerald (2005). Volcanoes and the Environment. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59254-2. Mileti, Dennis S., Bolton, Patricia A., Fernandez, Gabriel, and Updike, Randall G. (1991). The Eruption of Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano Colombia, South America, November 13, 1985 (http://books.nap.edu /openbook.php?record_id=1784&page=92). Washington, D.C.: Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems (National Academy Press). ISBN 0-309-04477-4. Villegas, Henry (September 2003). "Display of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcanic Hazard Map Using GIS" (http://www.geocarto.com.hk/cgi-bin/pages1/sep03 /display.pdf). Geocarto International (Geocarto International Centre) 18 (3): 513. doi:10.1080/10106040308542276 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1080%2F10106040308542276). Retrieved July 20, 2010.

External links
(Spanish) Armando Armero (http://www.armandoarmero.com/), website for

the project to commemorate and remember Armero


(Spanish) Looking for adopted children from Armero's tragedy:

http://ninosarmerocolombia.blogspot.com/ -->armandoarmero.com Video about emergency response to the tragedy (http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=3XMS-quxdGg) (15 minutes), Pan American Health Organization (hosted on YouTube) Colombia's Mortal Agony (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article /0,9171,1050626-1,00.html) (by George Russell), article from 2005 in TIME magazine Information about Armero (http://crismatt.tripod.com/armero) (tripod.com) (Spanish) Text of the prayer made by Pope John Paul II in July 1986 at the memorial for the victims (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /speeches/1986/july/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19860706_preghieraarmero_sp.html) (Vatican website) Getty image of Pope John Paul II praying at the memorial (http://nhl.msg.com /photo/08A67mzdNbcm9?q=Pope+John+Paul+II) (nhl.msg.com) Collection of photographs of the area and the memorials (http://luismanuelsilva.info/photos/categories.php?cat_id=1&page=1), from Luis Manuel Silva Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armero_tragedy&

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oldid=603828701" Categories: 1985 in Colombia 1985 natural disasters 20th-century volcanic events Natural disasters in Colombia Populated places in the Tolima Department Volcanic events Landslides in Colombia This page was last modied on 12 April 2014 at 03:24. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot organization.

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